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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
In English, there are four skills that should be mastered. They are listening,
speaking, reading, and writing. Listening and reading are receptive skills because
learners do not need to produce language to do these, they receive and
understand it, on the other hand, speaking and writing are productive skills
because learners need to do these to produce language. They are also known as
active skills.
The writing skill becomes very important in the education field. Therefore,
students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good writing skill.
Writing is the way how to share ideas, feelings, thoughts, desires, and experiences
to the reader in written form. Writing skill is more difficult than other. It is
considered more difficult because to write well, we must have good capabilities in
writing process and aspects of writing, such as organization, vocabulary, grammar
and mechanics.
Writing has several genres that each of all has main purpose. Based on K
13, the new curriculum in our country, Students at the level of SMA/MA/SMK are
required to be able to write different genres of text like narrative, procedure,
recount, descriptive, spoof, and report. Narrative is imaginative story or personal
experience in which contains a messages or moral value for reader. A narrative
text describes an event, feeling or experience in story form or in the order the
details of the event happened. The logical arrangement of ideas and sentence
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in narrative text is constructed chronologically. It means that, in telling a


story the students have to write the events chronologically as well as they can.
In preliminary observation, the researcher finds that the students of SMK
Negeri 1 Sarjo have problems when they deal with narrative writing. The teacher
said that the students are quite difficult to transfer their idea in written form of
English because they do not know how to start to write the story include telling
the main character, where the story takes place, when the story happens, how to
write the events, and how to compose the ending of story. To solve the students
problem the researcher will use story mapping technique as medium in
instructional process.
Story mapping technique is a visual description of the setting or the
sequence of major events and actions of story characters. This technique enables
students to relate story events and to perceive structure in literary selection in
composing narrative text. By using story mapping technique, the students have to
focus on composing a good narrative text because in writing narrative text, they
will write their own words to telling a story and also the students have to pay
attention to the rules of writing.
Based on the background above, the researcher will conduct this research
at the tenth grade students at SMK Negeri 1 Sarjo by using story mapping
technique to improve the students writing skill, especially in writing narrative
text.

1.2 Problem statement


Based on the background above, the researcher formulate the research
question as follow: Can the use of story mapping technique improve writing skill
of the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 1 Sarjo?
1.3 Objectives of the Research
The objective of this research is to prove that the use of story mapping
technique can improve writing skill of the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 1
Sarjo.
1.4 Scope of the Research
The scope of the research is limited in improving writing skills in narrative
text of the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 1 Sarjo through story mapping
technique. It will be focused on grammar, vocabulary, and mechanics.
1.5 Significant of the Research
The results of the research is expected to be useful information to both
teacher and students.
1. For the students: story map technique is expected to be able to attract
students interest,

make the students easy to

understand narrative text, and motivate them to write


their own text.
2. For the teacher: the teacher can improve the teaching medium of English
particularly in teaching writing.

1.7 Definitions of Key Terms

To avoid misunderstanding about the meaning of terms used in this


research, the researher provide some definition as follows:
1. Improving is making something better than before.
2. Writing is activity to express the ideas and feelings in written form.
3. Skill is the quality of being able to do something, especially the physical,
mental, financial, or legal power to accomplish something.
4. Story mapping is technique that use to improving students writing skill.

CHAPTER II
4

LITERATURE REVIEW, THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND


HYPHOTHESIS
2.1

Related Studies
There are two researches which are almost the same as this one that have

ever been conducted by two previous researchers. The first is a study conducted
by Nurfitryah (2013) which the title is Developing Writing Skill in Narrative
Text of The Tenth Grade Students at Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Tolitoli through
Fairytale Movie. The result of her research showed that the students writing skill
in narrative text can be developed through fairytale movie. It can be see through
the value of ttable was (2.017) and the tcounted was (9.043). It shows that tcounted is
higher than ttable.
The second study is conducted by Annisa Purwaning (2014) under the title
Using Story Mapping to Teach Students Writing of Narrative Text (A Preexperimental Study at the Eleventh Grade Students of SMA Negeri 90 Jakarta).
The result of her research was story mapping technique is effective. The result of
this study show that the posttest (88,6) was higher than pretest (19.5) was higher
than ttable (2.04) and the fact that tcounted = 19,57.
The previous relevant studies above are used as a reference for researcher
to conduct this research. The result of the research above show that the students
writing narrative text can be improved by using several kinds of media.
Therefore,the researcher believe that by using story mapping the studentss
writing of narrative text can also be improved.
2.2 Literature Review
2.2.1 Writing skill

