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NASw-4435

Project

Design

and Construction
of a Remote
Flying Wing
NASA/USRA

ADVANCED
DESIGN

Number:

DJO-93AA

Piloted

AERONAUTICS

PROGRAM

A Major
Submitted
T

WORCESTER

Qualifying

to the Faculty
of the

POLYTECHNIC

in Partial

Project

INSTITUTE

Fufiiiment
of the Requirements
for the

Degree of Bachelor
of Science
Submiued
on May 2, 1994

o_
tM
I
0_
Z

Alfred

J. Costa

Jaime

_
ru
,--

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C
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Duquette

u_
o

Fritz

Koopman

Scott

Krause
O

Craig

Soboleski

David

Susko

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O..IO
Z ,...d _
r_
2" ttJ
,--4 C3 .--

Thai-Ba

Trieu

Thuyba

Trieu

taJ LtJ (1)


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k_ U_ t_ t_
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of

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c"

Abstract

Currently,

there

unconventional,

is a need

a flying

wing

of a 747.

The

design

horizontal

tail.

The

project

wing.

The

model

flying

Aeronautics

Design

These
from

such

stability

system

projects

in design

part

of the aviation

fly at speeds
wing
was

project

to design,

was

high-lift

in excess

is inherently

civilian

of Mach

unstable

construct,

completed

required

configuration

as a single
were

goal

restrictions

Elang

features

of the flying

a high-speed,

as

transport.

Although

2 and still retain

the capacity

since

fly, and
part

of

it lacks

a fuselage

test a remote-piloted

the

NASA/USRA

and
scale

Advanced

Program.

unique

last year's

could

for

ducted

incorporated.

and construction
industry.

us to implement

including

fan engine,
The

wing
composite

result

techniques

several

sweepback

and wingtip

structural

is the Banshee
so that a viable

fundamental

materials,
'94.

flying

Our
wing

design
endplates.

changes
Unique

and an electrostatic
efforts

will aid future

can become

an integral

Acknowledgements

-7"

A project
members

such

of this group

as this
would

requires

assistance

like to extend

thanks

Professor

David

outside

of the

for the guidance

all phases

of this project:

'7-

J. Olinger

Paul Crivelli
NASA/USRA
Aiesandro
O.S.

Engines

Fiber
Rob

Cucci

Materials

Cunningham

Wayne
Roy

Chamberlin
Costa

Inc.

of Monsanto

Auto

Body

Simmons

Maynard
Master
Henry's

Inc.

and Klegeceli

of Costa's

Scott

Cappy

Inc.

Hill

Hobbies
Hobby

Cross

of Futaba

Mark

Spivey

Stephen
Robert

House
Corp.

of RSM
Desrosiers
Taylor
5.5_

of America
Inc.

central

project

and technical

group.
support

The
during

Table

of Contents

Abstract

Acknowledgments
Table of Contents

ii
ooo

Ill

List of Figures
List of Tables
1.

2.

vii

Introduction

1.1

The Flying

1.2

The Oblique

1.3
1.4

The Flying
The Flying

Design
2.1

Summary
Introduction

Wing,
Wing,

Wing

Design

Specifications

2.3.1

The Wing

2.3.2

The Propulsion

9
9
9

System

10
11

2.3.3
Electronic
Components
The Cruise Condition

2.5 The Banshee


Aerodynamics
3.1
Introduction

94' Versus

11

The Elang

11
13
13

Aircraft
Configuration
Airfoil
Selection
Calculations

14
16
18

3.4.1

Introduction

18

3.4.2
3.4.3

Assumptions
Calculations

20

Lift

19

Calculations

3.5.1

Introduction

3.5.2

Calculations

23
23
23

Lift Versus Drag Calculations


3.6.1
Introduction
3.6.2

Stability
4.1

7
9

Characteristics

3.7

4
94'

Specific

3.6

Elang
Banshee

General

3.5

Flying

2.3

3.2
3.3
3.4

4.

Wing

2.2

2.4
3.

24
24

Calculations

Results

and

24

Conclusions

24

and Controls
Introduction

28

4.2

Static

29

4.3

Dynamic
4.3.1

4.4
4.5

Sweep-back
Electrostatic

28

Stability
Stability
Results
Stability

34
35
38
System

38

ii_.

4.6
4.7
5.

Component
Conclusions

42
44
45

5.1

45
45

5.3

Objective
Engine Selection
Manufactures
Data

Methods
5.3.1
5.3.2

46

of Propulsion

47

Propellers
Ducted
Fans

47
48

5.4
5.5

Single Engine
Location

49

5.6

Fuel

5.7
5.8
5.9

Engine Type
Excess Power
Rate of Climb

50
51

50

System

54
55

5.10 Equations
5.11 Conclusions
Structures
6.1
6.2

6.3

6.4

56
58
59

Introduction
to Structures
Material
Selection
6.2.1

Kevlar

6.2.2

Carbon

6.2.3

PVC

Methods
6.3.1

Conclusions
References

9.

AppendLx

60
61

Fiber

Foam

63

Core

64
64

6.3.2

NASTRAN

6.3.3
6.3.4

Experimental
Analysis
Comparison
of Hand-Calculation
MSC/NASTRAN

71
72

6.3.4.1

Weight

6.3.4.2

Check

and

65

Code
with

/ Strength
Shear

Section
Materials

Construction

7.
8.

59

of Analysis
I-DEAS
Code

6.3.4.3

- Pianform

Propulsion
5.2.1
5.2.2

6.

Placement

Stress

Properties

73
73

and Bending
of the

Methods

Composite

Moment

75
75
78
81

Recommendations

83
84

iv

List

of Figures

oa_e
1 Introduction
1.1 Northrop
1.2 Northrop

B-35 and B-49 Flying


B-2 Stealth Bomber

1.3 The

Oblique

1.4 The

Conceptual

1.5 The
1.6 The

Flying
HPRS

Wing, Elang
33 and SD 8020

1.7 The

Flying

Wing,

2 Design

Wing

Wings

Demonstartor,

Oblique

the NASA

Flying

Banshee

AD-]

Wing

Airfoils
'94

Review
2.1 The Banshee

'94 Four

3 Aerodynamics
3.1 The Banshee
3.2 The Elang

View

10

Drawing

'94
and

14

Banshee

'94 with

3.3 Lift Distibution


on Wing
3.4 The Eppler 325 Series
3.5 Airfoil

CAD

Placement

3.6 C_ vs. C,, from

Along
Airfoil

With

Quarter

Chord

and Without

an

Design

and

19
Data,

Richard

Eppler

19
25
26

and Drag

vs. Velocity

27

4 Stability
4.1 Moment Arm Analysis
4.2 Static Stability Curve
4.3 C,_ vs. Ci
4.4 Angular
4.5 Angular
4.6 Angular

14
17
17

the Wing

3.7 Lift vs. Velocity


3.8 Drag vs. Velocity
3.9 Thrust

Line
Endplate

30
32
33
Pitch Axis
Roll Axis

35
36

Acceleration,
The Yaw Axis
4.7 The Effect of Sweepback
4.8 Static Master Placement
for ESS

37
39

4.9 Electric

41

4.10

Color

Acceleration,
Acceleration,

Component
Coded

The
The

40

Flowchart

Placement

of Various

Components

43

5 Propulsion
5.1 O.S. Max 91 VR-DF
5.2 Ramtec
5.3 Thrust
5.4 Climb

Ducted

Engine

45

Fan Assembly

48

and Drag vs. Velocity


Curve
Rate vs. Velocity
Curve

54
56

6 Structures
6.1a
6.1b

w
i

Specific Tensile
Stress vs. Strain

6.2 Lift and Weight


6.3 Drag Loading

Modulus
Curve
Loading

66
66

6.4 Load Applied


to the Wing
6.5 Stresses in the X-Y Plane
L

7"-

6.6 Stresses on the Wing,


6.7 Wing Deflection
6.8 Test Beam Deflection
6.9 Comparison
6.10
6.11

Wing
Wing

62
62

of Test

Von

in I-DEAS
Mises

and I-DEAS

Twist Angle Caused


Chordwise
Deflection

and Maximum

Data

by Swept

67
68
Principle

Stresses

69
70
73
73
76
78

V"

List

of Tables

apAgg
4 Stability
Table
Table

4.1 Experimental
Airfoil Data
4.2 Control Surfaces
Sizes

37

Table

4.3 Component

42

Weights

30

and Sizes

vii

I.

Currently,

there

unconventional,

an oblique

capacity

of a 747.

aircraft.

This project,

testing

model

sponsored

techniques

Flying

wing

miles "6. Jack

lift to drag
fuel.

propelled

Aerodynamic

could

model
from

flying

high-lift

fly at speeds

civilian

in excess

is to produce

this project

flying

wing.

transport.

of Mach
a scale

dealt with the design,

conventional

Although

2 and retain
model

of such

construction,

It is hoped

will aid in the future

the
an

flight,

and

that design

and

construction

of a scale

wing.

was first developed


planners
round

Northrop

wanted
trip,

These

Also,

design

considerations

that a flying

lower

weight
would

The two bombers

flying

wings

(see

forces

produced

This

and tail would

Figure
unfavorable

weight

would

make

be able

the B-35

inherently

pitching

moments

to attain

unstable

for

this goal.

He

wing.

a higher
to carry

necessary

due to the

in the flying

pounds

produce

driven

the

the East Coast

for the wing

the range

propeller

During

as "10000

and, therefore,

wing

Inc..

to fly from

it possible

the flying

were

Aircraft

defined

would

reduce

give

be able

goal was

wing

constructed,

1.1),

by Northrop

that would

with payload.

ratio.

bomber.

the

in the 1940's

a bomber

believed

that the lack of a fuselage

intercontinental
jet

scale

oblique

of the US to Germany,

believed

wing

by NASA/USRA,

learned

War II, military

10000

a high-speed,

Wing

The flying
World

for

The long term goal of this project

remote-piloted

1.1 The

more

flying

of a remote-piloted

construction

cruise

is a need

Introduction

for an

and the B-49


lack

of a tail.

To correct

this,

tile flying
some

wing

stability.

is swept

back

A damping

with

its control

system

was

surfaces

also added

behind

the center

to account

of gravity,

for tile pitching

producing

moment

of the

wing.

Figure

1.1

The Northrop

in the end
intercontinental

the Convair

bomber.
of the Flying

(see

1.2) and the recently

Figure

1.2 Tile Northrop

and

B-49

B-36

and

In November

Derivatives

Figure

B-35

Wing

design

not
1949,

Wings

the

existing

McDonnel

Bomber"

"

tile Northrop

can be seen

cancelled

B-2 Stealth

Flying

today

B-49
B-35's

that was
and

in the Northrop

Douglas

A-I 2.

chosen

B-49's

as the

were

B-2 Stealth

next

destroyed.
Bomber

1.2 The

Oblique

Flying

All oblique
it, flies with
the oblique
Jones.
drag

flying

one wing
wing

low speed

due

could

performance

after

wing

ratio

relative
World

designed

wing

on a pivot

The AD-1

be adapted

was

would

of flight.

wing

Tile concept

ot"

Robert

increasing

aircraft

AD-I

atop a conventional

wing

drag

since

T.

tlle li|'_ to

would

improve

speeds _7

was the NASA

first built

and B-49,

aerodynamicist,

reduce

of the oblique

of the AD-I

for a flying

like the B-35

II by NASA

to fly at high

aircraft

The 50 test flights

could

War

lift to drag ratio

wing,

to tile direction

of the wing,

demonstrator

up to 60 degrees.

technology

after

tot an aircraft

due to the fuel crisis.

that such

developed

The high

a high aspect

be swept

from a conventional

to tile orientation

at any speed.

placed

differs

tip ahead of tile other,

The first oblique


design

wing

was first

This design,
ratio

Wing

in 1978
proved

1.3).

This

fitselage.

Tile wing

itself

but work

was halted

soon

highly

configuration

(see Figure

sucessful

and showcd

').

Figure

1.3 The
Airlines

Oblique

Wing

and aircraft

demonstator,

manufacturers

the NASA
are showing

AD-I '_
serious

intrest

in the oblique

flying

wing

as a high speed,high capacitycommercialtransport. The conceptualoblique flying wing (see


Figure 1.4)could carry 500+passengers,
morethan a conventionalBoeing747,andfly at speeds
in excessof Mach 2. It is believedthatan obliqueflying wing would be 16-30%cheaperto fly
than the Boeing 747. Travelling twice the speedof a 747, the oblique flying wing would use
slightly morefuel while carrying morepassengers.
The obliquenessof the wing would be changedby the rudders. Orientationof the wing
would determinethe speedof the aircraft; the lower the angle,the lower the speed. Overland
flights could be madejust below the speedof soundwith high efficiency just by changingthe
angle of the wing.
The eventual goal of these NASA/USRA sponsoredprojects in WPI's Advanced
AeronauticsDesignProgramis to constructa scalemodel oblique flying wing. For the last two
years,the scopeincluded designingand constructinga conventionalscalemodel flying wing.
The resultsarethe Elang
upon
base

and corrected
numbers

1.3 The

and the Banshee

the mistakes

of the Elang

Flying

Last

Wing,

year's

HPRS

33 airfoil

Elang

used

and an aspect

The

current,

design

of the

and

scale

in the Elang

(see

the Banshee
Elang.

'94, design

Also,

improved

the Banshee

'94 used

of the aircraft.

Elang
resulted

(see Figure

ratio

in the

for calculation

design

an elliptical

made

'94.

1.6).

planform.

of 7. To provide

To ensure
The
yaw

flying

Figure

minimum
wing

control,

1.5).

induced

drag

had a root chord

two SD 8020

The

Elang

(elliptical

the custom

distribution),

of 45.5cm,

symmetrical

used

a span

airfoil

the

of 2.5m,

(Figure

1.6)

-77 --t'
2

("]0

TRKEOFF

3?o

15
50f

Figure

!.4

The

conceptual

Oblique

Flying

Wing

transport

t7

--

were

used

as vertical

stabilizers.

Figure

1.5 The Flying

Wing,

Elang

system

for the Elang

O
The
were

chosen

Propellers
the

over

were

operate

of the

engines
and

replaced
are

maintain.

driven

engines

undesirable

aircraft.

15.6N of thrust.

reluctantly

Propeller

propeller

tend to produce

instability

produces

propulsion

Each

highly

of these

standard

accepted

because

turbulence

Due to their
with

consisted

small

of the

ducted

over the wing


ducted

size

fan

fan engines.
fan's

engines

remote

driven
control

clean

and control
operated

and high complexity,

propeller
m the

of two ducted

engines
aircraft

Ducted

aerodynamics.

surfaces,

in last

world

adding

at 22000rpm

the ducted

late

and

fans

to
and

fan engines

year's
are

design.
easier

to

Figure

1.6 The HPRS

The

33 and

materials

withstand

used

"accidents"

carbon

fiber.

SD 8020

in the

and have

The

carbon

airfoils

construction

of the

Elang

a low weight.

The Elang

skin proved

to be strong

fiber

needed

used

to be strong

a styrofoam

enough

enough

to

core with a skin of

for the

testing

stage

of the

Elang.
The testing
system

proved

system,

but

automatic

spirit

unclear
system,

Wing,

purpose

flying

split

together

it was

Flying
The

was

to be fatal

stability

1.4 The

piloted

stage for the Elang

into

wing.
four

towards
of Celtic

to the aircraft.
whether

wing,

was

As in industry,

was designed

Elang
used

The Elang's
was fitted

during

on any scale,

to design,

an emphasis

sub-groups,
goal.

brief.

test

lack of an automatic
with

a standard

flights.

Without

stability

R/C gyroscope
some

form

of

will not fly.

'94

of this project

separate

The

it was

a flying

Banshee

the final
lore,

was very

The

each
result,

to solve

construct,
was

dealing

fly, and test a scale

put on design

teams.

in a different

aspect

the Banshee

'94 (see Figure

the

involved

problems

with

model

remote

The project
of design,
1.7), named

the stability

group
working

after

the

of flying

wings. The Aerodynamicsgroup dealt with calculation of lift


selection.
control

Controls

surfaces

stability
with

The

the

Structures
material,

and

Stability

for the Banshee

system

which

selection

and

and Construction
and the actual

'94 and also

will control
testing

of an engine

group

deah

was

responsible

the installation

the inherently

constnlction

sub-group

unstable

with

with material

of the flying

wing.

Y
_Z

Figure

X
--Z

X
1.7 The

Flying

Wing,

Banshee

and constnlction

'94

The

power

selection,

also

for design

design.

suitable

and drag,

finite

and

element

airfoil

analysis

of

of an automatic

Propulsion

for the

with

flying

group
wing.

modeling

dealt
The
of that

2.1

aircraft's

the

design

detailed

the Elang,

Design

Summary

the Elang

drawing

by a single

ducted

two ducted

fan engines,

discussed,

the general

the design

stabilizer.

For control

a rudder.

These

swept

design

parameters

wing.

flying

swept

located

which
Each

wing

a basic

summary

parameters

of the

for the Banshee

of the 1992-1993

surfaces,

will enable

tip on the
each wing

control

stability.

in Figure

of the wing.

problems

Banshee

axes;

roll,

2.1.

from

Flying

Wing,

the Elang,

with a straight
A four

The Elang

an endplate

and a elevator
pitch,

and

view

The aircraft
was

due to the difficulty

'94 has

has an aileron

in all three

differs

'94 was designed

'94 is shown

stability

This

for increased

in the center

promoted
wing

wing.

The Banshee

of the Banshee

fan engine

thrust.

2.3.1

flying

and a tapered,

(CAD)

Specific

comparing

'94 is a tapered,

of construction

engine's

In this section,

are

'94 is given.

was an elliptical

design

methods

Specifications

The Banshee

2.3

and

A table

to the Banshee

2.2 General

two

calculations

will be given.

