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2.

LCM &HCF
Least Common Multiple (LCM)
LCM of two or more numbers is the least number that is exactly divisible by
each of the given numbers.
LCM is found by the following methods
o Prime factorization
Each of the given numbers is expressed as the product of prime
factors. The LCM of the given numbers is the product of the highest
powers (obtained from the factors of the numbers) of all the factors.
Example : Find the LCM of 40, 72 and 132.
40 = 2 2 2 5

= 23 5

72 = 2 2 2 3 3 = 23 33
132 = 2 2 3 11

= 22 3 11

Therefore, the LCM of 40, 72 and 132 = 23 32 5 11 = 3960


Successive division
Write the given numbers in a line.
Select a prime factor common to atleast two of the given numbers.
Divide the numbers (in line) with that prime factor.
i)

write the quotient below the respective number.

ii)

if any number is not divisible, write the number itself under it.

Then select a prime factor that is common to at/east two of the obtained
quotients (in second line), and repeat the process, until 'the quotients are all
prime. LCM is the product of all the divisors (/actors) and (he quotients (in
the last line)
Example : Find the LCM of 40, 72 and 132.
2
2
2
3

40, 72, 132


20, 36, 66
10, 18, 33
5, 9, 33
5, 3, 11

Therefore, the LCM of 40, 72 and 132 = 2 2 2 3 5 3 11 = 3960.


Note :
LCM of the numbers a, b and c is the least number that is exactly
divided by each of a, b and c.

LCM of the numerators


HCF of the deno min ators

LCM of fractions
The LCM of given numbers is not less than any of the numbers.
The LCM of two or more prime or co primes is their product.
Highest Common Factor (HCF)
HCF of two or more numbers is the largest factor of each of them. i.e. the
greatest number that divides each of the number exactly.
It is also known as Greatest Common Divisor (GCD)
HCF is found by the following methods
o Prime factorization
Each of the given numbers is expressed as the product of prime
factors. The product of the prime factors common to each of the number is
the required HCF.
Example : Find the HCF of 144, 192 and 180.
144 = 2 2 2 2 3 3
180 = 2 2 3 3 5
192 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 3
Therefore, the HCF of 144. 180 and 192 = 2 2 3 = 12
Successive division

Divide the greater number by the smaller number.


Then divide the divisor by the remainder.
Then divide the remainder by the next remainder.
Repeat the process of dividing the preceding divisor by the remainder

obtained, until the remainder is zero.


The last divisor is the required HCF.
Example : Find the HCF of 144, 192 and 180.
144) 180 (1
144
-----------36) 144 (4
144
-----------0

36) 192 (5
180
-----------12) 192 (3
192
-----------0

Therefore, the HCF of 144, 190 and 180 is 12.


Note :
HCF of the numbers a, b and c is the greatest number that exactly
divides each of a, b and c.

HCF of the numerators


LCM of the deno min ators

HCF of fractions
The HCF of given numbers is not greater than any of the numbers.
HCF of two prime or co prime numbers is 1.
Note :
o If a number A is a factor of another number B, then
HCF of A and B =A
LCM of A and B = B
o HCF of given numbers is the factor of the LCM of the given numbers.
o The product of HCF and LCM of two numbers = the product of the
given numbers
LCM AND HCF MODELS
Question
Find the least number, which is
exactly divisible by x,y, z.
Find the least number, which when
divided by x, y, z, leaves a remainder
r in each case.
Find the least number, which when

Approach
LCM (x, y, z)
LCM (x, y, z) + r

Observe, if x a = y b = z c = k

divided by x, y, z leaves remainders (say).


