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GSM BSS Network KPI (SDCCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual

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Confidentiality Level

G3BSC

INTERNAL

Product Version

Total 26 pages

INTERNAL

GSM BSS Network KPI (SDCCH Call Drop Rate)


Optimization Manual
(For internal use only)

Prepared by

Date

2008-8-25

Reviewed by

Date

yyyy-mm-dd

Reviewed by

Date

yyyy-mm-dd

Approved by

Date

yyyy-mm-dd

Du Jian, WCDMA & GSM Network


Performance Research Dept.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All rights reserved

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Contents
1 Overview of SDCCH Call Drop Rate ................................................................................. 6
1.1 Definition ......................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 Recommended Formula ................................................................................................................................... 6
1.3 Signaling Procedure and Measurement Points ................................................................................................. 7

2 Factors That Affect SDCCH Call Drop Rate ...................................................................... 8


2.1 Hardware Failure.............................................................................................................................................. 8
2.2 Transmission .................................................................................................................................................... 8
2.3 Version Upgrade ............................................................................................................................................... 8
2.4 Parameter Setting ............................................................................................................................................. 8
2.5 Intra-Network and Inter-Network Interference ................................................................................................ 9
2.6 Coverage Problem ............................................................................................................................................ 9
2.7 Antenna System .............................................................................................................................................. 10
2.8 Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink..................................................................................................... 10
2.9 Repeater.......................................................................................................................................................... 10

3 Analysis of and Solutions to High SDCCH Call Drop Rate ........................................... 11


3.1 Analysis Process ............................................................................................................................................. 11
3.2 Solutions to High SDCCH Call Drop Rate .................................................................................................... 13
3.2.1 Checking the Hardware ......................................................................................................................... 14
3.2.2 Checking the Transmission ................................................................................................................... 15
3.2.3 Checking the BSC and BTS Version Upgrade ...................................................................................... 16
3.2.4 Checking the Parameter Settings........................................................................................................... 16
3.2.5 Checking the Interference ..................................................................................................................... 18
3.2.6 Checking the Coverage, Antenna System, and Balance Between Uplink and Downlink ..................... 18
3.2.7 Checking the Repeaters ......................................................................................................................... 19

4 Test Method ........................................................................................................................ 20


5 Remarks About the Signaling Analysis of the SDCCH Call Drop Rate ........................ 21
6 Cases for SDCCH Call Drop Rate Optimization ............................................................. 23
6.1 Case 1: SDCCH Call Drop in a Synchronous Network ................................................................................. 23
6.2 Case 2: Call Drop Due to Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink ........................................................... 23
6.3 Case 3: Call Drop Due to Antenna System Problem ...................................................................................... 24
6.4 Case 4: Call Drop Due to Transmission Problem ........................................................................................... 25

7 Feedback Form for SDCCH Call Drop Rate..................................................................... 26

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Figures
Figure 1-1 Number of successful SDCCH seizures............................................................................................... 7
Figure 1-2 Number of successful SDCCH seizures in the signaling channel handover ........................................ 7

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Revision Record
Date

Revision Version

Change Description

Author

2008-8-25

V1.0

Draft completed.

Du Jian

References
SN

Document

Author

Date

G-Guide to Eliminating Interference - 20050311-A-1.0

Chen Baolin

2005-3-11

GSM BSS Network KPI (Network Coverage) Optimization Manual

Xie Haibin

2008-6-18

GSM BSS Network KPI (SDCCH Call Drop Rate) Baseline

Wu Zhen

2007-6-22

GSM BSS Network KPI (Uplink and Downlink Balance)


Optimization Manual

Yang Jixiang

2008-3-26

Guide to Solving Call Drop Problems

Yang Bin

2002-3-7

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual

Su Shi

2008-6-20

GSM BSS Network KPI (SDCCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization


Manual
Keywords: SDCCH call drop rate, KPI
Abstract: This document describes the definition, test method, and optimization method of
the SDCCH call drop rate.
Acronyms and Abbreviations:

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Acronym and Abbreviation

Full Spelling

SDCCH

Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

MS

Mobile Station

BSC

Base Station Controller

KPI

Key Performance Index

TCH

Traffic Channel

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Overview of SDCCH Call Drop Rate

1.1 Definition
The SDCCH call drop rate indicates the probability of call drops when the MS occupies the
SDCCH. The SDCCH call drop rate is one of accessibility KPIs. This KPI reflects the seizure
condition of signaling channels. If the value of this KPI is high, user experience is adversely
affected.

