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Title: Hookes law

Aim: To prepare Hookes law.
Apparatus: clamp stand
spring

slotted masses with a hanger

meter rule

Diagram

Theory: Hookes law states that for all elastic bodies the extension was
proportional to the stretching force so long as the spring was not
permanently stretched.
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Extension stretching force

Method:
1. A clamp stand, spring, meter rule and slotted masses with a hanger
were obtained.
2. A spring was hooked on to the clamp stand.
3. The length of the spring was then measured using a meter rule.
4. A hanger was then hooked on with 50 grams to the spring.
5. The length spring including the hanger and the masses on it was then
measured.
6. 25 more grams were added to the hanger and were measured again
using the meter rule.
7. The process was then repeated 6 more times adding 25 more grams
each time.
Results:
Experiment
number

Original
length of
the spring
(cm)

Mass
(g)

Weight
(N)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

5
5
5
5
5
5
5

50
75
100
125
150
175
200

0.5
0.75
1.0
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.0

The length
of the
spring
with the
force (cm)
6.2
7.2
8.2
9.2
10.2
11.2
12.2

Extension
of the
spring
(m)
0.012
0.022
0.032
0.042
0.052
0.062
0.072

Average=0.042m
Graph:
X2-X1
RUN

0.072-0.012
2.0-0.5

(M)
(N)

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0.06
1.5

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Discussion: Hookes law state that that for all elastic bodies the extension
was proportional to the stretching force so long as the spring was not
permanently stretched. When the graph was finish drawn the line ended was
straight. The reason why the line of the graph was straight is because the
extension was directly proportional to its stretching force. The gradient was
found using the formula rise over run and the gradient was 0.04. For every
25 grams added to the spring the extension of the spring increased by 0.01m.
Limitations
*Precaution:
When the measurements were being written down it was made sure
that the correct units were used.
When measuring the length of the spring and the hanger containing
the masses it was assured that the spring was not moving around.
*Sources of error:
When the weight was being calculated the wrong equation was being
used.
Conclusion: It was concluded that hooks law can be proved by adding
weights to a spring as long as the spring doesnt permanently stretch.

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Title: Reflection
Aim: To prone the law of reflection.
Apparatus: 4 optic pin
A plane paper
Ruler
Pencil
Diagram

a mirror
protractor
drawing board

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Theory: The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is equal to
the angle of reflection. The second law states that the incident ray, the
reflected ray and the normal all lie in the same plane.
Method:
1. Four optic pins, a mirror, a plane paper, protractor, Ruler, drawing
board and a pencil were obtained.
2. A horizontal line was then drawn across the length of the paper.
3. A vertical line was drawn in the center of the paper connecting to the
horizontal line.
4. The part where the lines intercept was then labeled O and the vertical
line was labeled N.
5. The right side of the paper was then labeled the ray of reflection
while the left side of the paper was labeled ray of incident.
6. Using the vertical line as the normal a line was drawn at an angle
starting from O at the left side of the vertical line.
7. Two pins were then placed over the angled line.
8. Beside the pins were then labeled P1 and P2.
9. A mirror was then placed along the horizontal line.
10.The eye was then placed at an angle to the mirror where it can see the
two pins intersecting in the mirror.
11.Two more pins were placed along the eye site were the two reflecting
pins intercepted.
12.Next to the pins were then labeled P3 and P4.
13.The pins where then removed and a line was drawn over the two
holes left at the right side by the pins.
14. The angle of the line at the right side of the paper was then found.
15.The measurements between the two lengths were then observed.
16.The process was then repeated 4 more times.

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Results:
Table sowing angle of incident and angle of reflection

Experiment number

Angle of incident ()

1
2
3
4
5

10
20
50
60
70

Angle of reflection
()
10
20
51
60
70
Average= 42.2

Limitations
*Precaution:
When the angels were being found finding it was made sure that the
measurements started at the vertical line at 0 degrees.
While finding the angle of reflection it was assured that the reflected
pins showing in the mirror were intercepting.
When the angle of the reflection was being formed using the mirror
it was made certain that the mirror was properly placed along the horizontal
line.