'94 will be discussed.

aided

Design

Introduction
Before

ease

2.

in that
wing

for

computer
is powered

designed

in equalizing

with
the

to act as a vertical
and each endplate

has

yaw.

Characteristics
The

Wing

The total wingspan

is 92.0

inches.

The

root chord

is 18.0 inches

and the tip chord

is 8.0

-i....

^,leron_
EJevators

.......

Endplales

Oucled

1
'

Fan

Enl;ne

UniL

"/
I

i
lric_c]e

[andln

Rudder

--gach

on

endpJaLe

9 Gear

-)

Figure

2.1

inches.
ratio

The
of

The Banshee

leading

6.689,

approximately

edge

'94 4-view

is swept

a taper

ratio

8.5 square

feet.

CAD

back

15 degrees

of 0.444,
From

drawing

and

from

a total

the analysis,

the horizontal.
planform

the lift to drag

area,
ratio

This provides

an aspect

including

duct,

the

for the Banshee

of

'94 is

19.44.

2.3.2

The

Propulsion

The Banshee
The

engine

weight

ratio

'94 is powered

has a thrust
of

4.67.

System

of 11.0
The

by a 4.6 horse-powered

to 14.0

engine

pounds-force

powers

from

a nine-bladed

If)

OS Max

91 scaled-aircraft

manufacturer's
ducted

fan

data
unit

engine.

and a thrust

which

propels

to
the

aircraft.

Tile engine

is fi_eled

by two fuel

tanks

enclosed

inside

the wing

on either

side of the

duct.

2.3.3
The
These

2.4

engine

servos

system
wing

Electronic

are controlled

The

Cruise

These

wing

at an angle

velocity

through

details

analyses

Aspect
Total

length

sweep
Ratio
planfonn

miles

'94 Versus

Wingspan

Wing

the aircraft.

'94 are controlled

To insure

stability,

by electronic

servos.

an electro-static

All of the components

are

stability

housed

within

the

panels.

the analyses

resulted

of thrity-three

chord

inside

remote.

removable

of attack

The Banshee

Root

in the Banshee

Condition

report

'94.

surfaces
by wireless

and installed

accessible

This

2.5

and control

was built
and

Components

area

in cruise
of four

performed
conditions

degrees

per hour

which

led to the final

for the aircraft.

to insure

to insure

stability.

enough

The
The

lift to remain

design
aircraft

aircraft
in level

of the Banshee
will fly with the

will have
flight.

The Elang
The

Banshee

92.5

inches

'94

The Elang
98.4

inches

18 inches

18 inches

15 degrees

0 degrees

6.689

8.5 square

il

feet

9.6

square

feet

a cruise

Lift to drag ratio

19.44

19.69

# of engines

14 lbs-f

7 lbs-f
4 degrees

Total

thn_st

from

engines

Angle

of attack

4 degrees

Cn_ise

velocity

33 miles

12

per hour

34 miles

per hour

3.

Aerodynamics

3.1 Introduction
Each

individual

of the Banshee
and drag

the

The

of attack

engine

and

and

analyzes

calculate

take-off

and

Structures

group

is responsible

stability
effect

landing

system,

and analyzing

deflections.

flight

and

including

for structural

group
The

throttle

take-off

analysis,

material

lift

to building

and

determine

the

must

Propulsion

group

conditions.

speed

and

They

take-off

selection,

aspects

the aircraft's

In addition

the Controls/Stability

at various

specific

for determining

and airfoils.

surface

parameters

is responsible

responsible

configuration

of control

its thrust

for designing

group.is

the aircraft's

the electro-static

angle

group

Aerodynamics

after determining

calibrating
stable

'94.

design

chooses
must

distance.

also
The

and fabrication

of the

each

must

aircraft.

-)

Although
perform

its

conditions,
analysis.
by

the

design

group
and

possesses

analysis

the Aerodynamics,
With the chosen

Stability

determines
group

each

the velocity,

can determine

Propulsion,

Once

the

angle

of attack

setting

other

groups.

groups
stable

need

angle

With
to produce

To

to perform

of attack

is determined,

conditions.

throttle

responsibilities,

the

Stability

statically

at cruise

engine

with

and

the correct

lift, and drag

the correct

different

in cooperation

airfoils,

group.

significantly

the

the drag

group
obtain

cruise

a combined

may be determined

Aerodynamics
known,

the necessary

group

the Propulsion
thrust

at cruise

conditions.
For structural
The

Controls

analysis,

and Propulsion

all groups
group

needed

provided

to provide

component

13

information

weights

while

to the Structures

group.

the Aerodynamics

group

providedthe lift anddragdistribution. This information allowedfor the useof a finite element
analysisof the flying wing.
Also, every group neededto work in cooperationwhile determining the lofting and
construction. The Aerodynamicsgroup neededto a configuration that would prove easyto
manufactureand an airfoil with the proper thicknessfor componentplacement. The Stability
and Controls group neededto provide control surface and componentsizes to allow the
Structuresgroup to constructthe wing. The Propulsiongroupneededto provideenginesize so
that a properly dimensionedduct could be manufactured. With this generaloverview, further
discussionof the designprocessis discussedbelow.

3.2

Aircraft

Configuration

.....

_.
I

t
Figure

Figure

3.1

The
Wing

configuration

sweep

improves
aerodynamic

The Banshee

creates
an

effects:

performance.
acting

3.2

with quarter

of the Banshee

two major

aircraft's
centers

"94

along

the

"94 incorporates
decreased
The
length

drag

The Elang

a twisted
and additional

stability

effects

are

of the root

chord

axis

14

and the Banshee

'94

chordlines

swept

wing

with endplates.

stability.
created
rather

Decreased
by
than

the

drag

airfoil's

a single

point

(quarter

chord),

calculations

twist

can

The

Banshee

Banshee

'94 flying
feature

Being

the

excess

skin friction

wing,

endplates

fuselage)
would
dual

largest

may

the vertical
only

serve

purpose,

the vertical
an aircraft

produced

be used

stabilizer.
without

twist

itself

The

specific

stability

in its design.

Twist

stability.

Two types

is physically

the airfoil

configuration

section

are endplates
wing

by the considerably

is usually

additional

wing

this particular

as a lift to drag

little

3.2).

for increased

where

as vertical

stabilizer

Figure

twisted
changes

varies

the

of wing

to change
along

the

the wing.

the latter.

tip device,

drag

the

and aerodynamic,

of the Banshee's

wing

wing

allowing

where

uses

(see

section.

the wingspan

wing

wing

aerodynamic

geometric,

of attack:

Another

in another

along

be utilized:
angle

with an unswept

'94 incorporates

lift coefficient

sectional

case

will be discussed

The
sectional

as is the

placed

a tail or fuselage,

This

aircraft,

is rarely
area.

aircraft,

placement

the vertical

allows
stabilizer

wing

due

tips.

to their

on a flying
(with

On such an aircraft,
By allowing

the tips of a swept

used

However,

On conventional

device.

is created.

On conventional

surface

on the tail.

improvement

drag

tip device

large

stabilizers.

at the end of both wing

wing

tail and
endplates

the endplates

to serve

the best performance


is placed

are the rear-most

of

on the tail.
locations

On

on the

aircraft.
In addition
The endplates
to increased
the

aircraft

influenced

to acting
allow
lift,
inhibit

as a control

for a non-zero

the endplates
the

vortices

increases

the endplates

lift distribution

also reduce

trailing

by the endplates

surface,

drag.

which
overall

at the wing
Large

create

plates

induced

performance.

15

also

increase

the lift to drag

tip (see Figure


placed
drag.

3.3).

at the end
The

ratio.

In addition
of the tips of

aerodynamic

effects

Figure

3.3

Lift

3.3

Airfoil

distribution

on wing

E329

Appendix

a series

airfoils

illustrated

and without

an endplate

Selection

Due to the use of aerodynamic


"94 uses

with

of five

airfoils,

are pictured

in Figure

3.5.

the Eppler

in Figure
The

twist,

3.4.

aerodynamic

a number

of airfoils

325 series 5.
The

airfoil

data for the

A1.

16

The

E325,

sections
E325,

are necessary.
E326,

are placed
E327,

The

E327,

E328,

on the

and E329

Banshee
and

wing

as

is listed

in

E329

Root
E328

ii

___327

E32G

E325

Figure

3.4

The

Eppler

E325

E329

series

E328

Figure

E327

3.5

Airfoil

E326

E325

placement

along

the

wing

For a flying
as stability

and

including

wing,

certain

component

necessary

considerations

placement.

moments,

The

thickness,

require
chosen

additional
airfoils

and similarity

attention

must

of shape.

have

during
certain

The E325

design,

such

characteristics

series

satisfies

these

requirements.
With
Without
Most

such
airfoils

stabilizer
moment
needed.
tip,

the absence
a device,
have

absent,
about

twist

along

have

significant

calculation

moment

promoting

negative

by the airfoils
of center

This
pitch

pitching

not achieve
about

cannot

pitch

creates

stability

moment,

in the reflex

stability.

The airfoils

is discussed

17

With

produces

along

with

a reflexed

creates

moment

about

the aircraft's

in depth

in the controls

and

horizontal
pitching

toward

is
the

aerodynamic

the E329

placement

airfoil.

camber

the wingspan

near the root,


proper

the

a positive

of the camber

with

in the design.

a conventional

center.

which

increases

However,

with

an airfoil

change

a positive

be incorporated

aerodynamic

of the camber

moments.

of gravity

the

a positive

the reflex
3.4.

stabilizer

to use a set of airfoils

To obtain

wing,

in Figure

could

necessary

wing.

the wing

the lift produced


The

it becomes
the

a horizontal

an aircraft

a negative

For a swept

as illustrated

of a tail,

and

E328,

of the airfoils,
center
stability

of gravity.
section.

In addition
additional

problem

the wing.

There

largest

discussed

during
as

in detail

structures

section.

3.4

Calculations

Drag

3.4.1
The

root

series

and

averaging

in shape.

and

This

This

of shape

In fact,

construction

poses

now be placed

E325

the mid-

airfoils.

series

an

within

has one

of the

and semi-span

This

similarity

aerodynamic

linear

data

relationship

sections.

the wing

method

varies

allows

Another

of each half

will

airfoils

allows

characteristics.

the form

allowed

This

aircraft.

analysis

allows

fuselage.
must

aerodynamic

stability
used

no

The

The

the airfoils

technique

tip.

for tailless

3.6.

The similarity
and

has

all components

construction.

in Figure

The hotwiring

wing

of the tip and root

in the aerodynamic

at the

since

a similarity

analysis

about

a flying

for the components.

airfoil

implies

illustrated

and accurately.

templates

space

extrapolations

to be made

cut swiftly

predict

be adequate

linear

with construction.

linearly

for

certain

This

will be

benefit

occurs

of the wing

to be fabricated
be discussed

for

to be

using

further

only
in the

Introduction
main

the drag

for the analysis.


of the required

placement

of airfoils

airfoils,

assumptions

two

with component

benefits

among

-)

of a tail,

of all available

geometrically

additional

absence

must

thicknesses
A series

are

to the

purpose

of this section

on the Banshee
The

second

equations

'94.
section

The
gives

is to describe
first

section

a detailed

and constants.

18

in detail
describes
description

the calculations
the different
of the

performed
assumptions

calculations;

citing

to
used
all

15

Airfoils 325 to 329, Re = 07xlO 6


Atrfods 330 to 33_, Re = 0.TxlO6
|

.m

cp..

-.__

-"

.-

"-

l,

C_

3.4.2

vs.

C m

from

Airfoil

the drag
1.

exerted

Turbulent

certain

Flow:

the speed

and Data,

Richard

Banshee

'94 is large

700,000.

This value

"94.

Since

The

a low

is important

assumptions

of sound,

Flow:

demonstrate

I- ii

c,_

on the Banshee

Incompressible
below

2.

005
Eppler

Assumptions

As with any calculations,


determine

I_11

Design

15x]O 6

3/+0 fo 34-/_, Re

3.6

106

Airfoils

-005
Figure

Atrfoils 335 to 339, Re

enough

These

profile.
to raise

is well above

to the skin

friction

effects

However,

the

calculations.

as follows:

velocity

well

are negligible.

cruise

the value

to analytically

are summarized

of the

the 500,000

19

in order

"94 will fly at a cruise

compressibility
trends

to be made

assumptions

the Banshee

historical

velocity

needed

velocity

of similar

characteristic

of the Reynold's
transition

Reynold's

aircraft

length
number

of the
to about

number.

This

Flat-Plate

landing
area.

was

provided

The Wing

Sizes:

treated
the drag

The wing

was

associated

with each

section.

of Air:

of

values

were

air

as flat-plates

with the same cross-sectional

to be one

inch thick

Since

remain

into different

the Banshee

data

constant

with

slight

viscosity

is through

a lengthy

Computational

was used

as a more

efficient

changes

Drag:

Since

the

only

way

Oswald

Efficiency

were

of air
Factor

the

tall.
airfoil

the

of the chord

at low altitudes,
in

to accurately

Fluid

method.

Dynamics

altitude.

Sea

used

in the analysis:
P

0.076474

1.2024

0.98

20

account

for

procedure,

an

This was only implemented

for the endplates.

of air
coefficient

inches

representing

at an average

Calculations

density

the

assumed.

pressure

constants

from

'94 will be flying

Pressure

following

including

and three

sections

was held constant

Approximate
drag

aircraft

Experimental

"divided"

lengths

properties

of the

coefficients.

length

Properties

components

matter.

The chord

in the calculations

in this

airfoils.

approximation

The

assumed

different

level

3.4.3

were treated

gear were

not

reference

the

landing

wing

Constant

All of the major

gear and endplates


The

The

Theory:

lbm/fl 3
x 10 .5 lbrn/s

ft

A component

method

was

used

first component

that will be considered

and endplates.

The wing

available

for;

and

summed.

then

E325,

By definition,

and E329

the drag

the drag

is the actual

was sectioned

E327,

to calculate

wing

analytically

(see Figure

is calculated

exerted

itself excluding

to represent

3.5).

on the Banshee

The drag

the three

"94.

The

the landing

gear,

airfoils

that data

was calculated

for each

duct,
was

section

as follows:

Drag =Co I p V2S

For the wing,

the parasitic

drag coefficients
a total parasitic
using

for each
drag

the following

drag
airfoil

was calculated

for each portion

(see Appendix

for each wing.

A1).

The induced

These

drag

of the wing

values

is the drag

using

the different

were then summed


due to the lift.

to provide

It is calculated

equations:

D i =CD,

p V2S

Co, =kC 2

k = --

nAe

As with the parasitic


wing

and then

of drag

drag,

summed

Thin-plate

theory

for one

endplate

each induced

for a total

drag

induced

was used to calculate


is calculated

using

component

drag

was calculated

section

of the

for each wing.

the drag

on each of the endplates.

the following

21

for each

equations:

The coefficient

CDE = CDoE= 1.25 CDr E

S WET

CD,_E= CFE She F


where

SWEr is the surface

the endplate.
The
the duct

Using
drag

was

area

of the endplate

the previous

for the

calculated

duct was
as follows,

and

is the reference

SRE F

equations,

the drag

calculated

in a similar

neglecting

CDo

was

pressure

calculated
manner.

area

(planform

for each
The

area)

of

endplate.

coefficient

of drag

for

effects:

= CDo D = CD_

S WET

Cot o=CFv Sne F


where
and

SwE-r is the surface


CF is calculated
The drag

for the landing

area of the duct,

the same

for the landing


gear

way

S_F

is the reference

(planform

area)

of the duct,

as for the endplate.

gear was calculated

was calculated

area

as follows,

CDw

in the same manner.

neglecting

= CDo m = CD

pressure

The coefficient

of drag

effects:

S WET

CDr,._: Cru _ Sne-----_p


where

SWEr is the surface

of one

landing
The

gear,

total drag

and

area

of one

CF is calculated

is calculated

landing

gear,

the same

by adding

S_
way

is the reference
as for the endplate

up all of the drag

22

from

area

(planform

and the duct.

all of the components:

area)

Dragto t--2 *Dragw+2

W - wing;

3.5

Lift

E - endplate;

D - duct;

13 pounds,

overcome

it was

The

following

velocities.
coefficients

reference

areas

for

the

Each

The

of

enough

constants

cruise

conditions

lift

in Appendix
wing

was

obtained

in these

from

Using

to generate

Since

a change

coefficients

used

an estimated
13 pounds

to calculate

calculations

published

of the wings.

The

weight
of

lift

to

it was assumed

of lift and the

lift

are the density

experimental

in the density,

the

data,

of the

and

that the cruise

a standard

reference

air,

the

the

different

altitude

sea level

areas

at different

would

density

can be found

was
in the

A2.
divided

of lift data

the planform
lift for each

the calculations
used

to warrant

lbrn/in 3.

coefficient

to determine

only

describes

for the sections

0.076474

spreadsheet

section

The

not be significant

necessary

consideration.

Calculations

different

which

'94 was an important

the weight.

3.5.2

used;

gear

Introduction

The lift for the Banshee

cruise

LG - landing

o +3 *Dragt. c

Calculations
3.5.1

of

*Drage+Drag

into

three

sections

was available.

area
section

needed

to represent

An average

chord

the three
length

different

was used

for the calculations.

was calculated

using

23

the following

equation:

airfoils

for each

for

section

Lift :C L19

Each
by

lift was calculated


the

wing.

The

necessary

speed

3.6 Lift

Versus
3.6.1
One

lift to drag
drag

total

ratio.

sections

This

to provide

calculations

were

iterated

the Banshee

'94 airborne.

the total
over

lift exerted

a velocity

on the Banshee

interval

"94

to determine

the

factors

in considering

advantage

phenomenon

of a flying
is due

simply

area of the aircraft.


one.