Writing is the most difficult subject in the school since the students have to
produce a text by using English. They have to write about what they think in their
mind and state it on a paper by using the correct procedure. Raimes (1983: 76)
states: writing is the skill through which we express the ideas, feelings, and
thoughts arranged in words, sentences and paragraphs. Thus, writing is basically
the process of expressing ideas and thoughts of the writer using knowledge of
structure and vocabulary to combine the writers ideas as a means of
communication.
The nature of writing is that writing cannot be a natural activity. Writing is
a complex process that allows writers to explore thoughts and ideas, and makes
them visible and concrete. Nunan (1988: 36) states:
writing is not a natural activity all physically and mentally people learn to
speak a language. Yet all people have to be taught how to write. Writing,
unlike speech, is displace in time. Indeed, this must be one reason why writing
originally evaluated since it make message can be received, stored and
referred bact to at any time.
That is why english teacher plays an important role in teaching writing in
order to improve their writing skill. He/she should motivate and guide them in
expressing their ideas, choosing the right vocabulary, and using the grammatical
patterns of language correctly. In addition, the teacher needs things or ways that
they can be used which attract students attention. Teacher as a facilitator has to
create a desirable classroom situation to provide an attractive medium to support
the teaching-learning process in order to improve the students interest in writing
activity.

From the statements above, it can be inferred that writing is more complex
than other skills. When the students get difficulties to arrange their ideas into
written form, the teacher should guide them to solve their problem. The teacher
can provide an appropriate medium in order to motivate and help them to produce
a good writing.
2.2.2 Components of writing
The writing components which are evaluated in the students writing
product is adapted from Testing ESL Composition developed by Jacobs et all,
(1981: 108). Those components are vocabulary, language use or grammar,
organization, mechanism, and content. A good writing requires some elements
such as content, organization, mechanic, language use, and vocabulary. The
primary components of writing are stated in the following categories:
2.2.2.1 Organization
Organization is concerned with the pattern to express ideas in writing.
Organization or judgment skill is the ability to write in an appropriate manner for
a particular purpose with a particular audience in mind, together with an ability to
select, organize and order relevant information. Typically, it refers to the larger
parts of a piece of writing. It also refers to how paragraphs and sentences are
written. It provides readers with the information they are looking for in an orderly
manner. Referring to the explanation above, it can be concluded that organization
is the way the writer organizes the idea in order to produce unity and coherence
sentences.
2.2.2.2 Grammar

Grammar mastery is very important in writing a paragraph or an essay. It


helps the writer to produce good sentences, and definitely it will facilitate the
readers to understand. However, the lack of grammar mastery will make the
reader get confuse and difficult to know the ideas of the piece writing produced.
The information that is available in paragraph which tries to share to the readers is
useless since the paragraph is not grammatically arranged. Swan (1998:19) states
grammar is the rule that says how are words changed to show different meaning,
and they combine into sentences. It means the study of grammar helps us to
communicate more meaningfully, especially in writing narrative text. It helps us
to convey our message in appropriate way.
English grammar is the rule of describing the properties of the English.
Grammar can be defined as the rules of a language that govern the different ways
in which words are strung together to produce meaningful sentences.
2.2.2.3 Vocabulary
Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and becomes the
most important thing in order to provide everybody to be a good writer in writing
performance. Vocabulary is essential in a language instruction. It means that when
we learn a language, of course we learn the vocabulary of that language. Rivers
(1981:462) states it would be impossible to learn a language, without
vocabulary. Based on that definition, the researcher concludes that vocabulary is
the total number of words, which exists in a language. We can learn a language
because we have a number of words which is called vocabulary. Then, we
construct them into sentences that used for communication.