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*Sources of error:
When the line was being dawn to show the angle of reflection the line
drawn over the pin holes was not in a straight line leading to O.
When calculating the angles the angles were found using the
horizontal line as 0 degrees.
When calculating the ray of reflection the mirror was not in line with
the horizontal line.
Conclusion: In conclusion it was found that the law of reflection can be
proved by using the pin method and from the observations and results that
the angle of incidence is indeed equal to the angle of reflection.
Reflection: It was learnt that the angle of incident was always equal to the
line of reflection

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Title: Refraction
Aim: To prove the law of refraction.
Apparatus: rectangular glass prism
Plain sheet of paper
Protractor
Ruler

4 optic pins
drawing board
pencil

Diagram

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DRAWING SHOWING REFRACTION OF LIGHT IN GLASS

Theory: The first law of refraction states that the incident and refracted rays
are on the opposite sides of the normal and all lie in the same plane. The
second law states that the value of sin1/ sin2 is constant for light passing
from one particular medium to another. This is called Snells law
Angle of incidence in air / angle of incident in water
Method:
1. A rectangular glass prism 4 optic pins, Plain sheet of paper, drawing
board, Protractor, pencil and a Ruler was obtained.
2. A paper was first placed over a drawing board.
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3. A rectangular glass prism was then placed in the center of the sheet of
paper with the length of the prism as the base.
4. The perimeter of the rectangular glass prism was then traced around
the paper using a pencil.
5. The rectangular glass prism was then removed leaving a drawn
rectangle on the paper.
6. A vertical line was then drawn at the top left of the drawn rectangle
and was marked N to represent normal.
7. An angled line was taken starting at the normal under 90 degree angle
and was then labeled the incident ray.
8. Two pins where then placed over the angled line at different lengths
and one was labeled P1 and the other P2.
9. The rectangular glass prism was then placed inside the drawn
rectangle.
10. The other two pins were inserted in line with the refraction of the
incident ray when the eye was looking through the side of the
rectangular glass prism and was then labeled P3 and P4.
11. The four pins where then removed.
12.A straight line was then drawn over the two holes that the pins
inserted at the bottom of the triangle left starting from the bottom
length of the drawn rectangle and was then labeled the emergent ray.
13. A vertical line was drawn where the bottom line of the rectangle and
the emergent ray intercept and was also marked N to represent the
normal.
14. A line was then drawn through the drawn rectangle starting where the
incident ray and the normal at the top intercepts and ends where the
emergent ray and the normal at the bottom intercept and was then
labeled the refracted ray.
15.The angle of the ray of refraction was then found starting from the
normal.
16.The procedure was then repeated 6 more times.
17.The results were then placed in a table.
Results:

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Experiment
number

Angle of
Angle of
Sin1
Sin2
n=sin1
incident
refraction
sin2
()
()
1
20
14
0.342
0.242
1.413
2
30
20
0.500
0.342
1.462
3
40
24
0.643
0.407
1.580
4
50
30
0.766
0.500
1.532
5
60
35
0.866
0.574
1.509
6
70
41
0.940
0.656
1.433
7
80
43
0.984
0.682
1.443
TABLE SHOWING REFRACTION OF LIGHT IN GLASS
Calculation:
Average n= (1.413+1.462+1.580+1.532+1.509+1.433+1.443) 7=1.481
Refraction of glass = sin1 = 1.481
sin2
Gradient of the graph = 1.463
Discussion: At the normal the incident ray is bent or refracted as it enters
the glass. At the normal below the glass the glass is bent back to its original
direction. When the ray of light entered the glass the ray bent towards the
normal. In the graph a best fit graph was drawn. The gradient of the graph
was found using the equation m= RISE . The X axis was 0.068 and the y
RUN
axis was 0.995. The gradient was found to be 1.481 and on the graph it was
1.463. the equation of the straight line was y=mx+c therefore was written
y=1.463x + c.
Limitations
*Precaution:
When the angle of incident, refraction and emergent rays were being
calculated it was made sure that it was taken from the normal.
When the calculations where being taken it was assured that the
correct calculations where being used.
*Sources of error:
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When the angles were being found it was not taken from the normal.
When the line of the emergent ray was being found the angle wasnt
the same as the incident ray.
When the calculations where being found the wrong calculations were
used.
Conclusion: In conclusion it was found that the law of refraction can be
proved and based on the observations and results that glass is denser than air.
Reflection: It was learnt that glass is denser than air and that the refraction
and incident ray on the opposite side of the normal and all lie in the same
plane.

