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Workholding Principles

Part 1
Sources:

Jigs and fixtures handbook, Carr Lane

Jig and fixture design, Hoffman

Fundamentals of tool design, SME

Tool Design, 3331


Dr Simin Nasseri
Southern Polytechnic State University

Locating

Objectives:

Identify the types of locators and supports


used for jigs and fixtures.
Specify the use of locators and supports.
Analyze sample parts and select the locating
and supporting devices best suited for each.

MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

Southern Polytechnic State


University

Content

Workholding- Introduction
Referencing
Difference between locators and clamps
Workpiece surfaces
The Mechanics of locating
Forms of location
Locating from External Surfaces
Solid or fixed Supports
Adjustable Supports
Equalizing Supports
3-2-1 method
Locating from Internal Surfaces

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Workholding
Toolholders:

Tool post,

Tailstock.

Toolholder

Cutting tool

Workpiece or part

Workholders:

Jaws of a vice,

Chucks.
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workholder

Southern Polytechnic State


University

Workholding

Workholders are used for:


Material removal,
Inspection of workpieces,
Assembly,
Welding,
etc.

Workholders should be strong enough to withstand the machining


forces and weight of the workpiece.

Also, in addition to normal cutting forces, the designer should


consider large momentary loads.
Workholders should be designed considering many factors like
the nature of the workpiece, cost, and safety.
It is cheaper to use the standard workholders.

MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

Southern Polytechnic State


University

Referencing

A dual process of positioning the workpiece relative to the


workholder, and the workholder relative to the cutting tool.

This is to ensure precision in any machining operation.

This is done by using locators and supports.

Referencing the workpiece to the workholder, is done with


locators and supports.

Referencing the workholder to the cutting tool is performed by the


guiding or setting devices.
With drill jigs, referencing is accomplished using drill
bushings.
With fixtures, referencing is accomplished using fixture keys,
feeler gages, etc.

MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

Southern Polytechnic State


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Referencing
If a part is incorrectly placed in a workholder, proper location of
the workpiece is not achieved and the part will be machined
incorrectly.
Workholder

Cutting tool

Workpiece

Toolholder

If a cutter is improperly positioned relative to the fixture,


the machined detail is also improperly located.
MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

Southern Polytechnic State


University

Referencing
Referencing is done by using locators and supports:

Locators: The devices that restrict a workpiece's movement.

must be strong enough to maintain the position of the workpiece and to


resist the cutting forces. Hence, locators must hold the workpiece against
the cutting forces.

are used to properly position the part.

and make sure that the tool is easily loaded and unloaded.

Make the tool foolproof.

Supports: The devices which provide support for the part.

Properly designed locators serve as supports.

MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

Southern Polytechnic State


University

Difference between locators and


clamps

Locators provide a positive


stop for the workpiece.
While placed against the stop,
the workpiece cannot move.

Clamps, on the other hand, rely only upon friction between the clamp
and the clamped surface to hold the workpiece (Sufficient force could
move the workpiece).

Clamps are only intended to hold the workpiece against the locators.

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Workpiece Surfaces

One major consideration involved in selecting locators.


3 basic categories:

Flat,
Cylindrical,
Irregular.

Flat surfaces have flat bearing area, such as: edges, flanges,
steps, faces, shoulders, and slots.

Cylindrical surfaces are located on a circumference or diameter.


Examples are: internal (concave) surfaces or holes or external
(convex) surfaces of turned cylinders.

Irregular surfaces provide neither a flat nor cylindrical locating


surfaces, such as cast or forged workpieces.

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The Mechanics of
Locating

12

The Mechanics of Locating5

A workpiece free in space can


have twelve directional
movements, or "degrees of
freedom (DOF)."

1
3

There are 6 rotational and 6 axial


movements.

All twelve degrees of freedom


must be restricted to ensure
proper referencing of a workpiece.
In some tool design books,
rotational movement has
been named as radial
movement, which is not a
correct term mathematically!

MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

12 DOF in the space


If you consider positive &
negative directions

13

6
6 DOF in the space
If you consider positive
directions
Rotational:
cw & ccw

Axial:
Positive and negative
directions
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Forms of location

Plane locators
Concentric locators
Radial locators
Combined locators

Plane locators locate a workpiece from any surface. The surface may
be flat, curved, or have an irregular contour. In most applications,
plane-locating devices locate a part by its external flat surfaces.
workpiece

locators

MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

locators

14

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Forms of location
Concentric locators, locate a workpiece from an internal or external
diameter. The most-common type of concentric location is a locating
pin placed in a hole. Some workpieces, however, might have a
cylindrical projection that requires a locating hole in the fixture.
workpiece

workpiece

Concentric
locators

Concentric
locators
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Forms of location
Radial locators restrict the movement of a workpiece around a
concentric locator.

Concentric
locators

workpiece

Radial
locators

Combined locators: In many cases, locating is performed by a


combination of the three locational methods (Most workholders use a
combination of locating methods to completely position a workpiece).

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Locating from External


Surfaces

Flat surfaces are common


workpiece features used for
location.

Locating from a flat surface is


a form of plane location.

Supports are the principal


devices used for this location.