2.2.2.4 Mechanics
Mechanics is particularly component in writing. In order to make the
writers can extend their message to readers in a clear and understandable way, it is
important to know the rules of how to use mechanics in writing. Mechanics of
writing covering: Punctuation and capitalization, and spelling.
a. Punctuation
Punctuation is needed to express the meaning of a sentence. The use of
punctuation is very important in writing. A writer uses punctuation to convey
meaning clearly and effectively. Punctuation is a signal, which is used to make
the messages of our writing understandable and have sense. Punctuation also
function as signals in written language which help the reader clarify the
meaning of sentences and interpret the correct meaning of the sentences. It
shows how the words in a sentence should be grouped together, so that
meaning may be readily understood.
Using punctuation correctly is an important skill. Many people judge the
quality of what is written not just on the content, the language, and the writers
handwriting but also on their use of punctuation. If capital letters, commas, full
stops, sentence and paragraph boundaries, and etc which are not using
correctly, this cannot only make a negative impression but can, of course, also
make a text difficult to understand.
In relation to the statement above, it is clear that punctuation is signals
writing of sentences or phrases to give clear message. Here are the concise notes
on more commonly used punctuation stated by Bram (1995:93).
1. Full Stop or Period (.)
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This marks the end of a positive or negative statement, the end of a


complete thought, as in:
a. Their little son is learning to walk.
b. Poison can kill.
c. We have not found out the solution.
It is often used to mark the end of initials or abbreviations; sometimes it is
optional, as in:
a. p.m. and a.m. (also P.M. and A.M. or PM and AM)
b. Mr. and Mrs.
2. Question Mark (?)
As its name suggests, this functions mainly to signal that a message or an
utterance is in a direct question form. Notice the following:
a. Is pink your favourite colour?
b. What do you think about the term love at the first sight?
3. Comma (,)
We use the comma to separate a series of items from the same category,
such as nouns, phrases, and clauses. Examples of this usage are as follows:
a. To live, to die, to win, and to lose seem to be invetiable for every
human being.
b. Tell us why you want to work here, what you expect from us, and how
you will manage your responsibility.
A comma is normally required to separate a transitional expression in a
sentences, as in:
a. Well, she is attractive and understanding.
b. Surprisingly, Michael won the final match.
The comma is used after a subordinate or dependent clause that precedes a
superordinate or independent clause. Here the examples of this usage:
a. If you did not do that, I would not be angry.
b. When the music stopped, the room became quite.
4. Exclamation Mark or Exclamation Point (!)
This punctuation is useful to show strong emphasis, as in:
a. Do not cheat!
b. What a careless boy he is!
5. Quotation Marks or Invented Commas ( or )

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As the term implies, this kind of punctuation functions to mark quotation


or others speech. The single mark pair ( ) is more common in British
English. The combination of the two pairs is also possible. Here are the
examples:
a. I dont care, he shouted angrily.
b. Take it easy, my friend whispered.
6. Semi Colon (;)
This bridges sentences which convey closely connected messages, as in:
a. The children are not tired; they are, in fact, bored.
b. Nana is faithful worker; she had worked for the same company for
twenty-two years.
7. Colon (:)
We use this punctuation to introduce a long list or a series of things. The
colon is often preceded by the phrase in the following, as follows, or as in,
to mention three examples. Observe the uses of the colon below:
a. The prefix in- meaning not can be found in the following: inexpensive,
intorable, and incurable.
8. Dash (-)
The function of the dash is to make a certain piece of information more
stressful or more dramatic, as in:
a. Do not forget once again do not forget to post the letter today.
b. We the students of the English Department practise speaking the
target language intensively.
Note that the use of the dash in all the examples above is considered
informal.
9. Hyphen (-)
The function of the hyphen is to connect words in order to create or form
new words or new phrases. Sometimes the hyphen is not mandatory. Here
are the examples:

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a. Lulus nine-year-old sister enjoys reading comics.