Title: acceleration due to gravity

Hypothesis:
If the effects of air resistance are ignored, any object dropped in the vicinity
of Earths surface will move with constant acceleration.
Aim: To plan and design an experiment to find acceleration due to gravity.
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Apparatus:

DD

coin
Golf ball
Pen

stone
measuring tape
stop watch

Diagram

Theory: S=1/2 gt2 the equation of motion for displacement is S=ut+1/2 gt2
for a body which is falling freely. That means U= 0 which results S=1/2gt2
where S is the displacement and T is the time taken for the fall.
Method:
1. A coin, stone, stop watch, small stone, pen and measuring tape was
first obtained.
2. Using measuring tape 5 different heights were measure on a wall and
each height was marked using a pen.
3. The stone was place along the first measurement marked.
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

The stone was then released and the stop watch began simultaneously.
As the stone hits the ground the stop watch was stopped immediately.
The process was repeated more 2 times and was recorded.
The average of the three times was then found and recorded.
Using the average time the gravitational field strength(g) was found
and recorded using the equation g=2(s)/t2
9. The times, average times and gravitational field strengths were found
and recorded using the same procedure for the other four heights.
10.The whole method was then repeated 2 more times using a coin and
then a golf ball.
Results:
Table showing the times, average time, distance and gravitational field
strength of the golf ball
Time taken (s)
Experiment 1st
#

2nd

3rd

Average
time (s)

1
2
3
4

0.45
0.63
0.73
0.95

0.45
0.66
0.72
0.78

0.44
0.65
0.74
0.90

0.42
0.65
0.76
0.89

Distance g=2(s)
(m)
t2
(N)
1
10.33
2
9.47
3
10.96
4
9.88

Table showing the times, average time, distance and gravitational field
strength of the rock
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Time taken (s)

Experiment 1st
#

2nd

3rd

Average
time (s)

1
2
3
4

0.40
0.63
0.78
0.87

0.43
0.62
0.80
0.89

0.42
0.64
0.79
0.90

0.42
0.67
0.78
0.95

Distance g=2(s)
(m)
t2
(N)
1
11.34
2
9.76
3
9.61
4
9.88

Table showing the times, average time, distance and gravitational field
strength of the coin
Time taken (s)
Experiment 1st
#

2nd

3rd

Average
time (s)

Distance
(m)

1
2
3
4

0.42
0.61
0.78
0.88

0.46
0.66
0.75
0.92

0.44
0.64
0.76
0.91

1
2
3
4

0.45
0.64
0.76
0.93

g=2(s)
t2
(N)
10.33
9.76
10.39
9.66

Calculation:
Average of (g) for golf ball= (10.33+9.47+10.96+9.88) 4 = 10.16N
Average of (g) for rock= (11.34 + 9.76+ 9.61 +9.88) 4=10.14N
Average of (g) for coin= (10.33+9.76+10.39+9.66) 4 = 10.035N
Gradient of golf ball= RISE = 0.57 = 0.143m/s
RUN
4
Gradient of rock = RISE = 0.605 = 0.151m/s
RUN
4
Gradient of coin = RISE = 0.58 = 0.145m/s
RUN
4

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Discussion: When the three objects were dropped at the same height the
times taken for it to fall were almost simultaneous. When the objects were
dropped at different heights the higher the height the longer the time would
be and the shorter the height the shorter the time would take. After the
average height of each object was calculated using the calculation S=1/2gt2
the gravitational field strength was then found. The gradient of the graph
was found using RISE for each best fit line.
RUN
Limitations
*Precaution:
When finding the time, it was made certain that the time of the higher
height was more than the time of the lower height and the lower height was
less than the higher height.
When finding the time taken for the object to fall, it was assured that
the stop watch was started as soon as the object is released.
*Sources of error:
The incorrect formula was used.
The stop watch did not stop simultaneously as the object touches the
ground.
Conclusion: In conclusion based on the observation and results obtained, it
was found that any object dropped on earths surface will move in a constant
acceleration if the effect of air resistance is ignored.
Reflection: It was learnt that any object dropped in the vicinity of Earths
surface will move with constant acceleration if the effects of air resistance
are ignored.