1.2 Recommended Formula


The SDCCH call drop rate is obtained on the basis of the traffic measurement results. The
recommended formula is as follows:
Call Drop Rate on SDCCH = (Call Drops on SDCCH/Successful SDCCH Seizures +
Successful SDCCH Seizures in the signaling channel handover) x 100%
Compared with the formula of the BSC32, the formula of the BSC6000 adds the measurement
of the number of call drops due to release indication received on the SDCCH in stable state.
As few call drops due to release indication occur in the existing network, the measurement
values of the BSC32 and BSC6000 are the same in the formula.
For details, see the GSM BSS Network KPI (SDCCH Call Drop Rate) Baseline.

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1.3 Signaling Procedure and Measurement Points


Figure 1-1 Number of successful SDCCH seizures

Figure 1-2 Number of successful SDCCH seizures in the signaling channel handover

The measurement points illustrated in Figure 2 are described as follows:


A indicates the number of successful SDCCH seizures.
B indicates the number of successful SDCCH seizures in the signaling channel handover

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Factors That Affect SDCCH Call Drop


Rate
According to user complaints and network optimization experience, the major factors that
affect the SDCCH call drop rate are as follows:

Hardware failure

Transmission

Version upgrade

Parameter setting

Intra-network and inter-network interference

Coverage, antenna system, and imbalance between uplink and downlink

2.1 Hardware Failure


When a TRX or a combiner is faulty, seizing the TCH becomes difficult, and thus the SDCCH
call drop rate increases.

2.2 Transmission
The SDCCH call drop rate increases in any of the following conditions: (1) The transmission
quality is poor on the A or Abis interface due to various reasons. (2) Transmission links are
unstable.

2.3 Version Upgrade


After the BTS version or BSC version is upgraded, the BTS version may be incompatible
with the BSC version, and the parameters and algorithms in the new version may be changed.
In this case, the SDCCH call drop rate increases.

2.4 Parameter Setting


The settings of some parameters on the BSC and MSC sides may affect the SDCCH call drop
rate. If the following situations occur, the SDCCH call drop rate may increase:

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Radio link and cell parameters:


SACCH Multi-Frames (SACCH period (480ms)) and Radio Link Timeout(SACCH
period (480ms)) are set to too small values.
RACH Min.Access Level(dBm) is set to a too small value.
T200 SDCCH(5ms) and N200 of SDCCH are set to too small values.
MAIO is set improperly.

Handover parameters:
SDCCH HO Allowed is set to Yes.
T3103A(ms) and T3103C(ms) are set to too small values.
T3109(ms) is set to a too small value.
T3111(ms) is set to a too small value.
The length of timer T305/T308 is set to an invalid or too great value.
Disconnect Handover Protect Timer is set to a too small value.
The network planning is improper after the Um interface is synchronized.
Software Parameter 13 and MAX TA are set to too small values.

2.5 Intra-Network and Inter-Network Interference


If inter-network interference and repeater interference exist, or if severe intra-network
interference occurs because of tight frequency reuse, call drops may occur on SDCCHs due to
poor QoS. This affects the SDCCH call drop rate.
The following types of interference may occur:
1.

Inter-network interference from scramblers or privately installed antennas

2.

Interference from the CDMA network

3.

Repeater interference

4.

Intermodulation interference from BTSs

5.

Intra-network co-channel and adjacent-channel interference

2.6 Coverage Problem


The following coverage problems may affect the SDCCH call drop rate.
1. Poor indoor coverage
Densely distributed buildings and thick walls cause great attenuation and low indoor signal
level, which causes call drops.
2. Coverage failure
If the signal from an antenna is blocked or the BCCH TRX is faulty, call drops may occur.

