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Anne Mooney

Grade: 10, honors


Key Text: Night

Anne Mooney
Lesson 2
Finding Evidence in Night
Salem State University
School of Education
I. Setting the Stage: What are your measureable objectives and assessment?
A. Curriculum Framework Standards: Which MA Curriculum Frameworks address
your topic content and objectives?

B. Generative Topic: What is the focal concept or skill of the lesson?


Finding Evidence in Night
C. Measurable Objectives: What do you want students to know and be able to do?
o Students will be able to cite evidence from Night to support their assigned analysis
o Students will be able to understand the seminal ideas of the Holocaust and genocide and
how they relate to Night
D. End of Lesson Assessment: How are you going to assess students understanding?
o Students will share their evidence of Night for their assigned analysis with the class.
II. Content of the Lesson
A. Content and Skills: What do you know about what you are planning to teach?
1. CLASSIFICATION: All cultures have categories to distinguish people into us and them by
ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality. The main preventive measure at this early stage is to
develop universalistic institutions that transcend ethnic or racial divisions, that actively promote
tolerance and understanding, and that promote classifications that transcend the divisions.
2. SYMBOLIZATION: We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people
or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply the symbols to members of groups.
Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide
unless they lead to dehumanization. When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon
unwilling members of pariah groups. To combat symbolization, hate symbols can be legally
forbidden (swastikas) as can hate speech. Group marking like gang clothing or tribal scarring can
be outlawed, as well.
3. DISCRIMINATION: A dominant group uses law, custom, and political power to deny the
rights of other groups. The powerless group may not be accorded full civil rights or even
citizenship. Prevention against discrimination means full political empowerment and citizenship
rights for all groups in a society. Discrimination on the basis of nationality, ethnicity, race or
religion should be outlawed.

Anne Mooney
Grade: 10, honors
Key Text: Night

4. DEHUMANIZATION: One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are
equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human
revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to
vilify the victim group. In combating this dehumanization, incitement to genocide should not be
confused with protected speech. Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for
countervailing speech, and should be treated differently than democracies. Local and
international leaders should condemn the use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable.
5. ORGANIZATION: Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to
provide deniability of state responsibility. Sometimes organization is informal or decentralized
(terrorist groups). Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for
genocidal killings.To combat this stage, membership in these militias should be outlawed. Their
leaders should be denied visas for foreign travel. The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on
governments and citizens of countries involved in genocidal massacres, and create commissions
to investigate violations
6. POLARIZATION: Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing
propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets
moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. Moderates from the perpetrators own group are
most able to stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed. Prevention may mean
security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups. Assets of
extremists may be seized, and visas for international travel denied to them. Coups dtat by
extremists should be opposed by international sanctions.
7. PREPARATION: National or perpetrator group leaders plan the Final Solution to the
targeted group question. They often use euphemisms to cloak their intentions, such as referring
to their goals as ethnic cleansing, purification, or counter-terrorism. They build armies,
buy weapons and train their troops and militias. They indoctrinate the populace with fear of the
victim group. Leaders often claim that if we dont kill them, they will kill us. Prevention of
preparation may include arms embargos and commissions to enforce them. It should include
prosecution of incitement and conspiracy to commit genocide, both crimes under Article 3 of the
Genocide Convention.
8. PERSECUTION: Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious
identity. Death lists are drawn up. In state sponsored genocide, members of victim groups may
be forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is often expropriated. Sometimes they are
even segregated. Genocidal massacres begin. They are acts of genocide because they
intentionally destroy part of a group. At this stage, a Genocide Emergency must be declared.
Humanitarian assistance should be organized by the U.N. and private relief groups for the
inevitable tide of refugees to come.
9. EXTERMINATION: begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called genocide.
It is extermination to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human.
Sometimes the genocide results in revenge killings by groups against each other. At this stage,
only rapid and overwhelming armed intervention can stop genocide. Real safe areas or refugee
escape corridors should be established with heavily armed international protection. It is time to
recognize that the international responsibility to protect transcends the narrow interests of
individual nation states.
10. DENIAL: is the final stage that lasts throughout and always follows a genocide. It is among
the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the
mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They

Anne Mooney
Grade: 10, honors
Key Text: Night

deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. They block
investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they
flee into exile. The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national
courts. But with the political will to arrest and prosecute them, some may be brought to justice.
Google books can be used to look up words in a text; this is useful for the memory assigned
analysis.
B.

Rationale: Why teach the lesson?


Frey and Fisher, in their article, "A Formative Assessment System for Writing
Improvement, say that teachers should create a formative assessment system that leads up to
a summative assessment. The formative assessment system that they suggest is not merely
different formative assessment each day to test student knowledge, but rather formative
assessments created with the overall units purpose in mind in order to teach and train the
skills that students will need to do well on the summative assessment. Furthermore, they say,
formative assessment is a process, not any particular test (67). This lesson provides
students with a formative assessment that will directly prepare them for their summative
assessment. By completing this formative assessment, students will demonstrate where they
are making any errors, and therefore, the teacher can determine where to proceed with
teaching and if she needs to reteach (perhaps in a different way).

III.

Knowledge of Students: Why does knowing your students matter?


There are 29 students in the class, including: 16 females and 13 males. Three of the
students are on 504s for anxiety related issues.
The students are allowed to work in groups, which helps the students with anxiety feel
more comfortable with any work they are doing. Furthermore, in groups, the teacher
checks in with these students to make sure they are doing okay (especially considering
the heaviness of the topic).

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IV.
Preparation for the Procedures:
Materials: What materials, resources, and technology will you need?
o Teacher will have extra copies of Ten Stage of Genocide handout for students who
were absent.
o Computers will be provided in order to use Google Books.
Sequence of Teaching-Procedures
A. Beginning of the Lesson: How will you immediately engage all of your students in the
content? (10 minutes)
o Students will share the dialectical journals they did for homework in pairs and then
groups of 3-4.

Anne Mooney
Grade: 10, honors
Key Text: Night

B. Middle of Lesson: What are your students doing (e.g., speaking, writing, drawing,
performing, documenting, observing) to explore the content? (45 minutes)
o In groups, students will find evidence from chapter 1 of Night that either 1) finds
evidence that demonstrates the stages of genocide or 2) finds evidence that demonstrates
and emphasizes the importance of memory. Groups will be given either option 1 or 2 by
the teacher. Groups with option 2 are told they may use computers to use Google Books
and search for the following words: memory, remember, forget/ forgotten.
C. Extension and Enrichment Activities during Class Time: How will you extend the
learning of students who finish tasks early?
o If students finish early they should review their vocabulary they did for homework with
their group to check definitions, sentences, and parts of speech.
D. End of Lesson: How will you help all students process the experience? (18 minutes)
o Students will share their group work (either option 1 or 2), telling the class the specific
evidence they found and explaining how that evidence demonstrates either option. The
rest of the class will take notes on each groups presentation.

Anne Mooney
Grade: 10, honors
Key Text: Night

Appendix A
Supplementary Materials: Handouts

Anne Mooney
Grade: 10, honors
Key Text: Night

Figure A.1: Ten Stages of Genocide Handout

Anne Mooney
Grade: 10, honors
Key Text: Night