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INTRODUTION TO COMPUTERS
COMPUTER
A computer is an electronic device designed to accept and store data, process them and
produce output results.
CHARACTERISTICS/FEATURES OF COMPUTERS
1.
SPEED: Computers work at very high speed and are much faster than human beings.
Computer can perform billions of operations in one second.
2.
ACCURACY: In addition to being very fast, computer is also very accurate device. It
gives accurate output (result) provided that the correct input data and set of instructions are
given to the computer.
3.
Arithmetical and Logical Operations: A computer can perform arithmetical and
logical operations. In arithmetic operations, it performs the addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division on the numeric data. In logical operation it compares the
numerical data as well as alphabetical data.
4.
DELEGENCE: Unlike a human being a computer is emotionless and does not suffer
from tiredness, boredom, lack of concentration etc. while working after hours of work it
performs the operations with the same speed as well as accuracy as the first one.
5.
VERSATILITY: Versatile means flexible. Modern computer can perform different kind
of tasks simultaneously. At one moment you are playing game on computer, the next
moment you are composing and sending emails etc.
a)
STORAGE: A computer has internal storage (memory) as well as external or
secondary storage. In secondary storage, a large amount of data and programs can be
stored for future use.
b)
AUTOMATION: A computer can automatically perform operations without interfering
the user during the operations. It controls automatically different devices attached with the
computer. It executes automatically the program instructions one by one.
c)
Communications: Today computer is mostly used to exchange messages or data
through computer networks all over the world. For example the information can be received
or send through the internet with the help of computer.
d)
No Feelings: Computer is an electronic machine. It has no feelings. It detects objects
on the basis of instructions given to it.
e)
COST: Computers reduce the amount of paperwork and human effort. This in turn,
reduces cost.
LIMITATIONS OF COMPUTERS
1.
No I.Q.: A computer can only perform tasks with unthinkable speed and accuracy. It
possesses no intelligence of its own. Its I.Q. is zero. It has to be told what to do and in what
sequence. A computer cannot take its own decision in this regard.
2.
No Creativity: a computer has any creativity on its own.
3.
No Portable: Certain types of programmers are not suitable for using on the other
type of computers. The operating system does not support for it.
4.
Initial cost: The cost of installation and maintenance of computers is most expensive.
Small firms cannot afford.
5.
Virus Problems: Computers are liable to get viruses. The viruses are created by
computer hackers in order to infect the computers. These viruses are highly dangerous to
computers.
ELEMENTS PARTS OF A COMPUTER
Basically a computer consists of CPU, a monitor, a mouse and a keyboard. Some computers
may also contain additional accessories like speakers, a microphone, a hand phone etc.
Central Processing Unit: The central processing unit (CPU) of computer is usually located
in a tower-shaped cabinet. The CPU consists of different smaller components like the mother
board, hard disk, RAM, floppy disk drive, DVD drive, sound card, etc.
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Monitor: Monitor is television-like equipment which displays the output of a computer.
Monitors can be monochrome (Black and White), LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), VGA or SVGA.
MOUSE: The mouse is an input device and is used to position the pointer (arrow) that is
used to select text, access menus and interact with programs, files or data that appear on
the screen.
Keyboard: The Keyboard is input device used for entering text and numbers.

INPUT: The input unit transmits data and instructions (program) into the computer
system.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT: The CPU is the brain of the computer. It receives data
instructions, stores them temporarily and then processes the data as per the instructions.
This part contains the following three units:
a) Memory unit
b) Arithmetic and logic unit
c) Control unit.
a)
Memory unit: The memory unit stores all data, instructions, and results temporarily.
b)
Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU): This unit is used to perform all the arithmetic and
logic operations, such as addition, multiplication, comparison, etc.
c)
Control unit: This unit co-ordinates the activities of all other units in the system.

OUTPUT: The processed data stored in the memory is sent to an output unit. The
output unit transforms the internal representation of data into a form, which can be read by
people.
INPUT DEVICES
An input device presents data to the processing unit in Machine-readable form.
Although the keyboard is a common input device for a small computer, a system may also
support one or more of the input devices. The following are input devices.
1.
KEY BOARD: The Keyboard is primary input device for entering text and numbers. A
standard Keyboard includes about 107 keys, arranged in four groups.
Alphanumeric keys
Numeric keys
Function keys
Cursor movement keys
2.
MOUSE: The mouse is an input device and is used to position the pointer (arrow) that
is used to select text, access menus and interact with programs, files or data that appear on
the screen.
Variants of the Mouse
a.
TRACKBAL: A Trackball works like a mouse. You rest your thumb on the ball and your
fingers on the buttons. To move the pointer around the screen, you roll the ball with your
thumb.
b.
TRACKPAD: The Track pad (or touchpad) is a pointing device. The movement of a
finger across a small touch surface is translated into pointer movement on the computer
screen. The touch-sensitive surface may he only 1.5 or 2 inches square.
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c.
JOYSTICK (Pointers in the keyboard): The Joystick is positioned at the middle of
the keyboard, typically between the G and H keys. The Joystick is controlled with either
forefinger. Two buttons that perform the same function as mouse buttons are just beneath
the spacebar and pressed with the thumb.
ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF INPUT
PENS: Pen-based systems use a pen (also called a stylus) for data input. You hold the pen
in your hand and write on a special pad or directly on the screen. You can also use the pen
as a pointing device, like a mouse to select commands.
TOUCH SCREENS: Touch screens accept input by allowing the user to place a fingertip
directly on the computer screen, usually to make a selection from a menu of choices.
GAME CONTROLLERS: A game controller is a special input device that accepts the users
input for playing a game. The two primary types of game controllers are joysticks and game
pads.
OPTICAL INPUT DEVICES
BAR CODE READERS: Data coded in the form of light and dark line or bars are known as
bar codes. They are used in retail trade for labeling goods and public libraries for numbering 6ooks.
Bar code readers can read bar codes, translate them into numbers, and input the numbers
into a computer system.
IMAGE SCANNERS and OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): Image scanners
convert printed images into electronic (digitized) formats that can be stored and
manipulated in computers.
If you have scanned a text document, you might want to use Optical Character Recognition
(OCR) software to translate the image into text that you can edit.
MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNISER (MICR): An MICR can identify characters
printed with a special ink that contain particles of magnetic material. MICR is used mainly in
the banking industry to read cheques.
MARK SENSE READER: This device can recognize marks made in pencil or ink on a
specially designed card or form. In this method special pre-printed forms are designed with boxes or
circles which can he marked with a dark pencil or ink such document is read By a document reader
which transcribes the marks into electrical pulses which are transmitted to the computers.
AUDIOVISUAL INPUT DEVISES
MICROPHONES and SPEECH RECOGNITION: You can use a microphone to record your
voice, thus creating files on disk. You can embed these files in documents, use them in web
pages, or e- mail them to other people.
Spoken words can also be translated into text. This capability is known as SPEECH
RECOGNITION (or VOICE RECOGNITION). With speech recognition you can dictate to the
computer instead of typing and you can control the computer with simple commands, such
as Open or Cancel.
VIDEO CAMERAS and DIGITAL CAMERAS: PC video cameras and digital cameras can
digitalize full-motion and still images, which can be stored and edited on the PC or
transmitted over a LAN or the INTERNET.
OUTPUT DIVISES
Output devices receive information from the CPU and present it to the user in the desired
form. Some common output devices are given below.
MONITORS: The monitor is the most commonly used output device on most personal
computer system. The monitor looks like a Television screen and works the same way. The
monitor is also called Visual Display Unit (VDU).
Two basic types of monitors are uses with PCs.
A) CRT Monitors B) LCD Monitors.
PC PROJECTORS: PC Projectors take the display of a computer screen and project a large
version of it onto a flat surface. Projectors are often used in meetings and presentations.
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SOUND SYSTEMS: Multimedia PCs generally come with sound systems, which include a
sound card, speakers, a CD-ROM or DVD drive, and a video controller. The sound card
translates digital signals into analog signals that drive the speakers.
PRINTERS:
Printer enables us to get computer output on paper (Usually called hard copy). Printers can
be classified into two categories: impact and non impact.
Impact printers create an image on paper by using a device to strike an inked ribbon. Non
impact printers use various methods to place ink (or another colored substance) on the
page. Various impact and non impact printers most popularly used are stated below:
DOT MATRIX PRINTERS: Dot matrix printer is an example of impact printer. Dot matrix
printer prints one character at a time and the character is produced by printing the
appropriate dot combination of particular character.
INKJET PRINTERS:
An inkjet printer is an example of non impact printer. It creates an image by spraying
ink through tiny nozzles.
LASER PRINTERS: Using a combination of electronics, laser and copper technology these
printers print information page by page. Their print quality is higher, and most are faster.
SNAPSHOT PRINTERS: Snapshot printers are specialized, small-format printers used to
print small color photographs. These printers are popular among users who own digital
cameras.
OTHER HIGH QUALITY PRINTERS: THERMAL-WAX, DYE-SUBLIMATION, FIERY, AND IRIS
printers are used primarily by print shops and publishers to create high quality color images.
PLOTTERS: Plotters create large-format images, usually for architectural or engineering
purposes.
ALL-IN-ONE PERIPHERALS: These devices combine printing capabilities with scanning,
photo copying and faxing capabilities.
MEMORY STORAGE
The memory unit stores all data, instructions (programs), and results. Memory storage is
two types: 1) Primary storage 2) Secondary storage
1)
Primary storage / internal storage:
The memory unit which is in the CPU is known as primary storage. The types of primary
storage:
a)
RAM (Random Access Memory): It is for temporary memory storage. We can write
data into RAM and read data from RAM. Ram chips can store information only while your
computer is turned on. As soon as you turned off RAM forgets all the data stored in it. Hence
it is called volatile memory.
b)
ROM (Read Only Memory): It is used as permanent memory storage. Information is
burnt into ROM chips at manufacturing time. It cannot be altered and fresh information
cannot be written into ROM. ROM contains instructions to get the commuter started when
switched on. It includes holding the instructions and data that control the various peripheral units of
the computer.
c)
PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory): A PROM is a memory chip on which
you can store a program using prom programmer. Once the chip has been programmed,
prom becomes ROM and the stored information can only be read. It cannot be altered or
erased.
d)
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory): In this type of memory,
the information recorded using prom programmer can be erased and new information can be
recorded. Erasure is achieved by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light.
e)
FLASH MEMORY: Flash memory, stores data even when the power is turned off. ROM
is a form of flash memory used in PCs. Other machines that use flash memory are digital
cameras.
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f)
CACHE MEMORY: Moving data between RAM and processor is most time consuming
operation. A particular solution to this problem is to include a cache memory. Cache memory
is Temporary memory. Cache memory (Pronounced cash) memory is similar to RAM
First time processor read the data from RAM and it copy to cache memory. Next processor
needs same data it read from cache memory.
2)
Secondary Storage/External storage:
The purpose of external storage is to hold data - even when the computer is turned off.
Secondary storage devises are two types:
a) Magnetic storage b) Optical storage
a)
Magnetic Storage Devices:
The surface of magnetic storage devices are coated with magnetic material
1.
FLOPPY DISKS: Floppy disk is random access device. Information can be recorded or
read by inserting it into a disk drive connected to the computer. In floppy we can transfer
the data from one place to another place.
Floppy disks are available in 3 standard sizes, (a) 8 Inch (b) 5% Inch (c) 31A Inch.
On the basis of capacity, two types of floppies are available: (a) High density diskette (b)
Low density diskette
2.
HARD DISKS: Hard disks a random access storage device. In hard disk we can store
large amount of data. But we cant transfer the data from one computer to another.
3.
MAGNETIC TAPES: Tape drives read and write data to the surface of a tape the same
way an audio cassette. The difference is that a computer tape drive writes digital data rather
than analog data.
b)
Optical storage devices:
1) CD- ROM: (compact disk - read only memory): Audio compact disk is a popular
medium for storing music. These are recorded by the supplier and cannot be erased and
filled with new data. The main feature of CD-ROM is their speed.
2) DVD-ROM: (Digital video disk): DVD-ROM is a high-enormity premium capable of
storing a full-length movie on a single disk. DVD-ROM drives can ordinary CD-ROM disks.
3) CD-rewritable: CD-RW drives user can write and over write data onto compact disk.
c)
Other storage devices
USB FLASH DRIVE: A USB flash drive consists of a flash memory data storage device
integrated with a USB (Universal Serial Bus) USB flash drives are typically removable and
rewritable, and physically much smaller.
HARDWARE & SOFTWARE
HARD WARE
The parts of the computer which can be seen and touched are called Hardware. In
other words the physical parts of the computer are referred to as hardware. Eg: I/O devices,
system cabinet, storage, processing and control device are hard ware. When the hard, ware is
linked together to form an effective working unit we have a computer installation.
SOFTWARE
Computers need clear-cut instructions to tell what to do, how to do and when to do. A
set of instructions to carry out their functions is called a program. A group of such programs
is called the software.
Software is classified into two broad categories.
1)
System Software:
System Software is a set of one or more programs which are developed to
control the operation of the computer system. In general, system software support the
running of other software; communicate with peripheral devices (printers, card readers, disk
& tape devices, etc.); support the development of other types of software; and monitor the
use of various hard ware resources (memory, peripherals, CPU etc.)
2)
Application Software:
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It is set of one or more programs which are developed to do a specific job. For
e.g., a payroll package produces pay slips as the major output and a package for processing
examination results produces marks sheets as the major output. Similarly a program written
by a scientist to solve his particular research problem is also application software.
Computer Hardware and Software each depend on each other. Without software,
hardware is useless and without hardware software is useless. They are like two sides of a
coin.
IT ENABLED SERVICES
BPO (BUSINESS PROCESS OUTSOURCING):
BPO is the contracting of a specific business task to a third-party service provider. BPO
gets fees for the services rendered by them. Usually, BPO is implemented as a cost-saving
measure for tasks. The services of BPO include:
Call centers
Payroll outsourcing
Data entry operations.
Accounting
Setting up of bank account
Provides technical support
Provides email support to its customer
KPO (KNOWLEDGE PROCESS OUTSOURCING):
KPO is a form of outsourcing, in which knowledge-related and information-related work
is carried out by workers of a different company. KPO typically involves high-value work
carried out by highly skilled staff. KPO undertakes the following services:
a.
Marketing, production and finance, insurance and telecom service.
b.
Analytical R & D.
c.
Portfolio management of property and patents.
d.
Promotional expertise
e.
Category / brand performance analysis.
CALL CENTERS:
A call centre is a centralized office Used for the objective of receiving and transmitting a
large volume of requests by telephone. It is normally operated by a company regarding the
enquires of customers. It normally undertakes the following services:
1.
Telemarketing.
2.
Debt collection
3.
Enquiry
4.
Client
5.
Mail order
6.
Sales support catalogue firms.
A call center normally operates through the agents keeping a telephone set connected
to corporate computer network.
MODERN COMMUNICATIONS
COMMUNICATION
Communication is the process of transmitting the information from one person to
another. The success of any person or institution depends on the effective communication. In
the present modern world, many communication methods came into existence.
The communication methods have been broadly classified into two categories.
1.
Individual Communications: Where two persons interact like E-mail, Phone
Conversation, it is called individual communications.

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2.
Group Communication: When we communicate with large number of person who feel
themselves that they are only talking to other persons at the same time. The Chatting and
E-commerce are the examples of modern group communications.
Individual Communications
TELEPHONE: Telephone is the most popular method of communication. Now-a- days, the
telephone technology is increasing at a fast rate in the form of cell phones, digital phones
etc. These cell phones are wireless and can be operated at anywhere in country.
FAX (FASIMILE TRANSMISSION): When a copy is inserted into a fax machine, a duplicate
copy of the same comes out from another machine at the other end.
ELECTRONIC (E- MAIL): Through e-mail one can send the data and information to others
through computer having an internet connection. The message is stored in the computer of
the receiver. Whenever he is free or on online, he can open and read the e-mails sent by the
receiver. In order to send messages, the users must have an address and password which
are freely offered by many free web sites.
VOICE MAIL: While the e-mail sends text, the voice mail transmits oral communication
through the computer.
Voice mail is a form of communication in which a person sends the message in voice
form. Just like e-mail, we can open voice mail and hear the voice message.
Group Communications
TELE CONFERENCING:
In teal conferencing, two or more people participate to discuss some issues on
telephone. When two or more members want to engage on phone, this teleconferencing
facility is used.
VIDEO CONFERENCING: A group of people at different places will interact without being
present at the same place through video conferencing. The people at different place with
come to a room where video cameras are fixed. A television link is established among them.
The views are exhibited in the TV screens and the people can participate actively on seeing
one another on TV.
INTERNET RELAY CHAT (IRC):
Simply called Chatting. In chatting we can talk to other persons in real time. The
information that a person types appears instantly on the screen of another person.
Modem:
The Modem is a hardware device that enables a computer to send and receive
information over telephone lines by converting the digital data used by your computer into
an analog signal used on phone lines and then converting it back once received on the other
end.
Creation of e-mail id
In order to send/receive e-mails, we need ID (identification) and Password.
There are many websites offering free e-mails. In order to get free e-mail, first we have to
obtain our own ID. For getting own ID we have to register with any of websites which are
offering free e-mails.
Most famous e-mail sites offering free e-mail are given below.
www.gmail.com
www.vohoo.com
www.rediffmail.com
www.hotmail.com
www.luxmail.com
We can go to any of the above e-mails providing sites
For e.g. we shall create e-mail id in yahoo.com

First open www.yahoo.com

Click on Create Email Account (which appears on the right side of the top of the sight)

You will given a form in which you have to fill-up your own information
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After filling the information you have to enter a code, given in that form

Next you have to accept the yahoo terms of service and yahoo privacy policy by
clicking on the square box appears beside Do you agree?

Next click on Create My Account button


Yahoo creates an e-mail Id and a conformation message is displayed.
Once you get an e-mail id you can receive and give e-mails from/to your friends, relatives
and other official persons.
CRYPTOLOGY
Cryptology is the process of encoding and decoding the text so that the text cannot be read
by anyone without a key. Cryptology is the practice and study of encryption and decryption.
Encryption is the process of converting ordinary information into intelligible text whereas
decryption will convert the unintelligible text into ordinary information. In cryptology a
secret key and public keys are often used to encrypt and decrypt.
In computer the cryptology is used in Fax, Television, ATM cards, Computer passwords and
online trading to protect the security of customers.
COMPUTER NETWORKS
A network is a number of computers connected together to share information and
hardware. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio
waves, satellites, or infrared light beams.
TYPES OF NETWORKS
The computer networks can be broadly classified into the following categories.
1.
Local Area Network (LAN):
A local area network is a network that connects computers and devices in a
limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office building, or
closely positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node.
LAN configuration consists of:

A file server - stores all of the software that controls the network

A workstation - computers connected to the file server

Cables - used to connect the network interface cards in each computer.


