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Complete report of Basic Biology with the title Experiment of Lazarro

Spallanzani which made by :

: Dyan Rahayu


: 141 444 1003


: ICP A Of Biology Education


: I (One)

after checked and approved by assistant and assistant coordinator

Assistant Coordinator

December 2014

Djumarirmanto, S.Pd

Makmum Ashari
ID. 1214441004

Known by,
Responsibility Lecture

Drs.H.Hamka L,MS
ID.1962231 198702 1 005

A. Background
True essence human beings as the original understanding is a show a
description of the typical from human curiosity that has always been
developing countries. One of them is the question of where is the life on Earth.
The Origin of life questions about up to the moment is still a matter for
debate to join the fray. Various opinion occur relating to the origin of life,
including is a theory generatio spontanea or known by the name abiogenesis
theory. This theory put forward by Aristotle who think that living things came
from non-living beings. This theory has a chance to survive until hundreds of
years, then the truth is tested by experiment was done by Francisco Redi,
Lazarro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur. Theory put forward by three scientists
was known as the theory biogenesis.
One of the experiment was to prove the truth this theory is testing lazzaro
spallanzani that use broth water as an object Applicants. Testing done by
placing broth water in nine container with different treatment. First, water
containers broth when heat then closed the meeting and prevented from direct
contact with the air, while the second container broth water also heat but left
opened without closed. For quite some time After broth water, it turned out that
in a vessel, which is not closed, a change. This is the basis for opinion lazarro
spallanzani that living things are also came from living things that are known
as biogenesis theory. This is of course it can be proven by others in the
experiment. Because, it has been proved by a lot of people and would
strengthen proof that done by Lazarro Spallanzani.

This is the basis for us to hold a practicum about testing lazarro

spallanzani to prove the truth biogenesis theory and I know the steps will be
done by lazarro spallanzani.
B. Purpose
Purpose of the experiment to provide an opportunity to the students to
follow the way thought, and the steps of scientists has never been done or
researcher in solving the problem biology, especially answering the question
"where the origin of life?
C. Benefit
After doing experiments such as those that have done by Lazzaro
Spallanzani students were able to directly proved that living things came from
living things before.

Presence the question "where the original life?" has been answered with
try variety of theories among them is and experiment. experiment lazarro
Spallanzani who doubted truth theory Abiogenesis / Generatio Spontanea from
Aristoteles (Penyusun. 2014)
Abiogenesis Theory (Generatio Spontanea)
This theory first put forward by scientists and Greek philosopher named
Aristotle, who live in 384-322 BC. Aristotle argued that living things happen
spontaneously (generatio spontanea). In other words, the living things come
into being by itself from inanimate matter (abiogenesis).
Perhaps one of the oldest ideas about the origin of life is spontaneous
generation. Spontaneous generation is the idea that life arises from nonlife. For
example, at one time people thought that mice could be created by placing
damp hay and corn in a dark corner, or that mud could give rise to worms,
insects, and fish. These ideas might seem humorous to us today, but before
much was known about reproduction, it is easy to see how someone might form
these conclusions. One of the first recorded investigations of spontaneous
generation came in 1668. Francesco Redi, an Italian scientist, tested the idea
that flies arose spontaneously from rotting meat. He hypothesized that flies not
meat produced other flies. In his experiment, illustrated using present-day
equipment in Redi observed that maggots, the larvae of flies, appeared only in
flasks that were open to flies. Closed flasks had no flies and no maggots. The
results of his experiments failed to convince everyone, however. Although
people were beginning to use the microscope during Redis time and knew that
organisms invisibleto the naked eye could be found almost everywhere, some
thought that these tiny organisms must arise spontaneously, even if flies did
not. (Biggs. 2008)

Biogenesis Theory
Biogenesis theory is opponents of the theory abiogenesis. This theory
states that living things came from living things. The idea of spontaneous
generation was not completely rejected until the mid-1800s. It was replaced by
the Theory Of Biogenesis, which states that only living organisms can produce
other living organisms. Louis Pasteur designed an experiment to show that
biogenesis was true even for microorganisms. Pasteurs experiment is
illustrated in. In one flask, only air was allowed to contact a sterile nutrient
broth. Nutrient broth supports the growth of microorganisms. In another flask,
both air and microorganisms were allowed to contact the broth. No
microorganisms grew in the first container. They did, however, grow in the
second container (Biggs. 2008)
Century 18th an unidentified Italy called Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799)
did an experiment on the basis such thinking experiment Francesco Redi, only
in eksperimenya not used meat, but broth water. His Experiment took place as
follows. Be Provided three tanks, each of which is filled with water broth as
needed. Tube first left opened his mouth. A second and third heat to boiling
water for 15 minutes. Tube both left open his mouth, and his mouth was tied
shut tube third layer with candles. After dibiiarkan for seven days, broth water
in a tube that open his mouth become clouded akibta arise bacteria, and state
broth water in a tube that as the original ones still covered his mouth.
Results of the experiment was done by Lazzaro Spallanzani this proves
that the bacteria not occur spontaneously, but bacteria emerged from spores
bacteria that check-in and then developed in broth water. With testing Redi and
Spallanzani theory generation spontanea to waver. However, some people
fatwas truth testing Spallanzani and defend the truth theory for a long time.
They appointed the experiment was still there is a weakness, on the ballot box
is covered in fact there are still symptoms generation spontanea, but there is no