b. My would-be-mother-in-law seems to be kind.
10. Apostrophe ()
In informal writing and in written dialogue, the apostrophe function to
indicate that one, or more than one, letter has been deleted. Quite often, the
apostrophe represents the omitted letter. Since most auxiliary verbs can be
shortened, we use the apostrophe to realize the contracted auxiliaries
which are usually combined with personal pronouns, as in:
a. If Pipins here, Ill be happy, I talked to myself.
b. Shes so cold, Rudi concluded.
The apostrophe can replace the letter o in not to form a contraction, as in:
a. They mightnt accept the proposal, she doubted.
b. We cant take it for granted, the manager objected.
It is also used to mark possession. It is usually immediately followed by
the letter s, as in:
a. Ritas camera.
b. Carlas jacket.
11. Stroke (/)
This mark may be used to show alternatives; it is often replaced by the
word or. Look at the following:
a. The lecturer wrote in his grammar book that the verb to depend can be
followed by the preposition upon/on.
b. To begin a formal letter, we may write Dear Sir/Madam if we do not
know who the receiver is.
12. Omission Marks (...)
The threee dots may imply that some omission occurs there and then. This
punctuation is especially useful when we intend to quote certain parts or
words that somebody else has said or written. In this case, the three dots
might represent something irrelevant or unnecessary. The dots can take

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place at the beginning, somewhere in the middle, or at the end of a


quotation.
a. Language...a set of rules...for communiation, the definition read.
b. The most important part of speech is the verb... Hornby said.
13. Brackets ( )
This type of punctuation can indicate something optional, as in:
a. Could you help me (to) remove the box?
b. I want a spoon and (a) fork.
a. The students have been studying (for) three hours in the upstairs
Reading Room.
b. Capitalization
Capitalization or capital letter is also an important element in writing good
sentences. Capital letter is used at the beginning of sentence and at the first
letter for the names of people, the days of week, the months of the year and
their abbreviation, nationalities and language, etc. If the sentences are not
capitalized correctly, ambiguous meaning and misunderstanding will appear. It
also differentiates one sentence to other. Correct paragraph depend on the use
of capitalization in writing. It also helps the reader to distinguish a particular or
general class of people, place and other things in the paragraph. The following
are some important rules of capitalization which quoted in (Hogue, 1996:13):
a. The first word in a sentence
Ex: My name is Mickey Mouse.
b. The pronoun I alone
Ex: At first I appeared in cartoons.
c. Names of people and their titles
Ex: King Faisal
Professor Indiana Jones
But not a title without a name
Ex: Hes a king.

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Have you met your professor?


EXCEPTION: A title without a name is sometimes capitalized if it refers
to a specific person.
Ex: The President of the United States had dinner with the
Emperor of Japan.
d. Nationalities, languages, religions, and ethnic groups
Ex: English
Spanish

Christian

Native American

Muslim

Asian

NOTE: Dont capitalize school subjects except names of nationalities,


languages, religions, and so forth.
Ex: calculus

Russian History

computer science

French

e. Specific places you could find on a map


Ex: Lake Toba

England

First Street
f. Names of specific structures such as buildings, roads, and bridges
Ex: the White House

Highway 395

the Hilton Hotel

the Golden Gate Bridge

g. Names of specific organization such as business, schools, and clubs


Ex: Springfield Elementary School
City College of New York
h. Names of the days, months, holidays, and special time periods
Ex: Monday

New Years Day

January

Ramadan

BUT NOT the names of seasons


Ex: spring, summer, fall (autumn), winter
i. Geographic areas
Ex: the Middle East
Southeast Asia

the Southwest
Eastern Europe

BUT NOT compass directions


Ex: Drive south for two miles and turn west.

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j. Titles of books, magazines, newspapers, movies, and TV series-also the


title of your own paragraphs
Ex: National Geographic
Raiders of the Lost Ark
NOTE 1: Do not capitalize all the words in titles. Capitalize only the first,
the last and the important words. Articles (a ,an, the), conjunctions (and,
or, but), and short prepositions (to, from, at, in, of) are not capitalized.
NOTE 2: Underline titles of books, magazines, newspapers, movies, and
TV series.
c. Spelling
Spelling is also important in writing. To write English well, the writer
should be able to master how to spell word well. Because when students make
error in spell the word, it can make the reader doesnt get the meaning of word.
That is why teacher has to pay attention on teaching spelling. For many
students, especially in Indonesia to write English word is quite difficult
because it is strange for them. Many people say that English spelling is not
only regular but also irregular, and they make a feature of the lack of spellingsound correspondence which, although not unique, is a feature of English.
English spelling is complex but it is not completely random and is, in fact,
fairly regular; there are usually clear rules about when certain spellings are
acceptable. English spelling rules do often have exceptions but these usually
only apply to a small number of individual words.
2.2.2.5 Content
It refers to the ideas which relate to the topic, the development of them
through personal experiences, illustrations, facts, and opinions. The information
written should not only be presented in detail and but also has a close relation to
the text type.
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According to Jacob et al (1981: 90), content refers to substance of writing,