Below

an aircraft's
wing

and efficiency

in this area manifests

to the high

For a flying

is a summary

performance

planform

wing,

area

the ratio

of the calculations

itself

is the

in the high

of the lifting

of lifting

surfaces

surface

for the lift to drag

lift to

area

to

ratio.

Calculations
lift and

3.3 and

drag

were

determined

3.4 of this report.

The

from

empirical

lift to drag

methods

ratio

was

which

calculated

were
using

explained

in

the results

of

sections.

Results

and Conclusions

Below,
per hour.

summed

Calculations

The

is nearly

The

3.7

Drag

of the major

3.6.2

these

to keep

total planform
area

lift

then

Introduction

ratio.

versus

and

VZS

in Figure

3.7,

It can be clearly

is a graph
seen

from

of the calculated
the graph

24

lift in pounds

the approximate

versus

cruise

velocity

velocity

in miles

necessary

to

140

120
[j

100

03
40
j_

[D
'4-

BO

.El

4o

j
[3
O
O

Figure

3.7 Lift

a steady

aircraft

of this size.

cruise

on the Banshee
aircraft

is thirty-three

The Elang

of angle
'94

cruise

miles

had a cruise

per

hour.

velocity

of attack

is calculated

conditions.

'94 in pounds

versus

The propulsion
Figure
the cruise

3.8

miles

pounds-force.
system

is a graph

velocity

25

velocity
miles

can be found

of 4 and thirty-three
to be 0.617

This

of thirty-four

that was used for the calculations

of this size and shape.

to achieve
Banshee

altitude

spreadsheet

condition

vs. Velocity

maintain

The

being

used should

of the

in miles

total

per hour.

A2.

the total drag

value

is reasonable

provide

drag

for

an

per hour.

in Appendix

per hour,
This

is reasonable

force

sufficient
exerted

Using
exerted
for an
thrust
on

the

I])l - F_(-t

v %

13

13

I]

D"

./
,El
/

L_
I

El

3[3

Figure

3.8

Drag

From
This value
is close
of aircraft

results,

the lift to drag

than

that of a typical

is greater

found

and their

for other

subsequent

such

ratio

aircraft,

flying

lift to drag

for the Banshee

wing

as would
aircraft

such

L/D
19.44

"94

19.69

NASA

Advanced

Aero

MQP

91-92

26

19.55

to be 19.44.

However,

as the Elang.

ratios:

Elang
Surya

I
I Oil

"94 was calculated

be expected.

Aircraft
Banshee

P,F

60

vs. Velocity

these

to those

[
40

Below

this value
is a table

Concord (Tram-Atlantic)

7.5

XB-35 Flying Wing

20

ObliqueWing Aircraft

9.8

B-47

17.2

AVRO Vulcan

17.0

Figure

3.9 shows

The thrust

data

the thrust

equals

the thrust

is detailed

in Chapter

the drag

and drag
Five.

at the predicted

Tt-_t- __:}-t

versus
The

velocity

figure

cruise

shows

velocity

eJn_

curve

at different

that at twenty-five

of thirty-three

throttle

percent

miles

settings.
power,

per hour.

V@ I(,

1-_v

15

0
L'O

40

(JO
Veld-T

+{-Jr

.._.r.

Figure

3.9

Thrust

ag

%0'L

TtLI

,,t'r

and

Drag

I,?

I1

100%

.._..e:.._._ 't5',:.,o

Thrott

Thl-c'Lt. I,:'.

vs. Velocity

27

811

12LI

IIIfl

mphl

I_

"/59a

Ttii,,1

1+:

4. Stability

and

Controls

4.1 Introduction

The primary
flight

responsibilities

parameters

to ensure

particularly

important

parameters

such

margin,

are

all crucial

Stability
without

pilot

or has caused
condition
dynamic

a disturbance.
return

change.

it in the correct
pertains

Dynamic

longitudinal

and

lateral

in its original

displace

the plane

symmetrical

aircraft

direction

to return

is present

by

c0ntrols/stability

wing.

angle

the important

The

is

most important

of attack,

and

the

static

wing.
to its original

yawed,

is present

equilibrium

or rolled

if the forces

the aircraft

created

of the aircraft

motions

position,

it to a different

to its original

of the motion

if the dynamic

motions

of aircraft

may be conveniently

motions.

Longitudinal

position.

Lateral

of symmetry.

motions,

_3The technical

with small displacements

motions

occur

such

angle

by the disturbed
position,
before

of the aircraft

these two types

28

divided

while

and after

will eventually

into two classifications,

in the plane

as rolling,

significance

other.

condition

to return

behavior

provided

of the flying

has pitched,

stability

was to determine

state.

body

remain

flight

of a vehicle

to the dynamic
stability

instability

of the flying

_5 Static

group

information

the

after a disturbance

a speed

The rigid

of gravity,

to the ability

it to its initial

The

of the intrinsic

center

assistance,

stability

flight.

to the success

refers

displace

stable

because

as the

of the stability/controls

of symmetry,

yawing

of this distinction
of motion

and

which

sideslipping,

is that for normal

are independent

of each

In performingthestability analysisfor Banshee


of rotation:

pitch,

In conventional
by the wing

Static

and

which

Our

method

of the

primary

(Table

major

tail is placed
a flying

for stabilization

be used.

is expected

was

the

static

lift,

stability

analysis

'94; and

objective

was

to be more

was stability

wing

without

along

primary

axes

the pitch

axis.

the moments

a horizontal

originated

tail demands

that

drag,

to focus

problematic

moment

coefficient

about

to find:

of gravity

on the
than

because

was to derive
and

were

1) A workable
for the wing

stability

the other

static

coefficients

which

of the aircraft
two

of the symmetry

the classic

cruise

stability

as determined

axes.

curve:
by the

ensured

static

in the pitch

Stability

of the wing

condition

axis,

in the yaw

in these

and

axes.

Cm_g vs t_. The

starting

aerodynamics

group.

4.1)
The

moment

the center

C,,c_ =C,_

Next,

the lift and drag

had to be considered.

concern

so that it may offset

2) A center

to be acceptable

The first objective


point

our

Consequently,

for Banshee

is anticipated

roll axes

a horizontal

fuselage.

goals

of attack

stability.

however

the three

Stability

The
angle

and yaw,

aircraft,

a supplenlentary

4.2

roll,

'94, we considered

(Figure

moment

arms,

of gravity

is arrived

at through

the equation:

-ClXc -C dx

which

4.1)

29

vary

with changes

in c_, the angle

of attack

Center

Lifl

of Gravity

Moment

Equation

Derivation

c .\/JDra
a..
\\

Moment

Table

4.1,

= c.g. - a.c.

= x

Lift

....

= x / cos

Drag

....

= x tan alpha

Figure

-)

Arm

4.1 Moment

Experimental

Arm

alpha

Analysis

Airfoil

Data s

E329

E327

El

Cd

Cmac

El

Cd

0.53

0.0086

-0.05

0.35

0.008

0.65

0.0091

-0.51

0.48

0.0085

0.73

0.0094

-0.52

0.56

IT

0.86

0.0102

-0.53

0.95

0.0108

1.03

0.0115

finale

0.0

C I

Cd

nili_

0.15

0.0077

0.05

-0.0024

0.27

0.0079

0.048

0.0087

-0.0048

0.38

0.0081

0.046

0.65

0.0094

-0.0072

0.45

0.0085

0.044

-0.54

0.76

0.01

-0.0096

0.59

0.0094

0.042

-0.55

0.87

0.0107

-0.012

0.69

0.0101

0.04

E325

3O

The final equationusedis as follows:

Cmcg

=Cmac,329

"_7

S ,o,

- _

(Cl,329

X329

8329

+ CI,327

The derivation

which
and

airfoil

planfonn

was assumed
planform

degrees

area

Here,

process

chord,

inches

conditions.

The

+ Cl.325

x325

$327
Stot

and

S325

c32,S,o,

+C

x325
C325

d,325

S325)
Stot

for three

different

airfoils

center

(because

of sweep-back)

of gravity

minus

c & S respectively

the

of the wing

as well

aerodynamic

are the mean

due

center,

chord

length

airfoil.

was employed

of 7.43

S327

aerodynamic

x is the center

of that particular

of gravity
for cruise

area.

Stot

x327
C327

+Cd,327

had a different

--S ,o, +Crnac,325

c,27So,

had to account

to be the quarter

An iterative
a center

8329
Stot

of this equation

to the fact that each


as a different

X329
329

$325

x327

G,

-tan_(Cd,329

$327
+ Cnu2c,327

through

behind

the use of a spreadsheet

the front

Cmcg vs a curve

of the duct

and

for this center

in order

an angle

of gravity

to determine

of attack

was derived

of four
(Figure

4.2).
Static
momentarily
to its original
tend

to raise
This

stability
pitched

is ensured
to a higher

attitude.

due
angle,

If the airplane

to the

negative

the pitching
is pitched

slope

moment
nose-clown,

of the

change

plot.

If

the

airplane

will tend to restore

the resulting

moment

the plane

change

the nose.IS
spreadsheet

was

also used

to determine

31

the neutral

point

and

is

the corresponding

will

ii :14

--r

Figure

4.2

static

margin

three

airfoils.

has been
inches

Static

When

behind

be seen

this curve
Cj curve

that

is zero.
slopes

Curve

To arrive

the slope

the neutral

the front

in Figure
Note

Stability

of the wing.

labeled

at this,

of this curve
point.

The

C,,cg was plotted

against

is equal

this is the point

neutral

of the duct or 1.2952

to zero,

peint
inches

of Banshee
behind

C_....

the average

on the plane

'94 was found

the center

lift of the
which

to be at 8.7252

of gravity.

The

graph

can

4.3:
while

the slope

By placing
upwards

while

of this curve

the neutral
placing

point
the

doesn't

appear

to be zero,

farther

towards

the front

neutral

downwards.

......

32

point

farther

back

the average
of the wing,

causes

the

plot

slope
the

of

C,, vs

to slope

The

static

margin

is defined

as:

Static Margin

i?,_n _'i,
I_

7..

(I

\\

I
l

I
\

'\
\

/
/J

\\\

i J

Figure

4.3 Cm VS C_

Where
Banshee

i)_"

X is the

'94 was

found

neutral

point

to be 0.0996

and

C is the

or 9.96

mean

percent,

chord

length.

an acceptable

The

number

static

margin

for

for conventional

aircraft.

33

ON, QINAL

PA_

OF XOOmq_Ln_

4.3

Dynamic

The

dynamic

disturbances
major

Stability

placed

concern

absence

stability
upon

with

could

the wing

Banshee

of a horizontal

the wing

analysis

retain

The governing

tail.

entailed

during

flight

'94 is a low
A horizontal

an acceptable
equations

analyzing
conditions,

moment

wings

reactions

particularly

of inertia

tail would

amount

the

be used

about

along

the pitch

tile pitch

to provide

to

axis

damping

sudden
axis.

due

effects

to the
so that

of controllability.

of this analysis

are:

Mcs =./[6)

Where
of the inviscid
used

M,

is the moment

vortex

panel

caused

code,

by the deflected

and _3 is the angle

control

of deflection

surface,
of the

found

through

control

the use

surface.

Also

is the equation:

M_t

,[3----

Where
duct,

etc.,

of inertia
angular

as well
about

as the

moment

a particular

acceleration

controllability.
Plots

Mto, is the sum of the moments

of the wing

By observing

of B vs 6 were

axis,

arrived

derived
found
along

about
from

through

the center

a solid

roll,

34

control

modeling

Extremely

accelerations,

at for the pitch,

of gravity

the deflected

that axis.

the angular

derived
surface.

program,

and yaw

axes.

stability
(Figures

the wing,

I is the moment

ARIES,

high or low values


dynamic

from

and _ is the

for B denote

could
4.4,

poor

be determined.
4.5,

4.6)

E}I! .....,,._! ,.,I

L_,. 5 I_,

t. i, ,!,

[}

I
i
D

q
D

-q
i

I
J

3t

Figure

4.4 Angular
4.3.1

in the

Pitch

_f'!

Axis

Results

6,,=x in the
of control.

Acceleration,

11_

Ill

roll

It can

pitch

be seen

and

problem

because

demands

that

dynamic

stability

axis

yaw

the

to be around

plots

are

small,

symmetry

measures

along

found

in the

axes

of the

further

was

for

the

be taken.
pitch

elevators

denoting

in the yaw

To

70

low

axis,

rad/sec

& rudders

that

controllability.

however

conclude,

2, indicating

the

it was

absence

determined

an acceptable
the

angular

This

isn't

of a tail

that

the

amount

accelerations
a

foreseeable

in the pitch

wing

has

axis

poor

axis.

35
O? _oC_

t_P&/'!,y

At

-_ r]

I _,1 . _ _1 I

F, ,t,.,,-

i,_,

1- ,:

lq
[
9 rl

-i
i

-i

i
]
)f,

A
[

I_i

4f_

F, qi'

i
T
_

Figure

4.5 Angular
This

control

surface

elevators,

to be employed

are:

was based

stability

to ensure
analysis

so that

the

1) Sweeping

use of an automatic

Roll

Axis

us to calculate

and rudders

dynamic

implementations
2) The

helped

size estimation

ailerons
The

have

analysis

Acceleration,

1I-I

sizes

on Elang's
better

the

values,

be stable
back

stability

The

final

36

sizes

alternative

during

for improved
system.

control

we decided

that several

would

the wings

for

control.

ascertained

wing

electrostatic

the

flight.
stability

surfaces.

Although

to slightly
appear

our

oversize

in Table

the

4.2:

design

methods

would

Some

of these

design

in all three

axes;

and

C'

1
_i
,_

02

?3

o
0 0

Q_
F

.'!

--F: _)

,4
'3

_
I

_!

T_

- --I0

Figure

4.6

Table

Angular

4.2,

Control

.....

IiJ

Acceleration,

Control

Surface

Surface

Yaw

Axis

Sizes:

Percent

of Chord

Length

I
I Percent

of Planform

Elevator

18.0

13.0

Aileron

18.0

2.9

N/ A

12.0

Vertical

Stabilizer

Rudder

N/A

31.7
endplate

percent

Area

of

planform

37
(ilt_N.qL

PAG_

4.4

Sweep-back

One feature
a stability

point

we decided

of view,

1) Swept-back
This

arises

wing

panel

effective

because
and

wings

decrease

produced

Normally,

with

moment.

the

created

by moments
aids

in drag

sweep-back,

'94 lacks

a tail,

Stability

System

one

of inertia

in yaw
tends

a flying

tail would

even

when they have no dihedral

is to increase

on

From

reasons:

of the airplane.
lift

the wings.

the
The

side,

sweep-back

change

lowering

angle

in sweep
it on

angle.
of one

alters

the

other,

the
and

_3

the moment

likewise

stability

side

was to sweep-back

for three

of yaw

increases

the horizontal
Banshee

other

increasing

by the differences
Even

Because

it for the

acceleration

3) Sweep-back

dihedral

of the angle

rolling

2) Sweep-back

for the aircraft

is important

have large

pressure,

a restoring

the angular

sweep-back

the effect

dynamic

producing

to implement

offset
it was

along

the pitch

to restore

Figure

4.7

the airplane

is inherently

the moments
decided

axis,

helping

to decrease

this axis.

stability.

wing

along

that

that

a yawing

to a straighter
unstable

generated
another

shows

along

flight
the

by the fuselage
method

for stability

moment
path.

pitch

axis.

and the wing.


would

have

to be utilized.

4.5

Electrostatic

The
Hopkins

electrostatic

Applied

Physics

stability
Labs.

system,

(ESS)

It is a device

was

invented

that operates

38

by Maynard
by measuring

L. Hill of the John


the earth's

magnetic

Drag

>

Drag

Sweepback

yields

improved

Yaw Stability

Figure

field

4.7

Effect

as a vertical

of Sweep-back

reference,

per foot. "_A complete


tenth

of a pound,

the StaticMaster
The

alpha

electrostatic

two-axis

uses

are also

it emits

widely

used

electromagnetic

functioning
of power

and costs

harmless

in industrial

gradient

in the roll and pitch

strip of radioactive
is quite

field

and

about

$130.

polonium
and

has

hobby

axes,

is about
weighs

Its principal

which

applications

about

one-

component

measures

a half-life

650 volts

static

of about

is

voltage.

six months.

for the elimination

of

charges.

In a simplified

Supplied

80 milliwatts

that

the earth's

system,

_ a one inch square

radiation

StaticMasters

since

by NRD

sense,

an electrostatic

Corporation,

2937

autopilot

Alt Blvd.
39

is a solid-state

Grand

Island,

electronic

NY.

unit that can be

Electrostatic

Stability

System

Differential
Voltage
Amplifier

Servos:

Figure

used
that

4.8 StaticMaster

in place
on

average

Electrical
about
useless

10 kilometers
over

broader

inertial
about
near

regions

whenever

of the

thunderstorms

cause

covered

seriously

StaticMaster
ions are

gyroscopes

from the edge of the storm.

has not been

these

for ESS

90 percent

for use on manned

The
from

exists

disturbances

appropriate
concept

of complex

Placements

aircraft
pursued

displaces

sent through

by frontal
where

the electric

time

over

the atmospheric

electric

rain,

reliability

a differential

and sand storms.

is a prime

(Figure

that

4.8).

surface.

range

method

is not

and this is why the

field,

Next,

7
and the signal

the signal

out to

field is sometimes

and aircraft.

magnetic

a condition

earth's

The

requisite,

weapons

the earth's

voltmeter

4O

of the

distances

snow,

ions from

is vertical,

over

for use on military

charged

90 percent

malfunctions

Also,

field

is sent

to mechanical

servos

controls

can be observed

layout

which

stabilize

the aircraft

in Figure

accordingly.

A more

detailed

view

of the

4.9.

n--

ill
.----y--.--

i
i

t.

,4.
B.

i
i

Controls

i
___._.,_._

Layout

_._p

t_..__

,mL__._

'

Figure

A.

