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Paradigm Shifts in Document

Management

Industry White Papers


Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer

PROJECT

CONSULT

Unternehmensberatung Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer GmbH

Hamburg 1999

Paradigm Shifts in Document Management

Paradigm Shifts in Document Management


Von Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer
Geschftsfhrer der PROJECT CONSULT Unternehmensberatung GmbH
Managing Partner der PROJECT CONSULT International Ltd.
Mitglied des Executive Committee und des Board of Directors der AIIM Europe
Mitglied des DLM-Monitoring Committee der Europischen Kommission

Inhalt
Introduction
Paradigm
Documents
Document management in the wider sense
A paradigm shift in document management?
Causes of paradigm shifts
User requirements are changing
Internet technology is revolutionizing document management
Document management becomes part of the infrastructure
Reactions to preserve the existing paradigm
Standards
Convergence of functionality and technologies
Product diversification
Market consolidation
The future of document management
The boom in 2000
Knowledge management - the new paradigm?
Information acquisition
Back to the source: recentralization
New user groups
An alternative paradigm:.................. Wll document management survive only as an
organizational service?
Final remarks
To potential users
To the suppliers of document management systems

Introduction
Before you can address the question of paradigm shifts in document management,
you must first consider the individual components of this title more closely and arrive
at definitions: What is a paradigm, what is a paradigm shift, what is a document,
and what is document management - has there actually been a paradigm shift in
document management?
Paradigm
The original definition of paradigm
The term paradigm originally came from the Greek and means an example. The
term paradigm generally means a structure presented as an example or a pattern.
In linguistics, a paradigm is an example indicating the declination of a noun or
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conjugation of a verb or even linguistic units between which a choice is to be made in
a particular context (e.g.: He is standing here, there, up there, down there).
The concept of paradigm in the philosophy of science
T.S. Kuhn introduced the concept of a paradigm into the philosophy of science to
describe a constellation of beliefs, values and methods which are shared and
accepted by the practitioners of a particular branch of science. In a particular area of
science, a paradigm comprises the general theoretical assumptions and laws on
which the theories of these paradigms are based. Newtonian mechanics or Einstein's
approach to physics are examples of scientific paradigms.
The concept of paradigm shift
Thomas Kuhn characterized the dynamics of science as a cyclic process:
Normal situation-> crisis -> revolution -> installation of a new paradigm -> normal
situation -> ...
Processes can undermine a paradigm and precipitate a crisis. As a result,
mechanisms to preserve the existing paradigm come into effect. A profusion of
theories are then produced in this area of science. If a paradigm cannot be saved, it
will be replaced by a new paradigm as a result of a scientific revolution.
The economy also has comparable development cycles which make it possible to
transfer the concept of a paradigm shift to this area. A prerequisite for a paradigm is,
however, a closed, self-contained entity which uses its own methods and considers
itself to be an independent branch or discipline with respect to the outside world.
Documents
The conventional concept of a document
The concept of a document often denotes a text on paper but also has a connotation
of legality. Certificates, contracts and business letters are referred to as documents in
this sense. In Germany, for example, the legal character of documents is further
underlined by the stipulations of the Handelsgesetzbuch, the Brgerliches
Gesetzbuch and other regulations.
In the English-speaking world, at least in the field of electronic data processing, the
term document has other connotations. Even the famous appendage .DOC shows
that these are texts which have been created on a text processing system. American
suppliers of document management systems simply handle all files on an electronic
system as documents.
Even today, many potential customers think of document management systems as a
means of scanning in existing paper documents. Because of the archiving of list
output and other data from operative systems, this conception has changed little.
Only when files from office applications were stored was the concept of document
generalized to electronic documents with arbitrary contents.
Documents on an electronic system could be almost anything ...
Today, the contents of electronic documents could be practically anything:

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Files, facsimiles, list output, digitized speech, digitized videos, frozen frames,
protocol data or any combination of these
Basically, anything on an edp system that is a file or a well-defined component of a
file in a structured or unstructured form and which, at a particular point in time, can
be considered to be an authentic entity, consistent both from the point of view of
content and formally, is a document. Electronic documents have to meet stringent
requirements as data can be modified in a variety of ways on edp systems. They
must precisely reproduce the status, composition, form and content which they had
at the time of their intentional creation. Dynamic links, automatic updates in
documents, modification of the context, composition of documents from separate
components, the dependence of formats and run-time environments and other
factors mean that systems for administrating documents of this kind have to meet
special requirements.
Many suppliers, therefore, back a special form of electronic document. Not only is the
content stored simply as a file, but also a document object which contains all the
descriptive features and management information necessary for finding the
document, restoring contexts and reproduction.
This approach has already been adopted in the past in standards such as ODA/ODIF
or DFR, but these standards could not establish themselves on the market however.
In SGML, the field of structured text documents has a standard which, thanks to
HTML, is currently experiencing a renaissance. Last but not least, object-oriented
software development environments are reviving the idea of the self-descriptive, selfcontained document object.
Electronic documents and digital signatures
Digital signatures endow the concept of a document with a special quality.
The digital signature is a security standard for the exchange of electronic documents
and guarantees the authenticity of the sender and the integrity of the contents of an
electronic document. A digital signature is intended to have the same legal force as
the signature on a paper document. In Germany, the Signaturgesetz (Signature
Law) has created a basic legal framework for one digital signature. The Signature
Law, however, does not preclude the use of other methods for digital signatures.
The digital signature defined in the Signature Law is generated with a private key
which is known only to the key owner and a public key which is managed by
certification bodies and is then attached to an electronic document. The sender signs
and encrypts electronic documents with his private key which is stored on a chip
card. The recipient only has access to the public key but can open and read the
document. He also receives information about the sender and about the authenticity
of the document contents.
The public key can, therefore, be used to check a signature and any modification to
the signed document is obvious immediately. The public key is certified by authorized
bodies. Certification bodies store the data which is required to identify the owners of
private keys. It is, therefore, possible to discover the identity of the owner of a private
key via the certification body.
Italy too has implemented an approach which is similar to the German Signature
Law. This law puts digital signatures and conventional signatures on the same legal
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footing. This law contains only enabling legislation and regulations - there are no
technical descriptions of the procedure and consequently no certification. In Europe,
other approaches are at present being adopted by countries such as France and
Great Britain, etc. Attempts are being made to harmonize these approaches within
the European Union, the German approach being used as the basis. The OECD has
published eight basic principles relating to digital signatures and the UN has
developed a model law to promote the standardization of further international
activity in this area.
As the identity of the sender of a document with a digital signature is only indirectly
guaranteed - a situation comparable with the misuse of EC cards and the card owner
denying the removal of funds from his account - the digital identity of a document
encompasses procedures with which a card owner himself can identify himself using
his card, e.g. by examining his finger prints, or similar features, which are can also be
stored as a private key on the card.
Files with digital signatures are increasingly being accepted as originals - they are on
their way to being recognized by the law. This means that contracts can be
completed without paper originals, orders made and other business conducted. The
digital original is, therefore, a decisive breakthrough for document management. New
user groups are opened up and new storage and management requirements for
these documents have to be met. Restrictions of the past when a scanned facsimile
or the reconstruction of an electronically generated letter from the data could only be
treated as a copy of the original, have been overcome by documents with digital
signatures which represent entirely authentic originals. When the legal and technical
uncertainties that still exist have been removed, the digitally signed document will
become the principal foundation of E-commerce on the Internet.
Document management in the wider sense
A number of implications for the concept of document management flow from the
definition of document, given previously. Today, it is the term used for the whole
range of DMS (Document Management System, EDM Electronic Document
Management) suppliers and their numerous solutions.
With the increasing overlap and integration of the different document management
technologies, the term is also being applied to other systems and their interaction as
well as to classic document management. These other systems are:
Document imaging
Scanning, displaying, printing, and managing facsimile documents
Electronic archiving
Archiving data, images and/or list output, with database-supported access, remote
storage, auditability
Document management in the narrower sense
Management of files or file documents in electronic systems with control mechanisms
for version management, composite documents or check in or check out
E-forms
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Electronic forms for the entry, display, publishing, and management of variable
information
Output management
Creation, management and print output for professional printing
Office communication/office suites
Individual modules like word processing, spreadsheets, graphics, databases,
calendars, mail, and fax, with active control by the user
Groupware
Cooperative working, database-supported data and file administration, replication,
group functions such as calendar and mail, linkage and integration of individual
components
Workflow
Structured processes, status and action monitoring, rule-based control, CI and NCI
document processing, controlled forwarding of documents and procedures
There is almost no limit to terms such as multi-media databases, document
warehouses or knowledge management which can be added to the list. However,
delimitation and classification are becoming increasingly difficult due to the creativity
of the product and marketing managers.
Terms like document management or workflow which are the habitual choice of
suppliers no longer create any interest. They are clichs which have actually taken
on negative connotations to some extent; they are associated with large, complex
and expensive projects. On the other hand, they mean nothing to a broad range of
new potential users. Major companies have now reached the stage where they think
that they have enough information about this topic. This is also shown by a drop in
interest for congresses and seminars, for example. However, it must be stated that
frequently neither of the user groups that have been outlined has a clear idea of the
implications of the use of document management. The organizational dimension,
implementation in the company, is usually underestimated or even ignored.
In the past, the document management sector, every supplier, put a lot into informing
- you could even say educating - potential users. This investment is, however, being
nullified to an ever greater extent by a plethora of differing terms and definitions, by
the lack of any clear delimitation from other topics and in the emergence of new,
interesting trends such as the Internet. Describing existing technologies with new
buzz words like integrated document management, enterprise document
management or knowledge management will not work. The products must meet
the requirements which are becoming more exacting and a coherent image must be
presented on the market.
A paradigm shift in document management?
The crucial question is: Are the developments on the document management market
so crucial, so radical, that the use of the term paradigm shift is justified?
To answer this question, we must first take a brief look at the history of document
management. First of all came special solutions - such as the use of digital optical
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disks which could only be written to once - which were not compatible with
conventional magnetic-disk-oriented operating systems. The development of optical
filing started in the early 80s. Systems which introduced uncoded information, and
scanned facsimiles into the system worlds which were previously purely dataoriented were a parallel development. This created the discipline of imaging.
FileNET was the first to go a step further and turned imaging into workflow by routing
and distributing uncoded information.
Special applications such as electronic archiving, COLD, forms processing, OCR/ICR
and others developed from the approaches of the 80s. The 90s saw the emergence
of classic document management, the handling of files from file systems, ad-hoc
workflow to compensate for the inadequacies of conventional E-mail, and solutions
such as groupware. At first, all these approaches were stand-alone applications for
special tasks. They provided solutions for problems which conventional operating
systems and operative systems like business applications could not handle. Using
the tools for these products, independent, specific applications were then developed
with the objective of managing, using, visualizing and storing data and documents.
Frequently, however, they ran parallel to applications in which data and documents
were generated and processed. If common usage of information was required,
existing applications of this kind would have to be integrated to an ever greater
extent.
Technological innovations of recent years like the Internet and the integration of
document management functions into operating systems, business application
software and tool boxes mean that document management system manufacturers
now have to take difficult decisions crucial to the survival of products, companies and
an independent document management sector. On the one hand, document
management products have reached maturity, but on the other hand their
independent existence is under threat from new trends and developments.
Reason enough to be thinking in terms of paradigm shifts.