Solid Supports (fixed)

Adjustable Supports

The three major forms of


supports are solid, adjustable,
and equalizing (These are
briefly explained here, but will be
studied in detail later).

Equalizing Support
Figure 3-3, Carr Lane

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1- Solid Supports

Solid supports are fixed-height locators.

They precisely locate a surface in one axis.

Though solid supports may be machined directly into a tool


body, a more-economical method is using installed supports,
such as rest buttons.

Solid Supports (fixed)


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2- Adjustable Supports

Adjustable supports are


variable-height locators.

Like solid supports, they will


also precisely locate a surface
in one axis.

These supports are used where


workpiece variations require
adjustable support to suit
different heights.

Threaded adjustable supports

Knurled collar

Adjustable Supports

These supports are used


mainly for cast or forged
workpieces that have uneven or
irregular mounting surfaces.

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3- Equalizing Supports

Equalizing supports are a form of adjustable support used


when a compensating support is required.

Although these supports can be fixed in position, in most cases


equalizing supports float to accommodate workpiece variations.

As one side of the equalizing support is depressed, the other


side raises the same amount to maintain part contact.

In most cases adjustable and equalizing supports are used


along with solid supports.

Equalizing Support
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Locating from External Surfaces


(cont.)

The most-common locating method.

The bottom, or primary, locating surface is positioned on


three supports, (based on the geometry principle that three points
are needed to fully define a plane).

Two adjacent edges, (usually perpendicular to each other), are


then used to complete the location.

The most-common way to locate a workpiece from its


external profile is the 3-2-1, or six-point, locational method.

With this method, six individual locators reference and


restrict the workpiece.

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Six-point locational method


or 3-2-1 method

Three locators, or supports, are placed under the workpiece


(positioned on the primary locating surface, restricting five degrees of
freedom). This restricts axial movement downward, along the -z axis
(#6) and rotationally about the x (#7 and #8) and y (#9 and #10) axes.

Primary locating surface


6
9 10

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8 7

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3-2-1, or six-point, locational


method

The next two


locators are normally
placed on the
secondary locating
surface, restricting
an additional three
degrees of freedom
by arresting the axial
movement along the
+y axis (#3) and the
rotational movement
about the z (#11 and
#12) axis.

MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

11

12
3

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University

3-2-1, or six-point, locational


method
Pins

The final locator, is


positioned at the end
of the part. It
restricts the axial
movement in one
direction along the -x
axis (restricting one
more degree of
freedom). Together,
these six locators
restrict a total of nine
degrees of freedom.

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3pins
2pins
1pins

restricted

5DOF
3DOF
1DOF
9DOF

The remaining three degrees of freedom (#1, #4,


and #5) will be restricted by the clamps.

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Locating from Internal


Surfaces

Locating a workpiece from an internal diameter is the mostefficient form of location.

The primary features used for this form of location are


individual holes or hole patterns.

Either concentric, radial, or both-concentric-and-radial location


are accomplished when locating an internal diameter.

The two forms of locators used for internal location are locating
pins and locating plugs.

The only difference between these locators is their size: locating


pins are used for smaller holes and locating plugs are used for
larger holes.

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Locating from Internal


Surfaces
How many degrees of freedom are restricted in this system?

The base restricts any


downward movement
and rotation around
the X and Y axes
(5DOF restricted).
The pin prevents any
movement along X
and Y directions (4
DOF restricted).
The part is restricted
from moving in nine
directions.

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Locating from Internal


Surfaces
How many degrees of freedom are restricted in this system?

The plate under the workpiece restricts five degrees of freedom (along the -z (#6)
axis, also movements about the x and y axes are restricted (#7, #8, #9, and #10)
The center pin, prevents movements along the x (#1, #2) and y (#3, #4) axes.
Together, these two locators restrict nine degrees of freedom.

The final locator, the pin in the


outer hole, restricts two
degrees of freedom by
arresting the rotational
movement around the z (#11
and #12) axis.
Together, the locators restrict
eleven degrees of freedom.
The last degree of freedom, in
the +z direction, will be
restricted with a clamp.

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Test yourself!
How many degrees of freedom are restricted in this system?
How do you answer this question in 2 seconds?!

ok in 10 seconds?
Answer: Always think of the
possible ways that you can
quickly remove the part and
consider how many possible
movements are existed.
Here you can remove the part
by raising it (one movement
along z). So the other
degrees of freedoms are
restricted=11.
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Test yourself!

How many degrees of freedom


are restricted here in this drill jig?

Ten degrees of freedom are


restricted. The part can have
two possible motions (sliding
along the jig (toward right) +
rotation about the axis
perpendicular to the support
surface).

MET3331, Prof Simin NasseriWorkholding- Part 1

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Locating from External Surfaces

Southern Polytechnic State


University

Test yourself!

How many degrees of freedom are


restricted here in this drill jig?

Nine degrees of freedom are


restricted. The part can have
3 possible motions as
shown in red.

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Southern Polytechnic State


University

Test yourself!

How many degrees of freedom are restricted for


this rocket?

9 degrees of freedom are


restricted, since the rocket
might have 3 possible
movements as shown.

Read the whole procedure of making


this jig at the following link:
http://www.jcrocket.com/tttjig.shtml

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University