4.9 Electric

Differential

Component

E. Rudder

Voltage

F. Throttle

B. Receiver

G. Switch
Servo

D. Aileron

differential
employed
first

through

I. Receiver

diagram
voltmeter,

here.

When

a servo

Servo

J. ESS Battery

L. StaticMaster

Servo

M. Servo

represents

the overall

(DVA).

the switch
interface

Battery

interaction

mechanical

two

is in its left position,

board,

which

converts
41

Pack

K. Op. Amp. (Gain = -1)

Servo

H. Switch

Servo

This

D.

Flowchart

Amplifier

C. Elevator

C.

Interface

Board

Pack

between
channel

the servos,
switch,

operated

receiver,
by

and
a servo

the analog

signal

from

the

signal

to a servo-compatible

analog

the

the DVA

travels

is

c--c---

E
C_D

f___

C2)

__

r---

G..?
f_D

C.ID
_J

-N
c___

--X

t'4

pulse-width

signal.

stabilizing
servos

4.6

The signal

the aircraft.

When

and the receiver,

Component

Two
gravity

position

in Table

were

surfaces

through

is in its right position,


surfaces

the servos,

a direct

can be displaced

automatically

link exists

between

kept in mind

manually.

while

the

The components

planform

analysis

was

and their

appropriate

Volume,

in 3

executed,
weights

center

4.3,

Batter_

Component

Weights
Mass,

Pack

Receiver
Batter3
Pack

can be seen

and Sizes

Ibm

Density,

Ibm/in _

0.1647

2.4079

0.0684

0.2093

3.0596

0.0684

Servos

(A)"

0.0664

1.1989

0.0554

Servos

(B) 3

0.1106

1.9968

0.0554

0.6644

23.5590

0.0282

0.0808

3.5459

0.0228

0.0083

O. 1709

0.0486

0.0245

0.8107

0.0302

0.1909

10.9688

0.0174

Tank

(Full)

Receiver
Static_laster
Switch
Circuitboard

ARIES
the duct.

of

4.3.

Component

Fuel

the

- Planform

and ease of wiring.

Table

ESS

the switch

the control

so that the control

Placement

factors

then moves

_'as used

Figure

4.10

to ensure

displays

2 Futaba

Model

FPSI48

3 Futaba

Model

FPS3001

that the center

the final

overall

of gravity
planform

42

was 7.43
of Banshee

inches
"94.

behind

the front

of

4.6

Conclusions

From
instability.
inches
slope

the
The

behind
being

static

This

the front

stabilized

rectified

was
which

stability

working
welcome

axis.
device

proved

that

with

a major

analysis,

two

provided

the roll and

pitch

our calculations
included.

the

center

be statically

the

shadow

of gravity
stable

showed

of intrinsic

placed

at 7.43

due to the Cmc_ vs c_


that the deficiency

of

problem.

stability

a more

under

as expected,

pathways.

immediate

system

to our aircraft

'94 would

design

through

and we fully expect

additions

performed

stability

provided

sweep-back

was

Banshee

dynamic

plight

in both

pitch

of the duct,

The

analysis

analysis

present

As anticipated,
the

stability

tail would

measure

electrostatic

the

stability

negative.

a horizontal

simple

outset,

First,

sweeping

in all

advanced

three

system

axes.

in which

back

the wings

Finally,
Banshee

was

placing

an

'94 could

be

axes.
showed
The

that the wing

electrostatic

it to be operational.
that will empower

43

would

stability
Sweep-back

us with

better

be inherently
system
along
control.

has

unstable
proven

along
to be

with the ESS will be

5. Propulsion

System

(,
5.1

Objective
In the process

system
there

which
must

conform

5.2.1
The
flight

weight

engine

flight.

One

an)' flight

Engine

engine

94'it

was imperative

characteristics

of a flying

that will produce

enough

In our circumstances

of the wing

a fuselage).
from

Banshee

for the unique

horizontal

to the shape

(eliminate
recover

is suitable

be a light

offs and stable

of designing

to reduce

of our desired

drag

to select
wing.

thrust

the propulsion

was the abilirj

As in all aircraft.

suitable

for runway

system

and give the appearance

factors

a propulsion

to have

should

also

of a flying
excess

take-

wing

power

to

difficulties.

Selection

selected

for our task proved

and maneuverability.

The

engine

to meet

selected

the requirements

was a single

expected

for level

OS Max 91 VR-DF

uAx.91VR-DF

Figure

_t'

5.1

OS Max

91 VR-DF

Engine

45
PNmgo4_

PAO_

n'..Af_

NOT

Ftl.M_

gas engine
Along

(figure

engine

is positioned

The
market.

because

A ducted

of time

designed

with

run

at high

performance
This

than

ounces

engine

sufficient

The
and

20%

RPM's
gives

power

Fan Gas Engine

sinks

engine

achieved

The reason

to the wings

along

the centerline

differently

shape.

for
The

of the aircraft.

from

to over

fuel

of the previous

to simulate

The

for two stroke

jet

and

This

of 4.6 BHP
system

engines.
heat

fan use.

Ducted

during

fan engines
91 engine

3.0 pounds

with the

engines

the engine

enhancement

and insures

are

with 20%

enables

and a static

fan

shorter

OS Max

of nitromethane

abilities.

for ducted

ducted

and approximately

output

on the

of the aircraft

especially

at high RPM's.

high performance

engine

Sabers,

the body

of this problem

The high percentage

46

and

propeller

the engine

Because

the aircraft.

made

conventional

the fan attached,

a total power

within

new

by this engine.

RPM, 1: causing

engines.

the net power

such as F-16

gas engine

runs on a standard

lubricant.

the engine

aircraft,

to cool the engine

12 without

to maneuver

aircraft.

of a propeller.

is a relatively

it can be placed

velocities

of 22,000

and enhances

surpasses

of gravity

controlled

conventional
heat

fan instead

controlled

and to best conform

is a two stroke

is designed

at speeds

assembly.

nitromethane

remote

91 engine

large

25.77

Ducted

for this task because

fan engine

periods

weights

91 VR-DF

OS Max

perform

wash

from the center

of the high exhaust

engines

a ducted

remote

Data

in many

It is used

The

propeller

Manufacture's
OS Max

high performance

91, we selected

4.5 inches

It is used

engines.

in many

was to eliminate

5.2.2

entire

used

with the OS Max

this decision

also

5.1),

thrust

that there

to

of
of 14.0
will be

lbs. _-'

5.3

Methods
Two

ducted

of Propulsion

main methods

fans.

Both

are extensively

propeller

piloted

maintenance.
a nose

is one major

error

simplicity

engines

and

the controls

would

aircraft

industry.

There

the airfoil

a flying

aircraft

The

elevators

the ducted

The propeller

of the propeller,
over

are currently

driven

cone.

propeller

there
called

fans are just

for the aircraft,


piloted

beginning

delayed

engines

can be easily

mounted

of the engine

makes

is a turbulent
propeller

propellers

aircraft,

and

but propellers

to become

accepted.

flow

are very

propulsion

systems

reliable

Propeller

surfaces,

the control

it useable

wash

mainly

wing

is an inherently

the aircraft even

more

unstable.

of the elevators

This

or ailerons,

Fan

47

originates

This

unstable
undesired
resulting

The
in many

little

of the engine

aircraft.

with

speed

turbulent

air over

the

Making

is undesirable
the lack

possibly

in catastrophic

rotation

and travels

situations.

of control

could

On all

the engine

configuration,
effect

very

by the high
from

lack

in the

aircraft.

on some

is produced

difficult

of time.

shaft

for many

the elevators.

of the aircraft

for a period

and take

on to the driving

of air which

a flying

Ducted

used

to the use of propellers

wash.

or ineffective

Since

are the most widely

disadvantage

makes

in the performance

5.3.2

considered

in use for remotely

Propeller

and past the control


ailerons

wing.
make

were

Propellers

Free
remotely

methods

used while

5.3.1

of propulsion

for

of control
create

consequences.

an

Ducted

Ib

remotely

piloted

internal

engines.

be mounted

fan engines

have

aircraft.

Ducted

The reason

inside

Ducted
temperatures.
than

other

ducted
overheat

The

fan engines
when
Besides

pointed

are very

91 engine

diameter

with

nine blades

driven

sensitive

engine

aircraft

for

jet aircraft

is because

with

of their

ability

to

which

fans

which
makes

in its scale.

run at high
them

One

the advantages

fan.

The Ducted

ibr the OS Max

substitute

the flow

fan Assembly

have

drawback

speeds

and high

a greater

output

is the fact that

and have

been

known

to

equipment.

of overheating,

specifically

and drive

of propulsion

in scaled

due to their high performance,

with a ducted

is made

as a form
used

in these

engines

of the ducted

with the proper

the possibility

OS Max

counter-clockwise

propeller

to work

Ducted

are high performance

not operated

our team

are primarily

application

Ramtech

high performance

two stroke

accepted

of the aircraft.

5.2

fan engines

been

fan engines

for their

the frame

Figure

only recently

for a propeller.

of air into ten stator

48

over

propeller

Fan assembly
91.

The
The

blades

driven

being

used

fan unit is 5.25


nine

fan blades

which

directs

engines
with the

inches

in

rotate
the air to flow

parallel to

the duct.

and integrates

itself

engines

heat sinks.

through

the center

approximately
adequate

5.4

to the engine

thrust

to make

The assembly

flying

last year were

from the center

to produce

attached,

each

wing

design,

of 22,000

center

of gravity

assembly
Both

engines

time

of 10 minutes.

many

it was

very

difficult

and control

A single

be simpler

unequal

thrust

has a total weight


of thrust.

Giving

the current

two ducted

Engines.

These

from

the quarter

at static

passes

of

more

received

fuel tank

than

chord.

and

at equal

Each

operated

fuel tank

was

thrust

difficult

levels.

22 inches

engine

was

fan

at a maximum

located

tank,

engines

placed

With the ducted

a central

system

The

were

was a 12 oz fuel

engine

to run the engines

engines

one pound

fuel from

The twin

fan engines.

conditions.

approximately

The central

flight

used

11 inches

weighed

of the aircraft.

As a result

Elang,

Fan Gas

and

approximate

also

over the

of a 20 inch duct which

assembly

14 pounds

15.6 N (3.5 lbs) of thrust

RPM.

in yaw

The

the OS 25 Ducted

engine

speed

engine.

about

flow

of our aircraft.

line of the aircraft

predicted

resulted

shape for parallel

to the front
entire

to the stator blades,

Engine

Last years

cases,

of the engine

an aerodynamic

The

and produces

for the purposes

at the neck

is mounted

line of the aircraft.

3.0 pounds

Single

used

The fan unit is mounted

near

giving

the

the

to operate.

These

In

conditions

problems.
propulsion

engine

will eliminate

to adjust

to the engine

will be eliminated

team

decided

the possibility
during

with only

to utilize
of these

preparations
one power

49

a higher
problems

and flight

source.

horsepower
reoccurring.

tests.

The fuel

The

mixture

single
It will

possibility

of

can be easily

adjusted

by the needle

5.5

valve

to regulate

is the heaviest

of the aircraft.
control

The

fuel

location

of the center

accordingly.

components.

was placed

effect

on the center

of gravity,

in front of the leading

away

edge

of gravity

can be place

of the internal

from the center

of the airfoil,

The

the internal

Then the engine

After placement

4.5 inches

assembly.

of gravity.

and makes

This

the duct

in length.

system

is composed

of fuel

will give

of gravity

are the second

heaviest

fuel

94'an
time

of fuel remaining.

internal

correctly

tanks located
estimated

The

fuel

and because
there

engine

running

unstable

by a series

because

center

of reducing
of tubing

fly, without

on opposite

of the tanks is critical


of their

of the duct.

time of 20

taxi, and

tanks were placed

is the possibility

to the engine

to a Y-connection

on both sides

to start the engine,

The positioning

component,

tanks are connected

the duct and attaches

12 ounce

adequate

of the airplane.

the fuel tanks are not positioned


The

of two

the Banshee

the aircraft

about the amount

of the center

the aircraft.

of the propulsion

System

This will give

concerning

inches

20 inches

ounces

minutes.

through

and fuel consumption.

and has the largest

the correct

of the internal

assembly

is only several

Fuel

on the aircraft,

is the location

fuel tanks can be placed

the engine

of the airplane

Twelve

and

the moments

components
location

object

in the design

After determining

components

to counteract

5.6

power

Location

One of the major factors


engine

the maximum

the

they

of gravity.
stability

which

If
of

passes

on the left side of the duct, and then

5o

sides

proceeds

to the engine

inlet.

_multaneously.

This configuration

Both tanks will not need

(mgine

already

produces

5.7

Engine

Type

The current
lower

power

effects

an appropriate

engine

outputs.

of varying

was

The

wind

the variables,

were temperature,
the
were

wind

attached

gages

The thrust

voltage

and thrust

were

to measure

secured
gages

tests were

before
The

RPM's

and

tachometer

using

similar

to determine

of

the

input devices

RPM.

The constants
consisted

sensor.

of an aluminum

of the engine.

meters

which

amplified

the experiments.

The photocell
engine

testing

the signal

gage was used

tachometer
to determine

and

Each pair

in to useful
between

to determine

fiber optic

when

on two engines

51

available

to the propulsion

was

bar

A linear relationship

pressure

engines

rod which

the thrust

torque

gages,

The

to a flexible

and

to

of the tests

of a strain

or a fiber optic

was made

were utilized

the engine

team.

the

sensor

power.
conducted

the

engines

The rod was attached

wind tunnel

during

several

The input devices

to measure

the experiment.

engine

torque,

The mount

to voltage

was calibrated

of experiments

the experiments,

by a stand.

connected

during

at maximum
The

and

tube because

output.

and photocell
mount.

from an exhaust

in the WPI wind turmel

fuel mixture.

was determind.

velocity

running

gages,

were

freestream
used

and

of strain

gage

were tested
on engine

both tanks

to draw the fuel.

a series

wind velocity,

on an aluminum

two pairs

of the strain
data.

pressure

to the engine

containing

thrust,

to draw from

to be pressurized

after

the data from

pressure,

tunnel

mounted

engines

the engine

vacuum

selected

velocities

In order to record
determine

enables

The

is

engines were, the OS 61 propeller

engine and the OS 25 ducted fan.

max power, was tested at wind tunnel speeds from 0 to 100 mph.
Freestream Velocity

plot was determined for each engine.

Each engine, running at

A resulting Thrust vs.

The OS 61 engine had a maximum

thrust of 5.5 lbs, which is slightly lower than the manufactures

data of 6.0 lbs.

The OS 25

ducted fan engine test resulted in 2.0 lbs of thrust, which was lower than the manufactures
data of 3.5 lbs.
experimental
maximum

The resulting curves of each engine proved to be very similar in shape.

results were then scaled up to the current engines performance

thrust of 14 lbs given by the manufactures

The

level using a

data for the OS Max 91 VR-DF ducted

fan engine.
In many cases the manufactures
The output of the engine can fluxuate
improper fuel choice.

data is greater

than the actual output of the engine.

due to an improper

mixture of air to fuel ratio or

In the case of a improper air to fuel ratio, it takes practice

when the engine is working at its maximum


corrected, the manufactures

RPM.

Even though

data may still not be accurate.

these mistakes

RPM), 50% (I 1,000 RPM), and 25% (5500 RPM).

for these calculations

is that the engines

may be

For this reason the propulsion

team calculated the thrust output of the engine at several engine speeds,
75% (16,500

to realize

have similar properties

100% (22,000

RPM),

The major assumption


and react similarly

made

to the

change in velocity.
The f'trst calculation was taken at one quarter (5,500
engine.

The purpose

for this calculation

is to verify the cruise velocity

During flight the engine will not be running a full throttle,


maximum

output.

RPM) the power

outpm of the

of the flying wing.

but at about 25% to 30% its

This will ensure a reasonable cruise velocity which corresponds

52

to the

figures

calculated

by the aerodynamics

The second

series

The main purpose


because

of experiments

of this calculation

a large percentage

abilities

throttle.

These

maximum

the

experiments

current

to made

maneuvers.

these

flying

RPM).

conditions,

limits.

RPM).

The fourth

to see the performance

conducted.

performing

The experiment
The proposed

the tests

The

results

vs. Velocity

on the current

at 100%,
from

This was to see the

calculation

of the engine

The

are now in progress.

was

taken at full

at the manufactures

75%,

velocity

the OS Max

will be run in a similar

50%

and 25%

testing

These

with

manner

tests

were delayed

91 engine's
as the

the calculations

increased

smaller

engine

previously

taken,

tests
by

power.

and calculations

can be seen

in the Thrust

- Drag

5.3.

of the drag

cruise

to handle

tests will coincide

the engine

plot in figure

At the intersection

engine

stand was not sufficient

and power.

aircraft.

output at normal

time will be within

and aerial

(11,000

thrust data.

because

were

the thrust at half throttle

was taken at 75% output (16,500

during climbs

Plans for tests

weight

determined

was to see the engine

of the flight

The third experiment


engines

team.

curve

and the 25%

of the Banshee

estimated

at 35 mph.

The maximum

velocity,

estimated

at 93 mph.

The

velocity

estimated

at 76 mph.

maximum

94',

thrust
through

assuming

curve

the engine

during

velocity

testing,

the manufactures

at 75% power

53

is the cruise

of the

has been
data is accurate,

horizontal

flight

is

is

Thrust- Drag Vs. Velocity


Psem 100_

80 2_4t, 1Brim

14
13

I!

',

-4

"_-

"*

4 /

"6.