style because it was covered in to live. As the design testing below. (Amin.
According to Spallanzani microbes that grow and cause westward into
broth from microbes that beraada in the air. Supporters understand abiogenesis
objected to design Spallanzani because, according to their assumption that was
hidden cause, labu life style (elan vital) from the air is not able to enter in, so
that he would not allow the emergence of living creatures (microbes). (Ishaq.
Certainly the fame that Spallanzani enjoys is due more to his observations
on the theory of generation than to his observations on blood circulation, or his
genial writings on the digestion and a thosand other things. The name Theoria
generationis, in classical physiology and still in the eighteenth century,
included all the biological phenomena whose intrinsic involvement in
philosophy and theology attracted the general interest of cultured persons and
the unlettered masses. It was, in fact, a matter of understanding of the
fundamental phenomena of the reproduction of organisms, embryonic
development, and parts regeneration of parts, along with the problem of organic
life emerging from inorganic molecules. If on the scientific plane these
problems have been substantially resolved, on the philosophical and above all
the ethical plane they still agitate the consciences both of the cultured and the
uninformed. This symposium is a clear example of the perpetual topicality of
the Theoria generationis and of the problems that it brings in its train. The
formulation of the problem of the generation was proposed by Aristotle (384
322 B.C.) in is De generatione Animalium. It bears marked traces of the
metaphysical framework of the Greek philosopher. (Capanna. 1999)

A. Time and Date
1. Day/Date : Wednesday / December 17th 2014
2. Time
: 04:00 p.m. 06:00 p.m.
3. Place
: Green house of Biology
Mathematics and Science Faculty
State University of Makassar
B. Apparatus and Materials
1. Apparatus
a. 4 Tube reaction
b. 1 Fruit tube shelves reaction
c. 2 Two cork stopper
d. 2 pcs rubber band
e. 1 Of the lamp spritus
f. 1 Fruit klem wood
g. 2 Two plastic glasses drinks
h. Glass measure
i. Label
2. Materials
a. 40 ml broth liquid
b. 1 Pieces candles
C. Work Procedure
1. Fill in the four with broth water tubes reactions each have 10 ml
2. Tube I, boiled broth over the fire lamps methylated spirit during the
last two minutes, to immediately close with cork and dropped candles
liquid on the sidelines between these tubes mouth with lid.
3. Tube II, boiled broth over the fire lamps methylated spirit during the
last two minutes and then let opened
4. Tube III, cork with close cork and recalled candles liquid on the
sidelines of a tube with mouth closed, without heat ahead of time.
5. Tube 4, contained broth in an opened position and without the
excessively impassioned (there is no treatment)

A. Result
1. Table observation result


Tube I



Tube II



Tube III


Tube IV





any smell

: no changes


Information :

: any sediment

B. Discussion
On experiments are used four canisters with treatment :

tubes 1 : in excessively impassioned and closed the meeting

tubes 2 : in excessively impassioned and leave open
tubes 3: not excessively impassioned and closed the meeting
tubes 4 : not excessively impassioned and not in closed

Are left, After five days four canisters was observed and obtained the
following result

Tube I

In these tubes in excessively impassioned and close. On the first day, the
second, until the day has not changed fifth, views broth in a tube because
this is in sterilizes child's diet from bekteri that was found in broth and in
your lips so that there is no micro-organisms that enter.

Tube II
In these tubes were given preferential treatment to the way in excessively
impassioned, it did not close. On the first day there was no change in broth
water. On the second day and then there was a change in foul odor, which is
not pleasant. Even though it has been in sterilizes child's diet but still smell.
This was because of the micro-organisms from the air that entered in tubes.

Tube III
tubes are given equal treatment not in excessively impassioned but closed
the meeting. The result is the first and second day there will not change at all
but on the third day to day five, broth water has become clouded. This is
because there is still micro-organisms in broth that isn't sterilizes child's diet.

Tube IV
In these tubes treatment was not done anything, so that from the first day
until the day five there was a change in its fragrance and color muddy. This
was because of the micro-organisms or bacteria that are found in broth and
the air that entered in tubes. Conclusion testing spallanzani are: in a tube
open there is life comes from the air, in a tube closed there is no life, this is a
proof that life is not from broth water.

A. Conclusion
Based on this experiment we do, it can be concluded that broth water in a
tube that is open will be found organisms because air from the outside that
brought micro-organisms can be free check-in while broth water that his offer
heat and closed the meeting is not found a change in all variable, although there
is a change in some variables, was because broth water is not connected
directly with the air from the outside. With the this observation can be
demonstrated that living things came from living things before. Thus
abiogenesis theory which was supported by Aristoteles can be broken.
B. Suggestion

1. For apprentice: when boil broth should not too close to fire because it can
make a tube reaction was broken by the heat
2. For assistant: during testing, it is hoped that assistant to monitor apprentice
so that there was no something that isn't want
3. For laboratory: it is hoped that equipment that are kept and equipped to
process practicum can walk better.

Amin, M. 2009. Handout Teori Evolusi Berbasis Molekuler. Jakarta: Bumi
Biggs, Alton. 2008. Biology. Columbus: National Geographic
Capanna, Ernesto. 1999. Lazzaro Spallanzani: At The Roots Of Modern Biology.
Journal Of Expee.R Ciampeanntnaal Zoology (Mol Dev Evol). 285:178
196. Italy
Tim Penyusun. 2014. Penuntun Praktikum Biologi Dasar. Makassar: Universitas
Negeri Makassar.