Causes of paradigm shifts


If you follow Thomas Kuhns approach, the causes of a paradigm shift do not always
occur in the sequence normal situation - crisis - revolution - installation of a new
paradigm - normal situation. This sequence from science applies to processes of
change that are intrinsic to a system.
With our paradigm shift in the world of document management, it is primarily external
causes which play a decisive role. In this case, the events crisis and revolution
coincide. The crisis arises because too many suppliers do the same thing with their
products - in a market with long-term consequences such as the storage of
information for decades - a high decision risk for the potential user. In contrast with
the situation with operating systems, with large business applications or with office
applications, where a handful of major suppliers are relied on for a certain measure
of product reliability and future product availability, the number of suppliers of
document management products is simply too great. Even the totality of all
developers of all DMS suppliers does not reach the potential which is provided by
major software companies for the further development of products. Anyone who
continues to just specialize in electronic archiving, is by definition hanging a mill
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stone around his own neck, as the availability of data and documents is to be
guaranteed for decades.
This means that the DMS sector is simply running after the major trends - in the case
of integration projects, it is customer-driven, when it is adapting to operating systems,
standard applications and platforms, it is other software companies that are calling
the tune. This continuous pressure from the customer and the competition is one of
the factors that causes the crisis of the existing paradigm. There are only isolated
signs of a revolution originating in the document management sector itself that will
provide the impetus to make a leap forward. It seems rather as if the innovations and
independent features of the DMS sector are being used by others and that the store
of distinguishing features which define the sector is continually being diminished.
Even though the products are becoming even more reliable, even more multi-faceted
and rich in functions - breakthroughs which could secure survival as an independent
sector are few and far between. There are plenty of opportunities: for example, Ecommerce, documents with digital signatures, the combination of information from a
wide variety of sources to obtain knowledge management solutions or opening up the
content of uncoded documents. Only when terms like document warehouse,
management information system and knowledge management can be backed up
with practical products, can a new paradigm be established. In economics, the
situation differs from that in science as the end of a paradigm shift process can also
result in the complete disappearance of a paradigm as an independent entity - not
necessarily the appearance of a new paradigm.
At present, there are three factors determining the paradigm shift which are
especially important for the document management sector:
User requirements are changing
When document management solutions were overcoming technical inadequacies in
software and hardware systems that were already in use, and it was also possible to
obtain competitive advantages from the one-off use of a technology of this kind,
island solutions were acceptable. An electronic archive could operate independently
alongside groupware or alongside an operative host application.
The time of island solutions is nearing its end.
Nowadays, the user does not want to constantly change between windows to find
information. He is no longer willing to click through confusing file trees which, in the
final analysis, merely represent an inadequate, monolithic paper store. The user does
not want to have to think all the time Is this message an E-mail in the E-mail
directory or is it a fax on the fax server or has it come from the Internet and is now in
my Compuserve download directory - and where is the reply: in the secretarys
directory, in the entry cache or already in the project directory under protocol
annexes? The idea of a standardized in-basket for mail with an automatic document
database system in the background is now arousing considerably more interest than
the questions How do I scan a document into an imaging system or Now do I store
on TrueWORM or SoftWORM. Basically, the user does not want any additional, let
alone any separate systems. Access to the correct document should be automated if
at all possible and should be performed in its usual software environment from an Email program, a text processing program, a business application or from an office
automation system.
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In this context, two concepts, enabling and engine, are playing a more and more
significant role.
As far as enabling at the client level is concerned, only the document management
functionality is integrated into an existing software interface. The existing software
environment can now handle, search for and find documents, display, classify, send
and print them out. By importing from the enabling module, a document can be
processed further.
The engine on the other hand is on the server, or rather at the service level. It is a
service which other applications use to manage and to store documents. Basically,
the user is not aware of it and can keep within his usual environment. If an engine of
this kind is to be used, the availability of standardized interfaces is of critical
importance.
Even if enabling and engines provide the user with documents in the environment
that he is familiar with, one of the most important user requirements is not met - a
facility for finding documents. Everyone is talking about search engines, but what the
user really needs is an intelligent find engine which will help him find even mislaid
documents, will help him to link features and contents and adapt to his way of
working. The development trend for databases is increasingly tending to constrict
intelligent document management. Neither conventional SQL databases nor
conventional full-text databases will be able to meet requirements. As the document
management sector generally uses retrieval systems from third-source
manufacturers - a few exceptions prove the rule - again, it would seem that the
necessary breakthrough is more likely to occur outside the existing paradigm of
document management.
The requirements of the user exert a permanent pressure on the manufacturers of
document management software. As this pressure always exists, it cannot be
equated with the revolution of the Kuhnian paradigm shift. In turn, customer
requirements are changes, only an imitation of technological revolutions, which occur
outside the paradigm of document management. In this case, the suppliers are
frequently addressing only the effects of the revolution and not its causes.
Internet technology is revolutionizing document management
The true revolution for document management is the Internet.
IBM mastered and controlled the first paradigm of electronic data processing.
Centralized systems also permitted the exchange of information in closed user
groups for the first time. However, the technology had no provisions for document
management. On the other hand, it did provide the stimulus for a few innovative
companies to develop new solutions.
The first paradigm shift in edp technology was the PC which began to supersede
mainframes in the 80s, free users from the restrictions of character-oriented terminals
and, networked as client/server solutions, created a gigantic market for the
subsequent software industry. It made graphical user interfaces and the plethora of
software products with which we are now familiar possible - not to mention the
games industry. There is no doubt who the winner of this era was: Bill Gates. The PC
and its technological possibilities has made its mark on the document management
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industry. PC networking laid the foundations for workflow, groupware and classic
document management as we know it today.
The second major paradigm shift that had a comparable, if not greater, global effect
was the Internet. The Internet democratized information - it can be accessed any time
anywhere on the globe. This aspect is more important than the role of the browser.
Although the browser provides a standard user interface - as long as one supplier
does not have overall control of the market - the development of browsers, and so
the various ways in which information is presented, will readily go in different
directions. Even though the Internet is a free, unstructured, networked and distributed
infrastructure, it has given birth to a new latent trend - recentralization.
Not only did the Internet shock directly affect Microsoft, it also hit the document
management sector. A free browser to view documents? - No, thats impossible, our
full-function document imaging viewer client costs $ 1000 per workstation. It was not
too long ago that statements like these were being made.
Accessing a standard document management system with a browser is something
that almost any supplier can now do. The challenge is elsewhere. The Internet also
saw the creation of a new document concept, networked pages with moving
graphics, links and, depending on the environment and user attitude, with different
representations. The concept of a static document as exemplified by scanned
facsimiles, was of no interest to the creators of the World Wide Web. They focused
on content and not on form. Thinking about how easy the information on the Internet
was to change made the legal experts hair stand on end. At present, it is almost
impossible to imagine that these documents could provide legal proof or be used as
a legal document. If the legislature had problems with scanned documents, they are
now facing a much greater challenge.
The Internet has also seen the creation of new ways of capturing information,
crawlers, spiders, agents, self-optimizing search engines. These systems were
developed to help cope with the chaos caused by an overwhelming supply of
information. They differ fundamentally from the beautifully ordered structures of
document management solutions where the management systems knows at any time
the location and status of a document. Internet search engine approaches are only
haltingly finding their way into conventional DMS products. True Internet document
management systems, whether it be Intranet or Extranet, are however unthinkable
without new approaches of this kind to capturing information.
Essentially, the Internet is the Kuhnian revolution which is causing the paradigm shift
in todays document management sector. As it is not yet clear who will emerge
victorious from this era which is only just beginning, the document management
industry still has a sufficiently large playing field to compete on.
Document management becomes part of the infrastructure
Apart from the continual pressure from customers and the competition, apart from the
technological and intellectual revolution that is the Internet, there is a third force
which will determine the future development of the document management industry.
It is not as obvious as the Internet, a true innovation. You could say that document
management is being taken over by stealth.
Document management is losing more and more of its unique selling points (USPs).
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A example to illustrate three important aspects of this takeover.
Integration of document management functionality into operating systems
At the start of their development, as has already been outlined above, the
document management sector based their existence on being able to put difficult
document types like faxes onto edp systems or digital optical storage media,
which by their very nature were not compatible with the dynamic, magnetic-diskoriented operating systems. Many of these functions have now already been
transferred to operating systems or additional standard services. On the client
there are free viewers for the documents and hierarchical storage management
systems (HSM), also managing jukeboxes with write once optical memory, are
integrated on the server side. New services like resource directories solve the
problem of independent, user management facilities which also have to be
maintained.
As the inadequacies of hierarchical file managers are no secret and conventional
directory structures are already becoming a problem in smaller organizations
because they do not provide a clear overview, it seems likely that, in the shortterm, the basic technologies of document management such as databasesupported management, virtual directories in which multiple visualization of a
document is possible in spite of single storage and mechanisms like check-in or
check-out, will soon be found again in an environment which is like an operating
system. Although these solutions will not be capable of satisfying all the
requirements of major users who now use classic professional document
management systems, a large number of users will back the standard products as
they are practically being given away in the price of the package together with the
operating system from the leading software suppliers. It is only a question of time
before programs like Outlook, in combination with Back-Office-Services or Lotus
Notes Domino, develop into a complete document management system in the
narrower sense - and also provide the advantages of a general functionality that is
thought of in wider terms. This puts great pressure on suppliers who have made
this market segment their only specialization.
In the future, the same will apply to E-mail. Today, it is usually still the case that
when a message is sent, it is no longer possible to exert any control over what
happens to the content of the message or the attached documents. Future
versions of E-mail will be more like current ad-hoc workflow products. In this case
too, initially only simple tools which do not meet the special requirements of true
process control should be expected. However, they will exert a considerable
pressure on the suppliers of straight workflow tools due to the ongoing integration
with other office applications, delivery in the same box as the basic software and
their wide distribution.
Integration into business applications
While the standard functions which have been integrated into the operating system
or back-office threaten only the simple solution market, the danger for
professional, large-scale solutions in the field of classic document management in
the narrower sense, and for the workflow suppliers is from large software system
providers, whether they are called SAP, BAAN, IBM, Computer Associates or
something else. Their software systems are applications which manage and
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process the critical business data of companies. They provide the interface of
habitual use for most office workers. Only functionality that permits document
display or that allows documents to be passed on to subsystems for storage or to
be called from subsystems must be added on to these products. Most of todays
applications already have document management and workflow functionality even if these concepts are not mentioned explicitly in advertising brochures.
Because of the competition to push rivals large, standard software applications
from the market, these suppliers are integrating the whole range of document
management functionality to an ever greater extent.
It is, therefore, becoming increasingly difficult for DMS suppliers, say, to establish
a parallel workflow system alongside an operative system of that kind if all critical
data, the work procedures or the central user management are implemented in the
business application system. This only succeeds if the users employ other
platforms or environments which are to be integrated by workflow or groupware in
addition to the operative business or legacy application.
Database systems
There is a further challenge from suppliers of databases and special search
engines. Today, databases are used by the document management sector to
manage documents in separate repository or library systems via pointers. These
are referred to as index or reference databases. The main arguments for using this
architecture were the large quantity of data and documents that often needed to
be stored, the scalability of the servers and the high cost of magnetic disk storage.
Databases are now capable of storing even documents in their own structure and
the reorganization, scaling and performance problems associated with these
systems are not far from being solved, be it by means of new software strategies
or simply through the availability of more powerful hardware. When dynamic
documents, which are still subject to modification and are even generated digitally
in the software applications, are managed, they play an increasingly more
important role. It does not matter whether they are used as a stand-alone system
or as a groupware component like Lotus Notes. This development has already led
to a differentiation of the concept of an archive system. One now refers to a
dynamic store and a static long-term archive. Only when large quantities of data,
distributed solutions and the previously referred to class of archive systems are
involved, will the reference database architectures remain significant in the longterm. As far as dynamic stores are concerned, the databases themselves take
over the management of documents. As the DMS sector is largely dependent on
management and search engines of this kind from third-source suppliers, the
market threat comes from the partner one has selected oneself.