2.
Metropolitan area network (MAN):
A metropolitan area network is a large computer network that usually spans a
city. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a highcapacity backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to
wide area networks and the Internet.
3.
WAN: A wide area network is large, with many computers linked between towns or countries.
4.
INTERNET: The internet is a network of networks that circles the globe. The internet
can be defined as a global system of networked computers together with their users and
data.
The internet is millions of computers around the world connected to each other. The
Web, email, Chat and News groups are things you can do on the internet.
Dial-up access
Dial-up access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public
switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a dialed connection to an Internet service
provider (ISP) via telephone lines.
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
In computer networking, topology refers to the shape of the network and the layout of
cabling.
Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types:

Bus

Ring
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Star

Tree

Mesh
Bus Topology:
Bus topology uses a common backbone to connect all the network devices in a
linear shape. All the devices on the network attached with a single cable with an interface
connector. The device, which wants to communicate send the broadcast message to all the
devices attached with the shared cable but only the intended recipient actually accepts and
process that message. If the Backbone cable fails then all network becomes useless.

Ring Topology:
In a ring topology, every node in the network is connected to two other nodes
and the first and the last nodes are connected to each other. The data that are transmitted
over the network pass through each of the nodes in the ring until they reach the destination
node. Any damage of the cable or device can result in the breakdown of the whole network.

Star Topology:
The most commonly used topology in the networking world is the star topology.
All the computers in the star topologies are connected to central devices like hub, switch or
router. Computers usually connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet.
The failure of any node or cable in a star network, won't take down the entire network but
the failure of the central hub results in total network inoperability.

Tree Topology:
Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its
simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as
the "root" of a tree of devices.

Mesh Topology:
In a full mesh network, each network node is connected to every other node in
the network. In a partially connected mesh network, only some of the network nodes are
connected to more than one node. In Mesh topology, message sent to the destination can
take any possible shortest, easiest route to reach its destination.

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OPERATING SYSTEM
An Operating system (OS) is a set of system programs that control and co-ordinate the
operation of a computer system.
Operating system goals:

Provide an environment in which a user may execute programs.

Make the computer system convenient to use.

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.


FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM
Today most operating systems perform the following functions:
1) Processor management, that is, assignment of processor to different tasks being
performed by the computer system.
2) Memory management, that is, allocation of main memory and other storage areas to
the system programs as well as user programs and data.
3) Input/output management, that is, co-ordination and assignment of the different
output and input devices while one or more programs are being executed.
4) File management that is the storage of files on various storage devices and transfers
these files from one storage device to another.
5) Interpretation of commands and instructions.
6) Coordination and assignment of compilers, assemblers, utility programs, and other
software to the various users of the computer system.
7) Establishment of data security and integrity. That is, it keeps different programs and
data in such a manner that they do not interfere with each other. It also protects itself from
being destroyed by any user.
8) Production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and error detecting
aids.
9) Maintenance of internal time clock and log of system usage for all users.
10) Facilitates easy communication between the computer system and the computer
operator.
Types of Operating Systems
Batch Operating System:
In a batch processing operating system. Data and programs that need to be processed
are bundled and collected as a batch and executed together.
Single User Operating System:
A single user OS is designed for one user to use a computer at a time.
Multi-user Operating System:
A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to use the same computer at the
same time. Linux, UNIX and Windows 2000 are examples of multi-user operating systems.
Multiprocessing Operating System:
An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer
processor. Examples of multiprocessing operating systems are Linux, UNIX and Windows
2000.
Multi-Tasking Operating System:In this type of OS several applications may be
simultaneously loaded and executed. This type of operating system is seen everywhere
today and is the most common type of OS. For example the Windows operating system.
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Real-time operating system (RTOS)
Real-time operating systems are used to control machinery, scientific instruments and
industrial systems.
GUI (Graphical User interface):
A GUI Operating System contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by
using a computer mouse. Examples of GUI Operating Systems:
System 7.x, Windows.
Distributed Operating System:
In a distributed system, software and data maybe distributed around the system,
programs and files maybe stored on different storage devices which are located in different
geographical locations and maybe accessed from different computer terminals.
Multithreading Operating System:
Operating systems that allow different parts of software program to run concurrently.
Operating systems that would fall into this category are: Linux, UNIX, and Windows 2000
BOOTING
The process of transferring (loading) Operating System into the computers memory is
called Booting. Now a days ail computers are having hard disks and when you switch on the
computer, the operating system in the hard disk automatically loads into the computers
memory.
M S DOS
Any computer consists of Hard disk, Keyboard, Monitor, Printer etc. for each of these
components to integrate and function together as a computer system; we must have a
master control program called an Operating System (OS).
One of the popular and most widely used operating system is MS DOS. This operating
system was developed by Micro Soft Corporation.
Starting MS DOS
If you are working in windows

Click Start menu


CLICK start menu

Select Programs
(Or) select run

Select Accessories
Type Command

Select Command prompt click on ok


DOS Prompt
After starting DOS the system displays DOS prompt as ' C :\> = to indicate that it is
ready to receive commands. Commands are executed at the system prompt by typing the
command and Pressing the enter key.
FILE: In computer terminology, a file is a collection of text or data stored on a storage
device, (e.g. Hard disk or CD/DVD)
File Name: Every file is given a file name so that it can be referred later. In DOS the file
name has two parts - Primary name and Extension name.
Rules for a file name:
1) The Primary name can have 8 alphanumeric characters.
2) The extension name can be up to 3 characters.
3) The Primary name and Extension name must be separated by a period (.)
4) The Primary name should not start or end with any special character.
DOS COMMANDS
There are two types of DOS commands:
(1) Internal Commands (2) External Commands.
INTERNAL COMMANDS
Internal commands are read into the memory at the time of booting and stay in the memory
until the power is switched off.
Click Start menu Select Run... Type Command Click on OK
The various internal commands are:
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1) The DATE command.
This command is used to set a new date.
Syntax & E.g. C:\>DATE <I
2) The TIME command.
This command is used to set a new time.
Syntax & E.g. C:\>TIME <i
3) The CLS command.
This command is used to clear the screen.
Syntax & E.g. C:\>CLS <i
4) To change the default drive.
Syntax: C:\> <Drive name> .I E.g. C :\> E: J
This command changes the default drive to E
5) The COPY CON Command
This command is used to create a data file.
Syntax: C:\>COPY CON <file name>
E.g. C :\> COPY CON STUDENT.DAT
After giving the command STUDENT.DAT, the DOS creates a file with the name
STUDENT.DAT and the cursor will stay at the next position. Then you can enter your data.
After entering the data press <ENTER> and press Az to save the file. Then you can return to
command prompt.
Example: Creating a data file.
C:\> COPY CON NAMES.DAT
SUPRIYA
RANI
SWATH A
A
Z
C:\>
6) The TYPE Command
This command is used to see the contents of a file on the screen.
Syntax: C:\>TYPE <file name>
Eg. C:\> TYPE NAMES. DAT
7) The PRN Command
This command is used to print the output (contents) of a file.
Syntax: C:\>TYPE <file name> > PRN
Eg. C:\> TYPE NAMES.DAT > PRN
8) The REN Command
This command is used to rename a file.
Syntax: C:\>REN <cld file name> <new file name>
1
Or
: C:\>RENAME <old file name> <new file name>
Eg. C:\> REN NAMES.DAT STUDENT.DAT
9) The COPY Command
The copy command is used to copy one or more files on the same disk or to another disk.
The copy command can
a)
copy a file from one disk to another.
b)
Make a duplicate file of an individual file with a different name on the same disk.
c)
Copy groups of files on to a different disk making of the wild cards.
Syntax: C:\>COPY <source drive> < file name> <target drive> ^
1
Or
C:\> D:RANI E:
10) The DEL Command
This command is used to erase (delete or remove) unnecessary files.
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Syntax: C:\>DEL <file name>
Eg. C:\> DEL NAMES.DAT
11) The ERASE Command
This command can also be used to erase (delete or remove) unnecessary files.
Syntax:: C:\> ERASE <file name>
Eg. C:\> ERASE NAMES.DAT
12) The EDIT Command
This is command starts MS-DOS screen editor, which is used to create and edit files. Syntax:
C:\>EDIT <file name>
Eg. C:\> EDIT NAMES.DAT
13) The VER command
This command displays DOS version.
Syntax: C:\> VER
14) The DIR command
The DIR command is used to display a listing of files on a floppy disk / hard disk.
Syntax: C:\> DIR
Other formats of DIR command
Syntax: C:\> DIR E:
Lists the files on the disk on F drive though the present working drive is C Syntax: C:\>
DIR/p
This command displays directory of default disk page by page.
Syntax: C:\> DIR/w
This command displays directory widely.
Wild cards:
One of the important features of DOS is the use of the (asterisk) and ? (Question mark)
characters generally known as the wild cards. These characters help us to refer a specific
group of files when using them with different DOS commands.
*(asterisk): By using an* in place of a filename (Primary name or Extension
name) we cab refer to a particular group of files by specifying a directory listing of files
containing common primary name or extension name.
Eg: C:\> DIR *.DAT
Displays a listing of all files which have different primary names but having DAT extension
name only.
Eg: C:\> DIR C*.*
This command displays directory of all files which start the first letter of the primary name
with C.
Eg: C:\> DIR RAM.*
This command displays the directory of all files having file name RAM with any extension.?
(question mark): The ? is used to refer to a single common character in file names.
Eg: C:\> DIR C??.*
This command will list all the files starting with the letter C and having a length of 3
characters (primary name) and any extension.
Eg: C:\> DIR ????Y.TXT
This command lists any filename having Y after 4 letters with extension name TXT.
CREATING SUBDIRECTORY
DOS provides facility of subdividing the disk into different directories called subdirectories.
This kind of organization gives the ability to group all similar files and put them in separate
directories.
COMMANDS
To create a subdirectory: The MKDIR or MD command is used to make/create a
subdirectory to the present working directory. The main directory containing the
subdirectory is called the root directory.
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Syntax: C:\> MKDIR <Directory name>
Or
Syntax: C:\>MD <Directory name>
Eg: C:\>MD Suresh
i
To move or change into a subdirectory : The CHDIR or CD command is used to change
from one directory to another directory.
Syntax: C :\> CHDIR <Directory name>
Or
Syntax: C:\>CD <Directory name>
Eg: C:\>CD Suresh
This example, changes the current directory to Suresh
To Remove a subdirectory: the RMDIR or RD command is used to remove a subdirectory
from a particular directory.
Syntax: C:\> RMDIR <Directory name>
Or
Syntax: C:\> RD <Directory name>
Eg: C:\> RD Suresh
This example deletes /removes the subdirectory Suresh.
NOTE: If you wish to remove a subdirectory you must erase (delete) all the files from it
first.
You can delete all the files in a subdirectory at a time using the following command.
DEL *.* (or) DEL
To return back from a subdirectory : The CD..Or CD \ command is used to return back
from a subdirectory.
Syntax: C:\suresh> CD ..
Or
Syntax: C:\suresh> CD \
C:\>CD
NOTE: If you wish to remove a subdirectory you must return back from that directory first.
15) The EXIT command
This command is used to exit DOS.
Syntax: C :\> EXIT
EXTERNAL COMMANDS
1.
The CHKDSK Command: This command checks the disk in a drive and presents a
status report about bytes position and disk space in a drive.
Syntax: C:\> CHKDSK <Drive name>
Eg. C:\> CHKDSK E:
2.
The FORMAT Command: This command makes a new floppy ready to use. The system
checks all the tracks and sectors of the floppy. If a used floppy is formatted all the existing
files on it are erased.
Syntax: C:\> FORMAT <Drive name>
Eg. C:\> FORMAT A:
Another format of FORMAT command
a)
FORMAT A:/V: This command allows you to give the new floppy a name or a volume
label.
b)
FORMAT A:/S: This command allows you to make the new floppy in drive A bootable,
i.e. it also transfers the system files into the new floppy.
3.
The DISK COPY command: This command copies entire data from one disk to another
disk
Syntax:: C:\> DISK COPY <Source Drive> <Target Drive>
WARNING: When this command is used any files in the target drive will automatically
overwritten
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Eg. C:\> DISK COPY A: D:
This command copies the entire files in drive A to drive D and the files in D drive are
overwritten.
4.
The TREE Command: This command shows all directories and subdirectories in tree
form.
Syntax:: C:\> TREE
5.
The MORE Command: This command is used to display on screen output of any
command page by page. You can use MORE on the output of TYPE, DIR etc,
Eg. C:\> DIR | MORE
C:\> TYPE AUTOEXEC.BAT | MORE
6.
ATTRIB Command: Hidden files are those files that are not listed with DIR Command.
You can use the ATTRIB command to hide files or change hidden files to normal files.
Eg. C:\> ATTRIB +H SURESH
This command makes suresh file hidden
Eg. C:\> ATTRIB -H SURESH
This command converts suresh file to normal file.
WINDOWS
Windows is a popular operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation. Windows has a
new look that is designed for easy and convenient use.
Salient Features of Windows

Easier to use

Faster

More Reliable

Web integration
Starting Windows
THE DESKTOP
Once you start Windows, the first thing you see is the desktop. Desktop is the area on the
screen where you work.
THE ICON
Several Icons are located on the left side of your desktop. Icons are the pictorial
representation of the executable files, that can be run on Windows. You can run applications
by double-clicking the icons.
TASKBAR
The rectangular bar that runs horizontally across the bottom of your screen is called taskbar.
It includes Start button, current time and when you start working you will see other items
listed on the taskbar. This item shows you the name of the windows currently open on your
desktop. You can easily switch to a different window by clicking on the taskbar button.

START BUTTON
Start button appears on the right side of taskbar. Start button is used to navigate
through windows. Using your start button you can start programs, open documents,
customize your system, get help, search for items etc. Some commands on the start menu
have a right facing arrow, which means additional choices are available on a secondary
menu. When you move your mouse pointer on the item with an arrow, another menu
appears.
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To use start menu
7.
Click the start button, the Start menu appears
8.
Click on the item you want to open
CONTROL PANEL
Control Panel is full of specialized tools that are used to change the way Windows looks and
behaves.
STARTING CONTROL PANEL
Choose start settings Control panel
The control panel window contains the following options:
Appearance and Themes: Change the appearance of desktop items, apply a theme or
screen saver to your computer, or customize the Start menu and taskbar.
Network and Internet Connections: Connect to the Internet, create a home or small
office network, and configure network settings to work from home, or change modem,
phone and internet settings.
Add or Remove Programs and Windows Components: Install or remove programs and
Windows components.
Sounds, Speech and Audio Devices: Change the entire sound scheme or individual sound
made by your computer, or configure the settings for your speakers and recording devices.
Performance and Maintenance: Schedule regular maintenance Checks, increase space on
your hard disk, or configure energy-saving settings.
Printer and Other Hardware:
Change the settings for your printer, Keyboard, mouse, camera and other hardware.
User Accounts:
Change user account settings, passwords and Pictures.Date, Time Language and
Regional Options: Change the date, time and time zone for your computer, the language to
use, and the way numbers, currencies, dates, and times are displayed.
Accessibility Options:
Adjust your computer settings for vision, hearing and mobility.
Security Center:
View Current security status and access important settings to help protect your PC.
ACCESSORIES
Windows includes several useful applications to help you to manage various tasks.
These application, called accessories were installed into the Accessories menu when you
install windows.
WORDPAD:
You can use WordPad to create documents of any size from short notes to elaborate
memos and reports. These documents can use other formatting features such as indents,
centered lines, italic, double-spacing and tab stops.
To Start WordPad
Click Start button Program Accessories Word pad
PAINT:
Paint is a colorful and capable application. You can create original artwork and move it
into many other Windows applications. You can also use paint to resize and edit art copied
from other documents and sources.
Starting Paint
Click Start Program Accessories Paint
CALCUCATOR: You can use calculator to solve mathematical problems.
Click Start Program Accessories Calculator
NOTEPAD: You can use notepads to review and edit short text files, such as memos or
notes. A text file contains only letter numbers, and other characters on the keyboards. It
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does not contain special characters or formatting codes that are normally used in Word
processors.
Starting Notepad
Click Start Programs Accessories Notepad
WINDOWS EXPLORER:
Windows Explorer displays your files in a hierarchical structure. The left side of the
window displays the list of drives and folders, the right side displays the contents of a
selected folder. You can use explorer to move or copy files, print documents and maintain
disks. To Start Windows Explorer
Click Start button Programs Accessories Windows Explorer
THE MAGNIFIER:
The Magnifier is a display utility that makes the computer screen more readable by
people who have low vision by creating a separate window that displays a magnified portion
of the screen.
THE NARRATOR:
The Narrator is a text-to-speech utility for people who are blind or have low vision.
Narrator reads what is displayed on the screenthe contents of the active window, menu
options, or text that has been typed.
Note: The Narrator is designed to work with Notepad, 'WordPad Control' panel programs, Internet
Explorer, the Windows desktop, and some parts of Windows Setup. Narrator may not read words
aloud correctly in other programs. Narrator has a number of options that that allow you to customize
the way screen e Cements are read.
THE ON-SCREEN KEYBOARD:
On-Screen Keyboard is a utility that displays a virtual keyboard on the computer
screen that allows people with mobility impairments to type data by using a pointing device
or joystick.
BACKUP! :
The Backup accessory in the Windows Accessories menu makes it easy to backup all
your important files.
THE DISK DEFRAGMENTER: The Disk Defragmenter sorts out the files on your drive(s) to
optimize the space you are using. Defragmenting you drive(s) periodically is a good tool for
optimizing your computers performance.
MY COMPUTER
My computer is used to view the contents of a single folder or drive. Double click My
Computer on your desktop to display the drives available on your computer. When you
double click a drive icon a window displays the folders available on that drive. Double click a
folder to see the files within the folders.
COMPUTER VIRUS
A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer
without the permission or knowledge of the owner. A virus can spread from one computer to
another through removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive.
Kinds (Types) of Viruses:
1.
Macro Viruses: Macro viruses are the first viruses to infect data files rather than
executable files. Macro viruses infect files in the form of macro or OLE objects.
2.
Boot Sector Viruses: A Boot sector virus infects the boot record of a hard disk or
floppy disk. The virus moves the boot sectors data to a different part of disk.
3.
TSR file viruses: A less popular kind of virus is the Terminate and Stay Resident file
Virus. As the name suggests, these viruses usually infects COM and EXE files.
4.
Non TSR file viruses: These types of viruses can infect all types of files.
5.
Overwriting Viruses: An overwriting virus simply overwrites each file, it infects with
itself.
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6.
Multipartite virus: These Viruses infect multiple objects. When you run and EXE
infected with a multipartite.There are some more kinds of virus which infect the different
parts of the Computer.

