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Leonard Y. Andaya, The Kingdom Of Johor: 1641-1728, Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur,1975.
-In the total framework of the kingdom, it was the symbolic position of the ruler which assured its survival, and
not the strengths or weaknesses of the particular individual clothed with the dignity of that office. pp41
-Despite the independence and authority exercised by some of the chief ministers in this period, the rivalry
between the Bendahara and the Laksamana families vividly illustrated the fact that their position and power
depended ultimately not on their own innate shrewdness and ability, nor on their wealth, but on the sanction of
the ruler. pp42 The special quality of kingship associated with an ancient and prestigious line. This tradition
enhances the power of a Sultan/Raja. The elements of this power - daulatderhaka concept, etc.
-the power structure - Ruler - Chief Ministers - Orang Kaya - Orang Laut
-Many of the Moors sailed ships under the banner of the Sultan Abdul Jalil or any of the Orang Kaya. pp75 The
third important component in the power structure of the Kingdom of Johor. The Chief Minister in theory
consulted the Council of Orang Kaya when acting on the wishes of the ruler or in attending on the matter of
-These principal Orang Kaya formed individual centres of power within the kingdom. Through trade they obtained
the revenues neccessary to accquire slaves and followers who owed allegiance to them and fought under the
command of Orang Kaya in the battles. When they were ignored or abused, they lent their assistance to a rival
contender in order to improve their situation or position in the Kingdom. But when they were courted, they
responded favourably and contributed towards the successful working relationship among the ruler, chief minister
and the Orang Kaya. pp43
-the Portugeses launched invasions against this kingdom in 1518-20-23-26-35-36-87 and Achenese attacks in
1564, 1570, 1582, 1613, 1618 and 1623 pp 23 and Jambi in 1673. The frequwncy of these invasions attests to
Johors ability to reconstitute itself within a relatively short period of time and once again become a menace to
both the Portugese and the Achinese. A closer look at the details of the aftermath of some of these invasions
reveals an unexpected picture of a kingdom continuing to exercise its sovereingty, while adjusting frequent
dislocations caused by the attacks. pp23
-Johor found its alliance with the VOC to have been a valuable aspect of its trade policy...Johor would not have
recovered its economic equilibrium so rapidly after 1641, in the international trade. pp78.
-Laksamana Tun Abdul Jamil, the Orang Kaya and the Orang Laut were assembled by the Laksamana within a
short time after the defeat of Johor in 1673.
-All that was necessary to build a capital (kingdom) and to re-establish the centre of the kingdom was the ruler.
-Pagar Ruyung, Minangkabau pp109-111, 159 para 2 line bawah, pp250-251, 252-260., 261-267 Final chapter as
a whole. Raffles. Importance of subjects to a Ruler/Chief pp128 para 1. pp 130 para 2 line 6. Laksamanas
contribution in restoring the pride of Melaka-Johor Kingdom again after the defeat of Jambi in 1673...Laksamana
had ursurped the kingship in everything but name, according to Dutch. The ruler was untouched in his position
as the reigning monarch who delegated powers to and legitimized the actions of his chief officials - the true
governers and administrators of the kingdom.
-As with his predeccessors of Melaka, he could well say that he was not concerned with the difficulties of the
administrators but only took account of the good results they achieved. For the Laksamanas good results he was
awarded the title of Paduka Raja. pp131. The ability of Paduka Raja in preserving the power and prestige of the
Johor kingdom. pp 132.
-pp. 176 konsep tentang kedaulatan dengan adat - the right of disposition of the kingdom, i.e. sovereignty, was the
precious preserve of the ruler according to the adat of the Malays. All decisions are tentative until the ruler himself
made the decisions. All action within the kingdom acquired meaning and purpose only when a ruler was present
to sanction and justify such action - to provide his stamp of legitimacy and approbation on all previous activity.
-It was daulat (sovereignty) which was brought over from Palembang and transmitted to the succeeding
generations of rulers in Melaka and Johor; it was daulat which assured the preservation of negeri throughout the
16-17 century, it was the daulat which prevented the chief ministers of Johor bowing down to Dutch pressure and
which helped maintained an important sense of diginity and respect within the Kingdom of Johor.
-Andaya - power is in the concept of daulat.

Keith Windschuttle, The Killing Of History: How a Discipline Is Being Murdered By Literary Critics and
Social Theorists, Macleay Press, Sydney, 1994.
-History is an intellectual discipline that is more than 2400 yeras old and it ranks with philosophy and
mathematicss among the most profound and enduring contributions that ancient Greece madE, not only to
European civilization, but to human species as a whole.
-Instead of the mythical which all human cultures had used to affirm their sense of self-worth and their place in
the cosmos, the Greek historians decided to try to record the truth about the past.

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