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2.7 Antenna System


The following antenna system problems may affect the SDCCH call drop rate
1.

If the transmit antennas of two cells are misconnected, the uplink signal level in each cell
is much lower than the downlink signal level in the cell. Therefore, call drops are likely
to occur at a place far away from the BTS.

2.

If a directional cell has main and diversity antennas, the BCCH and SDCCH of the cell
may be transmitted from different antennas. If the two antennas have different pitch
angles or azimuths, the coverage areas of the two antennas are different. In this case, the
following result may occur: An MS can receive the BCCH signals from one antenna;
when a call is made, the MS cannot seize the SDCCH transmitted by the other antenna
and thus a call drop occurs.

3.

If the feeder is damaged, if water runs into the feeder, or if the feeder and the connector
are not securely connected, both the transmit power and receiver sensitivity of the
antenna are reduced. Thus, call drops probably occur.

2.8 Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink


The difference between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level may be great in
the following conditions: The transmit power of the BTS is high; the tower mounted amplifier
(TMA) or BTS amplifier does not work properly; the antenna and the connector are not
securely connected. As a result, call drops may occur at the edge of the BTS coverage area.

2.9 Repeater
If a cell is installed with a repeater, BTS coverage problems may occur in the case that the
repeater is faulty or that the uplink and downlink gain is inappropriately set. Therefore, the
call drop rate increases.
If a wide-frequency repeater is used and the gain is set to a great value, strong interference
may be caused. As a result, the network quality is adversely affected and the call drop rate
increases.

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Analysis of and Solutions to High


SDCCH Call Drop Rate

3.1 Analysis Process

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BUG

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Comment [x1]: Start


Determine the cell wit
high call drop rate
Transmission o
hardware failure?
Rectify the
transmission or hardware fault
The problem is caused
version upgrade?
BUGCheck version information
Replace the version or
install patches
The data
configuration is improper?
Adjust related
parameters such as handover and power
control
The interference exists?
Intra-network interferenc
Check external interference
Check frequency
planning
The coverage problem
occurs?
Optimize t
coverage according to the coverage
optimization guide
The antenna system is
faulty?
Adjust the antenna system
ImUnbalance between
uplink and downlink?

Optimize the imbalance between uplink and


downlink
The repeater is fault
Rectify the repeater fault
Check the call drop
rate
End
Yes
No

GSM BSS Network KPI (SDCCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual

INTERNAL

3.2 Solutions to High SDCCH Call Drop Rate


Before analyzing the causes of high SDCCH call drop rates, you should find out the
difference between the actual SDCCH call drop rate and the expected value. You should also
find out the influence of the problems and the related KPIs.
You can analyze the distribution of call drops based on the related traffic measurement results.
If a certain type of call drop accounts for a large proportion of call drops, you can locate the
fault by performing the corresponding procedure. The following table lists the distribution of
call drops based on the type of call drop and the cause for call drop in the traffic statistics.
Analyzing the traffic statistics based on the cause for call drop
Type of Call Drop

Cause for Call Drop

Measurement
Code

Interface
Distribution

Call Drops due to CONN FAIL Received


on SDCCH in Stable State

Radio Link Failure

M3001A

HO Access Failure

M3001B

OM Intervention

M3001C

Radio Resource
Unavailable

M3001D

Other Causes

M3001E

T200 Expired

M3000A

The sum of the


counter and the
number of call
drops due to
SDCCH
handover failure
is the number of
call drops on
radio interface
(SDCCH).

Unsolicited DM
Response

M3000B

Sequence Error

M3000C

Release Indication

M3002

Call Drops due to ERR IND Received on


SDCCH in Stable State

Call Drops due to REL IND Received on


SDCCH
Call Drops due to No MRs from MS for a
Long Time

M302

As the seizure
duration of the
SDCCH is short,
the call drop
may not occur.

Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link


Failure

M303

Call Drops Due to Equipment Failure

M304

Call Drops due to Forced Handover

M305

Number of call
drops on the
SDCCH due to
transmission and
equipment
causes

Call Drops due to Resource Check

M306

Clear Requests Sent on the A Interface

M309

According to the traffic statistics, you can obtain the distribution of SDCCH call drops due to
Um and non Um causes. For Um causes, you need to check configuration parameters and
network interference. For hardware causes, you need to check hardware, transmission, and
equipment failure. If no obvious causes are found, you can perform the procedures shown in
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the preceding figure. The following table lists the mapping between the traffic measurement
counters and the troubleshooting procedures.
Traffic Measurement Counter

Troubleshooting Procedure

M3000A (T200 expired)

3.2.4 (check whether the T200 and N200 are set


properly)

M3001A (radio link failure)

3.2.4 (check whether the radio link failure counter


and the number of SACCH multi-frames are set
properly)

M3001D (radio resource


unavailable)

3.2.1 (check hardware failure)

M303 (Abis terrestrial link failure)

3.2.2 (check the transmission)

M304 (equipment failure)

3.2.1 (check hardware failure)

The following sections describe the solutions to high SDCCH call drop rates.
The traffic measurement counters and parameters in this document are the same as those in
the BSC6000V9R8C01B051 version.

3.2.1 Checking the Hardware


If a TRX or a combiner is faulty or if an RF cable is incorrectly connected, seizing the
SDCCH becomes difficult, and thus the SDCCH call drop rate increases. You can check
whether hardware is faulty by viewing BTS alarms or viewing the hardware state on the Site
Device Panel tab page of the LMT. The following table lists the major BSC alarms related to
hardware failures.
Alarm ID

Alarm Name

1000

LAPD OML Fault

2204

TRX Communication Alarm

4414

TRX VSWR Alarm

3606

DRU Hardware Alarm

In addition, you can locate the fault by checking the traffic measurement related to hardware
failures.

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GSM BSS Network KPI (SDCCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual
Cause

BSC-Level

Cell-Level

Equipment
Faults

BSC Measurement -> Access


measurement per BSC ->
Congestion Ratio on SDCCH per
BSC
Call Drop Ratio on SDCCH per
BSC
SDCCH Availability per BSC

Channel Measurement ->

INTERNAL

Analyzed Measurement of Available


Channels (SDCCH)
Call Drop Measurement per Cell in Call
Measurement:
Call Drops due to Equipment Failure
(Signaling Channel)

3.2.2 Checking the Transmission


Poor transmission quality, unstable transmission links, or insufficient resources on the Abis or
A interface may lead to the increase of the SDCCH call drop rate. You can check the
transmission conditions by viewing the alarms related to transmission. If a large number of
transmission alarms are generated, you can infer that transmission failures occur. Then, you
should check the transmission connections.
The following table lists the BSC alarms related to transmission failures.
Alarm ID

Alarm Name

1000

LAPD OML Fault

11270

LAPD Alarm

11278

E1 Local Alarm

11280

E1 Remote Alarm

20081

Loss of E1/T1 Signals (LOS)

20082

Loss of E1/T1 Frames (LOF)

In addition, you can locate the fault by checking the traffic measurement related to
transmission failures.
Cause

BSC-Level

Cell-Level

Transmis
sion
failure

BSC Measurement -> LAPD


Measurement

Call Measurement: -> Channel Activation


Measurement per Cell
CHAN ACTIV NACK Messages Sent by BTS
Channel Activation Timeouts
Call Measurement -> :Call Drop Measurement
per Cell
Measurement of Call Drops Due to Abis
Terrestrial Link Failure

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3.2.3 Checking the BSC and BTS Version Upgrade


If the SDCCH call drop rate increases after the BSC version or BTS version is upgraded, You
should check whether the BTS version is compatible with the BSC version and whether the
parameters and algorithms in the new version are changed.
To locate the problem, you can check the version description document and the related
documents, or provide the feedback for the R&D department to learn whether the new version
has known defects. If the new version has defects, you should replace it with another version
or install the patch.
For details, see the BSC6000 Upgrade Guide.

3.2.4 Checking the Parameter Settings


The parameter settings on the BSC side and MSC side may affect the SDCCH call drop rate.
You should check the settings of the following parameters for a cell with a high SDCCH call
drop rate.