Problems of viruses:
The problems of viruses can be categorized into different types as follows:
a)
Trivial Damage:
This is the most insignificant damage done by a virus, for example, it will simple make
a speaker beep.
b)
Minor Damage:
Minor damage means the damage rate is very less. E.g. Terusalem virus, which deletes
any program that try to run after some time data is deleted.
c)
Moderate Damage: Moderate damage is done when a virus formats the hard disk.
d)
Major Damage:
Major damage is done when a virus infects your backups as well as your hard disk.
e)
Severe damage: when a virus makes gradual, progressive changes so much so that
backups are also corrupted but the changes are not obvious so.

MS OFFICE
Microsoft Office is a product of Microsoft Corporation. It is a collection of programs that
can help you accomplish various tasks. These tasks help you to' keep your office running
smoothly.
M.S. Office consists often parts:
1. Microsoft Word
: A word processing program
2. Microsoft Excel
: A spread sheet or worksheet program
3. Microsoft PowerPoint
: A presentation program
4. Microsoft Access
: A database management system
5. Microsoft Frontpage
: A web set creation and management program
6. Microsoft Outlook
: An e-mail and contact management program
7. Microsoft PhotoDraw
: A photo editing program
8. Microsoft Publisher
: A desktop publishing program
9. Internet Explorer
: A web browser
10. Small Business Tools
: Accounting software
We should deal with following four parts which are commonly used by most of the
people
1) Microsoft Word
2) Microsoft Excel
3) Microsoft PowerPoint
4) Microsoft Access
Microsoft Word
WORD PROCESSING
Word processing software is an application that provides extensive tools for creating all
kinds of text-based documents. Word processors also enable you to add images to
documents and design documents that look like products of a professional print shop.
A word processor can enhance documents; you can embed sounds, video clips, and
animations into them. You can link different documents together for example, link a chart
from a spreadsheet into a word processing report. Word processors can even create
documents for publishing on the World Wide Web.
Popular windows based word processing packages are:
MS-Word Word
Word perfect
Word pro
Other word processing packages are:
Word star
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Perfect writer
Professional write
Microsoft word is very popular word processor in the market today.:
FEATURES/ ADVANTAGES OF WORD PROCESSING
The current word processors are very powerful and rich in features. Some of the features
are:
Word wrapping:
When you are typing a document, you didt need to press the enter key at the end of
line. Word processor automatically, moves to next line. The text also rearrange accordingly.
Adding or deleting test:
Omitted or additional text can be easily inserted into the document.
Selecting Blocks of Text:
Word processor allows you to copy or move text from one place to another. Before
copying or moving the text you have to select it.
Copying text:
Copying text from one place to another within the document or from one document to
another could be easily done with the help of a word processor.
Moving text:
Moving performs two functions Copying the text to a new place and also removing it
from its original place.
Line spacing:
Word processor permits you to print the desired number of blank lines in between the
lines of text.
Margin settings and Columns:
Margins, the distance between the text and edges of the paper, can be adjusted. Some
word processors have the ability to split text into two or more columns.
Searching and Replacing:
You can use a word processor to search through the entire document and replace the
incorrect word with the correct one.
Character Formatting and Style:
The design, style or size of the letters can be changed easily by a word processor.
Using different fonts, you can make the headings and important text attractive and
noticeable.
Justification of text:The text that you type in the document can be left justified, right
justified, centered or fully justified. The adjustment can be made before or after typing the
document.
Checking the document:
Checking and improving a document is a very useful feature of a word processor. In
incorporates the following features.
Spell check: word processor checks the spellings of word used in the documents.
Grammar check: grammatical errors checking is taken care of.
Thesaurus: this facility can help you to use an alternate word in place of any word typed in
the document.
Setting tabs : this helps you to make up columns in the document, you can add, delete or
move tabs, as you desire.
STARTING WORD :

Click start button

Point to programs

Point to Microsoft office

Click Microsoft word


(Or)
If you have MS Word icon on the desktop, double click over the icon to start word.
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Parts of Word Window:
When you start word you see the opening screen or word as follows.

Title Bar: It lists the name of currently open document. The control buttons (Minimize,
Maximize/Restore, and close buttons) appear in the right side of title bar.
Menu Bar: The next line displayed below the title bar is called the menu bar. The menu bar
contains several menu items such as File, Edit, View and so on.
Tool Bars: Just under the menu bar are two rows of icons (little pictures) are called the
standard tool bar and formatting tool bars.
Text Area: This is the area in which you can type text.
Scroll Bars: The horizontal and vertical scroll bars let you bring different parts of a
document into view.
View Buttons: You can use these buttons to switch views.
Status bar: Status bar is located at the bottom of your screen. The status bar tells you
about the current status of the cursor and other items like current page number and the
total number of pages, whether some special features are turned on.
SAVING A DOCUMENT
1.
Move the mouse pointer over the File menu.
2.
And click the left mouse button. A pull-down menu appears.
3.
Now move the mouse pointer over the Save option.
4.
Click the left mouse button.
(Or)
Click the Save tool on the Standard toolbar.
(Or)
Press Ctrl+S, the keyboard shortcut keys.
CLOSING THE DOCUMENT
After you complete your work, it is advisable to close the current document before you
start with some other work.
To close a document:
1.
Move the mouse pointer over the File menu.
2.
And click the left mouse button once. Immediately a pull-down menu displayed.
3.
Move the mouse pointer over the Close option
4.
Then click the left mouse button.
(Or)
Click the Close button in the Menu bar of the Window.
CREATING A NEW DOCUMENT
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After you have created and saved a document, sometimes you may like to create
another document. To create a new document:
Click the New button on the Standard toolbar.
(Or)
Press Ctrl+N, the shortcut keys.
If you use any one of these two methods, Word immediately creates a new document and
assign it a temporary name, such as Document 1, Document2, etc.
(Or)
1.
Click on the File menu. It displays pull-down menu. Click on New option.
2.
New dialog box is displayed.
3.
Click the icon Blank Document.
DELETING DOCUMENTS
You can delete files in either Save As or Open dialog box. Display either dialog box,
and delete the file by using one of these methods.

Select the file you want to delete and Strike the Delete key.

Right-Click the file you want to remove and click Delete in the context menu.

Select the file and click the Delete toolbar button at the top of the dialog box.
The confirm File Delete message box appears to ask whether you want to send the
document to the Recycle Bin, click the Yes button.
OPENING AND CLOSING TOOLBARS
By default, Word displays only two toolbars on your screen. Word contains 16 toolbars.
Depending on your requirements, you can open the desired toolbar.
Opening and Closing Toolbars
1.
Right-click anywhere on any toolbar.
Or, click View, and then point to Toolbars.
2.
To open a new toolbar, click the corresponding toolbar name.
Similarly if you want to close any open toolbar, click the corresponding toolbar name
EXITING WORD
To exit from Microsoft Word, Perform the following steps:
1.
Move the mouse pointer over the File menu and click. A pull-down menu appears.
2.
Move the mouse pointer over the Exit.
3.
Click the left mouse button over it.
Immediately you will return to the Windows screen.
(Or)
Click the Close button in the title bar.
(Or)
Press Alt+F4

EDITING THE DOCUMENT


OPENING AN EXISTING DOCUMENT
1.
Move the mouse pointer over the File menu and click the left mouse button. A pulldown menu displays.
2.
Now move the mouse pointer over the Open option and click.
(Or)
Click the Open button on the Standard toolbar.
(Or)
Press Ctrl+O, The shortcut key
The Open dialog box appears, select the file and click on Open button.
Quickly Opening Recently used Files
Word can help you to quickly open any of the last four files that you have
opened/created, directly from the File menu. Move the mouse pointer over the File menu
and click. A pull down menu appears.
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At the bottom of the menu, there is a list of files that you have worked with recently.
Highlight-the desired file name and press Enter key.
Editing the document
When you create a document you may make some errors and want to current them.
Some time you like to make changes in the document. Making such modification in a
document is turned as editing.
Editing can be made as follows.
Moving the cursor
The cursor/insertion point is the flashing small straight vertical line. It shows where the text
will be inserted.
While editing the document you need to place the cursor at various places.
You can move the cursor using arrow keys on the keyboard.
You can also place the cursor by using the mouse. The I-Beam is the mouse pointer.
That appears when you move the mouse over text when you want to move the cursor to a
particular location place the I-Beam to the location and click left mouse button.

You can move the cursor one word using ctrl+left and right arrows.

Press End to move the cursor to the end of the line.

Ctrl+End move the cursor to the end of the document.

Press Home to move the cursor to the beginning of the line.

Ctrl+Home move the cursor to the beginning of the document.

Page up moves to the previous page.

Page down moves to the next page.


Adding deleting text
You can easily add or delete text without retyping the entire document,
Place the cursor where you have to add text and type your text. The surrounding
words automatically move to make room for the new text.
If you want to delete text place the cursor before that text and press delete key
alternatively select the text you have to delete and press delete key.
Deleting characters
You can delete characters using delete or back space key. The delete key deletes
characters to the right of the cursor and back space key deletes the characters to the left of
the cursor.
Overtyping
By default word operates in insert mode (i.e. if you type characters between a word
the remaining letters move to make room) press Ins key or double click on the letters OVR
in the states bar. Word now select over type mode. If you type text it will over write existing
text.
If you want to return to insert mode press insert key or double click on OVR.
After making changes save the document again.
Selecting text
You have to select text before deleting, cutting and pasting, copying or moving,
formatting.
You can select text using mouse or key board.
Using mouse
Position the I-Beam at the beginning of the text, press and hold down the left mouse
button, drag across the text, and then release the left mouse button. The selected text
becomes a black bag round.
To deselect the text, move the mouse pointer somewhere else on the screen and click
left mouse button once.
Using key board
Place the cursor before the text you want to select press and hold the shift key and
press arrow keys to select text.
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To deselect text release the shift key and pres any arrow.
Cutting and Pasting text
The term cutting and pasting refers to moving and copying text. When you move text,
you remove (cut) it from one place in your document and paste it in another place.
To cut and paste text

Select the text

Click on edit menu

Select the cut option


The selected text will be cut

Place the cursor where you want to paste the text.

Click on edit menu.

Click on paste option.


The selected text will be pasted here.
You can also cut the text by using cut button on the stranded toolbar (or) you can also
press ctrl+x, the shortcut key.
You can also paste the text by using paste button on the stranded toolbar (or) press
ctrl+V, the shortcut key.
Copy and Paste
When you copy text, you leave the text in its original place and paste a duplicate of it
in another place.
Copying text

Select the text to be copied.

Click on edit menu and choose copy option


(Or)
Click on copy button on stranded toolbar
(or)
Click Ctrl+C, the shortcut key.
Pasting text

Place the cursor where you have to paste the text.

Click on edit menu and choose paste option


(Or)
Click on past button on stranded toolbar (or)
Press Ctrl+v, the shortcut key.
Undoing Or Redoing Changes
If you delete any text accidentally you can restore it using words undo facture.
To undo the most recent action, click on edit menu and choose undo option or click the
undo button on the stranded toolbar (or) press Ctrl+z.
To undo one of the previous actions click the down arrow to the right of the undo
button on stranded toolbar, scroll down the displayed list and click the action that you want
to undo.
Word also supports the redo command that enables you to redo changes that you have
undone. To redo the action, click on edit menu and choose redo (or) click on redo button on
stranded toolbar or press Ctrl+y.

Formatting text and Paragraphs


FORMATTING
Formatting the text means to offer a nice looking form to text. In order to format the
text we can use the following facilities in word.
1.
Using the various fonts and font sizes.
2.
Making the text bold, italics, under line, subscripted and super scripted.
3.
To align to text to left, to right or at center.
4.
Using the facilities of bulleting and numbering.
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5.
Using the various paragraph formatting option such as left and right margines, spacing
between lines etc...
Character formatting
Character formatting is the process of changing how a character looks. Through
character formatting you can make a word bold, Italic, under line and..... you can change
the size of the text style by choosing a different font.
Applying bold, italic and under line:
To apply bold, italic or under line to the text, we need to perform the following steps.
1.
Select the text to be formatted.
2.
Click on the appropriate toolbar button: for bold, & for italic or ajy for under line.
3.
Alternatively you can also press ctrl+B for bold, ctrl+l for italic, ctrl+U for under line
(Or)
You can also choose this from format menu.
Format Font Font style
After applying bold or italic or under line click anywhere else for deselect the text.
To remove a font style, select the text and then click the same font style button again.
You can also a remove any formatting by pressing ctrl+space bar.
Select the text and press Ctrl+ space bar.
Changing your font:
The font refers to the shape and style of character and each particular shape and style
of the character set is given a font name such as Arial, bookman old style, times new roman
etc....
For changing the font follows steps.
1.
Select the text you want to change.
2.
Click the arrow next to the font drop down list.
Times new Roman
A list of available fonts will appear
3.
Click on the font you want.
Word applies the font to the selected text.
Click once to deselect the text.
Alternatively you can change the font using format menu.
Format Font Font
Changing font size:
You can make your text appear and print larger or smaller by changing the size. By
default all characters are at 12 point size.
To change the font size follows these steps.
1.
Select the text
2.
Click the arrow next to the font size box on formatting toolbar. 12
Word displays a
list of available sizes.
3.
Click the size that you want to use
The new size will be applied to your text click to deselect.
Note:- If you want to use a size that not appears in the list, click in the font size box and
type over it with the size you want and press enter key.
You can also change the font size using format menu.
Format menu Font Size
Under line styles:
Word provides many types of under lining option these options are available in format menu.
To get different types of under lines

Select the text.

Click format menu.

Select font

In the underline style list, click the style you want.

In the underline color list click the color you want.


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Click ok.
Additional formatting tools:You can format the text in several other styles, such as strike through sub script, super
script all
Caps etc.
All these are available in font dialog box. You cannot apply these through formatting toolbar.
To use these options follow the below process:
a)
Select the text.
b)
Format the text.
c)
Deselect the text
Strikethrough: Draws a lion through the selected text
Double strike through: Draws double line through the selected text
Supper script: Slightly raises characters above the line of text. This is used to type power.
Eg: 52
Sub script: Slightly lowers characters below the line of text. These can be used to type base
values.
Ex: - 42
Shadow: Adds a shadow behind the selected text
Out line: Displays inner and outer boarder of each characters
Emboss: Makes selected text appears as if it is raised of the page
Engrave:Makes selected text appear to be imprinted or pressed in to the page
Small caps: Formats selected lower case text as capital letters and reduces their size
All caps: Formats selected lower case text as capital letters.
Hidden: Prevents selected text from being displayed or printed
Adjusting character spacing
Word enables you to adjust the amount of space between characters.
To adjust characters spacing follows these steps.
1.
Select the text
2.
Choose format font, font dialog box is displayed
3.
Click the character spacing tab
4.
Select the desired options and click ok
Adding Animation to text:
Word comes in six animation effects.
To animate follow these steps.
1.
Select the text
2.
Choose format font, the fc-it dialog box displayed.
3.
Click text effects (tab)
4.
Click on the desired animation in the animation list box
5.
Click ok
Changing the case of letters:
If you need to change the case of the some text from lower case to upper case or vice versa
you do not have to retype the text just follow these steps.
1.
Select the text.
2.
Click format.
3.
Click the change case option, change case dialog box appears.
4.
Choose the option you want and click ok Note:Lower case = Small letters
Upper case = Capital letters

Paragraph formatting:
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If a smallest unit to which you can apply formatting is paragraph. Then that formatting
is called a paragraph formatting. The tools style, align left, centre, align right, justify,
numbering, bullets, increase indent and decrease indent, line spacing are paragraph
formatting.
Aligning Paragraphs:
Alignment refers to the way the right and left edges of a paragraph line up. Word supports
four types of paragraph alignment: left, centered, right and justified.
Left Alignment: tea by default word uses left alignment, which produces a straight left
edge and ragged right edge.
Center Alignment: Text is centered between the left and right edge. You use this other
short lines of text.
Right Alignment: Right aligned text has a straight right edge and a ragged left edge you
can use this alignment to place the date at the right margin.
Justification:.It makes both the left and right edges of a paragraph straight.
To change the alignment, follow these steps.
1.
Select the paragraph/s which you want to change the alignment.
2.
Choose appropriate alignment button on the formatting tool bar.
You can also change the alignment through format menu.
Format menu Paragraph Indents and spacing > Alignment
The key board short cut for alignment text or
Left: ctrl+L
Centre: ctrl+E
Right: ctrl+R
Justified : ctrl+J
Changing line spacing:
Line spacing is the amount of space between the lines of text in a document. By
default lines in word 2000 document are single spaced. You can increase the distance
between the lines in your document to make the text easier to read. This can be done before
are after you type in your text. To change the line spacing, follow these steps.
1.
Select the text you want to change.
2.
Choose format, paragraph to display the paragraph dialog box.
3.
Click the line spacing drop down arrow.
4.
Click the desired line spacing you want.
5.
Click ok.
The key board short cuts for the line spacing are
Single line spacing : - ctrl+1
1.5 line spacing
: - ctrl+1.5
Double line spacing: - ctrl+2
Using tabs:
Tabs helps you line up columns of information or indent text with in a line or paragraph
you can add remove or move tabs as you desire. However, if you move a tab the text set to
the tab position moves along with it.
Tabs are basically used for aligning your paragraph and also used to create a multi
column table.
When you start word it automatically sets tab stops every half-inch. The tab each time
you press the tab key your cursor moves to the next default tab stop.
Tab markers: Left tab
Center tab
Right tab
Decimal tab
Bar tab
To change the type of tab click tab selection button
Inserting tab stops:
You can insert the tab stops by clicking the desired location on the ruler.
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You can insert tabs using the tabs dialog box.
To insert tabs using the dialog box follow these steps.

Choose format, tabs to display the tabs dialog box.

Click the clear all button to wear all existing tabs.

Type the number ware you have to set the tab in the stop position text box.

To select tab type click the corresponding the radio button in the alignment box.

Click the set button to define the tab.

Click ok.
Moving the tab stops:
To move tab stop follow these steps:

Select the text you want to move.

Point to the tab on the ruler; drag it to the new position.