Reactions to preserve the existing paradigm


Naturally, no discipline simply folds under a threatening crisis or revolution. This
also applies to the document management sector. Initially, its reaction is drawn from
within the existing paradigm, before it gets to grips with a leap forwards. The
attitude of the sector can be gauged from the large number of articles that have been
published. To quote just one example, this can be seen in share prospectuses from
suppliers who have recently ventured onto the stock exchange. All the statements
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about the growth and direction of these companies are confined to the existing
paradigm - new approaches that would break the mold are expressed in terms of
buzz words which conceal the lack of current products and vision of any kind. This
applies not only to the suppliers that have been referred to, but also to many others.
Under these circumstances, it is sometimes easier for companies which are not
solely fixated on document management as the existing diversification provides a
greater potential for future developments. Innovation itself, or in Kuhnian terms
revolution, is brought about by small, new companies which are not held back by
the inertia of large enterprises or by the baggage of existing solutions.
How successful suppliers react to the paradigm shift? We will now discuss four
important aspects:
Standards
Standards often stipulate the lowest common denominator or the state of the art.
When they are completed, they are frequently overtaken by new developments. DMS
standards like ODMA were only finally accepted because they were backed by
Microsoft, a leading software supplier - naturally without stopping its own proprietary
developments for a standard of this kind. A standard like the one relating to TIFF
compression for group 4 faxes could only establish itself because every fax machine
in the world operates on this principle. Standardization was effected by the
telecommunication industry and not by the document management sector. The
implementation of the sectors own standards, for example the WfMC Workflow
Management Coalition or the DMA Document Management Alliance is under threat
before they have even been completed. For the same functionality, simple, Internetbased standards like JFLOW or SWAP are being created on topics such as workflow.
They do not have the same depth or comfort as the major standards, but do,
however, increase the pressure on standardization bodies to not only finally complete
their work at long last but also to address new technological developments. At
present, it is not easy for the standardization bodies for the document management
sector to embrace such independent aspirations of that kind again. Even the creation
of codes of practice that stipulate how, say, documents should be archived or
exchanged contribute to the consolidation of the existing paradigm.
When it standardizes its products - of critical importance for further modularization
and interoperability - the sector exposes itself to pressure from the large software
suppliers. SAP has no problems pushing through a proprietary standard like
Archivelink. Platform suppliers like Microsoft or IBM/Lotus will always tailor their
products and interfaces to suit their own requirements - they will take no interest in
the requirements of subordinate subsystems such as electronic archiving.
Standards therefore cut both ways for the document management sector - on the
one hand they can impede technological progress but on the other they are essential
for survival as they at least ensure inclusion as a service or module in larger
solutions.
Standards are also an indication that document management actually exists as an
independent phenomenon or paradigm. For the document management industry,
they are analogous to the independent methods of a science.