the experience of the main idea (unity), i.e., groups of related statements that a
writer presents as unit in developing a subject. Content paragraph do the work of
conveying ideas rather than fulfilling special function of transition, restatement,
and emphasis.
A content orientation can also form the basis of courses that focus more on
language structures and functions. Such courses help students to generate,
develop, and organize their ideas on a given topic in ways similar to those
discussed above for courses with learning process.
Based on the writing components above, the researcher focus only on
vocabulary, grammar and mechanism. It does not mean that the other components
are neglected. The researcher considered that vocabulary, grammar, and
mechanism are the most essential for the students in writing narrative text at SMK
1 Sarjo. In constructing a text, the students need various words that will be
involved in their writing. Obviously, the students cannot write well because they
do not have sufficient vocabulary. It is the most crucial problem for the students.
In this case, the researcher considered that it has to be solved by introducing and
explaining some words encountered in the story.
The students also have very serious problem to recognize the grammatical
sentences. One of the skills necessary for writing good texts is in grammar
component. It is the ability to write correct and appropriate sentence. The students
should know how the construction of words and their elements united to structure
sentences, i.e. the use of tenses, the pronouns, and the sentence patterns. Good

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arrangements will convey the message of the composition but ungrammatical


sentences will meaningless. Considering the level of the students is the tenth
grade students of senior high school, the researcher focused the research in
mechanism also because the students in the level where they need to produce a
good written text. It means that their writing does not contain appropriate
vocabulary and accurate grammatical, but also correct spelling, punctuation, and
capitalization.
2.2.3 Genres of writing
Writing has several genres that each of all has main purpose. When
students are asked to compose such writing text, a teacher needs to consider their
age, their level, and of course the purpose of writing itself. The students in the
level of SMA/ SMK are taught some genres of text.
Students at the level of SMA/SMK are required to be able to write
different genres of text like narrative, procedure, recount, descriptive, spoof, and
report. These genres of text have different purposes, so do the way in writing
them. The way of forming the text will be influenced by the generic and the
language features of the text. It can be seen in the table below:
Table 2.1
The Genres of Text
Genres of
Text
Narrative

Purpose

Generic

Structures
To amuse or 1. Orientation
entertain
the 2. Evaluation
readers and to 3. Complication
tell a story.
4. Resolution
5. Reorientation

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Language
Features
1. Using past tense
2. Using action
verb
3. Chronologically
arranged

Recount

Procedure

To
retell
something that
happened in the
past and to tell a
series of event.
To help readers
how to make or
to do something.

1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation

1. Using past tense


2. using action verb
3. Using adjectives

1. Goal/aim
2. Materials/
Equipments
3. Steps/methods

1. Using imperative
sentences
2.Using action verb
3. Using transition
signals
4.Using
simple
present tense
1.Introducing group
or general aspect
2.Using conditional
logical connection
3. Using simple
present tense
1.Using
simple
present tense
2.Using action verb
3.Using
passive
voice
4.Using technical
terms
5.Using
general
and abstract noun
6.Using
conjunction of time
and cause-effect
7.Using noun and
adverbial phrase

Report

To
present 1.General
information
classification
about something 2. Description
as it is

Descriptive

To
describe
particular
person, place, or
thing in detail

1.General
statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing

2.2.4 Narrative text


Narrative text is commonly used to tell an imaginative story or personal
experience in which contains a messages or moral value for the reader. Anderson
(1997:8) defines that Narrative is a piece of text tells a story and, in doing so,
entertains or informs the reader or listener. Narrative is one of the most powerful
ways of communicating with others because readers not only understand the