Deleting the tab stops:

Point the tab on the ruler and drag it out of ruler


Bullets and numbering:
You can use bullets and numbers to make list in your document attractive and easy to read.
Follow these steps to create bullets or numbers
1.
Place the cursor where you want start bullets or numbers.
2.
Click the bullets or numbering button on the formatting tool bar or choose format,
bullets and numbering and select which type you like.
3.
Word inserts a bullet or number continues typing items.
4.
After typing the last item press enter twice to turn of bullets or press back space key
to delete bullets.
You can also create bullets after typing the text.

Select the also create bullets as you like.

Word inserts bullets.

De-select the text.

Find and Replace


Find:
The words find feature is a real time saver word [2000] lets you to search for specific
information in the current document. Also you can search for text formatting.
To search for specific information, follow these steps.
1.
Click Edit on menu bar. A pull down menu appears.
2.
Click on Find command. The find and replace dialog box displayed.
3.
Type the information you want to search in the find what box. To search for text that is
in a particular format, click format.
4.
Click find next word will take you to the first occurrence of the specified word and
highlights the first match.
5.
Clicks find next again word will take you to the next occurrence.

Click find next to continue the search

Click cancel button or Esc to discontinue search


6.
When word informs you that it has found all matches, click ok. The message box will
close.
Replace:The replace feature searches your entire document for a particular word or words and
replaces them with a specified text. To search for text that is in a particular format, click
format button.
To search and replace for a specific word, follow these steps.
1.
On the menu, click replaces. The find and replace dialog box appears.
2.
In the find what box, enter the text that you want to search replace.
3.
Click replace with box (or press tab key). Type the text you want to replace.
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4.
Click find next word will highlight the first occurrence.
5.
To replace the text, click replace click find next to move to next occurrence.
6.
If you want to replace all words at a time, click replace all.
7.
To stop the searching click cancel.
8.
Click on ok. The message box will close.

Insertion of objects

Inserting date and time:The first step in writing a letter is to place the date at the right of letter. Instead of
typing the entire data you can insert it.
Follow these steps to insert date and time
1.
Click align right tool bar button.
2.
Choose insert, date and time to display the data and time dialog box.
3.
In the list box available formats, click the desired format.
4.
Click ok, the dialog box disappears and the data is known inserted at the cursor.
To insert time follow these steps
1.
Place the cursor where you want to insert the time.
2.
Choose insert, data and time. The date and time dialog box appears.
3.
In the available formats, click the desired time format.
4.
Click ok, the dialog box disappears.
The time is now inserted at the cursor.
Adding header & Footer:Header is a special text written in the top margin of a page. A header contains kook
title or chapter heading or page numbers.
Footer is a text written at the bottom of the page. A footer contains foot notes or page
numbers. The advantage of using headers and footers is that, you have to create them only
once and they automatically appear on each page.
Creating a header and/or footer:To add a header and/or footer to your document follow these steps:
1.
Click view menu.
2.
Click header and footer word activates the header area and displaces the header and
footer toolbar.
3.
Type the text for header(in the header area defend b dotted line)
4.
If you want to center the text, click the center tool button on formatting tool bar.
5
If you want to create footer, click switch between header and footer tool On the header
and footer tool bar
The edit box pops up to footer.
6.
Type the text for pops up to footer defined by the dotted line.
7.
Click close tool on the header and footer toolbar.
The toolbar and edit box disappears, saving the header and footer changes.
Inserting Page Numbers:Follow these steps to add page numbers to your document.
1.
Click on insert menu.
2.
Choose page number, the page number dialog box displays.
3.
Click the position drop-down button and click desired position at top or bottom of a
page.
4.
Click the alignment drop- down button and click desired position to left or center or
right side of the page.
5.
To start page numbering at a number other than one, click format button and choose
the number format.
6.
Click the start at box and type the beginning page number.
7.
Click ok.
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Auto correct
The auto correct feature in word automatically corrects many common typing errors
you will not even realize that you made any error.
The auto correct dialog box:Choose tools, auto correct, and word displays auto correct dialog box. This dialog box
consists five check boxes as follows.
0
Correct two Initial Capitals.
0
Capitalize first letter of sentences.
0
Capitalize names of days.
0
Correct accidental usage of CAPSLOCK key.
0
Replace test as you type.
Spelling and grammar checking:You must have observed the red and green wavy lines under some words as you type in the
text area. This tells you that the red wavy under lines are either misspelled or they do not
exist in words dictionary. The green wavy under lines or the grammar errors. You can make
it go away by correcting the spelling and grammar mistakes.
Correcting spelling mistakes:To correct the incorrect word, perform the following steps.
1.
Right click the misspelled word
2.
A contest menu appears with a list of possible spellings. Click the correct spelling from
the list.
3.
Word makes the correction for you
4.
If you do not want to make changes to the word click ignore all
Alternatively:Follow the following steps to correct spelling and grammar mistakes.
1.
Press Ctrl+Home to place the cursor at the beginning of the document.
2.
Click tools menu and click spelling and grammar.
(Or)
Click the spelling and grammar button on the stranded tool bar.
The spelling and grammar dialog box displays.
3.
The first misspelled word will appear in the not in dictionary text box.
You can loop one of the following.

Click the correctly spelled word in the suggestions list and click change.

Click the correctly spelled word in suggestions list and click change all to correct all
identical misspellings in the entire document.

Click the correctly spelled word in the suggestions list and click auto correct to
automatically correct the identical miss spelling.

Click ignores to leave word.

Click ignores all to ignore the word in rest of the document.

Clicks add to add the word to a dictionary file for feature spell check.
4.
Repeat step three until all words are checked.
5.
Click ok to close the message box.
Grammar Checkers:Grammar checkers report grammatical errors and suggest ways to correct then you
can correct grammar mistakes in the same way you correct the spelling mistakes.

Graphics
Graphics means elements of pictures. Word allows drawing, placing, resizing and
repositioning the graphics.
Insert clip Art:Place the cursor where you want to insert clip-art. Click on insert menu, choose
Picture, Clip- Art. Click the category and click the image.
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Move the cursor where you want to insert the picture. Click insert menu, select picture,
a sub menu will appear
Click form file, locate the file that contains the picture you want to insert. Click the
picture you want to insert.

Words drawing features:Word includes a set of drawing tools in drawing tools in drawing tool bar.
Line: - A line can be drawn by drawing from starting point to end point.
Arrow: - This inserts as arrow on to a page.
Rectangle: - This draw a rectangle or square pressing shift key while dragging produces a
square.
Oval: - Draw an oval or circle. Pressing shift key while dragging produce a circle
Fill color: - Change the fill color.
Line color: - Change the line colour.
Line style: - Change the line style such as thick ness, double lines etc.
Arrow style: - Change an arrow style to a selected line.

Tables
A table is the information arranged in rows and columns.
Draw table:
Select draw table command in table menu.

Tables and borders dialog box will appear and pointer changes to a pencil.

To define the outer table boundaries, drag from one corner to the diagonal comer of
the table.

Draw column and row lines.

To erase a line, click eraser and drag over the line.


Insert table:Select insert table command in table menu to create a table.
Insert table dialog box will appear and select number of rows and columns.
Entering text: Place the cursor to cell where you want to insert a text, and then enter
information.
Editing text: Place the cursor that you want to edit the text and apply delete or back space
key to edit the text.
Selecting table: Select table command in table menu is used to select entire table.
Selecting row: Select row command in table menu is used to select the entire row in which
the cursor is located.
Select column: Select column command in table menu is used to select the enter column in
which the cursor is located.
Insert row: We can add new rows by selecting the insert row command in table menu.
Insert column: We can add/insert new column by selecting a insert column command in
table menu.
Changing column width and row height: You can change the width of any column and
row height either by using the mouse or by using the table menu.
By using mouse: Move the mouse on the grid line between columns/rows and click
left mouse button and then drag the mouse to change the column width or row height.
By table menu: Select cell height and width command in table menu, cell height and
width dialog box will appear. Type width or height and click ok button. MS word
automatically changes the row height depending on the text.
Delete rows/columns: This is used to delete the selected row or column or cell from table.

Templates
Templates are predefined documents. In a business environment, most of the
correspondence is repetitive in nature. When we create a new document based on a
template, word automatically puts all text and other definitions stored in the templates in
the document it creates.
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Using templates:
Select new command in the file menu.

New dialog box appear. By default word selects blank document.

Select templates.

Select any one predefined templates.


Creating templates:To create a template, use on exiting document that contains the text and formatting
we want to store in the templates. Once we have finalized the text and formatting for
template, select save command in file menu.
Word displays the save as dialog box. Type file name in file name text box. Select
document template as the file type in file type list box.
Word automatically selects the templates directory and stores in it.

Format Painter
This allows you to copy (font) formatting from one part of your document to another.
Follow these steps:
1)
Select the text containing the formatting you want to copy.
2)
Click the format painter button on the standard tool bar.
3)
A paint brush is now attached to the I Bean mouse pointer. Drag over the text to which
you want to apply the formatting. Release the mouse button.
The formatting is applied to the selected text.

Mail merge
Mail merge is a feature that enables us to send the letters of almost the same contents
to several persons. For instance, you may send a letter whishing your friends Happy New
Year on Jan 1st', call letters for interview, notice for a meeting, invitation for party etc.
Creating mail merge:Performing a mail merge involves Six basic steps.
Step 1: Type the Letter and save it.
Select tools
Letters and Mailings
Mail Merge...
Mail Merge Task pane displays
Select document type Eg. Letters
Click on Next
Step 2: Select Starting document Eg. Use the current document.
Click on Next
Step 3: Select recipients
Select type a new list
Click on Create ...
New Address List Dialog box displays
Type the Addresses and Click on Cancel button
Save Address List dialog box displays, type filename and click on save button
Your address list will be saved and Mail Merge recipients box displays,
Click on OK
Click on Next
Step 4: Insert Fields into the letter
Place the cursor where you want to insert field Click on More items....
Insert Merge Field dialog box appears, select the field and click on insert.
After inserting fields click on Close button
Click on Next
Step 5: Preview your letters
Click on edit recipients list
Mail Merge recipients box displays
Select the Addresses and click on OK
Click on Next
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Step 6: Complete the Merge
If you want to print the merged letters Click on print....
Or
If you want to view the merged letters or if you want to edit the letters Click on Edit
individual letters.

Mailing Labels
Mailing labels are used to type addresses.
For getting mailing labels:

Click Tools

Point to letters and mailings

Click on Envelopes and Labels...

Envelopes and Labels dialog box displays

Click on labels tab

Type addresses

If you click on Print button, the labels will be printed.


Or
If you click on New Document button, the labels will be displayed on new document.

Printing Envelopes
In the same manner of mailing labels, we can print address on an envelope. The return
address can also be printed. To print envelopes:

Click Tools

Point to letters and mailings

Click on Envelopes and Labels...

Envelopes and Labels dialog box displays

Click on envelopes tab

Type delivery address and return address

If you click on Print button, the envelopes will be printed.


Or
If you click on New Document button, the envelopes will be displayed on new document

WIZARDS
Wizard contains a series of dialog boxes. Based on these steps word creates a new
document. Wizards can be changed according to our needs. With wizard we can create
letters, demos, Calendars, News Letters, and Resumes etc.

Spread Sheet (or) Work Sheet :


A spread sheet or work sheet comprises rows and columns in which any data can be
entered. Marks list, Payroll sheet are examples of spread sheet.
Work book:
Each excel file is a work book. Work book contains multiple pages, which are called
work sheets. In other words work sheet is a single sheet and work book is a number of work
sheets.
Cell:
Each intersection of a row and column is called a cell. A cell is the basic unit of storage
in a work sheet. Where you put numbers, text and formulae. Each cell is identified and
located by its column letter and row number.
Cell pointer:
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A thick border around a cell appears on work sheet. This is called cell pointer or cell
cursor. The cell where the cell pointer is located is known as active cell or current cell.
Cell address:
The column-row designation is known as cell address. For example address of the first
cell in the first column is A1 that of the first cell in the second column B1 and so on.
MS Excel:
MS Excel is an electronic work sheet program, developed by Microsoft Corporation. It
includes three parts (components) Work Sheet, Graf (Chart), Data Base Management.
Starting Excel:

Click on start button

Point to programs

Point to Microsoft excel and click once.


(Or)
It you have a short cut icon for excel on your desktop, move the mouse pointer over it and
double click on it.

Parts of MS Excel Window

When you start excel monitor displays the excel window looks as follows.

1) Title bar: The title bar is visible at the top of the screen. It lists the name of the
application and displays the currently opened work book. It also contains control
buttons.
2)
Menu bar: The next line displays bellow the title bar is called the menu bar. The menu
bar contains several menu items such as file, Edit, View and so on.
3)
Tool bar: Just under the menu bar, tool bar are displayed. There are sixteen tool bars
and most commonly used and displayed are standard and formatting tool bars.
4)
Formula bar: The next bar below the tool bars is called formula bar. It displays the
location and contents of the currently selected cell.
5)
Work sheet area: The area bellow the formula bar that occupies most of the excel
window is called the work sheet. This area is used to enter data.
6)
Work sheet tabs: An excel file is called a work book each work book is divided in to
several work sheets. Excel displays a tab for each work sheet. There appears at the bottom
of the work book.
7)
Status bar: The status bar is the thin gray bar across the bottom of the excel window.
The indicator on this bar shows the current state of the program.
8)
Scroll bars: These are the shaded bars along the right side and bottom of a window.
Scroll bars help you to move different cells in view.
Saving a work book:
To save a work book for the first time, fallow these steps.
1)
Click on file menu and choose save
(Or)
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Click on the save button on the standard tool bar
(Or)
Press ctrl+s Excel displays the save as dialog box
2)
Select a folder in which to save your work book [the default folder that appears is my
documents.
3)
Type the name for your work book in the file name text box.
4)
Click the save button in the dialog box.
Excel save your work book.
Save As:
It you want to save a copy of your file with a different name, choose
File save as.
The save as dialog box appears.
Type the new name in file name text box click on save button.
Creating a new work book:
Each time you start excel, a blank work book opens (called Bookl). Because Excel assumes
that you want to create a new work book.
You can create another new work book in any of these ways.
1)
Choose File New
2)
Click on the New button on the standard tool bar.
3)
Press Ctrl + N
If you choose first method (file new), the new task pan box opens.
Click on Blank Work book
Click on OK
Closing a work book:
When you finish using a work book, it is a good habit to close the work book.
To close a work book

Click on file menu

Click on close
Exiting Excel:
To Exit excel, do any of the following
1)
Choose File Exit
2)
Click the close control button on the title bar
3)
Double click on the Excels control icon (left end of title bar) or Alt+F
Opening an existing work book:
To open an existing work book, follow these steps.
1)
Click on the open button on standard tool bar
(Or)
Choose File Open
(Or)
Press Ctrl+O The open dialog box appears
2)
Click the name of the work book you want to open
3)
Click on open button
Quickly opening recently used work books:
Excel displays at the button of the work menu, the name of best four work books you
worked with. You can quickly open one of this book on clicking them.
Inserting and Deleting work sheets:
By default, new work books automatically have three work sheets [sheet1, sheet2,
sheet3]. If you need some more work sheets, you can add (up to 255work sheets). If you
dont need a work sheet, you can delete the sheet.
Inserting work sheets:
To insert a single work sheet, follow these steps.
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1)
Click on the tab for the work sheet before which you want the new one inserted [for
example to insert work sheet before sheet1, click on sheet1 tab].
2)
Click on insert, insert menu opens
3)
Click on work sheet
4)
Anew work sheet will be added to your work book.
Inserting multiple work sheets:
1)
Use Ctrl key and click the work sheet tab where the number of work sheets to add.
For example. To add two work sheets before sheet2, click the sheet2 tab and hold
down
the Ctrl key.
2)
Choose insert menu
3)
Click on work sheet
Note: - To move a work sheet to another place, drag the work sheet tab in the new position.
Deleting work sheets:
Follow these steps:
1.
Click the tab of the single sheet you want to delete [press Ctrl as you click multiple
sheets].
2.
Click on Edit, the Edit menu will appear
3.
Click on delete sheet. A working dialog box appears.
4.
Click on OK.
The work sheet will be deleted permanently

Entering data in a work sheet


Data can be broadly categorized in to two types.
1)
Text
2) Values
1)
Text: Text entries include any combination characters with at least one alphabet.
2)
Values: Values include numbers, dates, formulas and functions.
Entering text: You may enter data in to work sheet whenever you find the word ready at
the
left of the status bar. Ready is also called mode indicator.
To enter data in a cell, click the cell where you want to enter the data and start typing press
enter or any arrow key when you finish.
The data you type appears both in the active cell and formula bar.

The cheek mark button works as enter key after finishing typing you can also click on

The button works as esc key if you decide to about data, click on it.
While you are entering text, if you notice any mistake, press back space key to erase in
correct data.
Entering numbers:

Make the cell active by clicking on the cell where you want to enter number.

Type the number.

Press enter or click on cheek mark on formula bar.