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Title: Linear Magnification

Aim: Linear magnification is constant for all object distances. Plan and
design a lab to test the truth of the above statement.
Apparatus: Lamp
Transparent scale
Screen

power supply
convex lens
ruler

Diagram

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m=

height of image
height of object

size of image
size of object

m=

IB
OA

Distance of image from lens

Distance of object from lens

IC
OC

v
u

Where u= distance of object from lens and v= distance of image from lens.
Method:
1. A lamp was first obtained and was hooked up to a power supply.
2. A screen with a whole and a plus sign in the middle was then placed
in front of the lamp and used as the whole was used as the object.
3. A white screen was placed in a straight line at a distance from the
object.
4. A lens was then placed between the white screen and the object.
5. The distances of the lens, object and white screen was continuously
altered until a clearly focused image was formed on the white screen.
6. After the clear focus was found, the distance from the white screen to
the lens was measured and then the distance from the lens to the
screen was then measured.
7. The procedure was then repeated three more times.
Results:
Experiment #

Distance from
Distance from
Magnification
the image to the the object to the Distance of image from lens
Distance of object from lens
lens (cm)
lens (cm)
1
82.7
27
3.02
2
54.3
23
2.36
3
69.5
19.5
3.56
4
36.9
26.5
1.39
TABLE SHOWING THE DISTANCE FROM THE IMAGE TO THE
LENS, DISTANCE FROM THE IMAGE TO THE LENS AND THE
MAGNIFICATION
Average =2.575
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Calculation:
First Magnification =

Distance of image from lens

Distance of object from lens

Second Magnification=

54.3cm
23cm

Third magnification =

69.5cm
19.5cm

Forth magnification=

36.9cm
26.5cm

Average magnification=

82.7cm
27cm

3.02

2.36
3.56
1.39

3.02+2.36+3.56+1.39 / 4= 2.575

Limitations
*Precaution:
When the distances of the objects were being measured it was made
sure that the measurements were being counted starting from zero.
When the calculations where being taken it was assured that the
correct calculations where being used.
*Sources of error:
When the measurements were being calculate the incorrect units
were used.
When placing the lens between the white sheet and the object the lens
was not placed vertically.
Conclusion: In conclusion based on the observations it was found that the
magnification is definitely not constant for all object distances because the
magnification found from all the different distances calculated were
different.

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Reflection: It was learnt that when a image appear inverted and larger the
image distance is between the focal length and the distance twice of the focal
length.
Title: Volume
Aim: To plan and design a lab to find the initial radius of a drinking straw.
Apparatus: Beaker
Weighing scale
Scissors
Diagram

drinking straw
large beaker
water

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Theory:
The volume of a cylinder v= r2h where r=the radius, h= height of the straw
and =22/7.
Method:
1. A small Beaker, drinking straw, Weighing scale, large beaker and
Scissors were first obtained.
2. The empty small beaker was weighed on a weight scale.
3. A large beaker was then filled with water.
4. A drinking straw was then completely immersed in the large beaker
containing water then the tip of one end of the straw was then covered
with a thumb to keep the water in the straw.
5. The straw was then taken out the large beaker with water in it then
placed over the empty small beaker.
6. The thumb was then removed from the tip of the drinking straw letting
the water in the straw to fall into the small beaker.
7. The process was then repeated 19 more times
8. The small beaker was weighed again.
9. The whole procedure was then repeated three more times
10. After finding the four masses the straw was then cut in half and the
same method done previously was done using one the shorter straws.
Results:
Experiment
number