SACCH Multi-Frames (SACCH period (480 ms))


This parameter determines whether an uplink radio link is faulty. Each time the BTS fails
to decode the measurement report on the SACCH from the MS, the counter decreases by
1. Each time the BTS successfully decodes the measurement report on the SACCH, the
counter increases by 2. When the value of this parameter is 0, the BTS regards the radio
link as faulty. In the traffic measurement, if there are many call drops (M3001A) related
to radio link failure, you can infer that the radio propagation conditions are poor. In this
case, you can set this parameter to a greater value.

Radio Link Timeout (SACCH period(480ms))


This parameter determines whether a downlink radio link is faulty. Each time the BTS
fails to decode the measurement report on the SACCH from the MS, the counter
decreases by 1. Each time the BTS successfully decodes the measurement report on the
SACCH, the counter increases by 2. When the value of this parameter is 0, the BTS
regards the radio link as faulty. In the traffic measurement, if there are many call drops
(M3001A) related to radio link failure, you can infer that the radio propagation
conditions are poor. In this case, you can set this parameter to a greater value.

RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
This parameter specifies the minimum receive level of an MS to access the BSS. If this
parameter is set to a too small value, some MSs with low receive levels may access the
network and call drops are likely to occur. You can set this parameter to a great value to
reduce the SDCCH call drop rate. The counters related to traffic volume, however, are
accordingly affected.

RACH Min.Access Level


This parameter determines whether an MS can access the network over the RACH. If
this parameter is set to a too small value, some MSs with low signal levels may access
the network and call drops are likely to occur. You can set this parameter to a great value
to reduce the SDCCH call drop rate. The counters such as call setup success rate and
paging success rate, however, are affected.

Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell and Min Access Level Offset


The sum of the values of the two parameters specifies the minimum downlink receive
level of a candidate neighboring cell for a handover. If this parameter is set to a too great
value, some desired cells may be excluded from the candidate cells; if this parameter is
set to a too small value, an unwanted cell may become the candidate cell. Both
conditions may lead to the increase of call drops.

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T3103A(ms) and T3103C(ms)


Timer T3103 series consists of T3103A, T3103C, and T8. These timers are started to
wait for a handover complete message. If the lengths of the timers are set to small values,
probably no message is received when timer T3103 series expires. In this case, the BSC
considers that the radio link in the originating cell is faulty. Then, the BSC releases the
channel in the originating cell. Thus, call drops occur. In the traffic measurement, if
many call drops are related to handovers (CM361: Call Drops on Radio Interface in
Handover State), you can set this parameter to a greater value. If this parameter is set to a
too great value, channel resources are wasted and TCH congestion occurs.

T3109(ms)
This parameter specifies the period for waiting for a Release Indication message after the
BSC sends a Channel Release message to the BTS. If this parameter is set to a too small
value, the link may be released before the Release Indication message is received. As a
result, a call drop occurs. You can set this parameter to a greater value to reduce the
SDCCH call drop rate. It is recommended that timer T3109 be set to 12 seconds longer
than timer Radio Link Timeout.

T3111(ms)
This parameter specifies the interval between the time that the main signaling link is
disconnected and the time that a channel is deactivated. The purpose is to reserve a
period of time for repeated link disconnections. If this timer is set to a too small value, a
channel may be deactivated too early. Thus, the call drop rate increases.

Timers T305 and T308


Timers T305 and T308 are used on the MSC side. Timer T305 specifies the period
during which the MSC monitors the on-hook procedure. Timer T308 specifies the period
during which the MSC monitors the resource release procedure. You should set the two
parameters when adding BSC data. Note that the modification of the data in the timer
table does not take effect. If timers T305 and T308 are set to invalid or great values, the
MSC clears the call a long time after the MS hangs up. After the T3103 and Radio Link
Timeout timers expire, the number of call drops is increased and thus the call drop rate
is significantly affected.