"= -q,

"._

'

.L=..- -_

20

Figure

5.8

5.3

Excess
After

notice

Thrust

reviewing
power

thrust could

When taking
for cruise

the engine,
significantly

15

40

4.5

_rG

55

60

_L_

/o

"/$

00

IL_

90

95

_0

vs. Velocity

the results

of the current

delivered

by the engine

the OS Max 91 ducted

The extra

required

- Drag

]10

Power

the excess

choosing

_1

off from

a small

larger than

percentage

cruise

One of the factors

it is easy

considered

to use extra

it is necessary

cruise

conditions

of the available

velocities,

performance,

to

when

thrust when

needed.

of reasons.

a static position,
Therefore

predicted

was the ability

be used for a variety

conditions.

but only

fan engine

engines

but the excess

to have

a greater

velocity

can not be the maximum

power.

Take-off

power

is required

than

thrust of

velocities

are not

in several

other

areas.

An additional
engine
The

is selected

greater

need

for power

to perform

the engines

power

at only

is required
cruise

the faster and

in the rate of climb

velocity,

the aircraft

higher an aircraft

54

of the aircraft.

If a

will not be able to climb.


can climb.

When

selecting

an

enginefor the Banshee


the pilot
Imother
have

less limitations
reason

greater

additional

chance

power

power

possible

errors

flying

maximum

in the Banshee

for the possibility

is greater than

94' may have occurred

additional

factor

to connect

This problem

pass

through

fiber

reduce

the blockage

5.9

Rate

in the original

not noticed

the wings

is solved

carbon

is also a large possibility

not estimated

and

rods.

The

was

he would

available.

The

but to compensate

of errors the designer


limitations.

The engine

must

Some
made

must

for
use a

of the

for the drag of


data on the

also compensate

for

were the

fiber

design.
stages

block
airfoil

shell will be placed

and to make

conditions,

and the control

a symmetric

This

of an error in the manufactures

the duct and partially

by creating

power

in the assumptions

in the early

as spars,

is more

the calculations

output of the OS Max 91 engine.

weight

an easy transition

of design

rods passing

the air flow


shell which

carbon

through

produced

the duct.

by the fan unit.

will contain

the control

in the duct over the areas

of interest

to

for the airflow.

of climb

As discussed
for utilizing

which

for error.

to give

a larger array of aerial maneuvers.

for flight

power

objects

rods and

To compensate

We wished

an error in judgement,

if there

the pilot to perform

There

One

These

for his mistake

also allow

source

and more room

wing.

unpredicted

rod, used

capabilities,

was not only considered

in calculations.
or power

was the flight performance.

If the pilot was to make

to compensate

would

material

the

on the planes

for extra power.

Excess
errors

94 ', a main concern

previously,

an engine

the rate of climb

with excess

power.

of the aircraft was

one of the major

From the test data the propulsion

55

reasons

group

was able to make

velocities.

calculations

on the rate of climb

at various

power

outputs

and

These equation used to predict the rate of climb of the aircraft was

RC = Climb

rate

T = Thrust

V = Velocity

R C = 60,

The results
shown

formed

in figure

a plot of climb

W=

Weight

D = Drag

( TV- D I,
J
W

rate vs. velocity

for power

outputs

of 75% and 50%,

as

5.4.

Rate of Climb Vs. Velocity


30
t9
Ill

gy"
10
14

13
12

'\

t
tO
Raw

dOmb

O_n)

"L

t_

I]
/

9.

|
/
6

5
/

4
$

/,
2

/,
/

i
/,
0

,
20

Figure

5.4

The maximum

5.10

Climb

Rate

rate of climb

40

60

O0

m
mO

vs. Velocity

with 75%

thrust

is 19 fi/s at 55 mph.

Equations
Other calculations

which

resulted

from the Thrust

56

- Drag vs. Velocity

plot were,

lift-

off velocity, lift-off distance,andlandingdistance.


which

the aircraft

elevator

control

is able to take off with a 4 degree

= density

W=

Weight

S = Surface

V_

angle

be for the
lift-off

of attack

of attack

estimates

and without

C t = Coeficent

Area

Vj = stall

Lift-off

Velocity

V_o = 1.2V_

The

angle

velocity

the speed
using

at

the

surfaces.

As discussed

The lift-off

lift-off

distance

=56.2

velocity

was also determined

and without

the use of elevator

T = Thrust

pSCt

=38.81

is slightly

mp_

greater
using

than

the cruise

the same

velocity

assumptions

of 33 mph.

of a 4 degree

surfaces.

D = Drag
Lift-off

lift

speed

= 1.2,

/_ls

of

g = gravity

Distance
2W

Djo =1.44

Thrust
D_

The

estimated

landing

distance

at 75 %

=64.59

/?

is predicted

using

a landing

I_o = Ve_

D_

ing _)tis_bqc_

2s

velocity

VL = Landing

2s

a velocity

feet of 40 mph and

of 35 mph.

Velocity

D_
57

at fifty

a = acceleration

= 59.83

fl

!
t

i
i

5.11

Conclusion
After

engine

considering

with a adequate

propulsion
engine

Design

project,

engine

meets

hopefully

the needs

91 engine

stable

upon the OS Max


of the Banshee

was also purchased

expecting

flight,

94 ', a light

91 DF-VR

Ducted

94 ', and leaves


to provide

of the current

to meet the expectations

high power,

running

time.

Fan Engine.

The

room flight

or design

for next years Advanced

Advanced
of future

58

weight,

and reasonable

that they will not increase

the expectations

continue

of the Banshee

rate of climb,

team decided

satisfies

OS Max

the needs

the design

parameters

Aerodynamics
design

groups.

single
The

OS Max
changes.

91
The

Aerodynamics
significantly.

Design

group

The

and will

6. Structures
6.1.

Introduction:
The

structures

and the Propulsion


Banshee

'94.

responsibility

has

surmounts

loads,

group

group

sectional

requirement
order

given

aircraft

Deas

and

confirming

of the plane,

plants,

to accomplish

The

results

from

displacement

(or deformation)

experimental

tests

bottom
against

on test

with Kevlar
the values

given

This

integrity

of the aircraft

through

these

the
have

shape

design

structural

tasks,

Nastran

by the FEM

used

Program;

made

was tested
codes.
59

and

a large

group

analyses

the

to assure
deflection
on stress

the size and

of connections

the best structural

different

In addition,

section

section

boundary,

the

for all

arrangement

and to respond

to the

with light weight.

uses two
group

structures,

thickness,

as well as to obtain

group

any

Another

since

gear,

of

since

also to be determined

The structures

safety

of the wing

beam

of the

in the structure,

is to determine

weight

performance

but also to assist in designing

structures
the

possible

aircraft

built in fuel tanks, and landing

the structures

MSC/Nastran

for the structural

to use, the appropriate

the group

group

integrity

geometric

unstable

Control

the structural

the

exis:ing

the

of maintaining

The deformations

of the structural

structure,

the

acting

become

Ultimately,

for items such as power

In

the

the kind of material

shape

of the aircraft

important

is to determine

stall and

not only to determine

parts

upon

displacement

group,

with the lightest

effect

of the structure

the plane

the cross

is responsible

deformations

there is no excessive

may make

the Aerodynamic

the problems

detrimental

the

make-up

with

has to be accomplished

of the

mechanical

that

integrity

weight

material

group

working

The structures

The structural
excess

group,

of PVC
to failure;

a detailed
Finite

simple

the
foam

Element

analytical

especially

with

structures
covered

the data

analysis

obtained

for a

pakages
methods

regard
group

to

for
the

conducted

on both
was

l-

top

and

compared

6.2.

Material
For

selection:
construction

construction,

and

aluminum
shape

etc...)
They

Composite
proper

composite

weight

are

also

sheet,

or "skin",

1960's,

to as

profound

impact

advanced
on

defined

as

stiffness)

fibers,

material

anisotropic,

consisting

which

is embedded

materials

because
ratios

including

of their
Among

the

care

strength,

Using

"core"

would

little attention

that a composite
provide

the best

filaments

started

a new

filaments

like boron

remarkable
An

have

for

structure
strength

to

high

high

mechanical

composite

and

and even

are still ideal

has been

chosen

are

has

This makes

physical

properties

metals

such

is

the
that

and new

as aluminum,

materials,
expensive
structural
and

the weight
than

their

applications

stiffness-to-weight

for the "Banshee

modulus(or

such as Kevlar,

for the

had

material

high

are more

strength-to-weight

and graphite

matrix.

of composite

structures

of

composite

strength,

materials

generation

of material

homogeneous

the properties

materials

class
advanced

small-diameter,

6O

with

for the aircraft.

the resulting

Kevlar

and needs

we decided

thermoplastics,

properties;

the new materials,

handled

great

to advanced

though

composite

important

if not

in an essentially

polymide,

Even

easily

continuous

materials

are also used.

by 30%.

counterparts,

such

In addition

and nickel

is reduced

since

wood,

damage

technology

of

(balsa

wing

This

design

material

vat 3' with direction.

titanum,

airframe

construction

to a complex

of boron

composites

conventional

applied

to a foam

modulus

categories;

when

these two factors,

durability

basic

fabrication
and

the emergence

with

two

Conventional

can afford

laminated

Composites

referred

metal

however,
Comparing

In the early

matrix

in nature,

ratio as well as the desired

are

construction

brittle

construction,

composites

there

can lead to time consuming

maintenance.

of a face

materials,

94".

6.2.1.

Kevlar:
Kevlar

nitrogen,

Aramid

and is produced

properties

are low,

due

organic

high tensile

fibers,
strength

There
myriad

overall

and

49 aramid

shatter,

fiber

characterized

by low

performance

composite
damping,

up to 40%

of the weight

4 times

tough

laminates

If compared

are characterized

Kevlar

fibers

does

not bond

will bond

aircraft

structurally

for the

high

tensile

Banshee

to

by their

light

to damage,

for reinforcement,

behavior

of

elongation
aluminum

Kevlar
Usable

61

design

strength

stress

rupture

matrix
in

causing

the

fail, would

fail

Moreover,
because

It is used

the reinforced

it is

in high-

and

stiffness,

are

the

composites

main

can save

at the same stiffness

49 is linear
strength

at less than

resin,

if they

It

integrity,

compromised

high

and

to the resin

to the

for

low weight

structural

modulus

weight,

fatigue,

of glass fiber composites

some

of the

type 49 weave

directly

materials,

and

49. Out

and

'94 structural

strength

where

a Kevlar

directly

leaving

the

Kevlar

for its high strength

these

resistance

of T075-T6

we chose

scenario

49 is applied

340 kips/in _ and 18%


about

produces

fibers

and

its material

of Kevlar

29 and

In the same

applications

stress-strain

Kevlar

yet still hold and maintain

is preferred

and

If Kevlar

primarily

Other

density,

properties

The

of Kevlar,

that exist today,

quality

impact

to be brittle

catastrophically

fibers

aramid

oxygen,

With

Kevlar

properties

to the

of Kevlar--

construction

for its failure

of an isolated

vibration

types

for the fiber to deform,

material

Kevlar

different

of the wing

This allows

polyamide

of fiber materials

also chosen

the case

aromatic

matrices

polymers.

and low-cost,

the compressive

of resin

hydrogen,

and high modulus

are two

of numbers

the majority
was

the

of carbon,

polyamide

strength,

however,

coupling

compound

long-chained

and high tensile

structure;

to poor

organic

by spinning

of low density,

and impact-resistant

other

is an aromatic

to ultimate

of

Kevlar

halfthe

density

failure

49

in tension

reinforced

In addition,

epoxy
Kevlar

at
is
49

on a pound-for-poundbasis

is five times

illustrates

curves

tensile

stress/strain

as strong

as steel.

for tensile loading.

HS

_.

Figures

11

Kevlar 49

Kevlar

The

I
graphite

glass

"_

i 29
Boron
D
HM
4,

Other

graphite

organics
E glass

'N

'

o N i' uT
0

Figure

6. ! a Specific tensile modulus.

Boron

!0 _ in _

S-glass i

HS 9rlphile

400 _'--HM
300 '

Aluminum
7075.-T6 ..
IO0
Non'_x

Figure

6.1b

1.0

Stress

2.0

and

strain

3.0

curves

of vorious

4.0

fibersl

epoxy.

( Reproduced

from

Airframe

Structural

Analysis,

62

by Michael

C.Y. Niu)

6.1a

& 6.1b

Kevlar49 is
In addition
advantage

it can

in many

resins

water

Kevlar

make

the surface

carbon

6.2.2.

it hard
have

Carbon

Kevlar.

Their

and low shrinkage

during

offer

good

not

fiber-matrix

with metal.

in hybrid

composites

high adhesion

makes

to

take

completed

it has been

Epoxy

resins

bagging

treated

with

will look somewhat

edges

For

industry.

them

useful

have
( about

also
3%)

adhesion.

cut well after

to cut the trailing

areas

in contact

cure or vacuum

to fray, and the edge

been

fiber in designated

or graphite

in aircraft

does

reaction

of each fiber.

to reinforce

cut, iT has a tendency

This would

glass

no galvanic

applications

properties

However,

once

are used

resistance

Their conductive

with

properties

high-performance

excellent

and exhibits

be combined

of the unique
Epoxy

When

nonconductive

of the control

these

reasons,

a resin

matrix

like a shag

carpet.

surfaces,

which

is done

we have

also

decided

to use

high strength

was

needed

Since

of the craft

Fiber:

The carbon
the area around

fiber was also applied

the components

decided

that a layer

strength

lost

of carbon

to areas

in the upper
fiber would

The duct was also made

where

surface

have holes

be used around

of carbon

in them

the holes

since

it would

and

component

for access,

to regain

have

no foam

some

it was
of the

for support

and rigidity
To further
spars

were

placements

the strength

inserted

through

to add support

in the duct,
these

areas

for their mountings

63

joint,

These

extend

to

areas,
both

two
rear

carbon

fiber

landing

gear

6.2.3.

PVC

Foam

Core:

The composite
t

a cushioning

skin was built on a foam core

medium,

to withstand

the majority

The purpose

of the shear

of this core is to act as

forces,

and add to the rigidity

of the wing
There
foams

and

are two types

polyvinyl

chloride

PVC foams

for many

has excellent

tension,

of foam

skin layers increasing

PVC

adhesion

foams

the PVCs'
weight,

closed

is much

strength

Another

qualities

stronger

strengths

reason

to shape

3 lb

PVC

density

without
We

good

and rigidity

that

we opted

to support,

to use

control

Lastly, PVC

density
for fewer

with composite

causing

Due to
undesired

is easy to work with

For the Banshee


would

skins

communication

of the wing shape


the foam,

the

The foam

and allows

bond and stress

this foam

Polystyrene

vary with the chosen

permeate

crumbling

felt

94",

is its compatibility

the resin cannot

a uniform

structures:

than polystyrene

that

with resins for a superior

the wings strength

Methods

"Banshee

the load that the skin is required

and sanded
45,

in composite

For the

and shear

cell construction

type

maintaining

It can

'94, we chose

be the

lightest

the

while

with only one skin layer

of analysis:

Today,
application

PVC

used

do not melt with resins, thus allowing

be hot wired

6.3

foams

First,

compression,

and thus maintaining

Klegecell,

commonly

(PVC)

reasons

This reduces

It has better

of foam

there

of stress

are

many

analysis

a) Abaqus

and Ansys

anisotropic

materials,

b) _
buckling

finite

element

methods

are used for non-linear

which

dynamics

While

permit

the

good for

but they are poor for composites

is an excellent

method

for analyzing

and vax
64

composites,

non-linear

post

efficient

c)

I-Deas

is a graphical

d)

Nis......_aa
is good

e) Msc/Natran
structures
The
method

l-Deas
Research

groups

is a finite

After

or elements

The

graphical

but poor

method

The

stress,

strain,

three

the model

borderline

between

for some

I-DEAS

results

since I-DEAS
our wing

the Kevlar

with arbitrary

thickness

over estimate

the stress,

one needs

are

non-linear

and

displayed

the

structural

along

the span.

structures,

models

of

are then

into four

for a worst

65

number
entered

with

Since

elements

I-DEAS
forced

a shell with an arbitrary

solid

Dynamics

of the object

the forces

graphically

we were

and

on either

give the best results.

allowing

drawing

to the desired

The maximum
a

Structural

to

of nodes,
the code

in

and restraints
different

colors

ranges

the wing

skin, is a thin sheet


would

by

CAD

down

to break

as a shell.

definition

to be analyzed

or deflection

elements

produced

The third step is to enter

of composite

the

code

has to be broken

modulus

model

the complexities

we chose

modeling

we decided

and twenty

component,

analysis,

of the materials

and shear

to the

First,

element

properties

different

assumptions

the

To run the program,

For our wing,

handle

chose

this the object

the form of elastic,

direction,

for structural

and vax.