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Length of
straw
(cm)

19.3
19.3
19.3
19.3
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7

Mass of
empty
beaker (g)

143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143

Mass of
beaker and
water

Mass of
water (beaker
and water empty
beaker)

225
227
227
225
184
184
183
184

82
84
84
82
41
41
40
41

M/M

ORR

A/I

Mass of
water/ density

(mass/20)

4.1
4.2
4.2
4.1
2.05
2.05
2
2.05

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Mass of
one straw

P/D

Volume of
water
Density
over mass
(g/cm3)

4.1
4.2
4.2
4.1
2.05
2.05
2
2.05

(r

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TABLE SHOWING THE PROCEDURE USED TO FIND THE

Calculation:
Average mass of the straw with length 19.3cm= 0.26+0.263+0.263+0.26 /4=
0.261
Average mass of the straw with length 9.7cm= 0.259+0.259+0.256+0.259 /
4= 0.258
Average of the two straws= 0.261+0.258 /2 = 0.2595
v

r = /h

Change of the subject= v=r2h

Limitations
*Precaution:
When the straw was fully immersed in the large beaker filled with
water it was made sure that there was no bubbles formed in the straw.
When measuring the length of the straw it was assured that the
correct unit was used.
*Sources of error:
When repeating the method, during the counting process the number
reached was forgotten.
When taking the straw out of the large beaker and acing it over the
smaller beaker water fell out of the straw before it was placed over the small
beaker.
Conclusion: Based on the results and observation it was concluded that the
radius of the straw is 0.26 and also that it is possible find the initial radius of
v

).

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Reflection: It was learnt that the radius of an object will stay constant even
if the length changes but will change if the circumference is changed.

Title: Specific heat capacity

Aim: To find the specific heat capacity of aluminum.
Apparatus power supply
Emergent heater
Stop watch
Diagram

thermometer aluminum
weighing scale
napkin

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DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PROCESS OF FINDING THE SPECIFIC HEAT

CAPACITY OF ALLUMINUM

Theory The specific heat capacity is the amount of heat required to produce
temperature rise in unit mass. The heat equation is EH=mc where EH is
the heat energy give out by the emergent heater, m is the mass of the
aluminum, is the change in temperature and c is the specific heat
capacity of the aluminum. EH= power time.
Method:
1. A block of aluminum that had two holes drilled in it was first weighed
on a weighing scale.
2. An emergent heater was then placed in the central hole.
3. A thermometer was placed in the other hole.
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4. Napkin was used as an insulation material to cover the aluminum

block.
5. The temperature of the aluminum block was then found.
6. The emergent heater was hooked up to a 12 volt power supply.
7. The experiment was then left to heat for 10 minutes and 46 seconds.
8. The highest temperature was recorded.
9. The specific heat capacity of the aluminum block was then found.
Calculation:
Mass of aluminum= 1000grams
Initial temperature of aluminum block = 27 C
Power of emergent heater = 5 watts
Time taken to heat the aluminum block= 10 minutes and 46 seconds= 646
seconds
Final temperature of aluminum block= 31 C
Difference in temperature = = 31-27=4 C
EH= mc therefore
5646
10004

c=

Power time
masschange in temperature

EH b
m

3230
4000
0.8075 Jg-1 C-1

Limitations
*Precaution:
When the final temperature was being found it was made sure that
the highest reading on the thermometer was found.
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When heating the emergent heater it was assured that the power
supply was at 12 volts.
When the specific heat capacity was being calculated it was made sure
that the correct equations were used.
*Sources of error:
When the emergent heater was being heated the power supply was
not turned on
When calculating the specific heat capacity of the aluminum block the
incorrect equation was used.
Conclusion: Based on the calculations it was concluded that the specific
heat capacity of the aluminum block in the experiment was found to be
0.8079 Jg-1 C-1 and the general specific heat capacity of aluminum is
0.90 Jg -1 C-1 which means that the specific heat capacity of aluminum can
be found by electrical heating.
Reflection: It was learnt that the unit used in the specific heat is Jkg-1C-1or
Jkg-1K-1.