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Convergence of functionality and technologies
One reaction to the pressure of competition, customer requirements and the new
technologies is to enhance the functionality of products. If there were once
specialized solutions for list output archiving, facsimile archiving, records
management, document management in the narrower sense, workflow etc., the
characteristics of these products have now merged and are even supplemented by
functions from office communication.
On the one hand, this occurs through the further development of existing products.
The functionality of workflow is enhanced with archiving and document management,
E-forms develops into workflow, workflow integrates archiving, archives are
enhanced with multi-media functionality etc. The aim is to support the whole life-cycle
of documents, the acquisition, processing and representation of all forms of
documents, data and objects. Also included is the consideration of all imaginable
checking, forwarding and control functionality. Functions which were previously
independent applications, like say fax, E-mail, text-data integration, text template
management, groupware functionality and so on. Increasingly, functionality of this
kind is being directly integrated into DMS products - unfortunately it is sometimes
rediscovered, instead of existing, widely-available products being used. The latent
reasons for this development are, say, fundamental strategies like only one incoming
mail basket for all types of application and document from conventional E-mail
through Internet, fax and voice-mail to production workflow.
An extension of this strategy is the creation of suites, in other words combining
existing products to form a single product. Then they only have a single client not one
for each subapplication. There is just one user management facility which is used
across the board for Workflow, Archiv, COLD and DMS. Suites are an approach
particularly favored by large suppliers like IBM or FileNET, but also by newcomers on
the market such as PcDOCS. Other suppliers prefer to buy in modules and products
to extend their own portfolio. However, these approaches are often difficult to
implement. This is especially so when products with different architectures and
approaches to use are to be combined. Frequently, therefore, these suites do not
have the character of self-contained products - instead they must first of all be
combined by integrating and combining a variety of modules to create a solution
which is again individual in character.
The prospectuses of suppliers are now overflowing with add-on modules, add-on
functionality and options. Increasingly, the user is deprived of a clear overview and
the standards to make an assessment, as products are becoming more and more
similar as far as function range is concerned. The suitability of the implementation
partner and his experience- soft decision-criteria -are becoming more important
than straight product functionality. The future-proofness, modularity, migrationproofness and simplicity of maintenance of products are gaining in importance as
yardsticks.
Product diversification
At first glance, the trend towards product diversification seems to run counter to
product convergence. At present, a variety of strategies can be observed on the
market.
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Specialized engines and services
Some suppliers are going increasingly for specialized services like workflow
engines or archive-system servers which can be integrated into other applications.
Using standardized interfaces, they perform specialized tasks so that the
manufacturer of a standard application does not have to do the programming
himself. They are a response to the pressure exerted by business software
packages and, in the meantime, have covered the whole sector for standardized
application software packages.
Component ware, tools and kits
Other suppliers back the programming of highly specialized functions and modules
which are integrated directly into applications. Now, modules of this kind are to be
found in almost all products from document management software suppliers.
There is hardly a supplier of a major product who still programs the drivers for
jukeboxes and scanners or image enhancement algorithms themselves. The
manufacturers of these tools, on the one hand, cover the requirements of the
document management sector itself but on the other have expanded their
business into all areas of software development a longtime ago.
As they are easy to integrate, say as VBX modules, Applets or libraries, they make
it possible to rapidly cobble together a solution using rudimentary resources.
Professional suppliers are often confronted with garage solutions of this kind and
have a difficult time arguing the case for their professional solutions which have
taken years to develop and arguing against these quick fixes. Basically, any
professional user, the power user, can nowadays install components of this kind
in his programs himself. However, entrusting the knowledge base of the company
and company documents to solutions of that kind is more than questionable.
Standard products off-the-shelf
Several producers of DMS software products back standard solutions which are as
easy as possible to install, do not require any adaptation and which can be
marketed in large volumes via retailers and other partners. The objective is to
maximize market share. Frequently, the problem with products like this is that they
will run on only a few platforms, are difficult to integrate into existing environments
and usually have scaling problems. Usually, they are typical island solutions,
independent products with their own clients for a defined purpose. Although this is
not the objective of the suppliers, effective quality assurance and software
development management, simple installation by third parties that are frequently
unknown, the variety of possible configurations, software environments that are
already existing at the clients site and numerous other factors give the product a
degree of closure to guarantee stability, availability and data security.
This type of product, often originating from medium-sized companies, will be under
threat if very large software suppliers decide to enter this market or if the range of
functionality in the operating system and basic software range becomes so great
that that no additional, independent software is required.