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event, but they can almost feel it. The action, details, and dialogue put the readers
in these seem and make it happen for them.
Narrative text describes an event, feeling or experience in story form or in
the order the details of the event happened. The logical arrangement of ideas and
sentence in narrative text is constructed chronologically, they relate events
chronological order, that is time sequence in which the events took place. Each
story has the beginning, the middle and the ending. And also theme, setting,
characters, plot, problem and solution.
2.2.4.1 Generic structure of narrative text
In teaching and learning process, the teacher introduces how to construct a
narrative text. Anderson et al., (2003:8) proposes the aspects for constructing a
complete narrative text as follows.
1. An orientation (can be paragraph, a picture, or opening chapter)
It tells about who is in the story (the characters), when the story is taking
place and where the action is happening.
2. A complication
It sets off a chain of events that influences what will happen in the story or
revolves around conflict or problems that affect the setting, time, or
characters. A problem or series of problems interrupt or complicate the
lives of characters.
3. A sequence of events
In this part, the characters react to the implication. The story continues
through a series of expected and unexpected events. The sequence of
actions affects the setting, atmosphere, characters of time.
4. A resolution

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In this part, the characters finally sort out the complication. The resolution
brings the series of events to a close and resolves the main problem,
challenge or situation. The main character has to act to resolve the
situation.
5. A coda/ Reorientation
It provides a comment or moral based on what has been learned from the
story (an optional step). The teacher remind the usual pattern of narrative
based on the story given, because some narratives has a coda or
reorientation that returns the reader to the present and sums up the events.
In this following is the example of schematic structure of narrative text:

2.2.4.2 Language feature of narrative text


There are some language features of narratives. They are divided into:

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a. A narrative focuses on specific participants: often individual or


participants with defines identities. Major participants are human, or
sometimes animals with human characteristic.
b. Mainly use action, verbal or mental processes (verbs of perception: think,
realize, feel, etc.)
c. It usually use past tenses (Simple Past Tense and Past Continuous Tense).
d. Direct and indirect speeches are often used (some dialogs are used in the
story and the tense can change).
e. Descriptive language is used to create listeners or readers imagination.
f. Can be written in first person (I, We) or third person (he, she, and they).
g. Temporal conjunctions are also used. (as the sentence introducers:
Then...,after that...,finally...etc and as the time introducers (adverbial
clauses: before...,after...,while...,during...etc).
2.2.5 Story Mapping Technique
Story mapping strategy is theoretically rooted in the schema building
approach to writing instruction. This approach based on Rumerharts schema
theory. The cognitive structure created when comprehending a story has been
referred to as story schema. Tabatabaei (2012:58) states story mapping, also
called story grammar, is a visual representation of the story by writing the
important elements (e.g., character, setting, goal, etc). Story grammar can be
taught directly to hasten students development of story schema and thus promote
narrative comprehension.
There are many definitions of story mapping stated by several experts.
Khalaf (2010:182) states: a story map could be viewed as a visual description of
the settings or the sequence of major event and action of story characters. so that

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students enable to connect story events and to perceive structure in a story and can
increase students awareness that story characters and events are interrelated.
In line with Khalaf, Sidekli (2003:290 ) states: a story map is used as a
visual tool that shows the interrelation among the important idea, nation and facts
that take place in the story. Thus, it gives the students the opportunity to
distinguish different parts of story and focus on how these parts are combined
together to make a story.
Li (2000:42) also states story mapping provides students with a birds eye
view of the basic story structure and the relationship between story elements. So
they can make clearly outline the relationships to each other. Those components of
story which frequently appears are setting, characters, goal, conflict or sequence
of events, and resolution.
Based on the definitions and concepts above, it can be concluded that story
mapping is a visual graphic map in which is provided the elements of story such
as setting, characters, problems, and resolution which are presented to help the
writers associate the whole content of the story, so that they can easily manage
their ideas as they write the story. Story mapping is useful to be used by students
as an outline of students writing. It uses in the early stages of planning a narrative
text. In writing of narrative text, story mapping can create not only writers
creativity, but also help the writers develop their thoughts appropriate with the
theme provided in writing of an imaginative story or telling their experience to the
readers.
2.2.6 Teaching writing using story mapping technique

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Firstly, the students is given the instruction about what they are going to
do and why they need to use story mapping in writing of narrative text. The
instruction might encourage the students to be more enthusiastic about what they
are going to learn and it is important that students should know what they are
going to do and give them ideas when they finish the task.
Next, an example of story mapping is given to the students that consists of
some elements of narrative text such as setting, characters, problem, and
resolution. Then, students have to complete those elements. Students are ordered
to write a narrative text, the topic is decided by the teacher. They have to fulfill
each elements of narrative text which is provided in the story mapping. In the part
of problem, they have to write the chronological of some conflicts which might
occur in their story. After they finished in completing their story mapping with
their ideas, they can start writing their story with using story mapping as their
guideline in writing process.
2.2.7 The advantages of story mapping technique
Here are several advantages of using story mapping as a technique in
teaching narrative text such as:
a. To enhance students' interpretative abilities by enabling them to visualize
story characters, events and settings.
b. To increase students' comprehension of selections by organizing and
sequencing main story events.
c. To increase students' awareness that story characters and events are
interrelated.

