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# 8-19 M&E 3rd edition

Find the theoretical diameters of the two trickling filters in a two stage trickling filter process (see fig.
8-26b) for an installation with the following characteristics and requirements.
NOTE : In this problem all the NRC design equations have been placed in a Mathcad solve block. The initial
guesses for the unknowns are made at the end of the sentence describing them, below. The algorithm is
set up in its most general form. Inputs are the influent BOD, the desired effluent BOD and flow. Guesses are
supplied for all other filter variables. Outputs are values of all design variables and the efficiency of both
filters.
Input parameters are in yellow regions
Guesses for design parameters in light blue
NRC equations - background - These equations are empirical in nature, based on extensive operating
records from WWII military installations. They are not dimensionally consistent and require specific units of
measure as input. For this reason the easiest way to do the problem using Mathcad is to avoid units
altogether.

## 1. A flow in (Mgal/day) with an influent BOD5 : BODin := 350

Q := 6

2. To maintain stream standards, the effluent BOD5 must be equal to or less than: BODeff := 45
3. The filters have equal diameters and a depth of : filter_depth := 5
4. both filters have a diameter of D := 75
2

D filter_depth
4 1000

## in units of 1000 ft and an area A :=

6. The recirculation ratio chosen shall result in a hydraulic loading of: HLR := 690
7. The primary sedimentation basin provides BOD removal of: Eprimary := 30
8. Recirculation ratio, Qr/Q : R := 1
9. The recirculation factor is based on the recirculation ratio and is given by : F :=

1+ R
2
R

+
1

10

10. Efficiency of first and second stage filters E1 := 70 and E 2 := 70 . the algorithm converges more reliably
when both guesses for efficiency are the same.

trickling_filter_design.mcd
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Eprimary

8.34
11. Loading to first stage filter W := BODin Q 1
100

E1

W
12. The loading to the second filter, W' : W' := 1
100

## areal surface area of both filters must be the same A 1 = A 2

unknowns :
efficiency of the first stage filter, E1
efficiency of the second stage filter, E2
BOD loading to the second filter W'
filter volume, V
recirculation ratio, R
filter area, A
reciculation factor, F

trickling_filter_design.mcd
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Given
E1

=1

100
1+ .0561

W
V F

E2

## eqn. 3: efficiency of second stage filter :

=1

100
1+

.0561
1

E1

W'
V F

100

Eprimary
E1
E 2

BODin 1
1
1

100
100
100

eqn. 1: computed BOD in the plant effluent:
=1
BODeff

=1

1+ R

+ R
1

10

V
A filter_depth

=1

1000

W'
E1

1
W
100

( 1 + R ) Q 10
A HLR

=1

=1

## eqn. 8: reality constraints

R>0

trickling_filter_design.mcd
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V> 0

F> 0

E1 > 0

E2 > 0

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E1soln

2soln

Vsoln

R
soln
A

soln
W'

soln

## While "find" works well for many combinations of

guesses, it sometimes does not converge. "minerr"
always gives an answer and an estimate of the error

## ==================================end solve block=========================================

E1soln

62.749049

E

2soln
50.692945

soln
73.806522

1.483385
F
=

soln

0.69755
R soln

4
1.47613

10

soln

3
4.566892

10

W'

soln
ERR = 0
RESULTS :
efficiency of first stage filter : E1soln = 62.749049
efficiency of second stage filter : E2soln = 50.692945
recirculation ratio Qr/Q : R soln = 0.69755
2

## filter area, each filter (ft ) : A soln = 1.47613 104

diameter of each filter D :=

trickling_filter_design.mcd
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A soln ; D = 137

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check equations - all equations have been cast in "ratio" form. If solution values are correct all resulting values
will be 1.0 :
BODeff
E1soln
E2soln
Eprimary

1
1

BODin 1
100
100
100

=1

Eprimary
E1soln
E2soln

1
1
= 45
BODin 1
100
100
100

E2soln

E1soln
100

1 + .0561

Vsoln Fsoln

Fsoln
1 + R soln

R soln

1 +
10

=1

=1

100

W' soln
.0561

1+

Vsoln Fsoln
E1soln

1
100

Vsoln
A soln filter_depth

1000

(1 + Rsoln) Q 10
A soln HLR

=1

Asoln filter_depth
1000

=1

W' soln

=1

Vsoln

E1soln

1
W
100

=1

=1

If the user desires to "fix" a design variable at a certain value it will be necessary to inactivate one of the
equations in the solve block containing that variable and remove the variable itself from the "find" or "minerr"
statement. The basic idea is that there must always be as many independent equations as unknowns.

trickling_filter_design.mcd
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