When you press enter, excel recognizes and it right aligns the number. When you
number in a cell, as long as the column width has not already adjusted excel displays the
number as scientific notation.
If you enter in a cell which is too narrow then excel displays only Hash sign [#] instead
of the number.
When you face this problem, just increase the width at that column.
If you want excel to consider any numbers as text type the number preceded by an
apostrophe ()

EDITING DATA
Moving around the work sheet:
You can move the cell pointer to any cell using the arrow keys Use page up for going
one screen up and page down for going one screen down.
Editing cell contents:
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Follow these steps:
1.
Double click the cell which you want to edit. The insertion point appears in the cell.
2.
Make any changes to the cell contents.
3.
Press enter key. The change will be accepted
4.
To cancel your changes Esc key [not enter].
Note: You can also press F2 key instead of double clicking the cell.
Alternatively:
1.
Click the cell which you want to edit
2.
The cell contents appear on the formula bar. Click on the formula bar, insertion point
appears, make relevant changes and press enter key.
Simplest method of editing cell contents:
1.
Click the cell that contains data you want to edit.
2.
Type new text, it replaces the old data.
3.
Press enter key.
Removing cell contents:
To remove the data in a cell, follow these steps:
1.
Click the cell which you want to delete data.
2.
Press delete key or choose EditClear Contents The data in the cell disappears.
Note:- You can. also select multiple cells.
Selecting ranges:
Some times you like to affect more than one cell at a time. For example you want to
format an entire row to show the text in bold. In cases like this you select a range of cells.
A range is rectangular group of cells, us ally continuous. The selected cells appear
highlighted.
To select a range of cells, follow these steps:
1.
Position the mouse pointer over the first cell you want to select.
2.
Drag the mouse pointer until you highlight all the cells you want to select.
Alternatively

Click the first cell you want to select

Hold down shift key and press arrow keys to select remaining cells.
Selecting non continuous ranges:
You can select multiple cells that are non continuous.
Follow these steps:
1.
Select the first cell
2.
Hold down Ctrl key
3.
Select additional cells
4.
Release the Ctrl key
Selecting rows:
Click the number of rows you want to select
Select entire worksheet:
Click the select all button, the gray rectangle where the column and row headings
meet.
Undo changes:
You can cancel the last changes by using the undo feature.
1.
Click undo button to undo the last change
2.
To reverace the results of undo feature use redo
3.
To undo several actions at a time click the arrow next to undo button and select from
the list.
Moving data (cut and paste):
You can move data to a new location.
Follow their steps:
1.
Select the cells containing the data
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2.
Choose Edit Cut (or) click the Cut button on the standard tool bar (or) press ctrl+x.
3.
Place the cell pointer where you want to place the data.
4.
Click on paste button on standard tool bar (or) choose Edit Paste (or) press ctrl+v.
The data appears in the new location.
Copying data (copy and paste):
Copying data allows you to repeat data without haring to retype the data.
Follow these steps:
1.
Select the cells containing the data.
2.
Choose Edit Copy or click on the copy button on standard tool bar or press ctrl+c.
A
marquee [running dashes] will appear around the selection.
3.
Click the cell where you want to copy the data.
4.
Choose Edit, Paste (or) click on the Paste button standard toolbar (or) Press ctrl+v.
The data appears on the new location.
Changing column width:
Follow these steps:
1.
Select the column (s) for which you want to change the width
2.
Choose Format Column Width. Excel displays column width dialog box.
3.
Enter new column width [0 to 25],
4.
Click ok.
Changing column width with mouse:
1.
Position the mouse pointer over the right edge of the column heading.
2.
Drag the column edge until you want.
Alternative method:
Double click the right Boundary of the column heading to automatically increase the column
width.
(Or)
Choose Format Column Auto fit selection. It automatically change the column site
according you data.
Changing Row height:
Choose Format Row Auto fit to change the row height automatically.
(or)
1.
Select the row
2.
Choose Format Row Height, the row height dialog box appears.
3.
Change the row height.
4.
Click ok.
(or)
Place the mouse pointer over the button edge of row heading. The mouse pointer
changes to double headed arrow drag the row until you want.
Filing series:
If you how in advance that several continuous cells are going to need the same entry
you can use fill feature to save time.
Follow these steps:
1.
Select the cell
2.
Click on fill handle (the extra little square on the bottom right comer of the cell
pointer)
the arrow changes to + sign.
3.
Press and hold the left mouse button and drag to the cells.
4.
Release the mouse button.
The data will be copied.
(or)

Place the cell pointer on the cell to be copied

Select the range

Choose EditFill Down (Or) Right


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The text will be copied. You can also choos Ctrl-*- D for down and ctii+ R for right.

Windows clip board


The windows clipboard is a storage area that all windows programs share. The
clipboard temporarily stores information. When you use cut or copy command, the data gets
placed in the clipboard. When you use paste command, the contents of the clipboard are
pasted into the application. The clipboard could store only one peace of information at a
time.
You can view clipboard by choosing View Toolbars Clipboard.
FORMATTING
You can make your work sheet attractive by formatting text. You can use different fonts,
change alignment add borders, lines and colures.

Formatting the text


Applying bold, italic, underline:
1.
Select the cell(s)
2.
Click on bold button B for selecting bold and / or click on italic button I for selecting
italic and /or click on under line button U for selecting underline on the formatting toolbar.
3.
Deselect the cell(s)
The data displays the style you selected.
Note:- You can also use ctrl+B for bold, ctrl+1 for italics and ctrl+U for underline.
Changing font:
You can enhance appearance of your work sheet by changing the font.
Follow these steps:
1.
Select the cells
2.
Click on the drop down arrow next to font tool on the formatting too! bar. The list
displays.
(Or)
Choose Format Cells Font, the various font styles is listed in font box.
3.
Click the font you want to use
4.
Deselect cells by clicking any cell.
Changing size of data:
You can increase or decrease the size of the data in your work sheet.
Follow these steps:
1.
Select the cells.
2.
Click on the drop down to next to font size button. A list displays with available sizes.
(Or)
Choose Format Cells Font the list displays under size box.
3.
Click the size you want to use.
4.
Deselect the text.
The data displays the size you selected.
Changing cell colour:
1.
Select the cells.
2.
Click on the drop down arrow next to fill colour button on the formatting toolbar. The
colour box displays.
(or)
Choose Format Cells Patterns the colour box displays.
3.
Click the cell colour you want to use
4.
The cells changes to new colour deselect the text.
Changing data colour:
1.
Select the cells containing the data.
2.
Click the drop down area to the font colour tool
(or)
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choose Format Cells Font, Colour
3.
Click the data colour you want to use the data changes to new colour.
Changing alignment of data [Horizontal]:
Excel automatically left aligns text and right aligns numbers and dates. You can align the
data to the left, right or center. For doing this certain icons are used for horizontal
alignment.

To change the alignments follow these steps:


1.
Select the cells.
2.
Click desired alignment button on the formatting toolbar
Excel aligns the data.
Click any cell to deselect.
Vertical Alignment:
By default text in each cell aligns at the bottom of the cell you can align the data to top
(or) center (or) justify.
To change Horizontal alignment, follow these steps:
1.
Select the cells you want to change the vertical alignment.
2.
Choose format, format cells dialog box appears
3.
Click on alignment tab.
4.
Open the vertical drop down list and select the alignment.
5.
Click on OK.
Centering data across columns:
You can center data across several columns in your work sheet. This is useful for centering
titles [headings] over your data. Follow these steps:
1.
Select the cell.
2.
Drag to include cells data, which will be centered.
3.
Click on merge and center button on the formatting toolbar.
Excel centers the data across the cells you selected.
Rotating text:
You can have text vertically or at any angle. Follow these steps to Rotate some text.
1.
Select the cells containing the data.
2.
Choose format, cells, format cells dialog box appears.
3.
In the orientation box drag the red diamond up or down along the curve to shift the
text orientation.
4.
Click ok.
Adding Borders around cells:
Each cell has four sides: left, right, top and bottom. You can assign a border to each side of
each cell individually.
Follow these steps:
1.
Select the cells you want to add borders.
2.
Click the arrow next to the border button on the formatting toolbar.
A list of different border styles is displayed.
3.
Click the desired border option.
Auto format:
Excel offers many ready - to -use designs, called Auto formats each auto format
includes a combination of formats such as text and number styles, fonts colours and
borders. That you can use to create a professional.
Follow these steps:
1.
Select the cells you want to apply an Auto format.
2.
Click on format, the format menu will appear.
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3.
Click on Auto format, the Auto format dialog box appears.
4.
Click the Auto format you want to use. You can set additional options by click on
options
button.
5.
Click OK.
The cells display Auto format you selected.
Merging cells:
To merge cells follow these steps:
1.
Select cells you want to merge (they must be continues).
2.
Choose format, cells to display the format cells dialog box.
3.
Click on Alignment tab.
4.
Click on the merge cells cheek box.
5.
Click Ok.
Preview a work sheet:
You can use print preview feature to see how your work sheet will look when printed.
Print preview also allows you to set options and adjust the print settings while you see
the effects on the screen immediately on the screen.
To see print preview
Choose File, print preview
(or)
Click on print preview button on standard tool bar.
To close print preview click on close button
Changing page orientation:
Excel automatically prints work sheet in portrait orientation [vertical page]. You can
also choose land scope [horizontal page]. To choose orientation
1.
Choose File, page setup, the page setup dialog box appears.
2.
Click on page tab if necessary.
3.
Click the orientation [portrait or land scope]. You want to use.
4.
Click on Ok.

Formulas
A formula is an expression that calculates a value. Formula calculates value in a
specific
Order.
A formula is on instruction that tells excel to perform calculations on entered numbers.
Entering formula:
To enter a formula in to a cell, follow these steps:
1.
Click the cell where you want to enter the formula.
2.
Type an sign to begin the formula.
3.
Type the formula and press the enter key. The result of the formula is stored in the
cell.
4.
To view the formula you entered click the cell containing the formula. The formula will
appear in the formula.
Advantages of using formula:
1.
Wherever you change the contents of any cell, the entire work sheet is automatically
adjusted.
2.
You can copy formulas to another cell without typing the formula again. The cell ranges
automatically adjusted.
3.
It is very easy to enter formulas and calculating values.
Auto sum:
Auto sum is a short cut method of summing a column (or) row of numbers To use auto
sum follow these steps:
1.
Click the cell just bellow the values in a column (or) just to the right of values in a row.
2.
Click the auto sum button
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(or)
Press Alt + =. In the formula bar excel suggest a range to be added
3.
If the range is chosen by excel is correct, press enter The result will be displayed in the
cell.
If the suggested range is not correct, drag your mouse across the correct range (or)
type correct range and press enter.
Cell References:
A cell reference indicates a cells location.
Micro Soft Excel provides three types of cell references. That you can use in formulas. They
are relative, absolute and mixed.
Relative References:
The ability to change the formula to match the location where you copy it is called
relative referencing.
Absolute Reference:
An absolute Reference is a cell reference that does not change when you copy (or)
move a formula. To create an absolute reference, insert dollar sigh [ $ ]
In front of each column number and row number
Fox example:- $ B $ U
Thus in absolute referencing both row and columns are fixed.
Mixed Reference:
Mixed Reference is a combination of relative and absolute reference, for example in $
B5 the column is absolute but he row is relative therefore if you copy the formula [$ B5]
across the screen, it remains unaltered. You can we F4 to create absolute (or) mixed
reference.
Copying formulas:
You can copy a formula to other cells in your work sheet to save time.
Copying formula using menu commands:
1.
Select the cell containing the formula.
2.
Select the range where the formula need to copy (including source cell).
3.
Choose Edit File Down.
To deselect cells, click any cell
The formula will be copied and the result is displayed.
,
Copying formula using mouse:
1.
Click the cell containing the formula.
2.
Position the mouse pointer over the fill handle. The mouse pointer changes to +
3.
Drag the fill handle over the cells you want to copy the formula. The results of the
formula appears
4.
To deselect cells click any cell.
Note: You can also use copy and past to copy formulas.

Excel Functions
Functions are predefined formulas that perform calculations by using specific values
called arguments, in a particular order (or) structure. Excel 2000 offers over 300 functions
to perform calculation.
Arguments:
Arguments can be numbers, text, logical values (or) error values (or) cell references.
Structure:
. A function always with an equal sigh [ = ] , function name followed by an opening
parentheses. The arguments for the function separated by commas and dose parentheses
The following are the various important functions in Excel.
Date and Time functions:
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These function relative to dates and month, year and different filings
1)
Today ( ): It gives the correct date suppose if you type Toda> () in a cell, it gives to
days date as 12/3/2008.
2)
Now ( ): It gives correct date and time. It you type = now () n a ce- it displays
12/3/2008 9: 34.
3)
Day (): It gives the day of month. If you type = DAY (3) in a ceil, it displays a
4)
Date ( ): It gives date in a specific format. It you type = Date (2008, 12, 3 ) in a cell,
it
a splays 12-3-2008.
5)
Month (): It returns month an integer form one (January to 12 December).
6)
Year (): This function returns the year.
7)
Minute (): It calculates the minutes of a given time.
8)
Second (): It gives the second of a given time.

Statistical functions
1)
SUM: This function adds all the numbers in a range of cells.
Syntax:= SUM (range)
Ex :- = SUM (A4: A8)
2)
Average: This function calculates the average of its arguments, which can be
numbers, names (or) References (or) Arrays that contain numbers.
Syntax:= Average (No. 1, No.2, )
Ex:- = Average (C3:H3)
3)
Count: Counts the number of cells that contain numbers Syntax:= count (value 1, value2 )
(or)
= count (range)
Ex:- = count (A3:H3)
4)
Max: Find the largest (maximum) value in a list of numbers. Ignores logical values
text Syntax:=Max (numberl, number2
)
(or)
=Max (range)
Ex:- = MAX (F2:F4)
5)
MIN:Find the smallest (minimum) value in a list of numbers. Ignore logical vales and
text.
Syntax:= Min (numberl, number2
)
(or)
=MIN (range)
Ex:- =Min (H2:H8)
6)
Median:Calculates the median (i.e. it returns the middle value of the data after
arranging data in ascending (or) descending order).
Syntax:= Median (numberl, number2 )
(or)
= Median (range)
EX:- = Median (C2:G2)
7)
Mode: It gives the most frequent value of a given series Syntax:=Mode (numberl, number2,...)
(or)
=Mode (range)
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Ex:- =Mode (C3:F3)
8)
Stdev ():This function calculates the standard deviation values of a given series
Syntax:= Stdev (numberl, number2
)
(or)
= Stdev (range)
Ex:- = stdev (C3:G3)

Mathematical Functions
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

ABS (): It calculates the absolute value of a given numbers.


Suppose if you give ABS (-10), it displays 10 as absolute value.
EXP (): Returns e raised to the power of a given number.
INT (): It rounds of the number to its nearest integer.
For example if you give INT (148.41) it gives 148
Round (): It rounds a number to a specified number of decimal places.
For example if you give round (28.4586, 2) it displays 28.46
SQRT (): It calculates the square root of a given number.
For example if you type SQRT (144) it displays 12.
LOG (): It calculates the logarithm of a number.
For example if you type LOG(10),it returns 1.
MOD (): It returns the reminder ofter a number is divided by another number.
Suppose if you give MOD (5,2) it returns 1 (i.e. reminder of 5/2 =1)

Financial functions
RATE (): It calculates the interest rate per period of a loan (or) an annuity.
Syntax:- =RATE (n per, pmt, pv, fv, type,guess)
2)
FVC (): It returns the future value of as investment at a constant and interest rate
based on time.
Syntax:- =FV (rate, n per, pnt, pv, type)
3)
PVC (): It calculates the present value of an investment i.e. total amount that a
series
of future payments is worth now.
Syntax:- = PV (rate, n per, pvnt, pv, type)
4)
NPER (): It calculates the number of periods for as investment based on periodic
constant.
Syntax:- = NPER (rate, pvnt, pv, fv, type)
5)
DB (): This function calculates the depreciation of an Asset based on double declining
balance method.
Syntax:- = DB (cost, salvage, life, period, month)
1)

Logical Function
IF function ():
This function returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to true and another
value if it evaluates to false.
Syntax:- IF (logical - text, value- if-, value- if- false)
Nesting IF ():
Excel alloys you to next as many as seven if functions in one statement = IF
(conditionl, truel, if (ondition2, true2, false to)
2)
AND function ():
This function returns if all arguments are true; returns false it one or more arguments
are false.
Syntax:- =AND (logical 1, logical2,
)
3)
OR ():
This function returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE, returns FALSE if all arguments are
FALSE.
Syntax:- =OR (logicall, logical2 )
1)

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4)
NOT function ():
It returns FALSE for a TRUE argument and TRUE for a FALES argument. Use NOT
function when you want to make a sure value is not equal to one particular value.
Syntax:- = NOT (logical)
5)
TRUE ():
This function returns the logical value TRUE
6)
FALSE ():
This function returns the logical value FALSE.

Text function
FIND function ():
The FIND function will return the specific position of a string of character that you are
looking for a string.
Syntax: = FIND (Find-text, within- text, start-num)
Find text: Is the text you want to find.
Within text: Is the text in which you want to search for find text.
Start-num: Is the character number in within text, counting from the left, at which you
want to start searching.
2)
LEIV function ():
This function simply returns the number of characters in text.
Syntax: = LEIV (text)
3)
LOWER function ():
This function simply converts al uppercase letters in a text to lower case.
Syntax: = LOWER (text)
4)
UPPAR function ():
This function simply converts al lower case letters to the text to UPPAR case.
Syntax: =UPPAR (text)
Ex:- = UPPAR (lower) returns Lower.
5)
VALUE function ():
This function converts the specified text string into a value.
Syntax: = VALUE (text)
Ex:- = VALUE (12.34") returns the value 12.34
6)
TEXT function ():
This function simply converts a value to text in a specified number format.
Syntax:- = TEXT (value, format-text)
7)
REPLACE function ():
This function deletes num- chars characters from the original string starting from the
start- num the positing and Replace the gap with new string.
Syntax: =REPLACE (old- text, start-num, num-chars, new-text)
Old text is the text which you want to replace.
Start-num is the position of the character in num-chars is the number of characters in
old text.
Num- text is the text that will replace the characters in old text.
Ex:- = REPLACE (Mount", 1.1, C)
Returns count
Calculation of functions when you do not know the name of the function:
There are so many functions in excel. It is difficult to remember all these functions. In
order to overcome this problem excel provides the function button II On the standard tool
bar you can also find this button in the insert menu. When you click I button the Insert
function dialog box appears with an alphabetical list of all functions. You can select the
function from this list.
1)

CHARTS & GRAPHS


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An important feature of MSEXCEL is it converts the numbers and values into different
charts and graphs.
The various charts and graphs that can be prepared in MSEXCEL are as follows
1)
Column charts: This type of chart in used to show changes in the value across the
categories
2)
Bar charts: This type of chart is used to compare similar items in the data.
The above two types of charts can be horizontal (or) vertical.
3)
Line charts: These graphs are used to represent a series of data ranges. They are
used to compare two or more data series.
4)
Pie charts: These charts are used show relative percentages of an item to the hole
series the limitation of this chart we can use only one data series at one time.
5)
XY (scatter charts): These types of chart are used to show the relationship between
two variables.
6)
Area charts: These charts show the relative contribution ot each entity as total entity.
7)
Doughnut charts:If is almost similar to a pie chart but it can show more than one
data series.
8)
Radar charts: These charts depict each series point.
9)
Surface charts: These charts depict two or more data series at one time. They use
different colors two distinguish values.
10) Bubble charts: In these charts the data is displayed in the form of bubbles.
11) Stock charts: These charts are used in decocting stock market shareprices, index
moments etc.
12) Cylinder, cone and pyramid charts: These are special purpose charts used for
different data in a series.