T200 SDCCH(5ms) and N200 of SDCCH


If T200 SDCCH(5ms) and N200 of SDCCH are set to too small values, data links are
disconnected too early. Thus, call drops are likely to occur. If call drops occur because of
T200 expiry (M3400A), you can increase the values of T200 and N200 properly.
Neighboring relationship (affecting call drops in SDCCH handover when the signaling
channel handover is enabled)
If the neighboring cells configured in the BA2 table are incomplete, call drops are likely
to occur in the case of no suitable neighboring cell for handover and progressive
deterioration in the voice quality. Neighboring relationships should be configured
completely on the basis of the drive test data and electronic map (for example, Nastar) to
minimize the call drops due to no available neighboring cells.

Disconnect Handover Protect Timer


This parameter is a software parameter of the BSC. After receiving a DISCONNECT
message from an MS, the BSC cannot hand over the MS within the period specified by
this parameter. Therefore, the following case can be avoided: After being handed over to
the target cell, the MS cannot be put on hook because it does not receive a release
acknowledgement message. You are advised to set this parameter properly.

MA and TSC settings in Um synchronization


The settings involve the AISS function. If the TSC is planned improperly for a cell in the
synchronous network, a great error decoding probability occurs in the area covered by

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the cells with the same BCCH or MA. When the multi-frame link is set up or the
signaling is transmitted at layer 2, the error decoding causes ERR_IND reporting by the
BTS. In this case, call drops occur. If the value of "Call Drops due to ERR IND Received
on SDCCH in Stable State" is great, you need to optimize TOP cells.

MAIO
If FH is used in a cell, and MAIO is set improperly (for example, the FH offsets of
different TRXs in a cell are set to the same value), the frequencies collide during the FH.
In this case, the call drop rate increases.

Software Parameter 13 and MAX TA


When Software Parameter 13 is enabled and MAX TA is set to a too small value, the
channel is released when the TA of a call exceeds the value of MAX TA. In this case,
call drops occur. It is recommended that Software Parameter 13 should not be enabled.

3.2.5 Checking the Interference


If inter-network interference and repeater interference exist, or if severe intra-network
interference occurs because of tight frequency reuse, call drops may occur on SDCCHs due to
poor QoS. This affects the SDCCH call drop rate.
The information on UL interference can be obtained by checking the interference bands in the
traffic statistics. The higher percentage of band level 3-5 indicates that serious UL
interference exists. In this case, you need to view the distribution of interference bands in the
SDCCH measurement report of the TRX.
The interference elimination can be classified into intra-network interference elimination and
inter-network interference elimination. For details about interference elimination, see the
G-Guide to Eliminating Interference.
Cause

TRX-Level

Interference

MR Measurement ->
Interference Band Measurement per TRX
Mean Number of SDCCHs in Interference Band 1
Mean Number of SDCCHs in Interference Band 2
Mean Number of SDCCHs in Interference Band 3
Mean Number of SDCCHs in Interference Band 4
Mean Number of SDCCHs in Interference Band 5

3.2.6 Checking the Coverage, Antenna System, and Balance


Between Uplink and Downlink
For a cell with a high SDCCH call drop rate, you can check its coverage by the DT and CQT.
If the cases (such as too low DL receive level, great difference between the UL and DL levels,
poor level quality, lost DL measurement reports, and long call access time) occur, it indicates
that the problems with the coverage and imbalance between uplink and downlink occur in the
cell.
For the problematic cell, the call setup success rate and handover success rate slightly fall and
the receive quality becomes poor. In addition, you can analyze the cell coverage according to
the DT route and geographical conditions and then check the antenna system. Some problems
with the coverage and imbalance between uplink and downlink are caused by the reasons such

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as the antenna coverage direction, down tilt, damaged feeder, water running into the feeder,
and insecurely connected connector.
For solutions for the problems, see the GSM BSS Network KPI (Network Coverage)
Optimization Manual and the GSM BSS Network KPI (Uplink and Downlink Balance)
Optimization Manual.