CODE:

be analyzed

representing

on composite

Msc/Nastran

Corporation

to be applied

an analysis

is excellent

structure

I-DEAS

for doing

ofanalysis.

of analysis,

6.3.1.

method

is not programmed
to make
thickness,

thickness

shell.

case scenario.

a number

Since

our

to
of

or as a solid,

of the wing

side of the wing,


This would

in the chord-wise

main

lies on the
structural

we felt that the shell

also cause

the program

to

Sincethe model can be madeof only one material for use of I-DEAS, our
compositehad to be convenedto
Since the calculation

a single

"material"

for the ratio for Young's

Modulus

be small

it was felt that the elastic

the shear

modulus,

be supporting

the values

the majority

Finally,

the forces

vertical

loading

weight,

the weight

is shown
shown
the

was

in Figure

Control

from rotation

the

resultant

The

A diagram

properties

and Kevlas

proved

be neglected

to

However,

since it was believed

conditions

from

and the winglet

The moment
Finally,

entered

cruise

forces

drag

could

material

for

that it would

stresses

for level flight

62

6.3

group.

of these

the

of the foam

of the PVC

for the PVC were

of the wing,

in Figure

modulus

to enter

loading

of all forces

root

was

given

to the model

lift distribution,

at the quarter

restrained

in all three

to the wing can be seen

chord,

The

component

A graph

by the Aerodynamic

applied

was

applied

elliptical

at the tip combined

of 10 fl-lbs,

the wing

the

were applied

of this load

group,

and

was given

is
by

axis and restrained


in Figure

6,4

10. 3

Ibt'u_ 10.3

F/
1000_

-I10.00 q--

i
7_.00

p
0.00

_ooo"

i
20.00-

F
O.OC :

-_.00

.,_0.00

5100

::i

'

40.00"i
3_00

nnn

_._k

10.00

Y,_

Figure

_00

6.2: Lift-Weight

--.;
0.00

_000

Loading

66

Figure

l
_
1000

1
210.nn

6.3: Drag Loading

)000

dlO_

After
Von Mises,
maximum
stresses

running the program,


and

maximum

stress

occurs

occurring

238 KSI

of the

principal
in the

at a given
Kevlar

shows

a maximum

these

values

skin.

diagram

This maximum

as being
for

printed

The

can be seen

Mises

The diagram

acceptable

were

stresses

Von

point.

deflection

are

the results

in Figures

which,

value

two

confirming

6.5 and

in short,

in Figure

of an inch.

soundness

|O-Bt oq)

of

I_

_ -s_- i b_mmJ

Figure

6.4:

Load Forces

67

Applied

6.6.

is the total

exaggerated

thousandths
the

for XY

plane,
The
of all

of 1.195 KSI falls well within the

of the deflection,

almost

readings

to Wing

in I-Deas

6.7,

We felt that
the

3): 11

structure

p,3

,4

f$.,
/

!
I
_O

Figure

6.5:

Sresses

68

in the X-Y Plane

,.,

;_-J

P
R

r.

t
1I
,f,,

,;|I

I!!
--

.--j

t
q

.m

!
p,

Figure 6.6:

Von-Misis
69

and Maximum

Principle Stresses

__
0

I_

0
0

0
0
0

e;

(w

\
C

"C
i

0
0

E
i

0
o
0

^_"
qP_

eo_

WD
_e

11_

Figure

6.7:

Wing
7O

0
0
0

Deflection

__c_

6.3.2

Msc/Nastran

Code:

Msc/Nastran

is a new analysis technique

four types of problems


a) Plane

analysis

CQUAD4

OR CQUAD8

Beam

(Using

bar elements)

c)

Plate

(Using

CQUAD4

d)

Solid

(Using

CHEXA

uses

a Finite

of a structure

which are interconnected

for defining

and loading

(see Appendix
1 Executive

Element

file

for one of the

a structural

model

elements)

elements)

Structural

are represented

are calculated

model,

wherein

by a finite number

the

distributed

of structure

elements,

Loads are applied

With the specific

assumptions,

for "Banshee'94",are

generated

to grid points
the procedures
through

deck-

problem

deck - title ( Winfem

3 Grid point definition

identification
Nastran

Output,

- Grid point identifications

4 Grid point constraints

pagel )

and coordinates

- Grid point identifications

and constraint

( pages 3 to 6)
codes

(p 3 to

6)
5 Elements

- Elements

connectives
6 Properties
required)
L
w

7 Material

eight

DI )

control

2 Case control

a data

elements)

at a finite number of grid points

and for which displacement

steps

(Using

b)

properties

generates

stress

Msc/Nastran
physical

which

(pages

identifications,

- Young

identifications

,and grid point

3 to 6)

- Material identifications
(pages

property

and thickness

(or section

3 to 6)
Modulus,

Poison
71

ratio (pages

3 to 6)

properties,

if

f
f_

8, Load grid point identifications


In comparing
that the differences
respectively,

are great.

at the point

For the shear

_w

the results

from Msc/Nastran

The Maximum

of maximum

Stresses,

values

suggest

codes

From

we
that
these

have

2.766

numbers

be To further

to those

Principal

and

1195

assumptions

have

investigate

113.62

lb/in".

impact

564.33

lb/in:.

for the Von-

differences

in these

on the results

values

we find

and l-Deas

Finally,

large

the l-Deas

this, we performed

lb/in 2 and

The

a great

we can also find that

(p. 3to 6)

for Msc/Nastran

is 3.983

lb/in".

of forces

from the I-De, as code,

Stress

lb/in 2 and

lb/in:

the different

components

value for I-Deas,

in the X-Y they are 0.0436

Mises

they should

and Cartesian

of these

may be higher

an experimental

than

test with a beam

section

6.3.3

Experimental
To check

decided

whether

to compare

obtained

Analysis:
the assumptions

the strains

of a computer

20 inches

long, 2 inches

layer

of

laminated

where

Kevlar

the maximum

to fifteen

pounds

experimental

failure,

deformation.

strain

error

the

(Fig6.8).
failed.
lower

of the

thick,

of a composite

same

and

specimen.

1 inch wide.

would

occur,

a strain

The deflection
The test beam
surface

The

Kevlar

The beam was then simulated

_uckled,

approximately

with the FEM

of

the

foam

codes

cantilever
core

with a

end of this beam

Weight

between

was measured
and found

zero

with

15%

to be near zero

13.5 lbs before


beam

it was

with the data


was

At the fixed

was affixed.

and

correct,

specimen

made

was also measured,


withstood

were

test specimen

It was

surfaces.
gauge

codes

from the free end, and the strain

72
b

for the FEM

to the top and bottom

were then hung

until the specimen


Upon

and deflection

simulation

beam

used

suffered

and assumptions

failing
massive
used for

t_
the wing

All forces

results are shown

Figure

6.8:

were

applied,

in Figure

Test Beam

69.

including
From

the distributed

weight

this, we can conclude

Dimensions

Figure

of the beam

that the I-Deas

6.9: Comparison

codes

Comparison

of analytical

ethods

The
are a

of Test

and l-Deas

6.3.4

itself

Data

with Msc/Nastran

6.3.4. I. _Veight/Strength
Minimizing
design

the weight

of the aircraft

This led to the use of composite

well as new types


From
the outside
can figure
may include

of structures

the design
dimensions

out the

has been a major

materials

such as

such as a geometrical

block

point of view, with a given

loading

(geometry)

optimum

all the requirements

of the structure

configuration

of the

as to breaking

73

consideration

PVC,

Kevlar,

strength,

structure.
deflection,

exist),
The

fatigue

as

all loads.

and the limitations

(if such limitations


internal

and Graphite,

wing containing
systems

in the present

on

a designer

loading
etc ....

system

In determiningthe optimumdesign,the most importantloading criterion is the


ultimatestrength Stiffnessmayalsoberequiredto modify the optimumstructureandin
somecases,may bevery importantas to outweighstrengthcompletely. Becauseof the
importanceof providingadequatestrengthat minimumweight,it hasbecome customary
to evaluatematerialsandstructuresvia their strength/weightratios
A strength/weightfactor canbe obtainedby dividing the ultimatetensile strength
of materialby its density2
Strength/Weight =
Strength'Weight

o +9

= (p,

= (o F.S) + 13

F. S) + (A - 9)

(equation

6.1 a )

(equation

6 I b)

where
Ultimate

FS

member,

of a uniform

Moreover.
materials

a factor

Factor

Normal

Area

has

strength

Densit,,

Such

tensile

the

section,

of Safety
Force

dimension

of length

It represents

the

at which

the material

fail in tension

under

the factor

is considered

can withstand

(Appendix

as the

of maximum

D2)

Factor ( StrengthrWeight

) PVC

Factor

PVC,-Kevlar

(Strength,%'eight)

limit

= 152 inches

74

160

inches

length

displacement

of vertical

its own weights


at which

the

6.3.4.2.

Check

Shear

Stress

and Bending

An additional
the spanwise
wing

method

and the chordwise

assumed

acting

the airfoil
6.3.4.3.

Section
PVC

and which
Properties

foam

Modulus(E),
product

on the half wing

section,

"Q45"

of a Young

Modulus

ofva_'ing

rigidity

is distributed

value

along

and bending

geometrical

the aerodynamic

(see Appendix

along
tapered

as a total load,

as a homogeneous

In the case
of

moments

which
center

is
of

D3)

Materials

and the Moment

must be calculated

and through
spanwise

However,

role in analysis

stress

57 in: ) is considered

in the Z direction

its thickness

El takes an importanI
the flexural

wing(565

is considered

a constant

shear

on the total area of the given

of the Composite

being

the beam

for checking

is based

The total area of the whole

Moments

the flexural

material
rigidity

which

&Inertia

of each section

the wing

is treated

deflection

due to bending

and their results

with

its

Young

is defined

(El),

as a beam

varies

as a
along

the product

and torsion,

therefore,

are

For PVC foarn only


El(E329)

= 922480

lbin:

El(E328)

= 512193

lbin:

El(E325)

The
Appendix

procedure

of flexural

El(E327)

= 330174

El(E326)
= 42279

= 150195

lbin:
lbin:

lbin:

rigidity

calculation

is described

and

of PVC foam

and Kevlar:
EI(E327)

= 2050000

lbin-"

EI(E326)

= 1180000

lbin z

D4

2 For the composites


El(E329)

= 44600001bin:

El(E328)

= 32400001bin
El(E325)

z
=

360000

Ibin:

shown

in the

!
T

The procedure

to calculate

sections

properties

of the composites

is described

in (Appendix

D4).
With
specifically
considerably
curve
defined

respect

to aeroelastic

important

In the case,

to the twist

of the wing,

angle

treated

as the moment

effects,

tapered

the deflection

from

of the area under

wing

of a control

is due to bending,

of the wing section

as a beam,

swept

the M/EI

and torsion

The deflection

a tangent

is

contributes

at the tip on the elastic

to the elastic

diagram

surface

between

curve

at the root

points taken

is

about

the

the

tip

tip j
6_T = _(M_y / EI)dy

(equation

6.2)

where
6R:
y

the spanwise

deflection

the distance

between

centroid

of elastic

load

(Nt_I)

and

o Flex.
Wit_d

dlrelior_

"

f/

1--J"

\
\

- Root

\ "rip\

(a) Plan view

--"'_"J _

Co) Iqew lookint

\ \

(Reproduced

from

6.10

Airframe

inbd

Wing twist angle caused by swept

Structural

76

Analysis,

by Michael

,,

Tip

Figure

""_--_--7

N. Y. Niu)

i_
The

result

for the deflection

inches_ whereas,

the deflection

Kevlar

decreases

to the value

of the

composites

hand-calculation
program

from

inches

0.0035

moment

moment

program

inches.

the total deflection,

considered
the

hand

for the engineering

so small that its value


calculating

is smaller

calculation,

defines

than

that

that,

from

of PVC

and

the

value

as the

from

commercial

63)
due to the shear

This is the reason

obtained

is 1.14

as:

the deflection

can be neglected

foam

to the deflection

inches),

means

8_,o,_;,= 8_._; .4-8,.,._,,,_....... (equation


However,

PVC

is compared

(0.0284

This

being

of the

of the composites

As its results

the Nastran

off about

is run, it produces

the bending

due to the bending


of 0.0249

obtained
is short

due

Nastran

force

why the value

program

(see

is

from

Appendix

D5)
Taking

into account

the composites
program

( 160

(maximum

the limit of the factor

inches),

as well as comparing

displacement

= 0.0284

from hand-calculating(maximum
conclude

that
The

deflection)

the wing
concept

The

and B is given

in the static

deflection

by the equation

the results

inches,

displacement

of structural

angular

of Strength_vVeight

including

= 00249

case can withstand


elastic

axis is also applied

due to torsion

about

GJ is known

PVC

as the torsional

77

stiffness

and Kevlar)
group

and
can

loads

for Torsion

64)

for

the Nastran

the structures

the elastic

(equation

from

foam

its basic

I1

0A - 0 B = I_(T/GJ)dy
Where:

obtained

inches),
under

of the materials

axis

( or chordwise
between

point

Elastic

Figure

(Reproduced

The values

Structural

stiffness

= 637200

JG(E328)

= 3348001bin:

deflection
sweep

equations

are due to torsional

INn:

101520

lbin"

Ibin-"

changes

and that bending

in airload

loads

contribute

due

to

structural

more

and

more

This was

done

as

Methods:

Construction

of the wing

the block

airfoil

was made

easy by designing

extrapolations

of the root

shape
linear

for the root


dragging

of foam

was begun

first cutting

airfoils

= 26783

as:

227610

JG(E326)=

that

N. Y. Niu)

for each section


JG(E327)=

show

loads

by Michael

increases

6.4. Construction

were

Analysis,

lbin:

JG(E325)

above

deflection.

are obtained

JG(E329)

The

--__*'_"'_
- "

6.11 Wing chordwise

from ,Airframe

of torsional

axis

and tip airfoils,

the hot wire

to the shape

affixing

to coincide

were automatically

by cutting
of the wing

the wing

and tip foils


them

to their

at specific

produced
78

the foam

core.

planform.

Obtaining

in such a way that the


This meant
respective

chordlengths

the desired

midspan

that by making

ends
at each

of the foam
template,

b)

airfoils

templates
block,

the

and

midspan

When

the

components

core

were

to build

well as the channels


cavities
made

were

hollowed

micro

are small,

on the surfaces
spheres

reduced

its weight

while

weight

of the aircraft

bagged

applied
stress

material

the

build

molding

that

would

of glass

of

wiring,

or phenolic

Into

the

out for them

these

the foam

by the

The

Since

of the wing

were
The

as

fitted

blocks

effect

of these

gear

resin

its stren_h

out.

On the bottom

1/4 inch balsa

be covered

received

skin layer

that

with the

of this layer

on the surface

of

Micro-balloons

is mixed

effect

a thin layer

of the foam

was

resin to

to reduce

with something

resin
Kevlar

skin

was

and then

added

in which

in an air tight

This process

carbon

fibers

on

in a wet

lay-up,

the component

bag

eliminates

up in the skin as w,ell as removing

layers

and

cut

hollowed

wiring.

fixtures.

rods and electrical

were

were

from the landing

is the process

to the component

cavities

gear

by filling the small nooks

of this

surfaces

rods and electrical

maintaining

Vacuum-bagging

of absorbitent

small

of landing

made

than untreated

On top

control

of 1/32 inch plywood

the shock

hollow

that is lighter

the

out for the landing

fitting the control

balloons

cut,

into the wings,

layers

are to dampen
After

been

for the controls

of alternating

blocks

had

Then

excess

polystyrene

is placed

a pressure

air bubbles

and

then

vacuum-

between

of

layers

25 inches

in the resin that could

resin

The duct

form,

and

then

was

Hg is
cause

produced

melting

by

out

the

fiber rods

that

polystyrene
The wing
passed
wide.

through

were
the duct

for reinforcement

the small

"dimplies"

the components

then connected

were

to the duct by means

At the joints,
We.

then,

that are caused


mounted

we also applied

applied

another

by the weave

on balsa blocks

79

layer
in the

of two

gussets

carbon

of Kevlar,

2 to 3 inches

of micro-balloonmixture
skin.

in their respective

After

to fill

this was completed,

compartments.

Lastly,

we mounted

the engine

and fan unit

This was done

by simply

connecting

unit directly

to the duct with eight

screws,

8O

and rubber

washers

to dampen

vibration.

the fan

Reference

Anderson,

William

2.

Beer,

Ferdinand

3.

Brutm,

4.

Constance,

5.

Eppler,

J.; APSC/Nastran

P. & Johnston,

E. F.; Analysis

List

Interactive

E. Russel,

and Design

Training

Program

Jr.; Mechanics

of Flight

Vehicle

of Materials

Structure

Section

A5.11

Joseph;

"The All-Composite

Aircraft"

Machine

Desien

Jan

1992

Hill,

Richard;
Maynard

7.

Hollman,

8.

Jones,

9.

Kuethy,

Design

and Data

L.; Electro-static

Martin;

Aircraft

Autopilots

Design,

R. T.; "The Supersonic


Arnold

Aerodynamic
10.

Airfoil

M.

Practical

Flying

& Chow,

Aircraft

Wing"

Design

Aerospace

Chuen-Yen;

Utilizing

America

Foundations

Composite

Materials

Oct 1987

of Aerodynamics:

Bases

of

Design

Meppenheimer,

T. A.; "The Dream

of the Flying

Wing"

Invention

and

Technoloev

Winter

1994
11.

Niu,

Michael

Chun

Yung;

12.

O.S.

Engines

Mfg.

Co. Ltd.;

13.

Raymer,

Daniel

P.; Aircraft

14.

Shanley,

F. R.;

Weight-Strength

15.

Shevell,

Richard

16.

Taylor,

17.

Van der Velden,


Wing

Michael

Supersonic

Airframe
OS.

Structural
Engines

Design:

J. H.; Jet
Alexander
Transport"

Warplanes:

Catalog

A Conceptual

Analysis

S.; Fundamentals

Design

of Aircraft

Structures

of Flight
The 21st Century

J. M.; "The Conceptual


NASA

Approach

CR177529

May

Design
1989

of a Mach

2. 0 Oblique

Flying

7. Conclusions

Many
'94.

difficulties

In retrospect,

however

were

many

the_e revelations

"94 proved
computer

proved

in deciphering
exactly

and

moments

order.
this

a cruise

The group

were

the instability

was

of the flying

to be a hinderance

in the future,
knowledge

force-balance

is apparent,

in the

analysis

project's

vortex

be best to know

is the

capable

of measuring

exist,

but it is not

does

that work

development.