2.3

Theoretical framework
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Writing is activity to deliver what someone thinking in written form.


Through writing, people can share and conveyed their ideas to another. In
conveying ideas, it is important to consider the appropriate text type because there
are a lot of texts which must be learned by students in Senior High School.
Narrative is one of English text types that must be learned by
students

in Senior High School. Narrative is commonly used to tell an

imaginative story or personal experience in which contains a messages or moral


value for the reader. Narrative requires some story components such as setting,
characters, events/plot, conflicts, and resolution. To make students easier in
writing of narrative text, teachers should think an appropriate teaching technique.
A technique which can be effective to teach narrative text is story
mapping. Story mapping can be used as an guideline in writing of narrative
text. Story mapping is a tool which can draw a concept of story that the writer
wants to write. It consists of setting, characters, events/plot, conflicts, and
resolution. Those elements can make students easier in organizing their ideas.
The procedure of teaching narrative text through story mapping technique
is first, the researcher will explain about function, generic structures, and explain
of narrative text. Second, the researcher will explain about story mapping
technique. Third, the researcher gives the student a story. Fourth, the researcher
asks the student to make story mapping technique related to the story and then
develop their ideas into narrative text. Last, the researcher will guide the students
to check their errors in writing.

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2.4

Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this research is as follows: The use of story map

technique can improve the skill of the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 1 Sarjo
in writing narrative text.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1.

Research Design
This research is conducted through Pre-Experimental design that involve

one group of pretest-posttest design. It is design to implement an appropiate use of


story mapping technique for the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 1 Sarjo, to
improve the students skill in writing narrative text. The research design use
Arikuntos model (2006:85) as follows :
O1
Where :

O1

Pretest

Treatment

O2

Posttest

O2

3.2. Population and Sample


3.2.1. Population
Best (1981:8) states Population is any group of individuals has one or
more characteristic in common that is interest to the research. In SMK Negeri 1
Sarjo there are three major they are TKJ, TKR and administration. The tenth grade
students of TKJ consists of two parallel classes and the characteristic of these two

25

classes are different. The distribution and the total number of population can be
see in the following table:

Table 3.1
CLASS DISTRIBUTION
No
Classes
1
X TKJ A
2
X TKJ B
Total

Number of Students
25
25
50 Students

3.2.2. Sample
Sample is an item or a subject selected from the population to be
observed and analyzed. Best (1981:8) states that: sample is a small proportion of
population selected for observation and analysis. In taking sample of this
research, the researcher used a purposive sampling technique because it
appropriate with the researcher purpose to improve students writing skill through
story mapping technique. Furthermore, the teacher of English at SMK Negeri1
Sarjo recommended to conduct the research in class A because they have problem
in learning English especially in writing.
3.3. Research Variable
Variable becomes the object or the focus of a research. Dependent variable
and independent variable are the variables manipulated in this research. The
dependent variable is the skill of the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 1 Sarjo

26

in writing narrative text, while independent variable is the use of story mapping
technique.
3.4. Research Instrument
Arikunto (2002:136) states instrumen penelitian adalah alat atau fasilitas
yang digunakan oleh peneliti dalam mengumpulkan data agar pekerjaannya lebih
mudah dan hasilnya lebih baik, dalam arti lebih cermat , lengkap, dan sistematis
sehingga lebih mudah diolah. It means that every research must has research
instrument.
In conducting this research, the researcher only used test as the main
instrument that included pre test and post test.
3.5. Technnique of Data Collection
3.5.1. Test
Test is the main instrument to gather data in this research. There are two
kinds of tests: pretest and posttest. Pretest is given before treatment. In this test,
the teacher ask the students to write narrative text based on the topic that given
by the researcher. After giving eight times treatment, the researcher will give post
test to the students in order to compare the result of each test before and after
treatment.
In scoring each part of the narrative text, the researcher use the scoring
procedure as follow:
Table 3.2
Scoring Rubric of writing
No

Writing Components

1.