3.2.7 Checking the Repeaters


Check whether Directly Magnifier Site Flag is set to Yes and SDCCH HO Allowed is set to
Yes in the data configuration on the LMT. If the parameters are set to Yes, you can infer that
the cell is configured with repeaters. If the parameters are set to No, you should check
whether other operators' repeaters are installed near the cell.
If repeaters are installed, you should check whether they are wide-frequency repeaters, and
check whether the uplink/downlink amplification coefficient is too great. Ensure that the
amplification coefficient is properly set. If a repeater has an impact on the SDCCH call drop
rate, you should switch off the repeater.
In addition, you should check whether a repeater is faulty and whether the uplink/downlink
gain is set to a too great/small value. If such problems exist, the coverage area of the BTS
changes. Thus, the SDCCH call drop rate increases.
If repeater problems exist in a cell, the TA distribution varies greatly in the traffic
measurement results. The following table lists the traffic measurement counters related to
repeaters.
Cause

Cell-Level

TRX-Level

Repeater

None

MR Measurement ->
Number of MRs Based on TA

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Test Method

The SDCCH call drop rate is one of accessibility KPIs, which can be measured through
registration or reporting of the related traffic measurement KPIs. Currently, vendors and
mobile operators use different formulas to calculate the SDCCH call drop rate, thus leading to
different values of this counter. In actual measurement, you should register the specific
counters and use an appropriate formula to calculate the value of this counter.

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Remarks About the Signaling Analysis of


the SDCCH Call Drop Rate
Trace the RSL signaling on the Abis interface. Then, generate the signaling tracing file on the
LMT or through the Signal Analyze Tool. Obtain CONN_FAIL and ERROR_IND
signaling, and then choose Call Trace from the shortcut menu, as shown in the following
figure.

Then, right-click a piece of signaling of a call and choose Show Chart from the shortcut
menu, as shown in the following figure.

From the following figure, you can view such information as the uplink and downlink receive
level of the serving cell, uplink and downlink signal quality of the serving cell, downlink
receive level of neighboring cells, TA, MS power, and BTS power. Based on the information,
you can find out the causes for call drops, such as insufficient downlink coverage and
interference.

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Cases for SDCCH Call Drop Rate


Optimization

6.1 Case 1: SDCCH Call Drop in a Synchronous Network


Description: The 1x3 radio FH mode is used in a BTS. After the synchronization, the
SDCCH call drop rate increases. According to the traffic measurement, the counter "Call
Drops due to ERR IND Received on SDCCH in Stable State (Sequence Error)" increases. The
counter item is M3000C.
Cause analysis and handling: According to the call drop signaling, the BTS reports an Error
Indication message when the MS is authenticated. In this case, an error occurs when the BTS
and MS transmit the information with serial numbers to be acknowledged on the Um interface.
According to the analysis of the layer 2 procedure, if the serial number V(r) carried in the I
frame received by the receive end is different from the expected value, an error is reported
after the specified threshold is exceeded. According to the analysis of a TOP cell, the cell and
another cell (cross coverage) in the synchronous area use the same main BCCH and BCC
settings. In this case, the error decoding probability greatly increases when the signaling is
transmitted at layer 2 in a synchronous network. After the TSC is modified for cross coverage
signals, the SDCCH call drop rate reaches a normal value.
Fault point: The TSC is planned improperly in a synchronous network.

6.2 Case 2: Call Drop Due to Imbalance Between Uplink


and Downlink
Description: The following symptoms occur during the DT: After the test MS camps on a cell,
it cannot make calls; the MS can only receive calls; call drops occur frequently at a certain
distance from the antenna.
Cause analysis and handling: When the uplink signal level is much lower than the downlink
signal level, the power may not be balanced. In this case, the authentication or assignment
procedure cannot be completed.

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The tracing result (as shown in the previous figure) shows that the uplink signal level is much
lower than the downlink signal level. Therefore, call drops occur.