Title: Specific latent heat of ice (method of mixtures)

Aim: To determine the specific latent heat of fusion of ice.
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Styrofoam cup
Balance
2 beakers

water
thermometer
immersion heater

Diagram

DIAGRAM SHOWING THE APPARATUS USED TO FIND THE LATENT HEAT

OF FUSION OF ICE

Theory: The specific latent heat of fusion (lf) of a substance is the quantity
of heat needed to change unit mass from solid to liquid without temperature
change.
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EH=mlf where m is the mass of the substance and lf is the latent heat of fusion
of the substance.
EH= mc where m is the mass of water, is the temperature change,
c is the specific heat capacity of water
heat given out by the water = the heat gained by ice
mc= mlf
Method:
1. The mass of the Styrofoam cup was first found using a balance.
2. Some water was then warmed in a beaker about 10 C above room
temperature and poured carefully into the Styrofoam cup.
3. The mass of the water and Styrofoam cup was found using the
balance.
4. The initial temperature of the water was measured with a
thermometer.
5. Small pieces of ice were obtained and dried using litmus paper and
were slowly added to the water.
6. The water was then stirred until the ice was completely melted and
then the final temperature of the water was then noted.
7. The final mass of the water and Styrofoam cup was found using the
balance.
Calculation:
Initial temperature of ice= 0 C
Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g-1
Mass of Styrofoam cup mc = 3g
Initial mass of water and cup mI = 158g
Final mass of water mF = 17g
Initial temperature of water I =37
Final temperature of water F =27

mc

=
=

mlf

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(mI-mc) (I - F )4.2 J g-1

155g10 C4.2 J g-1 = 6510 J
6510J17g
382.9 J g-1

=
=
=
=

mFlf
17glf
lf
lf

Limitations
*Precaution:
When the final temperature was being found it was made sure that
the lowest reading on the thermometer was recorded.
When reading the measurements on the thermometer it was assured
that the temperature was read at eye level.
When the specific latent heat of ice was being calculated it was made
sure that the correct equations were used.
*Sources of error:
When the ice was being dried using litmus paper, the ice melted.
When the equations were being solved the wrong units were written
Conclusion: it was concluded that the specific latent heat of ice was found
to be 382.9 J g-1.
Reflection: It was learnt that the specific latent heat of ice is 340 J g-1 and it
can be found using the method of mixtures if used accurately.

Title: momentum
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Aim: To apply the principle of conservation of momentum.

Apparatus: a built track
Meter rulers
Double sided tape
Weighing scale
Diagram

clamp+stand
toy cars
stop watch

DIAGRAM SHOWING THE APPARATUS USED TO APPLY THE PRINCIPLE

OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
Theory: When two or more bodies act o one another, as in collision, the
total momentum of the bodies remains constant, provided no external forces
act.
Momentum=massvelocity
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Method:
1. The end of a built track was first placed on a clamp+stand so that the
track could be slanted.
2. Two cars where then obtained and double sided tape was placed in
front of one of the cars and at the back of the other.
3. The two cars were then weighed on a weighing scale.
4. The car with the double sided tape placed in the front was placed on
top of the track and was labeled m2.
5. The other car with the double sided tape placed at the back was then
placed 100 meters away in front of the car placed on top of the track
and was labeled m1.
6. The car labeled m2 was then released and the stop watch began
simultaneously.
7. As soon as the other car labeled m1was hit the stop watch stopped and
the time taken was recorded.
8. The procedure was then repeated 2 more times placing the car labeled
m1 90 meters away and then 80 meters away from the car at the top of
the track labeled m2.
9. The whole experiment was then repeated using another car that was
labeled m3 and stacked on top of the car labeled m2 placed on the top
of the built track.
Results:
Experiment Masss
Mass
Velocity Distance Time Velocity Momentum
number
(m1) kg (m2) kg (v1) ms-1 (m)
(s)
(v2 ms-1) (kgms-1)
(m1 v1+m2 v2)
1
0.01
0.01
0
100
1.53 65.4
0.654
2
0.01
0.01
0
90
1.31 68.7
0.687
3
0.01
0.01
0
80
1.18 67.7
0.667
Experiment Masss
Mass
number
(m1) kg (m2+m3)
kg
1
0.01
0.02
2
0.01
0.02
3
0.01
0.02