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High-performance or production systems
However, most of the sector is focused on high-end business. There is a marked
differentiation between the low end with its standard products and business which
tends to be more integration-oriented. The latter has its sights on major users
where, from the outset, document management has to be integrated into software
systems that are already in use. A typical feature is production workflow which can
be used to implement complete sets of business applications. Or the list output
and data archives of millions of transactions and thousands of reports in computer
centers. As far as functionality, security and maturity are concerned, these
systems are optimal.
With solutions of this kind, only a tiny fraction of income is earned from software
licenses. Approximately 90% is project and integration costs. This type of business
however assumes that stable basic products can be created separately from
application development. When product development and application development
become entwined, not only does dependency on the system and idea world of a
few major customers threaten, but there is also a negative effect on both branches
in relation to version management and further product development. Even
marketing through partners can come to grief if an approach of that kind is
adopted - whenever the beautiful, large projects have to be implemented by the
software producer himself.
Market consolidation
A further reaction to the crisis and the revolution in relation to the paradigm of
document management is increasing market consolidation. There are a number of
variations - not least in relation to the product strategies that were described
previously. Consolidation concentrates power, splits the market and rounds off
product portfolios.
Company takeovers and mergers
The round of company takeovers continues. The most prominent merger of the
year was that of Fulcrum and PcDOCS. Takeovers have a variety of objectives.
Firstly, the strengthening of development and marketing resources - the market for
programmers and system consultants in the DMS sector has almost been swept
clean. Secondly, the aim of combining products to create new offers. A third not
unimportant aspect is to increase the customer base and market presence.
Company takeovers do not always have to be successful. The risk of failure is
particularly great when companies with different cultures and national background
are brought together. This is exemplified, for example, by a case from the storage
system sector, the failed merger of ATG, France and Cygnet, USA. Other suppliers
of DMS solutions have had, and continue to have, integration problems too. Not
only does this affect employees but also the products that are to be integrated into
new solutions.
Capitalization on the share market
Currently, many DMS suppliers are raising the necessary capital for company
takeovers by going to the stock exchange. The objective of the majority of
companies is to reach an adequate size to ensure that they survive the ongoing
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market purge. The strategy of taking sales abroad and creating subsidiaries to
guarantee the high expenditures for the preliminary finance of an international
business is also part of the approach. In Germany and the USA, the trend for stock
exchange floatations continues unabated.
Partnerships
The producers of software have a strong preference for cooperation with system
integrators who implement projects on the basis of products. It is only in this way
that they can finance their own development and obtain a satisfactory market
share. Winning over sales and integration partners is therefore currently one of the
most important tasks for product suppliers. It will be difficult for companies which
are only now coming up with a product to find suitable system integrators. As there
are still only a few functional differences, the integrators who have invested heavily
in training their employees, and who often are already capable of placing solutions
with their customers, will only change over to a new product if there are problems
with the old one or if the new product had such distinctive unique selling points
that it would open up new groups of purchasers.
Reducing the number of suppliers and range of products
Even today, there are signs that many existing own software solutions are
disappearing from the market. Former software producers are going over to the
integrators camp. In spite of the plethora of brand names, the number of
independent products is going down because many suppliers have OEM versions
in their program - the software is simply offered under another name. In spite of
the stream of new suppliers, the market is concentrated on a few products which
have a long-term chance of seeing off the competition thanks to their
professionalism, interfaces, good marketing and an adequate installation basis.
This concentration is, amongst other things, an indication that the DMS market is
mature.
As well as its positive effects, the market purge also makes potential customers
insecure: Which product will survive? This question can never be answered with
enough certainty, particularly when arguments for a 30 year storage period for
documents are proposed. This can affect both large and small suppliers. The
question must, therefore, be reformulated: Which products have an architecture,
interfaces and information storage that is so open that you can migrate at a later
date to other systems without any problems .