Vocabulary

Score

Explanation

Vocabulary inadequate even for the most

27

1
2
3
2.

3.

Grammar

Mechanics

1
2
3
0
1
2
3

basic parts of the intended


communication.
Frequent inadequacies in vocabulary for
the task. Perhaps frequent lexical
inappropriacies and/or repetition.
Some inadequacies in vocabulary for the
task. Perhaps some lexical
inappropriacies and/or circumlocution.
Almost no inadequacies in vocabulary
for the task. Only rare inappropriacies
and/or circumlocution.
Almost all grammatical patterns
inaccurate.
Frequents grammatical inaccuracies.
Some grammatical inaccuracies.
Almost no grammatical inaccuracies.
Ignorance of conventions of punctuation
and almost all spelling inaccurate.
Low standard of accuracy in punctuation
and spelling.
Some inaccuracies in punctuation and
spelling.
Almost no inaccuracies in punctuation
and spelling.

Adapted from Assessing Writing by Sara Cushing Weigle ( 2009)

3.5.1.1 Pretest
Before conducting treatment to the students, the researcher administer
pretest in order to know the students skill in writing narrative text. In this part, the
students should make a narrative text based on the topic given.
3.5.1.2 Treatment
The treatment is given after the students got pretest. In this case, story
mapping technique will apply in the class to develop the students writing skill in
writing a narrative text. The researcher conduct the treatment for eight meetings.
Table 3.3
Teaching Outline
28

Activity

Activity Description

Pre-activity

1. The teacher greets the student


2. The teacher ask the students to pray

Time Allocation
10 minutes

before begin the lesson


3. The teacher checks attendance list
4. The teacher shares warming up
whileactivity

questions related to the topic.


Observing
1. The students listen and pay attention

65 minutes

to the teachers explanation.


Questioning
1. 1. The teacher gives some guiding
questions to
enable the learners in the classroom
2. Experimenting
1. Students write a variety of important
things about a given matter or they
find each other, various information.
Associating
1. The students do task.
Networking
1. Some of the students read the results
of their work in front of the class
2. Other students listen well, and can
Postactivity

provide additional information.


1. The teacher gives a few questions to
find out if students already
understand the topic today
2. The teacher concludes the materials
3. The teachers motivates the students
4. The teacher ends the class

3.5.1.3 Posttest

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10 Minutes

The posttest is given after the treatments. It is conduct in order to find the
significance improvement of the students writing skill, especially in making
narrative text. The kind of posttest was the same as the kind of pretest.
3.6. Technique of Data Analysis
To analyze the gain data, at the first the researcher compute the individual
score by using formula stated by Arikunto (2002:276):
0

Where:
= Students score
x = Obtain score
n = Maximum score
The second, the researcher compute the mean score of the students in pretest and post-test by using formula proposed by Best (1981:225) as follows:

Where:
M

The mean of scores

The sum of scores in the distribution

The number of students

Next, the researcher computed the mean score differences of pre-test and
post-test. The researcher appllying formula adapted from Arikunto (2002: 276) as
follows:

30

Where:
Md
d
N

=
=
=

Mean Deviation
The sum of deviation
Number of students

Next, the researcher compute the square deviation by using formula


proposed by Arikunto (2006: 308) as follows:

Where:
x2d = The sum of squared deviation
d2 = The sum of deviation
N
= Number of students
The last, the researcher compute value in order to analyze the effectiveness
of the treatment by using formula proposed by Arikunto (2002:275):

t=

Where:
t

= the value of t-counted

Md

= the mean deviation of Pre-test and Post-test difference

Xd

= the sum of square deviation

= Number of students

3.7 Testing Hypothesis


The researcher tested the hypothesis whether it was accepted or rejected in
order to prove whether the use of guided questions improve the students in
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writing skill or not. If the t-counted was higher than t-table, it means that the hypothesis
is accepted or there was significant influence. In other words, the use of guided
questions was effective to improve students writing skill. In contrast, if the t- counted
is lower than t-table, the hypothesis was rejected or there is no significant influence
to the students achievement in writing skill.

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