6.3 Case 3: Call Drop Due to Antenna System Problem


Description: A new BTS3012 is deployed at a site and the cell configuration is S2/2/2. After
the BTS3012 is put into operation, the number of TCH call drops in cell 1 and cell 2 in busy
hours reaches 20 and the number of SDCCH call drops reaches 1,000. These counters in cell 3
are normal.
Cause analysis and handling: According to the analysis of the traffic measurement results of
TRX-level radio link performance in busy hours, the number of abnormal radio links on both
TRX 3 (TRX 2 and TRX 3 are configured for cell 1) and TRX 7 (TRX 6 and TRX 7 are
configured for cell 2) is great. TRX 3 and TRX 7 are the second TRX in cell 1 and cell 2
respectively; therefore, they are connected to the TXB channel of the DDPU in the
corresponding cell. The jumpers of the two non-main BCCH TRXs may be misconnected.
According to the analysis of the traffic measurement results related to the uplink and
downlink balance performance, the proportions of the TRX 3 in cell 1 and TRX 7 in cell 2 at
level 1, level 2, and level 3 are large, which indicates that the downlink loss is too great and
the downlink transmit power is too small. Because TRX 2 (main BCCH TRX) in cell 1 and
TRX 6 (main BCCH TRX) in cell 2 transmit the signal through the TXA port of the DDPU in
the sector independently. When the call is assigned on the channel in the non BCCH TRX, the
transmit power decreases sharply and incurs the call drop due to the inverse transmission of
TRX 3 and TRX 7. After the wrong connection between TRX 3 and TRX 7 is adjusted, the
number of call drops on the TCH and the SDCCH in two cells is normal.

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6.4 Case 4: Call Drop Due to Transmission Problem


Description: At a certain site, the MOTO BTS is replaced with Huawei BTS and the cell
configuration is S2/2/2. At the night of the replacement, calls are made normally and drive
tests show that all performance counters are normal. The traffic measurement results within a
measurement period of 15 minutes show that MS-originated and MS-terminated calls are
made normally and handovers are performed normally. After a week of operation, the traffic
measurement results show that the value of the counter SDCCH Seizure Request is not
normal: The maximum number of SDCCH seizure requests reaches 9,000, the number of
Successful SDCCH Seizure Requests is over 7,000, and the number of Failed SDCCH
Seizures due to Busy SDCCH is over 900. Compared with the similar SDCCH counters, the
TCH traffic volume is small and the TCH call drop rate is high.
Cause analysis and handling: According to the check of the hardware on site, making a call
is difficult on site. In addition, some subscribers complain that it is difficult to make calls after
the replacement. After obtaining the consent from the customer, the on-site engineer powers
off the BTS and loads the data again. During the initialization of the BTS, a message is
displayed, indicating that the process is disrupted and that the communication expires. Some
parameters of the BTS cannot be initialized. The BTS hardware is normal and the cable
connections are proper.
Before the replacement, the transmission is normal. After the replacement, most of the
transmission cables are the original ones. Huawei engineers replace only the transmission
cable between the transmission equipment room and the Huawei BSC and use a new E1
connector to fix the DDF transmission cable to the E1 port on top of the BTS cabinet. The
possible cause is that the E1 connector is made improperly. In this case, the transmission bit
error rate is high and the BTS cannot be completely initialized. As a result, when a subscriber
makes a call, assigning a TCH is difficult. A detailed check shows that the E1 connector on
top of the BTS cabinet is made improperly. After a proper E1 connector is used, the problem
is solved.

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Feedback Form for SDCCH Call Drop


Rate
If the SDCCH call drop rate is high and technical support is required, you need to fill in the
following form.

Check Item

Remarks

Purpose

Software version

Software versions of the BSC and


BTS

Check whether the software version is faulty.

Data
configuration

*.dat file

Check the network optimization parameters and


power configuration.

Alarm
information

Hardware, clock, and transmission


alarms (self-check)

Check whether these alarms are generated in the


cell. Clear the alarms if they are generated.

Traffic
measurement

Cause for call drop

Measure SDCCH call drops.

Traffic
measurement

Traffic measurement results related


to the voice quality and the balance
between uplink and downlink

Check whether interference and imbalance between


uplink and downlink exist.

Signaling

RSL signaling tracing data

Check the causes for call drops.

DT data

*.log (*.cell site) or *.ant file

Based on the DT data, determine whether


interference or coverage problems exist.

Others

Engineering parameter table and


electronic map

Check the geographical information through the


Nastar software.

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