Creating charts and graphs:


To create a chart, follow these steps.
1.
Select the data in your work sheet.
2.
Press the function key F11.
3.
Now you will see a chart.
Pressing F11 creates a simple column chart and the chart is displayed on a chart sheet.
Creating chart with the chats wizard:
The chart wizard is a series of dialog boxes displayed step-by- step which help user in
easy creation of charts.
To create a chart with wizard, follow these steps.
1.
Select the cells containing data, including the row and the column labels.
2.
Click the chart wizard button on the standard tool bar or choose Insert Chart the
chart wizard appears
3.
Click the standard types tab if necessary
4.
Click the type of chart you want to create in the chart type : list
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5.
In the chart sub- type: area, click the design you want to use. You will see a
description bellow the group of chart sub types.
6.
Click on next
The chart wizard- step2 of 4 dialog box will appear.
The selected range appears in data range drop down box. You can change data by
typing
a new range.
7.
Click an option rows or columns to specific the way you want to plot the data.
8.
Click next
The chart wizard step 3 of 4 dialog box appears.
In this dialog box you can add titles, legends and data labels. This dialog box has tabs
in
which you can specify a variety of options for the chart.
9.
Click on next:
The chart wizard step 4 to 4 dialog box will open. Specify the place where the chart to
be
placed.
10
Click on finish to complete the chart. The chart appears in your sheet.

MACROS
Macros are small programs that perform predefined series of steps. When a task is to
be repeatedly performed in Macro Soft Excel, it can be automated with a Macro. It is a series
of commands that can be stored in visual basics module. It can be run if we need to perform
the task.
Creating and naming a Macro:
1.
Click Tools Macro
2.
Click on Record new Macro. Select the name of the macro and short key for the Macro
to
invoke the same
3.
Make entries in the dialog box
4.
Click Ok.
5.
Perform the operations of Macro one by one
6.
Click stop Macro
Invoking Macros:
A Macro can be recorded and invoked in two different ways.
1.
Assign a short cut key and it can be activated by processing some keys.
2.
By clicking on Tools Macro Macro The select the required macro and click
on
RUN button.
Creating Macros:Macros save us from the repeated tasks in the document. Suppose you want to create
place for a table many times in the document. By using macros we need not draw the table
frequently.
Steps:1.
Click on Tools Macros Reccrd new macro. The record new macro dialog box
appears.
2.
Type a name for your Macro
3.
Click on ok.
You can observe a button appears on the screen. Now record the repeated task. For
example draw a 2x3 table.
By clicking on Macro we can get the table.
After completing the tables click on stop recording. Then Macro stop button disappears.
Now take a new document by clicking File New. If you want to continue with
the some task, click on tools Macro Macro Run consequently the work of Macro
starts.
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We can create as many Macros as we required. When we type tools (Macro
Macro all the recorded Macro appears. Select the required Macro and click on Run. The
Macro becomes active and starts to work.
Deleting a Macro:
To delete a macro Click on tools Macro Macros The Macro dialog box displays
Select the Macro and click on delete.
Data Sorting
Sorting means arranging the data in alphabetical order (or) numerical order and again
sorting can be done in two ways.
1.
Ascending order
2.
Descending order
Sorting processors:
1.
select the cell you want to sort
2.
Choose Data Sorting
Data Filtering
Data filtering helps to display the roes that satisfy the criteria subject to specification
of a column it is the easiest way of finding the required data in a list. Suppose if you want to
find out *e marks who got between 60% and 70% then data filtering helps you show the
data.
To get the filtering
Click Data Filtering
There are two commands for filtering data.
1)
Auto filters:
It is used for filtering simple criteria for example starting of student who got marks above
60%.
2)
Advanced filters:It is used for more complex criteria for example if we want to filter
according to age qualifications, place and highest marks of students then we have to used
advanced filter
Filtering does not rearrange the data unlike sorting filtering hides rous which we dont
want to displayed to others.

Pivot table
A pivot tables arrange the data in a quick summary manner. The rows and columns of
data can be rotated to see, the summaries of data we can also filter the data according to
same criteria.
Uses of pivot table report:
1.
When we want to compare a long list of figure.
2.
When we want compare several facts within each figure.
3.
When we want to do sorting. Subtotaling and totaling of data.
Types of pivot table report:
There are mainly three types of pivot table reports.
1)
Default pivot table:
We can show the data in an indented format. In indented format, we can view all the
summary figures at the some type in one column.
2)
Graphical pivot table report:
Shows the report graphically
3)
Web pages pivot table report:
Shows the report available on web page
Creating a pivot available on web report
1)
Click data menu pivot table and pivot chart.
2)
Drag each item of the data to the required place.Then the pivot table forms.

POWER POINT
INTODUCTION
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PowerPoint is a presentation tool that helps to create presentation. A presentation
comprises of individual slides arranged in a sequential manner. Each slide covers a brief
topic. You can generate hand out material and speakers notes from a PowerPoint
presentation. You can also have print out of the slides.
PowerPoint enables us to communicate our ideas effectively. Graphics, Charts,
Pictures and animation can be introduced in presentations with the click of a button.
POWER POINT FEATURS
The following are the important features of power point.
1.
Readymade slides: We can prepare the slides easily and quickly. The Auto
content wizard option provides wizards to make the slides easily. The Template provides
a wide range of readymade designs to us.
2.
Background colors and effects: We can have a wide variety of background colors,
for slides in power point. We can also get different textures and shades in slides.
3.
Pictures: We can introduce good pictures either from clipart or from scanning the
pictures.
4.
Sounds: Different sounds can be created while presenting the various slides.
5.
Animation: Different animation techniques are also available in the slides. The
letters and pictures will from top to bottom and from left right.
6.
Charts and Tables: The different chart and tables in the MS Excel can be easily I
imported into MS power point.
7.
Time for Slides: We can prescribe the time automatically or manually for running
and exhibiting slides.
8.
Speaker Notes: Speaker note are notes that can be included in the bottom of the
slide j, so that new ideas can be discussed during presentation.
9.
Other Features: MS-power point includes many other features like macros,
changing the colours to the slides, fonts etc. We can also change the slide numbers from
any direction I using slide sorter command
Advantages of Power Point
There are many advantages of computerized presentations.
1.
The slides can be prepared for different types of audiences i.e., literates, illiterates
children, old people etc.
2.
They can be run automatically. There is no manual interference for running powe'
point
show.
3.
There is no problem of getting slides out of order.
4.
We can even take printouts of presentations and can be distributed to the audience.
5.
The audience will easily be attracted by the colorful slides with sound and
animation techniques.
6.
The Built-in design templates allow the people to create colorful slides very easily.
7.
If we want to change a part of presentation, we need not change all the slides. We
can change all slides by changing the Master Slide.
Parts of MS PowerPoint Window

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STARTING POWERPOINT
To start PowerPoint, follow these steps:
1.
Click Start button. The start Menu will appear.
2.
Point to Programs.
3.
Point to Microsoft Office
4.
Click on Microsoft PowerPoint
Within few seconds your screen displays the PowerPoint window.
Toolbars
PowerPoint 2000 comes with several predestined toolbars. The three main toolbars are
the Standard, Formatting, and Drawing toolbars. You can display or hide any toolbar by
using
the following steps:
1.
Choose View, Toolbars. A sub menu appears listing all the avai'able toolbars.
2.
Click the toolbar name you want to display or hide. A check mark ndicates that a
toolbar
is currently displayed.

CREATING A NEW PRESENTATION


You can create a new presentation in three ways:
1.
Auto Content Wizard.
2.
Template.
3.
Blank Presentation.
Creating a Presentation using the Auto Content Wizard:
The AutoContent Wizard is a guide composed of several screens that help you create
professional presentations. The AutoContent Wizard asks you several questions and then
creates a presentation based on your answers. This Wizard supplies not only the design
for your presentation, but also ideas, formatting and organization.
The Wizard will create 7 to 12 slides with suggested content that you can change.
The steps to create a presentation using AutoContent are:
The PowerPoint dialog box appears each time you start PowerPoint.
1.
Click on AutoContent Wizard option.
2.
Click on the Next button.
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3.
Click on the button (All, General, Corporate, etc.) that represents the type
presentation
you want to create. A list of presentation types will appear in the dial
box.
4.
Click the presentation that best suits your needs.
5.
Click on Next to continue. The presentation style screen of the Wizard will
appear
You have five choices:

On-screen presentation.

Web presentation.

Black and White Overheads.

Colour Overheads.

35mm slides.
Click the type of output you want to use for your presentation
6.
Click on Next to continue.

You can clicks 'Back at any time to return to a previous step ai change your answers.
Here you get to give your presentation a title, and include footer if you want.
7.
Click in the Presentation title: box and type a title for your presentation.
8.
Click in the Footer: and type the text.
The footer will appear at the bottom of each slide and can contain any information you
Wish.
9.
Click on Next to continue. The finish screen of the Wizard will appear.
10. Click on the Back button, if you need to make any changes to the-information you put
into the Wizard.
11. Click on Finish button to create your presentation.
Creating a Presentation using the Blank Presentation
To start a new blank presentation, follow these steps:
1.
Choose File, New. The New Presentation dialog box appears
2.
Click on Blank presentation.
3.
A screen displays with a blank side.
4.
At the right side of the screen slide layout task pane is displayed. PowerPoint has 24
auto layout designs. You can choose a layout.
5.
Type the text in the place holder and outside the place holder.
6.
Adding new slides.
In order to add more slides to your presentation, you need to insert new slides.
To Insert new slide, use one of the following methods.

Choose Insert, New Slide.

Press Ctrl+M

Click the New Slide button, on the standard tool bar After you complete adding
slides, save
your presentation.
Creating a Presentation based on Design Template.
Perform the following steps to select an appropriate presentation design for your
Message:
1.
On the File menu Click New. The New Presentation Task Pane appears.
2.
Click the Design Templates.
3.
The Slide Design Task Pane appears.
4.
Scroll to see all the design templates and select an appropriate design.
5.
Click the layout you want for your new slide.
6.
Add the content you want to the selected layout
7.
Adding new slides.
In order to add more slides to your presentation, you need to insert new slides. To
create a
new slide, use one of the following methods.
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Choose Insert, New Slide.

Press Ctrl+M

Click the New Slide button, on the standard tool bar Add the content you want to
the selected layout
After you complete adding slides, save your presentation.
SAVING A PRESENTATION
To save your presentation, follow these steps:
1.
Choose File, Save to display the Save As dialog box.
2.
Click in the File name : box and type a name
3.
Select the appropriate location from the Save In :box
4.
Click the Save button
Power Point saves your presentation.
You should regularly save changes you make to a presentator "tor every 5 or 10
minutes to avoid losing your work. To save and update your presentation do one of the
following:

Choose File, Save.

Click the Save button on the Standard toolbar.


INSERTING A SLIDE

To Insert a new slide, use one of the following methods

Choose Insert, New Slide.

Press Ctrl+M

Click the New Slide button, on the standard tool bar

DELETING SLIDES
To delete a slide, follow these steps
1.
Choose View, Slide Shorter View to change the View.
2.
Click the Slide you want to delete.
3.
Press Delete key (or) Click the Cut button.
The slide will be removed.
CHANGING THE SLIDE LAYOUT
To change the layout of an individual slide, follow these steps:
1.
Display the slide you want to change to a new layout
2.
Choose Format, Slide Layout.... The Slide Layout task pane appears with available
layouts.
3.
Click the layout you want to apply to the slide.
The slide appears in the new layout.
CLOSING A PRESENTATION
When you finish working with a presentation, you car oiose ne presentation to remove it
from your screen. You can do this in one of two ways:

Choose File, Close,

Click the document Close button on the menu bar.


EXITING POWERPOINT
After you have finished with PowerPoint, quit by performing any one of the following:

Choose File, Exit.

Press Alt+F4.

Double Click the Control icon.

Click close button on title bar.


OPENING A PRESENTATION
To open an existing PowerPoint presentation follows these steps:

Choose File, Open. The Open dialog box is displayed.

Select the drive or folder that your presentation contains

Click the name of the presentation.

Click Open. Your presentation appears on the screen


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Alternatively:
At the bottom of the file menu PowerPoint displays the names of the last four
presentations you worked with. Select the file name, you car quckly open the file.
Alternatively:
You can also open a presentation by selecting the option Open an existing
presentation in the PowerPoint dialog box.
SLIDE SHOW
When you want to view a slide show of your presentation in full screen mode, use
slide show view.
To view a slide show, follow these steps:
1.
Open a presentation
2.
Choose View, Slide Show (Or) Choose Slide Show, View Show (Or) press F5 (Or)
Click Slide Show button to start slide show. The first slide fills your screen.
3.
To display the next slide, click on the current slide (Or) press Enter key. To return to
previous slide press the Back Space key (Or) you can use up and down arrow keys (Or)
Page up and Page Down keys (Or) Click on the arrow buttons at the bottom left of slide
show to display previous and next slides.
4.
PowerPoint halts the last slide in the presentation
5.
Press Esc key or press Enter to return back.
6.
To exit the slide show and return to PowerPoint window press Esc key.
7.
On File menu click Close to close the presentation.
POWER POINTS VIEWS
PowerPoint offers several ways that you can view a presentation on your screen.
To change view, do one of the following:
1.
Click one of the view buttons to the left of the horizontal scrollbar.
2.
On the View menu, click Normal or Slide sorter, or Notes Page or Slide Show.

Normal View
This view is a combination of Outline, Slide and Notes Page Views. This is the view
you see first in PowerPoint 2000. Click on the Normal View button in the lower left of the
screen to display your presentation in the Normal View

Outline View
Useful for editing the content and organization of your presentation the large titles
new sides and the details below the titles provide bulleted text for each slide. While
working in this view, a Notes window opens under the Slide preview so that you can add
notes for the presentations speaker.

Slide View
This View enables you to see each slide, one at a time and edit each slides format,
color, graphics, style, or text. Slide View shows how your slide appears.

Slide Sorter View


This view lets you see your entire presentation and you can add, delete and move
miniature) slides. This view acts like a preview tool. You can review your presentation and
you can add transitions to your presentation. At a time you can see six slides in the slide
sorter view.

Slide Show View


Click on the Slide Show or button in the lower left of the screen to display your
presentation in slide show view.
This View displays slides in full screen mode. When you use this view, the
PowerPoint Window is not visible and each slide occupies the entire screen. This view
helps, you to check the final sizes colors, animation and other controls to move from slide
to slide, simply click the mouse until you reach the end of your presentation.

Notes Pages View


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Use this view to create and keep the notes you use when presenting your slide
show. The Notes Pages are designed to be printed for the speaker.

INSERTION OF OBJECTS
ADDING CLIP ART
Clip arts are pre-drawn, pre-colored graphic images. You can insert a clipart image
or picture or a scanned photo you import from other programs and locations on any slide.
To insert a clip art image or picture into a slide, do the following steps:
1.
Display the slide where you want to add an image.
2.
Double-click on the placeholder object where it says Double click to add Clip Art
If there is no placeholder, chose Insert, Picture, Clip Art or dick on the Insert Clip Art
button on the Drawing toolbar.
The Microsoft Clip Gallery dialog box appears.
3.
Click the clip art image you want to add to the slide. A shortcut menu appears.
4.
Click Insert Clip button on the shortcut menu to insert the dip art image on the
slide.
5.
When you are finished using the Clip Gallery dialog box, dick close button on the Clip
Gallery title bar.
The clip art image appears on the side. The handles around the image let you
change the size of the image.
6.
To hide the handles, click outside the clip art image Save your presentation
ADDING A CHART
You can add . a chart to a slide to show trends and compare data. A chart is more
appealing and often easier to understand than a list of numbers.
To add a chart to a slide, follow these steps:
1.
Display the slide you want to add a chart.
2.
Click the insert Chart button on the Standard toolbar or Change the layout of the
slide to
one that includes a placeholder for chart. Double-dick inside the chart
placeholder.
3.
Excel displays a chart and its associated data in a table called a data sheet. The data
sheet
provides sample data. You need to replace the sample data with your data.
4.
To replace the data in a cell, click the cell and type your data and then press the
Enter key.
5.
As you enter data, PowerPoint updates the chart on the sfide.
6.
After inserting the data, you can turn off the data sheet

Save the presentation


You can also insert a chart form Microsoft Excel into your presentation.
Custom Animation
With custom animation, you can select several visual effects, multiple sounds, and
timings in PowerPoint. You can also set the order I which the objects are animated.
To format a slide with object with Custom Animation, follow these steps:
1)
Display the slide that has the text or object you want to animate in either Normal or
Slide View.
2)
On the Slide Show Menu, click Custom Animation. The Custom Animation task pane
appears.
3)
Select the text or object you want to animate.
4)
Click the Add Effect button, point to any option and select an object from sub menu
5)
Under the Modify section select one of the options.
6)
Repeat steps 4 and 5 for every object you want to animate.
7)
Click the Play button to see a preview.
8)
Save the slide after adding animation to the slide.

Transition
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Transition refers to the replacement of one slide with the next, often with a special
effect that causes the second slide to cover the first in a unique way.
To add transition effects to a slide, follow these steps:
1.
Switch to Slide Shorter view or Normal view.
2.
Select the Slide you want to add transition.
3.
On the Slide Show menu, Click Slide Transition. The Slide Transition task pane
appears.
4.
Select a Transition from the Apply to selected Slides: list.
5.
To change the speed of the transition click Slow, Medium or Fast from speed: dropdown
list.
6.
To add sound selects a sound item from Sound: drop-down list.
7.
In Advance Slide section, Select on mouse click check box or automatically after check
box or both check boxes.
8.
If you want to use a uniform transition for all slides, click the Apply to All Slides
Button.
9.
Click Play button to get a preview.
10. Repeat the process for each slide you want to transition to.

MULTIMEDIA
Multimedia is a combination of text, graphics, sound, animation and video.The
computer bringss all these components together to produce a variety of applications.
COMPONENTS OF MULTIMEDIA
1. TEXT:
Any multimedia screen consists of some text. So text is the first step in multimedia.
There are many word processors to type the text. Not only typing, we can also edit, format
and perform special effects like Word Art, Water Market, Outline and embossing etc., in a
text.
2.
IMAGES:
The images can be used besides the matter or can be used as background in the
screen. images can be obtained in multimedia form clip art, scanning pictures or from
Downloads from internet or compact disks.
3.
GRAPHICS:
Graphics represent the messages in a convenient way of expressions multimedia,
various types of charts and graphs are available in multimedia to get the attention of
viewers.
4.
ANIMATIONS:
Many advertisers are using now-a-rdays animations extensively in the form of films,
slides etc. Special effects can be made in animation with 2D or 3D dimensions.
AUDIO (SOUND):
Many advertisers and educationists are using sounds effectively in multimedia. For
example, a Spoken English Learning Institute uses sounds in multi-media to express the
pronunciation of letters.
6.
MUSIC:
Many advertisers are using music to attract the viewers in order to buy the products.
7.
VIDEO:
Video is the combination of sound, images, animations etc. A video camera captures
image, adds sound and animations and exhibits the same to the viewers.
5.