The future of document management


In view of the plethora of changes within the framework of the paradigm shift that has
been sketched, you could be left with the impression that there are nothing but
problems in the document management sector. This is not the case.
The professional products are stabile and mature. They are economic to use. They
increase user efficiency and competitive advantages. There are sectors where
business survival already depends on the use of these technologies - the only thing
to be decided is the system variant.
One must ask in what direction will the sector develop, will it present as unified an
image as it does today?, which paradigm will replace the one that now exists?
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On this topic a few thoughts about the challenges which the document management
industry - and the user - will have to face in the coming years.
The boom in 2000
The DMS sector is preparing for the great boom.
Now, many budgets and resources are being blocked by the millennium problem and
there is also the introduction of the EURO in Europe. There are uncertainties in
relation to strategic IT decisions - for example Do I fully back the Intranet?, Is
client/server the right solution? Do I have to integrate host, C/S and Intranet?, Do I
go for object-oriented languages?, Is Corba or COM+ the right middleware? - it will
be possible to arrive at a clearer assessment of all these questions in the near future.
Consequently, there will be nothing to stand in the way of the introduction of archive,
groupware, workflow and document management solutions.
Many companies want to participate in this boom and new companies with new
products are continually jockeying for position. However, it is already clear that
suppliers that have already established themselves and that have an adequate
number of references and the appropriate experience, will win the race.
At present, the greatest risk for suppliers is the scarcity of qualified consultants,
system integrators and application programmers - a decisive drawback for any new
supplier in the market. Bottlenecks like those associated with SAP in recent years are
in the offing. Recruitment from other companies and retraining cannot be the only
response to the problem. A new pool of employees must be built up methodically.
Universities and polytechnics are not able to satisfy the sectors demand and output
of information managers, a relatively new field of study which has a relatively strong
focus on the DMS sector, is but a drop in the ocean.
Knowledge management - the new paradigm?
Transforming todays collections of information and documents into productive
knowledge is the challenge that has to be met as the new millennium begins. Modern
document management systems already manage in part all kinds of information - for
example color images, video, speech, graphics, text, data, E-mails, host output,
faxes etc. and so are a companys store of knowledge. Knowledge management for
the purpose of handling and increasing company knowledge, however, goes far
beyond the storage and organization of structured and unstructured information.
Knowledge management not only means the application of new technologies to
intelligently tap into the content of documents, but also the involvement of users
and processes.
Knowledge management is, therefore, much more than conventional document
management or data warehousing. It encompasses more than just the contents of
individual documents. An essential feature is that relationships between contents and
their compression are taken into account. The solutions are getting nearer to the
claims made for knowledge-based systems and expert systems of the early 80s.
A variety of definitions
As knowledge management describes a new type of software system, there is a wide
range of definitions - some of which even contradict each other. The following
examples will make this clear:
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Gartner Group:
Knowledge Management: A discipline that promotes an integrated approach to
identifying, capturing, evaluating and sharing all of an enterprises information
assets. These assets may include databases, documents, policies and
procedures, and previously uncaptured tacit expertise and experience in individual
workers.
CAP Ventures:
Knowledge Management encompasses management strategies, methods, and
technology for leveraging intellectual capital and know-how to achieve gains in
human performance and competitiveness.
Delphi:
Kowledge is the information resident in peoples minds that is used for making
decisions in unknown contexts. Knowledge management in turn, refers to the
practices and technologies that facilitate the efficient creation and exchange of
knowledge on an organization-wide level to enhance the quality of decision
making.
KM World Journal (Knowledge Management World):
Knowledge Management: The strategic application of corporate and external
information bases to discover transactionable knowledge that can be leveraged to
improve business performance.
PROJECT CONSULT:
Knowledge management systems are software solutions providing features to
create, capture, process, organize, store, control, retrieve, distribute, and
reproduce any type of structured or unstructured digital information of an
enterprise with the ability to provide in-time information with respect to purpose,
description, content, structure, context, rules, and procedures for decision making
and knowledge building tasks of any user of the system.
Looking at these definitions, you have to concede that the majority of the systems
placed on the market do not satisfy the requirements. The term knowledge
management is, therefore, often simply misused as a label. Many users and
suppliers do not understand that knowledge just isnt out there somewhere - it is the
product of a number of complex processes.
Who occupies the concept of knowledge management?
The question is - does the document management sector have any chance at all
of making the concept of knowledge management its own with its current
products?
On the one hand, documents represent a new source for knowledge management
systems - on the other they are frequently just more information to be added to the
data compressed on expert systems, management information systems (MIS) or
data warehouses. There are already initial solutions on the market - for example
analysis tools and MIS solutions are combined with document management
systems. In this case, however, the document management system is usually only
the supplier of additional information.
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The document management sector defines its concept of knowledge management
as a collection of all its previous, different system types. To have integrated
knowledge management, all information, no matter what the origin, must be
acquired, administered and stored in an all encompassing manner. Company-wide
knowledge and document management integrates the whole knowledge base and
all of the companys products and applications and allows authorized users access
on a need-to-know basis.
Many aspects of knowledge management - but by no means all - have already
been covered by existing solutions. Acquisition, management, distribution and
other components belong to the standard delivery scope of modern DMS
solutions. However, an area that is often deficient is that of new acquisition
strategies which help the user to get the right information at the right time from his
large archives. The standard functionality of conventional document management
systems often already provides the basis for knowledge management solutions:
Retrieval functions, the common use of information and push strategies to filter
information on the Web.
E-mail, routing, discussion databases, distributed document management and
electronic archives as background storage.
Groupware functionalities which support cooperation and the common use of
the knowledge base within the company or between different companies
Workflow forms the basis for the dissemination of knowledge via business
processes and the best distribution and control methods.
Large suppliers like Microsoft, IBM, Lotus or Netscape are now building many
basic elements for managing an organizations documents or knowledge directly
into their products. They are, therefore, already in competition with the traditional
DMS suppliers. However, these solutions alone do not meet the requirements of a
true knowledge management system - specific applications have to be added on.
Products which have been designed at the outset for knowledge management
originate from new companies like BackWeb Technologies, CompassWare,
DataChannel, GrapeWine, Intraspect, KnowledgeX, SageWare, Semio, Thinking
Machines, WinCite, WisdomWare and others which are hardly known in Germany.
Often their approach is based on Internet-compatible solutions. Until now, these
companies have not been thought of as belonging to the DMS sector and it is unlikely
that they will be pushed into the knowledge management pigeon-hole defined by
the current document management paradigm. Frequently, these new products are
limited to subsectors of knowledge management and there is a focus on tools for
improving the interworking of groups, intelligent agents, novel search engines, datamining or data-mapping methods.
Information acquisition
The discussion of the topics knowledge management and databases has already
made it clear that the true challenge of the future is to make better and more
intelligent use of the contents of documents. Considering the large volume of data
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and documents in archive and DMS solutions, this problem will not exactly be easy to
solve.
Today, good OCR/ICR solutions for converting facsimiles to text which provide
adequate detection quality already exist. In the future, however, speech, video,
images etc. will be available as information sources. Novel types of document, say a
screen dump with the storage of a screen situation comprising a host window,
displayed facsimile document, opened spreadsheet table and a personal video
display for the customer which at this point can reply yes to displayed conditions,
require entirely different technologies - not only for storage but also for acquiring
content.
The buzz word associated with new acquisition and interpretation techniques is
pattern recognition. It is not yet very well known in the circle of classic suppliers of
document management solutions. In the lab, a lot of work has already been done on
detecting the contents of photos, identifying features in video, the interpretation of
speech recordings and other topics. Information can be acquired and condensed in
conjunction with novel databases and expert systems. The trend towards voice
control of edp systems, multi-lingual use of information and the involvement of new
groups of users who, in the future, will participate in market activity from their homeTV-PC, conceals new challenges and undreamed of business potential. Until now,
the document management industry has not seriously considered themes of this kind
- however, they would be an essential component of the knowledge management
paradigm.
Back to the source: recentralization
At present, document management systems are largely implemented as decentral
and distributed solutions in client/server or Intranet environments. Usually,
conventional host systems are only used as database servers for referencing
documents that are held separately. In the future, there will be a strong
recentralization of document collections. Gigantic archives will be maintained
centrally and interrogated multilingually on a world-wide basis. When fast enough
lines at reasonable prices become available, concepts such as the complete
outsourcing of information acquisition and provision, pay per view or the offer of
central fallback and security solutions will shape the future.
In particular, companies which have their own line networks, communication
equipment and computer centers will compete with the conventional DMS solutions
that have already been installed for companies or users. This aspect of long-term
customer integration is of great interest to all communication service providers. Both
public content and collections internal to companies will be made available. Existing
approaches like publishing on demand, information broadcast, digital mailing and
others will be included in this general strategy.
New user groups
Typically, the present thinking about the concept of document management is in
terms of business solutions within companies. Even today, this technology is being
transferred to PC workstations in the home thanks to virtual workplaces. Document
management in all its variants for ordering, acquiring and exchanging documents is
being democratized. Document management functions will add control and provision
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techniques for large quantities of information on to the standard communication
facilities of the Internet. It is less probable, however, that the majority of the new
users will become familiar with these functions in the form of independent document
management or workflow. It will be much more the case that functionality will be
concealed in novel applications which will be capable of organizing even the
workflow from empty freezers to special offers at the grocers.
The document management sector would, therefore, be wise to stake a claim on
these new themes in good time with non-technological, easy-to-understand terms
and to develop their products further under the changed user requirements. The
development of these applications is no longer forced by the edp or organization
departments in companies but by the requirements of the consumer industry. Gametype multimedia user interfaces, functions that are simple and intuitive to use or voice
control will determine the image of future applications.
An alternative paradigm:
Wll document management survive only as an organizational service?
Regardless of software and hardware development, the demand for organization of
rational document management will still remain. The preparation and acquisition of
information is becoming more and more important because of growing volumes of
information and information overload. In this context, other new types of profession
will be created. They will, however, not be able to compensate for the loss of office
and administrative jobs that results from the optimization of processes and the
improved utilization of information.
If document management is to be used effectively and economically - for example in
relation to holistic, case-resolving office work, the automation of incoming mail or
universal call center workstations which involve the collation of information from a
wide range of sources - wide-ranging organizational and consultative tasks still
remain - even if the discipline of document management should cease as an
independent hardware and software sector (... improbable).