a, b, c respectively.
Then LCM (x, y, z) k
Else, go with the options
Find the greatest number, that will HCF (x, y, z)
exactly divide x, y,z.
Find the greatest number, that will HCF (x a, y b, z c)
divide x, y, z leaving remainders a, b,
c respectively.
Find the greatest number, that will HCF (x y, y z, z x)
divide x, y, z leaving the same
remainder in each case.
Example Problems:
1. Find the smallest number which when divided by 4 or 7 leaves a
remainder of 3 in each case and the number being greater than the
two divisors.
Sol: The LCM of 4 and 7 is 28. Hence the required number is 28 + 3 = 31
2. Find the smallest six-digit number, which when divided by 3 or 11
leaves a remainder of 2 in each case
Sol: We need to find the smallest six-digit multiple of 33.
(33 is the LCM of 3 and 11) and add the remainder 2 to that multiple to
get the required number. Take the smallest six digit number, 100000 and
divide by 33 which gives a remainder of 10.
Take the difference between the divisor 33 and the above remainder
10,.which is 23. This is added to 100000 to give 100023, which is the
smallest six digit multiple of 33. Now add the remainder 2 to get the required
number as 100025.
3. Find the smallest number which when divided by 4 and 7 gives
remainders of 2 and 5 respectively,
Sol: The LCM of 4 and 7 is 28.
The difference between the number and the remainder in each case' is
2. (4 - 2 = 2 and 7 - 5 = 2) Hence, the number that will satisfy the given
conditions will be equal to 28 - 2 = 26.
4. Find the largest four digit number which when divided by' 5 and 9
.gives remainders of 3 and 7 respectively.
Sol: The difference between the divisor and the remainder is the same
(b), in each case
The LCM of 5 and 9 is 45. We will first find the largest four digit
multiple of 45 and subtract 2 from it. The largest four digit multiple of 45 is
9990. Hence the required number is 9990 - 2 = 9988.

5. Find the HCF & LCM of 42, 91 and 154.


HCF = 7 [42 = 2 * 3 * 7, 91 = 13 * 7, 154 = 2 * 7 * 11]
LCM = 6006 [2 * 7 * 3 * 11 * 13]
6. What is the value of p, if q is 24 and the LCM & HCF of p & q
are72 & 12
respectively?
Answer: LCM * HCF = pq
72 * 12 = p * 24
p = 36
7. Find the HCF & LCM of 2/3, 8/9, 16/81 and 10/27.
Answer: HCF of fractions = (HCF of Numerators) / (LCM of Denominators)
(HCF of 2,8,16,10)/(LCM 0f 3,9,81,27) = 2/81
LCM of Fractions = (LCM of Numerators) / (HCF of Denominators)
(LCM of 2,8,16,10)/(HCF 0f 3,9,81,27) = 80/3
8. Find the HCF & LCM of 0.42, 0.91 and 1.54.
Answer: Without the decimal places, the numbers are 42, 91 & 154.
HCF is 7 & hence HCF of 0.42, 0.91, and 1.54 is 0.07
LCM is 6006 & LCM of 0.42, 0.91, 1.54 is 60.06
9. Find the largest number of 4 digits exactly divided by 12, 15, 18
and 27.
Answer: Largest 4 digit no. is 9999
LCM of 12, 15, 18, 27 = 540
9999/540 gives remainder of 279
Required no. = 9999-279 = 9720
10. What is the smallest number which when increased by 3 is
divisible by 27, 35, 25,21?
Answer: LCM = 4725, 4725 3 = 4722
11. The traffic light at three different road crossings changes after
24 sec, 36 sec and 48 sec respectively. If they change
simultaneously at 7.25 am, then when will they change together
again?
Answer: LCM = 144
24 24 48 72 96 120 144 168
36 36 72 108 144 180
48 48 96 144 192
144/60 = 2minutes 24 seconds
Therefore 7.25 + 2minutes 24 seconds = 7 hrs 27 minutes 24 seconds

12. Arrange the fractions 17/18, 31/36, 43/ 45, 59/60 in the
ascending order.
Answer: LCM of denominators = 180
17/18 = 170/180
31/36 = 155/180
43/45 = 172/180
59/60 = 177/180
Since 155 < 170 < 172 < 177, 155/180 < 170/180 < 172/180 < 177/180
Hence, 31/36 < 17/18 < 43/45 < 59/60
13. If the ratio of 3 numbers is 1 : 2 : 3 and if their HCF is 12, then
find LCM & the
numbers.
Answer: Let the numbers be x, 2x, 3x
Here x = 12.
Therefore, the numbers are 12, 24, 36. LCM = 72
14. A no. leaves a remainder 5 when divided by 7 and 7 when
divided by 9. What is
the least possible no. that has this property?
Answer: 7 5 = 2 = 9 7
If n is the least positive no., then n+2 is a multiple of both 7 & 9.
LCM of 7 & 9 = 63
n+2 = 63 n = 61
15. Find the no. of divisors & sum of divisors of 441.
Answer: Find LCM = 3 * 3 * 7 * 7
3 * 7 = 441
No. of Divisors = (2+1) (2+1) = 9
Sum of divisors = [32+1-1] * [72+1-1]
[3-1] [7-1]
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