Velocity Distance
(v1) ms-1 (m)

Time Velocity Momentum (kgms-1)

(s)
(v2 ms-1) m1 v1+(m2 +m3) v2

0
0
0

1.69
1.50
1.32

100
90
80

59.2
60
60.6

1.184
1.2
1.212

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Table showing the mass distance and time before collision

Calculation:
Mass of each car = 0.01 kg
Momentum = Mass velocity
Velocity =Distance time taken
Average momentum of first table= (0.654 + 0.687 + 0.667) 3 = 0.669=0.7
kg m/s
Average momentum of the second table = (1.184 + 1.2 + 1.212) 3
=1.199=1.2 kg m/s
Limitations
*Precaution:
When the time taken for the cars to collide was being found it was
made sure that stop watch was stopped as accurately as possible.
When the momentum was being calculated it was made sure that the
correct equations were used.
*Sources of error:
When the car was released on top of the built track, while rolling
down the car scratched against the side of the track and stopped before
colliding with the other car.
When the equations were being solved the wrong units were written
Conclusion: It was concluded that the momentum of the car weighing
0.01kg had a momentum of 0.7kg m/s at all three different distances and the
momentum of the two cars one on top of the other weighing at 0.02 kg had a
momentum of 1.2 kg m/s for all three distances showing that the momentum
remained constant for both.
Reflection: It was learnt that when an object is at rest and another object is
moving towards the object at rest with a certain momentum, when the
moving object collides with the object at rest the momentum of the moving
car transfers to the car at rest without any change.

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Title: current electricity

Aim: To observe the behavior of potential difference and current in a series
circuit.
Apparatus: circuit board
wire leads with alligator clips and banana plugs
Bar connectors
light bulb connectors
Light bulbs
multimeter
d.c power supply
Diagram

DIAGRAM SHOWING

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Theory: The current is the same as all points in a series circuit.

Q=IT
The sum of the p.d.s across the lamps equals the p.d. across the battery.
Method:
1. A circuit was first set up in series with a light bulb connected in the
middle and was labeled as bulb 1.
2. The circuit was connected to a power supply of 3 volts.
3. The voltage across the light bulb was then measured and recorded.
4. The current across the light bulb was measured and recorded.
5. Another light bulb was then connected to the series circuit and labeled
bulb2.
6. The voltage across each bulb was measured and recorded on a second
table.
7. The current across each bulb was then measured and recorded in the
second table.
8. Another bulb was added to the series circuit and was labeled bulb 3.
9. The voltage across each bulb was then measured and recorded on a
third table.
10.The current across each bulb was then measured and recorded in the
third table.
11.In table 2 and 3the voltages and current were added up and recorded.
12.The voltage and current across the clip of the circuit series were then
recorded.
Results:
Table 1 : Voltage and current across a series circuit
Voltage (V)
Current (A)
Bulb 1
2.85
2.06
Battery
3
2.3
Table 2 : Voltage and current across a series circuit
Voltage (V)
Current (A)
Bulb 1
1.44
0.16
Bulb2
1.44
0.16
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Total
Battery
(across clip)

2.88
2.98

0.32
2.35

Voltage (V)
Bulb 1
0.66
Bulb2
0.66
Bulb3
0.69
Total
2.01
Battery
2.98
(across clip)

Current (A)
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.27
2.41

Tables showing the current and voltage measured

Discussion:
Limitations
*Precaution:
When the current and voltage was being measured it was made sure
that the d.c power supply was at 3 volts.
When the current and voltage was being calculated it was made
certain that the correct units were used.
*Sources of error:
When the current was being measured the multimeter did not stay on
an exact value.
When the bulb was connected to the series circuit the bulb was blown.
Conclusion: Based on the results obtained it was concluded that the
voltages and current in a parallel series circuit are equal.
Reflection: It was learnt that the current in a series circuit is always the
same on all points.