Final remarks
To potential users
The previous analysis should have made it clear what changes the document
management sector is being currently subjected to. Many of the trends and indicated
possibilities are not yet available in the form of products - and this still may be the
case for the next 10 years. The most important question which every user should
now be asking himself is What is the significance of information for my company and
how can I use it effectively . It may be that tried and tested solutions are more
suitable than products which include the technologies of the future at any price.
However, when considering the use of a technology, it is important to include the
possible future use of information - this is because an essential feature of the existing
paradigm is that information can be kept for decades with reliable systems.
To the suppliers of document management systems
It is important that manufacturers of DMS products, software in particular, position
themselves today - the market will be divided up in the next two years: Do I have the
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right strategy for a changing market, What is the best way to deal with competition?,
What are the future USPs of my product?, Do I want to develop my product further,
do I want to involve partners?, or Do I want to stop may own development and buy
in an engine and toolbox?. You have to lean back, put day-to-day business on the
back burner, forget about customers pressurizing you for a moment and look out into
the wider world beyond the confines of your own field of activity.
This is particularly important for an industry, which
has proclaimed that it will intelligently acquire the data and documents which
represent the knowledge of the company and make it available over long periods
of time,
promises to provide solutions to improve business processes and so make
methods of working more economical,
intends to introduce a new quality into the world of work by means of cooperative
edp-supported systems,
is positioning itself as an independent discipline within the wider field of
information technology, and
takes the paradigm shift seriously - not as a threat, but as the challenge of the
future.

Anschrift des Autors


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Autorenrecht
PROJECT CONSULT GmbH 2001
Jeglicher Abdruck, auch auszugsweise oder als Zitat in anderen Verffentlichungen, ist durch den
Autor vorab zu genehmigen.
Belegexemplare, auch bei auszugsweiser Verffentlichung oder Zitierung, sind unaufgefordert
einzureichen.
Kunde: IMC98
Thema: Paradigm shift
Datei:
315606137.doc
PROJECT CONSULT GmbH 2016

Projekt:
Topic:
Datum:

Keynote
24.04.2016

Autor:
Kff
Status: Fertig
Version: 2.8
Seite 23 von 25

Profil des Autors


Dr. Ulrich Kampffmeyer, Jahrgang 1952, ist Geschftsfhrer der
PROJECT CONSULT Unternehmensberatung GmbH, eine der
fhrenden produkt- und herstellerneutralen Beratungsgesellschaften
fr
Dokumenten-Management,
elektronische
Archivierung,
Broautomation, Groupware, Intranet und Workflow in Deutschland.
Er ist Grnder und Managing Partner der PROJECT CONSULT
International Ltd., London.

Er entwickelte das Systemdesign fr mehrere Dokumenten-Management-Produkte und beriet


zahlreiche Anwender, Hersteller und Systemhuser bei der Planung, Organisation und
Implementierung solcher Systeme. Zu den von ihm betreuten Anwendern gehren namhafte deutsche
und internationale Organisationen, Konzerngruppen und Unternehmen.
Dr. Kampffmeyer ist anerkannter Kongreleiter, Referent und Moderator zu Themen des DokumentenManagement-Umfeldes. Seine Vortragsaktivitten erstrecken sich auf Veranstaltungen wie z.B. AIIM,
AWV, datakontext, dc, DMS, DLM-Forum, Documation, EUROFORUM, IMC, IIR EDOK, IIR Interflow,
Online, VOI etc. Er gehrt zu den wenigen deutschen Beratern und Analysten, die auch international
anerkannt sind, wie zahlreiche Moderations-, Keynote- und Vortragseinladungen aus dem Ausland
zeigen. Seine Keynote-Vortrge Document Management as IT-Infrastructure (1995), The Future of
Document Management (1997), Paradigm Shifts in Document Management (1998), The Electronic
Documents Management Market in Europe: Technologies and Solutions (1999), Market Transitions:
DRT Document Related Technologies (1999) und Dokumenten-Management im Wandel und wo
bleibt der Mensch? (1999) gelten als richtungsweisende Beitrge fr die gesamte DRT-Branche.
Dr. Kampffmeyer ist einer der Direktoren der AIIM Europe, Association for Information and Image
Management International. Als Mitglied des Executive Committee und Vice Chair des Board of
Directors der AIIM gilt er als eine der fhrenden Persnlichkeiten der Branche in Europa. Fr seine
erfolgreiche Ttigkeit im Dokumenten-Management-Umfeld wurden ihm vom IMC 1992 der Award of
Excellence, 1994 der Award Fellow of IMC und 1997 der Award of Merit, sowie von der AIIM
International 1999 der Award Fellow of AIIM und 2000 die Auszeichnung Master of Information
Technology verliehen. Er ist Mitglied des Beirat der europischen Ausgabe der der AIIM-Zeitschrift edoc.
Als langjhriger Vorsitzender des VOI Verband Optische Informationssysteme e.V. (1991-1998)
verfgt er ber detaillierte Marktkenntnisse in den Bereichen Dokumenten-Management, Workflow,
Groupware, elektronische Archivierung, Intranet, digitale Signatur, Knowledge Management und
digitale optische Speicher. Er gilt nach Einschtzung der Zeitschrift Computerwoche als der Mentor
der DRT-Branche in Deutschland.
Als Autor fr Zeitschriften wie Info21, DoQ, Document World, e-doc, Office Management, Bit,
Document Manager, Computerwoche, Markt & Technik, Information Week, Password,
ComputerZeitung, Management Berater, INFOdoc und zahlreiche andere deutsche und internationale
Publikationen hat er in den vergangenen Jahren ber 230 Beitrge zu Themen des DokumentenManagements verffentlicht. Er ist Autor regelmiger Kolumnen in Fachzeitschriften, Herausgeber
des PROJECT CONSULT Newsletter und zahlreiche seiner Publikationen werden auf WebSites
referenziert.
Er ist Autor des Buches Grundlagen und Zukunft des Dokumenten-Managements sowie Ko-Autor
der deutschen Codes of Practice Grundstze der elektronischen Archivierung und Grundstze der
Verfahrensdokumentation nach GoBS.
Dr. Kampffmeyer engagiert sich in Standardisierungsgremien wie der AIIM Association for Information
and Image Management International, WfMC Workflow Management Coalition, DMA Document
Management
Alliance,
ODMA
Open
Document
Management
API
und
anderen
Standardisierungsgremien. Er ist Mitglied des DLM Forums der Europischen Kommission und

Mitarbeiter an den europischen Codes of Practice und Rechtsgrundlagen zum Einsatz von
Dokumentenmanagement-Technologien.