USES AND APPLICATIONS OF MULTIMEDIA


Multimedia is the combination of many media. The following are the applications of
multimedia.
1.
EDUCATION:
In education, multimedia plays an important role in the following ways.
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a)
The students can learn easily about new subject through CDs.
b)
Now-a-days many online courses are offering in the internet. These courses are based
on
elements of multimedia.
2.
BUSINESS:
In business, multimedia provides a lot of opportunities.
a)
Power point slides can be made and presented to the members of business.
b)
Video conferencing can be used for getting good response among the members.
3.
HOME:
At home, multimedia offers a variety of opportunities.
a)
We can hear music through multimedia
b)
We can view video through multimedia
c)
Computer games can be played through multi media.
4.
TRAINING:
Through simulation process, multimedia offers training to the prospective employees.
5.
WEB:
The web pages are made attractive to the viewers through multimedia. We can also
add charts, graphs, pictures in web through multi-media.

MS ACCESS
Microsoft Access is windows based relational database management system
developed by Microsoft Corporation. Access offers many features and enhancements that
help you manage your data more efficiently.
Definitions
Data: Data means raw facts. Data are the unprocessed information from which
information will be obtained.
Characteristics of Data:
1.
Data may be a single character, alphabet or a number.
2.
Data are collected from various sources
3.
Data are not useful for final decision making.
Information: Information is the processed (output) form of data. For example if we
calculate percentages and rank or class of a student on the basis of given marks, it is
information. Similarly if we calculate Gross pay, Net pay on the basis of salary figures of
employees, it is also information.
Characteristics of Information:
1.
Information is the output of Data
2.
It is useful in decision making.
3.
Information is sent to different persons, departments for whom it is necessary.
Database: A database is an organized collection of related data. A telephone directory,
address book are the examples of databases.
A database management system is a program, like Access that enables you to
create, organize, and manage your data stored in databases.
Field: A field is the basic unit of a database. It stores a particular piece of data. Fields
correspond Id the columns in a table.
Record: A record is collection of fields. That is all the related information about one
person or object. Record corresponds to the row in a table.
File: A file is collection of records.

Advantages and Limitations of M.S. Access


Advantages
1)
Simple databases: M.S. Access is highly suitable for small databases. We need not
go for
higher databases like Oracle, Visual basic etc.
2)
Easy to understand the structure: it is easy to understand Tables, Forms, Quarries
and Reports.
3)
Wizards: M.S. Access provides many wizards to create databases easily.
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4)
Programming can be made easily: The user can use simple programming to get
the tasks.
5)
Dynamic Exchange: We can exchange the data in Access to M.S.Word and other
packages. For example the database in Access can be used in Mail Merge in
M.S.Word.
6)
No duplication of Data: there is any repeated data in M.S. Access. As relationships
are created in Access there is no possibility of duplication of data.
Limitations
1)
Access is Slow: Compared to Oracle and other database packages, M.S. Access is
slow.
2)
Suitable only for small databases: M.S. Access is suitable only for small
databases. For
big databases SQL and Oracle is used.
3)
No Programming: only simple programming can be achieved in M.S. Access. That
programming can be obtained only from Visual Basic. Access is not suitable for big
programs.
4)
Break down of Servers: If M.S. Access is not properly used, there might be a
chance of bring down the entire servers.
Starting Access:To start access, follow these steps
1.
Click on start" button
2.
Point to programs
3.
Point to Microsoft office
4.
Click on Microsoft access

ACCESS DATA TYPES


Text: Stores text or combinations of text, numbers and special characters such as up to
255 characters. Make sure you use this data type for numbers you do not want to use I
calculations, such as phone numbers, year, roll numbers or pin codes.
Memo: Stores text and numbers up to 65, 535 characters long such as notes,
comments or length descriptions. Memo fields consume a lot of space.
Number: Stores numbers actually used in calculations.
Data/Times: Stores only dates and times.
Currency: Holds numbers used as amounts of money, or any numbers used in
calculations with up to four decimal places of accuracy.

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Auto Number: Holds sequential numbers that Access automatically enters. Access
places the number 1 in this field in the first record you add to the table, the number 2 in
the second record and so on. You cannot change the numbers that Access enters in field.
Yes/No: Accepts only one of two values-Yes/No, True/false or On/Off depending on the
format you give (t in the Field properties panel. By default, Yes/No fields appear in
tables as check boxes.
OLE Object: Stores any OLE (object Linking and Embedding) object. An OLE object is
an object created in Word or a chart created in Excel. OLE objects can also include
sounds and pictures.
Hyperlink: Accepts hyperlinks to a web page, e-mail address, or another object in the
database.
Lookup Wizard: Lets you create a field that lets the user choose values from a list.

CREATING A DATABASE
Creating a Blank Database
To create blank databases follow these steps:
1.
On File menu click New (or) click on the New button on standard toolbar (or) press
Ctrl+N,
the New File Task Pane displays on the right side of the window.
2.
Click on Blank database....
3.
File New Database dialog box displays.
4.
Type a file name and click on Create button.
Access creates a blank database and Database (Access 2000 File Format) dialog box
displays.
Closing a Database
When you finish working with the database, it should be closed.
To close database:
On the File Menu, click Close.
Exiting Access
When you are finished working in Access, you should close the program.
To close the program:
Click Close button on the Title Bar.
(or)
On File menu click Exit.
(or)
Press Alt+F4.
(or)
Double click the programs control icon (the icon at the left end of the title bar).
Opening an Existing Database

On the File menu, click Open. The open dialog box is displayed.

Select the name of the database you want to open and Click Open.

The Security Warning dialog box appears. Click Open.

Access opens the database.

ACCESS DATABASE OBJECTS


Database objects are the fundamental elements of an Access database. Access has seven
types of objects in each database. They are Tables, Queries, Forms, Reports, Pages, Macros,
and Modules.
TABLES
You must create Tables before you can do anything with a database. The tables hold the
data and which the other objects operate.
Creating a Table
To create a table, follow these steps:
1.
On the File menu, click Open. Select a database file and then click OK.
2.
Click Tables under objects and then click New on the database window toolbar.
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The New Table dialog box appears. Using this dialog box select one of the five ways
to create a table.

Datasheet view

Design view

Table wizard

Import table

Link table
Creating a Table in Datasheet view:
The datasheet view offers simplest way to enter and edit data in Access database.
3.
Click on the datasheet view option and click OK.
A blank datasheet is displayed.
4.
Rename each column. To change the field name, double click the field name (or)
Click on the field name and choose Format, Rename.
Creating a Table in Design view
Design View gives much more control over your tables design.
The Design View displays your tables design showing the individual fields and field
properties.
To create a table in Design View, follow these steps:
1.
Click on the design view option and click OK. The Table design window appears.You
must
now describe your tables. For each field, you have to enter Field name, Data
type,
Description.
2.
Enter a name, for the first field in the field name column.
3.
Press the tab key to move to data type column. Now text appears along with a drop
down
arrow.
4.
Click drop-down arrow. A list of available data types will appear. Click on the desired
data type.
5.
Press tab key to move to the description column and type a description for the field.
This column is optional.
6.
After you enter the fields name, data type, and optional description, chooses the field
properties for the entered field name in the lower of the table window.
7.
Press tab key to move back to field name column.
8.
Enter remaining field names in the same way.
9.
To save a table, click the Save button (or) click on the close button.
10. Enter the name of the table in the Table Name box and click OK.
The Microsoft Access dialog box appears asking for primary key.
11. Click Yes to create a primary key automatically.
12. Close the Table dialog box.
13. To enter data select the table and click on open. It displays the datasheet in the form
of rows and columns.
14. Enter the data and save.
Creating a Table Trough Table wizard
1.
Click on the Table wizard option and click OK. The Table wizard dialog box appears.
2.
Click on Business or Personal
3.
Select a table from the Sample Tables List
4.
Select Fields
5.
Click on Next
6.
Give your table a name
7.
Select primary key options
8.
Click on Next
9.
Click on Next
10. Click on Finish .
11. The Table will be created, enter the data and seve it.
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Primary Key
The Primary key field is a field that contains no duplicate values. In other words, A
primary key is a filed that contains a unique value for each record in table, such as a
student Roll Number, Employee Number. This field is the key that identifies each record.
To Make a Field a Primary Key Field (Creating the Primary Key Field)
To create or change the primary key, follow these steps:
If you make a field a primary key, any records with duplicate data in that field are
discarded. Select the field (or fields) you want to define as the primary key (or multiiplefield primary key)
On the Edit menu, click Primary Key. Alternatively
On the File menu, click Save to save the table.

QUERIES
The process of accessing the database and retrieving data selectively is known as
Querying, you can Query a database to retrieve selective records from one table or join
more than to view a multiple table query, a Query (or) Processing (or) Querying: create
query by two ways.
1) By using Wizard.
2) Creating in Design View.
Creating a using Wizard
Follow these steps:
1) After opening your database, click Queries in the database window and click New on
the database window toolbar. The New Query dialog box appears.
2) You can choose the type of query you want to create in this dialog box.
3) Click Simple Query Wizard and then click OK.
4) Select the table or an existing query that holds the data.
Access displays fields from the selected table or query.
5) Add the fields to your query.

Select fields and click > to move them to the selected fields list.

Click to move all the fields.

If you want to remove a field, select the field and click <

To remove all fields click


6) Click an additional table or query if desired, and then select the fields you want to use
from
it
7) Click Next, Access displays the simple query wizard dialog box.
The wizard asks you whether you are creating a detail query (which shows all the
fields In
your table) or a summary query (which displays a sum, average, minimum,
maximum value in numeric fields)
Choose whether you want to create a detail or summary query.
8)
Click Next, the final wiz&rd screen displays.
9)
Type a title for your query and click Finish.
Access builds the query and displays the selected records.
Creating a Query using Design View:
To create a Query using Design View, follow these steps.
1. Click Queries in the Database window.
2. Click New button to open New Query dialog box.
3. Click on Design View if necessary.
4. Click OK. Alternatively, double click Create Query in Design View in database
window. The Select Query window and show table dialog box appears
5. In show table dialog box click Tables tab to display database tables or click
queries tab to display database queries or click both to display database tables
and queries.
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6. Select a table or query that contains the information we want to use in the
query.
7. Click add to add the table or query to the query.
As you add a table, a box appears in the select query window displaying the
fields for
the table you selected.
8. If you want to use more tables or queries, repeat steps 6 and 7.
9. Click close to close the show table dialog box.
Next you have to select fields you want to include in your query.
To choose fields to query:
10.
In the first line of design grid, you specify which fields to include. For this
double click a field in table or select the field and drag it or click in the field cell
or the design grid and choose the field name from drop down menu.
11.
In the table line you specify which table the field is from.
12.
Repeat the steps 10 and 11 to include more fields in the query.
13.
To sort query on a field, specify a field and sort order.
14.
You can also specify criteria to limit the records that are displayed.
15.
Click the check boxes in the show cell under the field you want to show
or hide. If the box is checked, the field appears in the results.
16.
Click the run button! To run query. Or choose query, run or switch to
datasheet view. The results of the query appear.
To return to the design view click view button.
17.
Click save button to the save the query so you can run the query again
later. The save as dialog box appears.
18.
Type a name for the query and click OK.

FORMS
Access allows you to enter record using form view. You can change the screen layout
so that you can enter one record at a time.
Creating Forms:
You can create forms in the following ways.
1.
Using Auto Form feature.
2.
Using the Form Wizard.
3.
Using the Design View.
4.
Using Auto Form feature.
Using Auto Form feature:
To create a Form using Auto Form, follow these steps:
1)
Click on Forms in the database window.
2)
Click New Button. The New Form dialog box appears.
3)
Choose the type of Auto Form you want to use

Auto Form - Columnar: Each field appears on separate le with a label.

Auto Form - Tabular : The field in each record appear on one line, which label
displays
once at the top.

Auto Form - Datasheet: The field in each record appear in row and column form
4)
Choose a Table or Query from the drop down list.
5)
Click on OK.
Using Form Wizard:
To create a Form with form wizard, follow these steps:
1)
Click Forms in the database window.
2)
Click the New button. New Form dialog box appears with vaoocs choices.
3)
Click Form Wizard.
4)
Choose a Table or Query that contains the data from the drop down list
5)
Click OK. The Form Wizard appears.
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(Alternatively, in the database window double click on the Create from by using
Wizard to display wizard.)
6)
Click the Table/Query drop down menu to select the Table Query
7)
Select the fields you want to include.
To select a field:

Click on a field you want to add and then click the > button

Click the button to select all the fields.

To remove a field, select the field and click < button

Click button to remove all the fields.


8)
Click Next to continue. A list of layout styles for the forms are displayed
9)
Click the layout styles you want to use.
10) Click Next to continue. A list of different Form styles are displayed
11) Click the style you want to use. A preview also appears.
12) Click Next to continue. The next dialog box is displayed.
13) Type a name for your form in the text box.
14) Click Finish to create your form.

REPORTS

Reports are the most effective way to present your data in a printed format.
Creating reports:
There are six ways to create reports in Access.
1)
Design view
2)
Columnar Auto Report
3)
Tabular Auto Report
4)
Report Wizard
5)
Chart Wizard
6)
Label Wizard
Creating Report Using Auto Report:
Auto Report automatically arrange all the fields of a Table or Query.
To create a report with auto report, follow these steps:
1)
Open a database which you want to create a report.
2)
Click on Reports in the database window.
3)
Click the New button. The New Report dialog box appears.
4)
Select a Table or Query form the dropdown list.
5)
Select Auto Report. Columnar (or) Tabular.
6)
Click OK.
The data is retrieved automatically and report is displayed.
Creating Report Using the Report Wizard:
To create report using wizard, follow the following steps:
1)
Open the database which you want to create a report.
2)
Click on Reports in the database window.
3)
Click the New button. The New Report dialog box appears.
4)
Select a Table or Query from the drop down list.
5)
Click on Report Wizard and click OK. Report Wizard dialog box appears.
6)
You can choose fields from more than one Table or Query.

Double click each field to include or Click on a field to add and then click the > button.

Click the button to select all the fields at a time.

To remove a field, select the field and click < button.

Click button to remove all the fields at a time.

To select fields from another table or query, select the table from the drop down box.
7)
Click Next to continue.
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8) To group related data together in your report, click the field you want to use to the
data and group click > button to establish it as a group criteria. Click grouping options if
you want to group by range.
9)
Click next to continue. Next screen is displayed.
10)
To sort the records in your report, click upper drop down list. Click the field you want
to use to Sort the records. Choose ascending or descending sort.
11) To sort by a second field, repeat step 10 in additional drop down list.
12)
Click next to continue. Next screen is displayed.
13)
Click the layout you want to use.
14)
Select the page orientation. Click Portrait for vertical page. Click landscape for
horizontal page.
,
15)
Click next to continue. Next screen is displayed.
16) Click the style you want to use. A preview of the style you selected appears in the left
pane.
17) Click next to continue. The last screen is displayed.
18) Type a name for your report and click Finish to create your report.
A window appears, displaying your report as it will look when printed.
Printing Mailing Labels:
Access provides a mailing label wizard that can speed the creation of all kinds of
labels. You can use it for creating name tags, file folder labels, floppy disk labels, video tape
and audio tape labels.
Unit IV
Steps for creating and printing mailing labels.
1.
Open the desired database, the database dialog box appears.
2.
Click on Reports tab, click on New. The New Report dialog box appears.
3.
Select a table or query from the drop down list and select label wizard and dick OK.
Label
wizard dialog box appears.
4.
Select the label size and click next.
5.
In this box you can specify font style, size and colour. Click on Next.
6.
Select the fields and add text or punctuation in this dialog box.
7.
Click Next.
8.
Click a field for sorting (if desired). Click Next.
9.
Give a file name to your label in this dialog box. And click finish.
10. You will see print preview of labels.
Save the label design.

Relationships
Relationship is an association established between common fields (Columns) in two
tables. Relationships allow you to bring together related information in your database.
There are four types of relationships between tables.

One-to-one

One-to-many

Many-to-one

Many-to-many
1)
One-to-one relationship
Each record in one table corresponds to exactly one record in another table. One-to-one
relationships are rare but they can occur.
2)
One-to-many relationship
One record in one table can have many records in another table.
3)
Many-to-one relationship
Multiple records in one table are related to a single record in another tabte.
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4)
Many-to-many relationship
In this relationship, a record in one table is related to multiple records in another table
and a record in another table can have many matching records in this tabte.
How Relationship Work?
A relationship work by matching data in key fields - usually a field with the same
name in both tables. In most cases, the matching fields are primary key from one table.
Creating relationships:
Access makes easy to you to view and create relationships between the tables with a
tool called the relationship builder. The relationship builder shows the tabtes as well as the
relationship between tables.
To establish a relationship between tables, follow these steps.
1)
Open the database that contains the tables you want to relate.
2)
On the tools menu click relationships (or) click relationship button on standard toolbar.
The relationship window and show table dialog box appears.
3)
Click Tables tab to display tables (or) Click Queries to display al quiries (Or) click both
to display tables and queries.
4)
Select a table/query and click add to add the table to the Relationships window
5)
Repeat step 4 to add another table.
6)
Click close to remove the show table dialog box.
7)
Select the field you want to use to form a relationship or link with another table.
8)
Drag the field over the other table in which you want to link the field
9)
Drop it on the field with which the relation will be set.
10) The Edit Relationships dialog box appears.
11) Click Create to establish the relationship.
12) A line connects the fields in the two tables to show the relationsf c
13) Click save button to save your change

INTERNET
The internet is a network of networks that circles the globe.
The internet can be defined as a global system of networked computers together with
their users and data.
The internet is millions of computers around the world connected to each other. The
Web, email, Chat and News groups are things you can do on the internet.
The computers in the internet can be divided into two types:
1.
Clients: These are the individual computers of users.
2.
Servers: These are the computers which store and provide information to the users.
VSNL, Satyam Online, Dishnet are examples of servers.
How Does Internet Works?
The internet connects different countries and thereby different states, cities, offices
and individual houses. Each computer in the internet has been given an address. If you
want to send information to a person who is having an internet connection, you must use
his computer address.
PROTOCOLS
The data in a network passes from one computer to another following some rules and
regulations. These rules and regulations are called protocols.
The following are some important protocols:
1.
TC I IP: This is the combination of two protocols. The full name is Transmission
Control/ Internal protocol. These protocols are widely used to connect hosts on internet.
2.
FTP: The FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used to get the copies of information from one
computer to another.
,
3.
HTTP: In order to show WebPages and to link one page with another on the
WebPages, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used.
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The information that we sent or record on internet is broken down into small pieces called
packets. These packets are going from one server to another server and ultimately reaches
its destination (i.e. individual computer). The information in these packets are then reassembled into the original information.
Routers or Gateways
The reading system from which we are sending information in packets is called router.
The router connects all networks together. It uses internet protocol (IP) address to send
information. Gateways also work on the same way. Gateways are used previously. Now a
days Routers are used instead of gateways.
BANDWIDTH
The speed of the internet depends upon the Bandwidth. Bandwidth is capacity at witch
data are passed between devices. It is measured in kilobytes per second (KBPS) like 64
KBPS, 128 KBPS or 256 KBPS. The capacity above 64 KBPS is called Broad Band.
IP ADDRESS
Each host computer on the internet has a unique number to find out the address of
that computer. That number is called IP address. The IP address is divided into four parts.
Each part is separated by one dot.
An IP address can be given as follows:
195.168.0.1
DOMAIN NAME
Most computers on the internet have a unique domain name. This name is divided
into some parts and each part is separated with a dot. The last part of the domain is either
two or three letters long. The three letter zones indicate the type of organization that owns
the domain. The two letter zones indicate the country in which the organizations computer
is located. Ex. www.vahoo.com.www.sbms.ap.gov.in.