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PART A. THE PROPOSAL

Title: planning and designing
Hypothesis: The angle of rotation of a reflected ray from a plane mirror is
twice the angle of rotation of the mirror.
Aim: To investigate if the angle of rotation of a reflected ray from a plane
mirror is really twice the angle of rotation of the mirror.
Apparatus: plane mirror, ray box, drawing paper, 4 drawing pins, protractor
Diagram

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DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PLAN OF THE EXPERIMENT

Interpretation of results:
Controlled: rotation of the mirror
Dependent: reflected beam
Independent: ray box
Method:
1. Pin a paper to the desk.
2. Draw straight lines M1 M2 and M3 M4 to enclose an angle .
3. Adjust the ray box to send a narrow beam of light on the paper
through junction (J) of the two lines.
4. Place the reflecting surface of the mirror along M1 M2.
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5. Mark the position of the incident beam with a pencil A and B and the
reflected beam C and D.
6. Turn the mirror about (J) through angle so that its reflecting surface
lies along M3 M4.
7. The reflected beam turns through an angle .
8. Mark the new position of this reflected beam with E and F.
9. Remove the mirror.
10.Join A and B, D and C, F and E, producing the three lines to met at
(J).
11.Measure angles and .
12.Repeat the experiment for three other values of .
Expected results: The angle of rotation of the reflected ray from the plane
mirror will be twice the angle of rotation of the mirror.
Part B.THE IMPLEMENTATION
Method:
1. A paper was first pinned to a desk.
2. Straight lines M1 M2 and M3 M4 were then drawn to enclose an angle
.
3. The ray box was adjusted so that it would send a narrow beam of light
on the paper through junction (J) of the two lines.
4. The reflecting surface of the mirror was placed along M1 M2.
5. The position of the incident beam was then marked A and B and on
the reflected beam C and D.
6. The mirror was turned about the junction through angle so that its
reflecting surface was lying along M3 M4.
7. The reflected beam turned through an angle .
8. The new position of this reflected beam was marked E and F.
9. The mirror was then removed.
10.A and B, D and C, F and E, were joined producing three lines to
meeting at the junction.
11.Angles and were then measured.
12.The experiment was repeated for three other values of .
Results:
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10
20

20
40

30
60

40
77

Tables showing the reflected angle and the angle made by the mirror
Calculation:
Using points (20,40) and (30,60) to calculate the slope/gradient
y2-y1
=
60-40
=
20
=
2
x2-x1
30-20
10
Discussion:
When the results were represented on a graph, the points defined the straight
line. A best fit line had to be drawn. This allowed the relation between
angle and angle to be described by a leaner equation of the form:
y=mx+c

Where y= beta angle ( ), x= alpha angle ( ), m = slope/gradient and

c= intercept of the y-axis. The gradient of the graph was found to be 2 and
the points on the graph were constant except for when the mirror was turned
40 where there was a slight difference. Based on the graph it was seen that
the angle was directly proportional to the angle. The y-intercept of the
graph was seen to be 0. The gradient was calculated using the equation:
y2-y1
x2-x1
Limitations
*Precaution:
Repeat the experiment for each angle at least 3 times.
Make sure that the angles were measured using a protractor at the junction.
*Sources of error
When the angle of rotation of the reflected image was being found, an error
occurred. The angles of reflection were not accurately marked when reading
the beam from the red box off the mirror. This introduced an error and a
limitation in determining the accurate angle of rotation of the reflected ray.

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Reflection: This concept is used in real life situations. An example for that
is the traffic mirrors. At a T crossing there are usually traffic mirrors placed
in front of the road where the drivers are not able to see the oncoming traffic
to the left or right. It is usually placed 45 so that the driver can see 90
which would make him/her to have a straight view towards the oncoming
traffic. In this experiment it was learnt that the angle of rotation of the
reflected ray from the plane mirror will be twice the angle of rotation of the
mirror no matter what angle the mirror is rotated.
Conclusion: Based on the results obtained it was concluded that the angle
of rotation of a reflected ray from a plane mirror is directly proportional to
the angle of rotation of the mirror.

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