The

of angle

begin

in which

wind
lift,

tunnel
drag.

in working
on making

Aerodynamics

of attack

panel

and difficulties

of the language
group

it is advised

condition

of the Banshee

published

it would

Aerodynamics

An apparatus

or lessened,

team

of 4 degrees

and

per hour.

that the best way

which

by the

a working

one of the primary

the control

selected

on

avoided

than a help due to debugging

'94 will fly at a cruise

of 33 miles

decided

to oversize

proved

early

either

of the Banshee

team.

than working

experienced

been

use of a previously

is to be used

for such an apparatus

that the Banshee


velocity

of a hindera_ce

not have

have

and construction

for the aerodynamic


The

simultaneously.

operational

Stability

airfoils

does

on an airfoil

apparatus

concluded

was

WPI

If the desire

could

to the project

and have a better

problem

the design

of calculations

If such a code

works

Another

apparatus.

difficulties

not obvious

to be more

how _.he code

during

and time-consuming.

the output.

it is written.
testing

of these

the series

to be tedious
code

encountered

were

As was expected,

and Recommendations

surfaces.

problems

to handle

the

In conjunction

had a positive
wing.

addressed

moment

As experienced

due to their

difficulty

stability

in the design
problems

inherent

to a flying

with the Aerodynamics


coefficient.

group,

This is essential

by the Aerodynamics
in interpretation.

81

of the Banshee

group,

Another

'94.
wing

a series

of

m counteracting
computer

problem

codes

addressed

by the Stability/Controlsgroup was the implementationof the Electro-staticStability System.


The existing literature availableon the electrostaticstability systemwas rather minimal to the
extentthat severalambitiousdesignimplementationshadto be undertaken.It is recommended
that before an undertaking such as this, a better than working knowledgeof electronicsis
acquired. From the analysisperformed,the
able

to maneuver

without

The propulsion
This

helped

system

insuring

recommended

any major

that

that future

power

projects

'94 will maintain

in the Banshee
was

use the ducted

of the

engine

proved

to be a major

balance.

Future

projects

should

restrain

the thrust

The
shear

and

the foresight
when

team

mentioned

tackling

better

design.
values

More

two

of the

wing.

finite
Such

were

that could

Further
would

research
have

for calculations.

82

proven

before

It is

propulsion
force

engaging

the

to estimate

the

occur.
codes

not entirely

accurate

when

to be more

due

entering
than

to the

the data

adequate

in

landing.
of this project.

have

been

of this team
and

power.

maneuvering.

tunnel

analysis

prove

from

with the outcome

It is the view

data

should

sufficient

to an inappropriate

that had to be made

as the shocks

difficulties

a project.

element
are

and

due

in the wind

codes

materials

satisfied

for them.

experimental

needed

The

as well

was very

and will be

as their primary

to the apparatus

The assumptions

forces

above

such

different

assembly

problem

gage

or damages

to be difficult.

to compensate

early

necessary

proved

project

the areas

used

of composites.

the aerodynamic
The

that

group

displacements

nature

into the code


handling

that no injuries

Structures

forces

anisotropic

to ensure

flight

to have

for take-off

fan engine

Testing

in order

'94 proved

available

system.

test.

stable

difficulty.

that was used

enough

Banshee

useful

avoided

that these

development

The

group

found

had the team


areas

may

have

in determining

had

be addressed
provided
some

of the

I
!
I

APPENDIX

AERODYNAMICS

L
i
i

APPENDIX

The Eppler

E325

Series

A1

Aerodynamic

Data 5

Separafion b,:,_:'.e warning


,_ upper surface
v tower surface

T. = boundary layer transffion


boundary layer separcfic_
U. = uppersurface
L.- tower surface
S.

Re = 7x_O_
10_

--

L.Ox;b
I ,'__. _

C_

I_J

_ r

_/
z

//
"'/'./

i
=

C_

t
z

/
/

."
, / /" /,/

0.5-

/ /
II

...

._-----_
,/'"

."

////,/'/'/'"

,--_ _._W,':.,

/1 it I

_,,'_,,,J,,

""-,

":_

lO3_o 2,:

I,

.--_, ',\\ 0.5

xlc

E 327,

.....

:- (_:1

_t ._.2_."

q.''2".

'"

S.'f::,_

,',e"

_.

= l'',J",3S;_

C',_"

-. =ccper

sJr'ace

.. = .2,',6r

#...'13_

c: ....

3:*"

......

....
Ci

' ,-

-_

_....

_-.,___

,., ,.

....

"

'

""

__

'"

_,c.J.

"'('

.
'

/;C. (_.,

5Y

0.5 _
. .
-

i
.-..

d'

-C:.05 +1

-5
':'-"

""-_.,,
c.

20

P
/ _

_|_.b.
_,I

it

,"
,"

'.
/
', J_--

Z_.-'15
4t o ,_
/[./c:.og_.jv

T._
0.05

'( ,' '"c<


9,--"" x/'c
_tN.a_..

PAGtE m

t
i
E 329

Separation bubble wcrn[ng


,-. upper surfcce
{ower surface

13.5_J, c- mo_.
Re = 7x10-_
106
1.5x10{
2.5x',0:
10_, r = _.

T.S.U. =
L. -

boundary layer transit{o:


boundary [ayer seporat{or,
upper surface
lower surface
Ci

-___
......
l///-

"

,/

,,,_1
c_,_,

/:

C;.._

l
/

,'"

/'

i
,

0.5"
i

;:

4
_',t:
J

Of
0

_,

qll
,_

1",

"-

...

I.l.J.

/s

APPENDIX

Lotus

Spreadsheet

for Drag

A2

and Lift Calculations

i
L

C329=
0.4148
Stot=
0.3648
a.c.
329
16.33333
x/c :
329
-6.36652
S ratio
:
329
0.418859

c327=
0.3302
q=
48.95320
327
13

c325=
0.2455
b=
0.3683
325
9.666666

327
2.097213

325
16.39850
325
0.247807

L(ibf)
3.017521
4.007816
4.709871
5. 527216
6.402903
7.165359

327
0.333333
CI:
329
0 53
0 65
0 73
0 86
0 95
1 03
L(N)
13.42254
17.82757
20.95045
24.58616
28.48139
31.87295

v(m/s)

alpha
2
3
4
5
6
7

=
94
II
175
13
41
15
645
17
88
20
115
22
35
24
585
26
82
29
055
31 29
33 525
35
76
37 995
40
23
42
465
44.7
8

D (induc
0 315198
0 492497
0 709197
0 965295
1 260794
1 595693
1 969991

) D
1
1
2
3
4
5
6

m/h)=
2O
25
3O
35
4O
45
50
55
60
65
7O
75
8O
85
90
95
I00
tot
(N)
077883
684193
425238
301018
311534
456785
736772

cg=
13.6925
Cmac:
329
-0.05
-0.051
-0.052
-0.053
-0.O54
-0.055
K
0.048555

Stot4wng
0.73

b
2.2098

AR
6.689337
Cmcg

325
0.05
O.O48
0.046
0.044
0.042
0.04

327
0
-0.0024
-0.0O48
-0.0072
-0.0096
-0.012

0.550416
0.290020
-0.00192
-0.00457
-0.41482
-0.68975

Cd:
327
0 35
0 48
0 56
0 65
0 76
0 87
D
0
0
0
0
0
0

(wing)
146024
153626
157945
169866
181909
194409

325
0.15
0.27
0.38

0
0
0

329
0086
0091
0094

0.45
0.59
0.69

0
0
0

0102
0108
0115

D(e-plat
0.036206

tot
(N)D
(ibf)
423644
0 .095239
438847
0 .098657
447486
0 .100599
0.105959
471327
0.111373
495413
520414
0.116994

D(e-plat
0.036206
0.056572
0.081464
0.110882
0.144825
0.183295
0.226290

)D
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

(duct)
049093
076708
110460
150348
196374
248535
306834
371269

D
0
0
0
0
0
0

D
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

L tot
(N )L
(ibf)
20.95045
4.709871
32.73508
7.359174
47.13852
10.59721
64.16076
14.42398
83.80182
18.83948
106.0616
23.84372
130.9403
29.43669

(ibf)
242319
378623
545217
742101
969276
226739
514493

325
0077
0079
0081
0085
0094
0101

)D
0
0
0
0
0
0

q
48.95320
76.48938
110.1447
149.9191
195.8128
247.8256
305.9575
370.2086
440.5788
517.0682
599.6767
688.4044
783.2512
884.2172
991.3024
1104.506
1223.830

0 987159
1 194462
1.421509
1.668299
1.934832
2.221108
2.527128
2.852890
3.198396
3.563645
3.948637

0
0
0
0
0
0

)D(L-gear
0.003362

D
(duct)
0.049093

(wing)
157945
246789
355377
483708
631782
799599

327
0.008
0.0085
0.0087
0.0094
0.01
0.0107

0.273811
0.325858
0.382430
0.443529
0 509153
0 579303
0 653979
0 733181
0 816908
0 905161

0 441841
O.51855O
0 601395
0 690377
0 785496
0 886751
0 994143
1 107672
I 227337
L/D
19.43665
C1
0.586258
Cd
0.030162

D(L-gear)
0.003362
0.005254
0.007566
0.010298
0.013451
0.017024
0.021018
0.025431
0.030266
0.035520
0.041195
0.047290
0.053806
0.060742
0.068098
0.075875
0.084072

2.383690

8.151494

1.832537

158.4378

35.61840

2.836788
3.329286
3.861183
4.432481
5.043178
5.693276
6.382773
7.111670
7.879967

9.700952
11.38514
13.20407
15.15773
17.24613
19.46927
21.82714
24.31974
26.94708

2.180871
2.559494
2.968407
3.407611
3.877104
4.376887
4.906959
5.467322
6.057975

188.5540
221.2891
256.6430
294.6157
335.2072
378.4175
424.2467
472.6946
523.7613

42.38884
49.74802
57.69592
66.23257
75.35794
85.07205
95.37490
106.2664
117.7467

APPENDIX

STABILITY

ANALYSIS

B.I

CONTROLS/STABILITY

SPREADSHEET

CI:

Cd:
329

327

325

O. 53

O. 35

O. 15

0.0086

0.008

0.0077

0.65

0.48

0.27

0.0091

0.0085

0.0079

0.73

0.56

0.38

0.0094

0.0087

0.0081

0.86

0.65

0.45

0.0102

0.0094

0.0085

0.95

0.76

0.59

0.0108

1.03

0.87

0.69

0.0115

alpha

Cmac:

325

327

0.01
0.0107

0.0094
0 0101

Cdi:
329

alpha

329

-0.05

-0.051

327

325

327

325

0.05

0.015309

0.006676

0.001226

-0.0024

0.048

0.023026

0.012557

0.003973

-0.052

-0.0048

0.046

0.029043

0.017091

0.00787

-0.053

-0.0072

0.044

0.040308

0.023026

0.011036

-0.054

-0.0096

0.042

0.049186

0.031479

0.018971

-0.055

-0.012

0.04

0.057819

0.041251

0.025947

alpha

Cmacl

329

CII

Cdl

Cmcg

-0.00855

0.035529

0.002128

0.027073

-0.01027

0.038073

0.002644

0.027997

-0.01198

0.037683

0.002914

0.025998

-0.0137

0.044169

0.003703

0.030965

-0.01541

0.042763

0.00394

0.028002

-0.01713

0.04326

0.004253

0.026982

Clave

slope:

0.343333

0.007495

0.466667

-0.02222

aveslp:
-6.1e-06

Cdave

Cl/Cd

0.015837

21.67894

0.021685

21.51989

CI:

Cd:

0.556667

0.05139

0.026735

20.82189

0.653333

-0.02615

0.034157

19.12742

0.766667

-0.01055

0.043279

17.71453

0.052439

16.46352

0.863333

Chord, m
c329=

c327=

0.4148

c325=

0.3302

cg (m)=

0.2455

a.c.

0.232334
cg (in)=

329

327

325

0.1514

0.2255

0.2997

Cd(duct)

rho

Stot=

327

325

V, in/s

0.195115

0.020696

-0.2744

S ratio:

b/3, m.

0.41886

327
0.333333

325
0.247807

Cd(Igr)
0.005014

616
Ar, in2

0.3683
Ix

329

0.004996

0.000043

0.3648
329

0.00647

0.132077

9.147

x/c:

Cd(eplt)

SM:

25.34
Iy

270

Iz
3390.69

3610.24

Cd(edl)
0.032978

B.2

PROGRAM

VORCODE

INTEGER

Z,ZZ

PARAMETER
PARAMETER

PANEL

DIMENSION

CT2(Z,Z),AN(ZZ,ZZ),AT(Z,ZZ),THETA(Z),CTI(Z,Z)

(UNIT=If,
(UNIT=I2,

FILE='juju',
FILE='e327,,

STATUS='NEW')
STATUS='OLD,)

36
=

DO

M+I

13

I=I,MPI

READ

(12,*)

PI
=
ALPHA

4.0
=

DO
1
IPI=

I=I,M
I+1

XB(I),YB(I)

* ATAN(1.0)
(4.)
* PI/180

X (I) =0.5*
Y(I)=0.5

(XB(I)
+XB(IPI)
)
* (YB(I)
+ YB(IPI))

S (I) =SQRT(
(XB(IPI)-XB
(I)) **2+
THETA(I)=ATAN2((YB(IPl)-YB(I)),
SINE (I) =SIN(THETA
(I))
COS INE (I ) =COS (THETA
(I ) )

(YB (IPI)-YB
(I)) *'2)
(XB(IPI)-XB(I)))

RHS

( I ) =SIN

DO

DO
IF

3 J=
I,M
(I.EQ.J)

I=

(THETA

( I ) -ALPHA)

I,M

GO

TO

A=-(X(I)-XB(J)),COSINE(j)
B= (X (I) -XB (J)) **2+ (Y (I)-YB
C=S I N (THETA
(I ) -THETA
(J))
D=COS
(THETA
(I) -THETA
(J))

- (Y(I)-YB(J)),SINE(J)
(J))*,2

E= (X (I)-XB
(J)) *SINE(J)(y (I)-YB
F=ALOG
( I. 0+S (J) * (S (J) +2. *A)/B)
G=ATAN2
(E*S (J), B+A*S
(J))
+

*COSINE(J)

(J))
(J))
(J) )

-(Y (I) -YB (J)) *SIN (THETA


(I) -2. *THETA
(I, J) =D+. 5*Q*F/S
(J) - (A*C+D*E)
*G/S
(I, J) =. 5*D*F+C*G-CN2
(I, J)

(J))
(J)

CN2
CNI
CT2
CTI

(J))

P= (X (I) -XB (J)) *SIN (THETA


(I) -2. *THETA
+ (Y (I)-YB
(J)) *COS (THETA
(I)-2.
*THETA
Q= (X (I ) -XB (J ) ) * COS (THETA
( I ) - 2. * THETA

CODE

(Z=36)
(ZZ=37)

XB(ZZ),YB(ZZ),X(Z),y(z),s(z),SINE(Z),COSINE(Z)
V(Z),CP(Z),GAMA(Z),RHS(Z),CNI(Z,Z),CN2(Z,Z)

MPI

VORTEX

DIMENSION
DIMENSION

OPEN
OPEN

_--13

INVISCID

(I, J) =C+. 5*P*F/S


(J) + (A'D-C,E)
(I, J) =. 5*C*F-D*G-CT2
(I, J)

GO

TO

CNI

(I, J)=-l.

*G/S

(J)

CN2
CTI
CT2
3

(I, J) "_1.0
(I, J) -=0.5*PI
(I, J)=0.5*PI

CONTINUE
DO

I=I,M

AN(I,
1)ICNl(I,
I)
AN (I,MPI)
=CN2 (I,M)
AT(I,
i)=CTI
(I, i)
AT (I, MPI) =CT2 (I,M)
DO
4 J=2,M
AN(I,J)

AT

=CNI

(I,J)

(I, J) =CTI

+CN2

(I, J) +CT2

(I,J-1)
(I, J-l)

AN(MPI,
i) =i. 0
AN (MPI,MPI)
=1.0
DO

_5

J=2,M

AN (MPI, J) =0.0
RHS (MPI) =0.0

CALL
DO
8

CRAMER
I=I,M

(AN, RHS,

V ( I ) =COS
(THETA
DO
7 J=I,MPI
V(I)
7
8
9
i0

=V (I) +AT

GAMA,

MPI

( I ) -ALPHA)

(I, J) *GAMA

(J)

cp(1) =i. o-v (1) **2


WRITE
FORMAT
WRITE
FORMAT

(11,9)
I,X(I),Y(I),THETA(I),S(I),GAMA(I),V(I),CP(I)
(10X, I2, FS. 4, F9.4, FI0.4,
FS. 4,2F9.4,
FI0.4)
(11,10)
MPI,GAMA(MPI)
(10X,I2,35X,F9.4)

END
FILE
(UNIT=If)
END
FILE
(UNIT=I2)
CLOSE
(UNIT=If)
CLOSE
(UNIT=I2)
STOP
END

SUBROUTINE
INTEGER

CRAMER(C,A,X,N)
ZZ

PARAMETER

(ZZ=37)

DIMENSION

C(ZZ,ZZ),CC(ZZ,ZZ),A(ZZ),X(ZZ)

DENOM=DETERM(C,N)
DO
3 K=I,N
DO
1 I=I,N
DO
1 J=I,N
CC(I,J)
=C(I,J)
DO
2 I=I,N
CC(I,K)=A(I)

L L

3
i

X (K) =DETERM
RETURN
END

FUNCTION
INTEGER

(CC, N)/DENOM

DETERM

(ARRAY,

N)

ZZ

PARAMETER
( ZZ=3 7 )
DIMENSION
ARRAY(ZZ,ZZ),A(ZZ,ZZ)
DO
I I,=I,N
DO
i J=I,N

I
L

A (I, J) =ARRAY

M=I
K=M+
DO

(I, J)

1
3

I=K,N

RATIO=A(I,M)/A
DO
3 J=K,N

(M,M)

A (I, J) =A (I, J) -A (M, J) *RATIO


IF

GO

TO

M=M+I
GO
TO
2
DETERM=I
DO

(M.EQ.N-I)

L=I,N

DETERM=DETERM*A
RETURN
END

(L, L)