SEARCH ENGINES
If you do not know the website name of a particular subject or if you forget the
website name, you have search engines in the internet. You can type the information in the
space provided in the search engine and get the required information. Many portals provide
search engines. Google, AltaVista, Rediff are very famous search engines.

INTERNET SERVICES
E-MAIL:
The method of writing letters through the internet is known as e-mail or Electronic
mail. E- Mail provides a fast, economical and convenient way to exchange messages with
family, friends and colleagues. The cost of sending an email message is lower than other
forms of communication.
2.
WWW (World Wide Web):
1.

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The term WWW refers to the World Wide Web or simply the Web. The World Wide Web
consists of all the public Web sites connected to the Internet worldwide. Through these web
sites we can have information ranging from a small pin to airplane.
CHATTING:
The information that a person types appear instantly on screen of another computer
of person who is involved in the conversation. The main advantage of chatting is that we
can communicate with any number of persons at the same time.
4.
NEWS GROUPS:
If we want to buy an air conditioner in American or Japanese market, we can get the
opinion of experts. Similarly we can know the place of rare medicines that we want. For this
purpose, News groups help us. News groups mean public meetings they carry our opinions,
advises to the concerned persons in the world. They will even conduct debates. So news
groups are the stages where people share their opinions and give advises to other parties.
5.
OTHER SERVICES:
In addition to the above four main services, the following are the other services.
(a)
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): It facilitates the exchange of files from one computer
to
another computer. A Head office, for example, can send the files and folders to its
branch office and vice versa.
(b)
E-commerce:Different goods can be offered for purchase or sale on internet through
ecommerce.
(c)
Games and Video: On line games can be played in internet. We can listen audio and
watch the video clippings of different sites.
Of the above five internet services, the most important services are E-mail and
WWW. So separate chapters have been devoted for these two topics in the coming
pages
3.

E-COMMERCE
Electronic Commerce or e-commerce is the process of buying and selling of products
or service over electronic systems such as the internet and other computer networks.
E-commerce, in other words, is a process by which goods and services are advertised,
bought and sold electronically over the internet. E-commerce is thus the paperless
exchange using electronic data Interchange (EDI) and related technologies in e-commerce.
The buyer selects items from the online catalogue, makes the purchase and pays by credit
card or other electrical modes of payment. For example, Dell computers now sell its
products or services on a worldwide through e-commerce.
TYPES OF COMMERCE
There are four main categories of E-commerce, namely B2B, B2C, C3B, and C2C.
1.
Business - to - Business (B2B):
Here companies sell their products to other businesses such as distributors and wholesalers.
2.
Business -to - consumer (B to C):
Businesses selling products or services to consumers are coming under this category.
3.
Consumer -to - Business (C to B):
Here the consumer posts his requirements to companies and the companies in turn review
the requirements of consumers and bid on the project; the consumer studies the bid and
takes a decision.
A. Consumer - to - consumer (C to C):
In this category, the consumers can buy or sell on free classified, auctions and forums. The
goods are offered by the consumers and by the sold by the consumers. The stage is set by
big sites like E-bay where people transact the business themselves.
In addition to above four business categories, there are other categories like G2G
Government to Government), G2E (Government to Employee), G2B (Government to
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Business), B2G (Business to Government), G2C (Government to Citizen), C2G (Citizen to
Government) etc....,

Applications of E-commerce
Some usual applications related to electronic commerce are given below.
1.
Essential applications:
E-commerce facilitates the online purchase of products, auctions etc., The customers can
get timely advice about their health and other items. Essential products or services come
under this category are:

Online Shopping

Auctions

Telemedicine

Electronic Catalogs
2.
Financial applications and Information:
These services are fast and accurate. For example, we can withdraw money from ATM.
The following services come under this category.

Internet Baking

Online Trading

Financial News

Financial Services
3.
Educational Applications:
These applications provide information about different universities available though out the
world and also they provide different online study courses.
These include the following services.

Online Education

Video Conferencing

Online Databases

E-learning Portals

Online Jobs

Online Publishing
4.
Entertainment Applications:
The web is place for full entertainment. We can chat, see movies, play games eta All these
activities are possible with the help of e-commerce.

Movies on Demand

Chatting

Multi-user games

Video Cataloging

Online Traveling

News Groups

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF E-COMMERCE


The advantages of electronic commerce result in many benefits to customer. The benefits
are just starting now. In future they may extend to multi-fold.
ADVANTAGES
1.
World Wide, 24 hours a day: Electronic commerce extends to all places in the world
at any time or night. The customer can find the best products or services quickly in the
world.
2.
Home Shopping: E-commerce enables the customer to select the products at home
quickly and conveniently so that the problems of traveling, queuing and billing can be
avoided.
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3.
Availability of Latest items: The internet is our best friend in the world. Rare
medicines, latest technology items, specialized products etc., are available at bargain
prices. Some people may even enjoy the products which are not available in their own
town.
4.
Home Delivery: Good will be delivered at home to customers at their convenient
time.
5.
Virtual Auctions: The customer can participate in virtual auctions and get the
products or services at a discounted price.
6.
Reduced Costs: As there are no or few intermediaries between the trading place,
people can get the products directly from manufacturers or wholesales This results in
reduction of cosl of goods to the customers.
7.
Speedy Process: The movement when you place order it will be immediately
processed There is no need to wait weeks together for a catalogue to arrive by post

LIMITATIONS
In spite of many advantages, there are some limitations of e-commerce.
1.
No Chance of inspecting goods:
The goods offered on net can not actually be seen, and touched. Inspite of good pictures on
web, the customers can not physically inspite the goods.
2.
Privacy and Security:
There are no privacy and security online payments. There are possibilities of credit card
number theft. There may be security problems regarding destruction and disclosure of
confidential data.
3.
No Social Interaction:
People generally like to do shopping with their friends or relatives. But this is no possible for
online shopping.
4.
Lack of Trust:
Normally customers do not trust known traders. Then how can they trust unknown traders
on the net? So shifting from traditional stores to online stores is difficult to them.
5.
Problem of Return of Goods:
Having to return defective goods take a lot of embarrassment to customers. They may be
no responsible online vendor for taking the goods returned by the customers.
6. Limited Categories of Goods:
Only a few types of goods are sold on e-commerce. It is not suitable for all types of
businesses.
7.
Legal Issues:
Many legal problems are still unsolved in e-commerce. There is no Government framework
and regulations for many online businesses.
8.
Technical Problems:
The internet is not accessible to all people in India. Even it is accessible, it is expensive and
inconvenient to some people.

ONLINE SHOPPING OF PRODUCTS, BOOKS AND MAGZINES


One of the applications of e-commerce is online shopping. The online shopping avoids
long queues, carrying the bags and parking problems. Online shopping is set up to purchase
goods at home on with a single click.
The following are the steps for ordering the items on online.
1
Select your shopping merchandise: These are many sites in internet offering
various products. So you have to click on the particular site and select the item shopping
in that site. Suppose you select Rediff, it appears as under.
Click on shopping list in the above screen. You will be entered into Shopping.
2.
Select your Item: Once you enter into online shop, you can select the item as you
like. site selection, however, depends on price, brand name, model etc.
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3.
Click on Buy now: Once you finalized, click on Addcart or Buy now on to site. Then
the site asks proceed to check out or continue.
A. Enter your address and other information: After that, you have to type your
personal details, address, phone no. etc.
5.
Give payment details: Finally the essential step arrives. Here you have to enter the
payment details. Normally payment is made by credit, internet bank, cheque, demand draft
or other mode of payment.
If you click any of the above mode of payment, a column appears below that asking
cheque, Demand Draft or credit card details.
6.
Finalize the transaction and get receipt: Once you fill up all details, your total bil
appears. Now you have to wait for some days to get your order.

BUYING BOOKS AND MAGAZINES


Rare books and magazines are available on internet. You can buy books and
magazines in the same way as in the case of buying other items.
There are some special book sites and magazine sites that are avatiao e on internet.
If any of these sites are unknown to you, you can go to Google search engine and find the
correct address.
For buying books a valuable source is Reader reviews. The reviews are written by
books people who have ready read the books so that we can distinguish good and bad
books.
Some noteworthy sites are given below:
www.amazon.com
www.rediff.com
www.clickindia.com

ONLINE AUCTIONS
Internet is also a place for the sale of electronic goods, rare coins and antiques etc.
The online auctions are similar to traditional auctions except that they are conducted on a
computer. Here the online auction differs from other e-commerce implementation
Here the online site does not have any item to sell. It is just a meeting place where
sellers of an item and buyers are exchanging goods and cash. Normally some portals are
having auctions in their shopping list. There are, however, sites which are specialized in
Auctions.
Online trading benefits and limitations
Benefits
1.
The process is simple. Those who to sell can enter the information and send it to the
host.
2.
There is a chance to get a variety of goods which are not available locally.
3.
Buyers can get goods at discounted prices.
Limitations
1.
There is no chance for physical inspection of items.
2.
There is a chance of fraud in online auctions.
3.
Real competition does not exist as there is a lot of time to elapse the auction.
The following are the features of online auction.
1.
Set a Minimum Price:
The person who wants to sell a particular item sets a starting bid (minimum price)
and a deadline. Detailed information about the item is available on site. For example If you
open Rediff home page and clicks on Auctions, we will have a variety of items.
2.
Other people can bid:
Other people who have seen the item can offer their price. Normally the price should
be more than minimum price offered by someone.
If we click Rediff auction site, we have mention a minimum price for it.
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3.
Highest bidder may gain:
The person who bids a high price will get the item. The other persons can, go for
second or third bid, if necessary.
Finally the buyer then pays the price and the seller sends the item.
Some note worthy sites.
*eBay. In
* Indian markets
*auctions.rediff
* alibaba
*Yahoo

OTHER ONLINE SERVICES


Online Shares Trading
The internet is being used for online trading of shares and debentures. If thus makes
the people to get up-to-the minute information of shares and debentures. In order to buy or
sell shares and mutual funds on online, first we have to perform three tasks.
1.
An account with online broker
2.
A demit account with any of the famous banks or sometime with online broker.
2
Balance with your saving account.
Online trading benefits &Limitations
Marits
1) You can get information of shares online
2) As everything is as online, there are no chances of time wastage and other mistakes.
3) There is no possibility of mistakes as no human interference is there
4) Less or no commission is changed on online trading
5) The customer gets free advice about share information normally at free of cost

Limitations
1. As everything is done electronically, no genuine advice is available.
2. When there is a delay in payment, the system automatically square off the position
(i.e.) it sells at the prevailing rate.
3. There is a tempt ion to indulge in speculation.
Procedure For Buying Of Online Shares:
1. Showing various shares and quotations:
Once you open a trading account with online broker, you can access the various
shares
with quotations. You can see the changes in the share prices of on the screen.
2. Placing an order:
Once you find a share that you want, you can place a purchase order.
3. Getting confirmation of share:
Once you place order, you will get information about the availability of shares.
Normally
when you place the order at market price, you can immediately get the order. If
you place the order on specified price, it takes some time to find out the seller who wants
to
sell at the same rate once the price matches with sellers price, the order will be
executed. Then confirmation of the particular order appears.
4. Payment:
The online broker asks the client to deposit some amount to execute the order.
Some of Noteworthy online trading sites:
Names
Website
Share khan
www.sharekhan.con
India info
www.5paisa.com
Religare
www.reliqareonline.com
Icici
www.icicidirect.com
ndia bulls
www.indiabulls.com
Geojit
www.qeoiit.com

ONLINE ADVERTISING
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Internet advertisements becomes very popular now-a-days. They are accessed 24
hours a day on internet and they can reach a very large number of people.
They can be changed or modified immediately response fast. Furthermore, multimedia
makes the ads more attractive. They can be targeted to specific interested individuals.
In internet, we can access ads in the following way.
1.
E-Mail : Now -a-days people are sending e-mails about the o-c dty of a product or
service.
2.
Chat Rooms: Similarly Chat rooms are also being extensively used for the promotion
of a particular product or service.
3.
Banners: we can see many advertisement banners while suriing the net. If we open,
we will find banners in rediff site.
4.
Paid Advertisements: the world famous portal Google keps acJs in many sites, if
these sites display ads, it pays some money to that sites.
5.
Banner swapping and exchanges: some sites are exchanc ng acs :n their web
pages. For ex. If one company shows the ad of another company the- another company
also shows the ad of this company.
6.
Web Sites: Anyone can submit their own developed webs,tes to mega portals like
Google, Yahoo etc., while searching a particular topic in tnese po*ta!s, we can get the
particular web sites. In this way we can get publicity about oir websrtes.
7.
Classified Ads: Some sites like Rediff freely offers class^ed ais These are meant for
the target of individuals and small people.

ONLINE TRAVEL AND TOURISM SERVICES


The travel industry is witnessing a rapid development in internet Today people are
booking train, bus and airline tickets on online. Many sites are offering service to customers
in this regard.
The services of travel websites include:
1.
A familiar look of tourist places and giving directions to reach them
2.
Offering low-cost trips and discounts.
3.
Offering hotel reservations and rental cars for your trip.
4.
Booking tickets and reservations providing electronic travel magazines and books.
The following is the procedure for booking tickets on Airlines in famous travel sites like
yatra.com and makemytrip.com
1.
Search Airlines in any Portal or Travel sites: if you want to travel on a particular
plan, go to that site. If you do not know the site or a particular airline there are many travel
sites to assist you.
2.
Specify a date for your journey and return (if any): when the travel or airport
site appears you have to specify the airport, date and timngs of travel, number of
passengers and seating class.
3.
Fill up information: the airline sites will give the fares and timings of different
flights. Once you satisfied, you can fill up the information of passengers..
4.
Give Credit Card number and other details: Once you give your payment details,
you will be given e-ticket. When you show the e-ticket o the data o* joury, you will be given
a boarding pass.
Then you can enter into the flight and enjoy the journey.
Some Travel Sites:
Some Airtine sites:
www.vatra.com
www.airindia com
www.travelquru.com
www.ietairwavs.com
www.indianholoday.com
www.flykinqfisher.com

INTERNET BANKING
When you open a bank account in any of the famous banks like ICICI, HDFC, SBI,
BANK OF INDIA etc., you will get concerned bank site in your computer. You can get
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information of accounts online, transfer of funds from one account to another, pay bills
online etc. at a single click.
Once you type your ID and password in your online banking you can perform the
following functions:
1.
Check your Balances and accounts at any time: You can know how much money
is in your account and the cheques given and cheques cleared. We can download
statements at any time. Some banks send your account through e-mail.
2.
Paying bills Online: You can give order to bank to pay electricity bills or loan
installments.
3.
Transfer of money: Transfer money from one account to another account is
possible.
4. Advice on share and investments: some banks may also give financial advice to
customer on shares and investments.
5.
Tax computations and preparations: Some banks electrically compute tax
calculations and file returns to income tax department.
6.
Mobile Banking: Some Banks show the account balance in your mobile phone.
7.
Retirement Plans: Retired people may get advice on various schemes about the
financial -alters on their retirement schemes.
8.
Trouble shootings: If you have any problem in the account, you can send an
e-mail to sank, and the bank solves the problem immediately.

ONLINE EMPLOYMENT PLACEMANT AND JOB MARKET


Today many companies are recruiting employees through internet. There are many job sites
offering placements. The job market on internet is used for the following purposes.
1.
To find the right job.
2.
To find career advice.
3.
To get advice on writing resumes and preparing interviews.
ADVANTAGES
1.
We can find large number of jobs quickly on internet.
2.
You can get job with very low cost.
3.
Response is very fast.
4.
Chat rooms and News groups are used to prepare resumes and interviews etd.
IMITATIONS
1.
Many people are still not using.
2.
There is no security. There is a chance to see the resumes by others.
3.
The jobs in internet may not suit to the requirements of local people.
PROCEDURE FOR GETTING JOBS ONLINE
1.
Select a job site: there are many job sites available on internet eg.
www.noukarv.com. www.monster.com. Many sites require free registration and some
operate payment basis.
2.
Select your category: Select your category, experience, location etc. Then click on
Search. The different job opportunities are shown to you.
3.
Click on a particular job and apply the job: Select a job type and apply the job by
sending your resume by e-mail.
Some websites, on seeing the job details of you, will connect to the company which offers
job. You can send your resume to the company e-mail address.
Some Job Sites:
www.noukary.com,www.monster.com,www.jobsstreet.com,www.jobsahead.com
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ONLINE PAYMENTS
There are many payment systems in e-commerce.
1.
Credit Cards: The most popular payment method of payment n e-commerce is Credit
Cards. The customers who buy goods simply type their credl card details to the service
provider and the service provider assigns the job to credit card organization which will
handle the payment.
2.
Debit Cards: Like Credit cards, the customers can fill up ther Detxt card number and
this will processed through the system.
3.
Smart Cards: these are also just like Credit and Debit cards but they are enhanced
with programmable microchips.
4.
Electronic Wallet: It is a system where the credit card numbers are stored on hard
disk in an encrypted way. The website from which we purchased goods will support the
electronic wallet. When we buy goods online, the electron wallet companys server
facilitates the credit card payment.
5.
E-Cash: Here the user transfers some money from a credit card or bank account into
an e-cash account. The e-cash is then used to make payment for purchases.
6.
Stored Value Cards: it is most widely used payment system This is just like a
telephone card where the number is to be exposed after buying.

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