Appendix

Data from Trust - Drag vs.Velocity Plot

_w

| V (mph)

Drag

Thrust

(lbf)

Thrust

(75%)

Thrust (50%)

Thrust

(25%)

(lOO%)
0

14

10.5

3.5

20

0.2423

12.4

8.9

5.4

1.95

25

0.3786

12

8.5

1.55

30

0.5452

11.6

8.1

4.6

1.15

35

0.7421

11.2

7.7

4.2

0.75

40

0.9693

10.8

7.3

3.8

0.35

45

1.2267

10.5

6.8

3.3

50

1.5145

10

6.3

2.8

55

1.8325

9.5

5.8

2.3

60

2.1809

5.3

1.8

65

2.5595

8.5

4.8

1.3

70

2.9684

4.3

0.8

75

3.4076

7.4

3.7

0.3

8O

3.8771

6.8

3.1

85

4.3769

6.2

2.5

90

4.9069

5.6

1.9

95

5.4673

1.3

100

6.0579

4.4

0.7

Data from

the Climb Rate

and calculations

vs. Velocity

for Acceleration

l_
| Velocity
(mph)

RC

RC

RC

Thrust

(f-t/s)(100%)

(ft/s)(75%)

(ft/s)(5o%)

(1oo%)

Drag

Thrust

(75%)

Thrust

(50%)

14

10.5

20

32.16

10.974366

6.9971998

13.4

9.9

6.4

25

39.02

13.169251

8.1977928

13.15

9.65

6.15

30

45.3

15.093007

9.2124816

12.9

9.4

5.95

35

51.15

16.620381

9.7597681

12.7

9.1

5.65

40

55.39

17.569304

9.7286042

12.3

8.7

5.25

45

60.O8

18.723847

9.9030598

12.15

8.55

5.1

5O

62.55

18.85035

9.0494746

11.75

8.15

4.7

55

65.67

19.272924

8.491961

11.6

6O

66.14

18.473712

6.7126619

11.2

65

67.06

17.87637

5.1352324

70

64.87

15.835487

2.1142618

75

63.18

14.02974

80

59.38

85

4.55
7.6

4.15

7.4

3.95

10.55

6.95

3.5

10.3

6.7

3.25

11.240155

9.95

6.35

2.9

55.82

8.5630387

9.75

6.15

2.7

90

49.43

4.5668669

9.4

5.8

2.35

95

41.02

5.1

1.95

100

27.41

8.3

4.4

1.25

Accel

(lbs)

Accel(75%)

11

Accel(50%)

Accel(25%)

(lOO%)
0
0.2423
0.3786

Velocity
(mph)

37.56675

28.17506

18.78337

933917

35.30657

25.91488

16.5232

7.1315

20

24.87831

15.48662

6.0949

25

34.27

0.5452

33.15212

23.76043

14.50291

4.977

30

0.7421

32.0871

22.42708

13.16956

3.6437

35

0.9693

30.40411

20.74409

11.48657

1.9607

40

45

1.2267

29.31092

19.6509

10.39338

0.8675

1.5145

27.46532

17.8053

8.547777

1.8325

26.2013

16.54946

7.291974

55

2.1809

24.2013

14.54128

5.283763

60

2.5595

22.64872

12.9887

3.731183

65

1.426463

70

50

2.9684

20.344

10.68398

3.4076

18.49465

8.834626

3.8771

16.29565

6.635629

80

4.3769

14.41785

4.757829

85

4.9069

12.05651

2.39649

90

5.4673

9.479432

6.0579

6.016315

75

95

100

i
g
U
r
e

5
3

APPENDICES

APPENDIX

DI:

MSC/NASTRAN

RESULTS

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v)

uJ
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mmmo
I

............

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..............

0000
e,e0
0000

,C

UI
0

IIII
U
m

0
e_

0_

...0
I;

IIII

_0_
..00
I
U
Z

000_
IIII

n_

_J
LU
C)

_2d_
I

II

0000
I...
0000
Z

0000
0000

O00e

_-.

p.

G.
_-._
0

a.
p.
.._
0

_-_
"
Z

U.
_

!
Z

00000
I
Z

|
)

:
J

CO
0

It..
0
e",,
Z
I.U
.o_

J
X
re,
C3
Z
0

0
UJ
b')
UJ
_L'erJ
O
W'C
a,.
I

II

U.J
F--

I'W
ZC_

,,-I

D:

r',,

w
q.

el

L
C_
e'J

I.L

c'

LU

LL
..
Lk

I--

_v

<w

LU
i,

APPENDIX

D2: STRENGTH
/ WEIGHT
FACTOR

I__

Using
&__

the

equations

(Strength/Weight)

6.1 and

6.2 in the

chapter

6.3.

(section

6.3.3.1),

is calculated:

Factor

Area of the wing


Strip load

= 56557

= cr/p

in:

i Ib

F S = 1 5 unmanned
,z, (density

(Strength/Weight)

ofPVC)

aircreafi
= 3 lb/fi ' = 0 00173611

Ib/in '

Then
Factor

for PVC

Factortbl

The

Factor

PVC

= ( lib * I 5)/(565

57in : * O OO ] 73611

Ib/in _ )

= 1.52 in

of composite

PVC and Kevlar

Densit\'

ofPVC

= 0.0017366

Density'

ofKevlar

= 0052

is obtained

as the following:

Ib/in _

Ib/in '

Ratio

of Density

= to _,,,_/p:.r,r_.,

Ratio

of Density

0052/0.00173611

=29.952

Therefore:
Factor

(Strength/Weight)

= cr I p,_<,
...... v,

Factor

(Strengtlm%'eight)

= (I 5'1.04516)/(565.57

Factor

(Strength'Weight)

1 60 in

* 000173611)

PVC

factor

APPENDIX
WING

D3 :
SHEARS

ONE UNIT

CALCULATING
AND MOMENT
LOAD

FOR

CONDITION

Calculation
total unit,

of the wing

distributed

and applied

shear

Vz

and the wing

on a half wing

at aerodynamic

moments

load of 565.57

centers

of the wing

M x and My due

Ibs, acting

sections

goes

to the

upward

in Z direction

through

the

following

steps
Step

The distance

from the wing root

Step 2

The wing chord

Step 3

Ratio

Step 4

The wing running


wing

length

of each section

of Lift coefficient

(565.57

section,

is assumed

inches)

load per inch at any station

y (Column

I)

2)

to be unity

(Column

at each station

was treated

equals

station

(Column

load per inchofspan

square

called

3)

point.

The area of a half

as a total unit load: then,

the wing chord

length

the running

at that station.

Column4)
Step 5

Average

Step 0

The distance

Step 7

Strip load ( Column

Step 8

The location
distributed
are

running

load (Column

between

stations

of the strip load

which

end values

by Table

6)

is at the centroid

are given

A3 4 of Chapter

in column
3 (Column

Step c)

Shears

Step

10

The product

of shear

Step

II

The product

of strip load and arm to the centroid

Step

12

The value of moemnt

Step

13

The distance

Step

14

The strip load distance

Step

15

Bending

Step

16

The bending

moments
(R_I _

(Column

(Column

7)

load whose

determine

5)

of a trapezoidal
4

The centroid

locations

8)

9)
and delta y (Column

(Column

moment

center

to the y reference

y axis (Column

at the various
from

1l )

station

stations

43.5

axis (Colun

13)

14)

for each strip load on the y axis (Column

moment

as one progresses

(Column

12)

from aerodynamic
from

10)

equals

to zero.

! 5)

to the summation

of the trip

|_

AVERAGE

RUNNING

LOAD

_mm

.am _

--

II

R:
Pz'd

Mx-co|.12

Pz

My

-_

:.
_

.
_

.
_

- Icol,7)(coLS)

p,rl_coul

+col 11 +col

Xm,_m- (col.7Ncol

Pz X|_-

SUMMATION

10

14_

OF Coil5

o'#

__

BENDI.XLS

RENDING MOMENT IN X DIRECTION

1072542

3.96

862691

7.91

6795.88

11.86

5217.91

15.82

3878.76

19.77

2764.45

23.73

1860.52

27.68

1152.89

31.64
35.59

627.17
269.28

39.55

64.97

43.5

BENDING MOMENTIN X DIRECTIONCHORDWISE

12000

10000

8000 -

6000
- Mx

4000

2000

............

WING STATION

Page 1

BEND2.XLS
BENDING MOMENT IN Y DIRECTION

--

-3.96

974.16 ................

7.91

809.96

15.82
i9.77-

532.95
418.17-

23.73

317.91

27.68

231.19

31.64

157.02

35.59

94.42

39.55

42.4

43.5

BENDING

..........

MOMENT

IN Y DIRECTION

SPANWISE

1200

1000

8OO

M_;O0

400

20O

......................

WING STATION

Page1

Sheet1

ISHEAR VERSUS STATION

,.

0
3.96
7.91

565.57
496.17
430.38

11.86
15.82

368.17
309.57

'

!
J
!

23.73

203.14

27.68

155.32

31.64

111.1

35.59
39.55

70.47
33.44

43.5

-----_----

--

....

!
L_

....

I
I
i

. _

SHEAR VERSUS STATION

-4

600

500 -

400

300 -

r.

-_

200 --

100 -

..................
r,_

03

CO

CO

_ID

rid

JD

L
WING STATION
..L-

Page1

APPENDIX

D4 :

SECTION

PROPERTIES

OF
THE

COMPOSITE

MATERIALS

The product
through

Step

El of each wing

the following

section

of each section

Step 2

The

points

Step 1"

The cross

reference

section

The dimensions

Step 5

The area &each


up

of coordinates

depend

(Columns
partition

(Column

The centroid

Zcg and Ycg

Step 7

The product

of area

Step 8

summed
Step 9

The

up

and summed
Step

I0

(Column
Step

Torsional

11

section

is calculated,

for each

area).

( Column

from

1)

in z and y directions,

partition

9 and

up

(Columns

of Zcg and

called

partitions

are

square

11 and

5 and 6)

in z and y directions

7 and 8)
Ycg are calculated,

are found

and

are calculated,

13)
as:

section:
,] = (1 + 12)ZY

in the z and y direction

12)

of area and Zcg and Ycg

is defined

. (Columns

10)

up

( Columns

is calculated

from the centroid

of each partition

constant

and numbered

and after that areas &all

at the centroid

- For a rectangular

is calculated

2 and 3)

of area and square

The product

partitions

are measured

and the distance

( Columns

Inertia

E325)

is chosen.

into available

and after that they are summed

The product

E326,

4)

Step 6

found,

system

on each cross

of each partition

and deity

summed

E326,

is known.

area is divided

to 12 or 13 ( which

deltz

E327,

steps:

The geometry

Step 4

(E329,

x (t':

+Z:)

and summed

up.

are

For a quarterof anellipsesection:


J
For a rectangular

= (1+ 16)YZ

(yZ +Z:)

section_

J,,--where
K = _-"
(('olunm

14)

(Reference
Center
Step

Z-"

Engineering

Gravity.

12

and

Stalics,

by

R C Hibbeler.

section

Centroid

and

page 457)

Z(BAR)

directions,

Mechanics

and

Y(BAR)

determined

are

the centroid

by the centroid

cornponents

of an object

in Yand

equations_

Z=ZAZ+ZA
Y=EAY+EA
(Reference
Gra\itv.
Step

13

Engineering

Mechanics

Statics,

by R C Hibbeler,

page 420)
Izz, ID,

and Izv are calculated

by the equations

i,--yav:.El

, -V:A

I,, = AYZ - AYZ


Step

14

The product

of flexural

rigidity

is defined

as

El_.: = E, pvc_.,., )' I..:


Step

15

The product

of torsional

stiffness

is

.I(; = (;_p,,: .l,_

section

Centroid

and

Center

Step 16 : The torsionalstiffnessappliedat the centroidis givenby the equation

.I =.I,-AYZ

Thewhole procedureis shownin the tables1,2,3,4,and5 for eachsectionE325,E326.


E327,E328and E329
(ReferenceIntroductionto AerospaceStructuralAnalysis,by David h. Mien andWalter
E. Haisler.sectionof Determinationof ModulusWeightedSectionProperties4.3.2.3.
page177)
Finally,the graphrepresentsthe flexural rigidity andthe torsionalstiffnessversusthe
stationsof the wing

/k

,0

I
L_C)
p,j
f-q
I_LJ

Z
0
t-C)
Ill
U3
(.9
Z

N
k-"

>._I
7
C)
I11
122
0
(.9

x
Z
u_

Z
C_
J
i

;if
_j
Z
W

[JJ
b _.

_J
Z
0
iii
rY
0
(J

__

II

tl

II

,n

z
C)

0
Ld
U]
h.
f_j
O9
Ld

Ow

"_

Z
OLA
C]

h.

>.J
7
CD
Ld
rr
C)
(._)

e_

_i_-, co,

_
-

O0

"

'
_

.
_:_

II
It

._.
_:'

....
,--_

fl

_=_

"_='_

,.,,

._

..:...:

__

._=

co

,,

_
If

i_-

_---.

It..

_.

II_

:la.I

i,.

,
.I,I,8

d._

CD

00
fq
LO

Z
0.
b_

W
tO

>J
Z
0
W
nO
0

++_+

'

.....

_..-

--..

_.-

_-

il

c_

c_

.--;

"

.'

_"

Jill

_.

. _
Jill

........

_-_-__

.........

_-

(:::;

-, ._-_.-_._-

-._

(",,

.;- +_ ...............

....

-=.._

.._

" ............
"

%
..........

++

_-

+(.=,- . -_-_.

---;=_

ii !+
......

++o.....

-,_.

,.

- -

........................

,;; +tL....:-- ....

_.---_-

/
.J
_r
O
L_J
I'r
0
cJ
+

Z
0
C7_
cr_
I,I

(J
W

I-0

i1-

EI2.XLS

El AND JG VERSUS WING STATION

El

JG

0
329

18

9.42E+05

634500

328

15.27

5.12E+05

337500

327

13.46

3.30E+05

245160

326

10.73

1.50E*05

106650

325

4.23E04

26892

El AND JG VERSUS

WING STATION

I000000

900000

800000

700000

600000

500000

El

400000

300000
JG
200O00

100000

18

15.27

13.46

10.73

WING STATION

Page 1

i--

E
I-

rJ3
x

.....

.....................

...J
x
0

=m

_=
.

r.1-

,,

<,
_=

E
0

t'_
r_

._
a_

. -_

-_-

..........

,.+

.-,-,

_.J
Z

u_,
N

I,W

+
o

C_

c_
m

+ I'_,

l.h.J

D,.

rr

_J

GN

="
0

_>

4-

._J

,'I=

APPENDIX
FOR

D5 :

THE

CHECKING

RESULTS

DEFLECTION

PCV CORE
AND
FOR

COMPOSITES--PVC

& KEVLAR

FOR

The procedures
going
Step

through

for calculating

station

The change

along

moments

Appendix

rigidity

Step 8:

The deflection

Similarly.

is determined

core

of Calculation

of

are

16, Table

C (Column

from Tables

(Column

1)

2)

from the Column

Appendix

moments

and the

is calculated.

of each section

The total is deflection


root

wing

E325,

3)
E326,

E327,

E328,

E329,

product

offlexural

rigidity

are

5)

Step b : The area of each section


Step 7

for the PVC

4)

of the bending
(Column

section

are taken

is imported

D. (Column

The ratios
calculated

deflection

the spanwise.(Column

shear and wing moments,

Step 4 : The flexural

Step 5

for each airfoil

in distance

Step 3 : The bending


wing

static

the eight steps.

l The wing

Step 2

the vertical

(Column

is determined

for the whole

6)

(Column

7)

wing is the sum of the deflections

from the

to the tip
the

that. a graph

deflection
shows

for the

the deflection

wing,
versus

made

of PVC

the wing

and

stations

Kevlar,

is calculated.

After

r"J

_r"

r...

r_
r_

(_

k
-.--

ki

I
u
a
C
Z
0

uJ

LL

:E

X
o_

z_

_._

_,_

"

- r_

_ _._

,_.

--

..........

c. _

o_

r,..

f.o

.....

t,_

e,

FOAMI.XLS

VERTICAL STATIC DEFLECTION OF ENTIRE WING AT STATIC CONDITION

:
i

......

_____
......

WING BOX-IS-PAADE-01:PV-CA-NOKEVLAR

C'--

.............
r

wING ST-R-IJCTURE
: PVC CORE+ I PLY OFKEVLAR

..........

........

KEvLAR-_-WRA-PPI-NG-AROUIgD-(9O-DEG.
OR 0 DEG.PLY ORIENTATION}

__

,w

......

STATION
-

-0 -7.91 .......
7.91 15.82

--

El

----_

........

T ..............

M / El

AREA

DEFLECTION

39.54

.....

:4.4--6E*06
......

133.27

2.98812E9_5 -

__0:00023636
.

0.00934567E

31.64

3_2_1E+0(]
....

-84_(_3- --

2.5-9352E-05

0.0002051:47: -

47.65

2.24764E-05

0.000177788 ,

0.0042182

22.71

-1_3-ia, sE:05-

- :0.000144868 -

0.002291809

6.76

- 1:78836E:05-

0.000212099-

0.00i257;'_

-0.006490861

;w
15.82 23.73
i--

" 23.73 .....

2.12E+06

15.82

23.73 31.64

1.24E+06

-5.93 ....

31.84 43.5

"

3.78E+05........................

T OT-AL-DeFL:-- --

FIND ,1/1OMEN1
2

5
MOMENT

0
7.91
15.82

709.65
463.15

709.65
1172.80

354.825
586.40

i 33.27

............................

276.34

739.49

369.74

84.03

23.73

143.00

419.34

209.67

47.65

3 !.64
43.5

56.8_
2.62

_ _

199._---88_____
59.50

_ 9_9.94__
.....
29.75

Pa0el

22.7_1......
6.76

0.023605015