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Introduction

CHAPTER 17

Preparation of salts

Preparation of salts

  • - Salts can be prepared by several general methods. These methods of preparation depend on:

The solubility of the salt in water.

The reactivity of the metal in the salt

Solubility of metal carbonate

Soluble and insoluble salts

Soluble salts

Insoluble salts

All nitrates

None

Most sulphates

Lead sulphate, barium sulphate and calcium

sulphate, strontium sulphate.

Most chlorides, bromides and iodides

Silver chloride, silver bromide, silver iodide, lead

chloride, lead bromide, lead iodide

Carbonates of group I elements and ammonium carbonate.

Most other carbonates

All salts of Na + , K + and NH 4 + ions

 

Preparation of soluble salts

  • - When soluble salts are prepared, they are usually found in aqueous solution. Their pure samples can only be recovered from solution by evaporation to dryness or crystallisation.

  • - Soluble salts are usually prepared using the following methods

  • - (a) Action of acids on metals:

  • - Metals higher in the reactivity series can be used to displace hydrogen gas from an aqueous solution of an acid leaving behind a solution of a salt.

  • - To some warm dilute acid solution in a beaker, add some metal powder and stir.

  • - Keep adding metal powder while stirring until the excess metal powder can no longer dissolve no matter the degree and duration of stirring.

  • - Filter the mixture to remove the undissolved metal powder.

  • - Transfer the filtrate collected which is the soluble salt solution to an evaporating dish.

  • - Heat the filtrate to evaporate most of the water until a saturated solution is formed by crystallisation.

  • - Leave the saturated solution to cool and dry until salt crystals are formed.

  • - Dry the salt crystals.

  • - Examples of salts prepared by this method are salts of calcium, zinc, magnesium, iron.

  • - Method is not suitable for reactive metals such as sodium and potassium because reaction is too violent and explosive

Introduction CHAPTER 17 Preparation of salts Preparation of salts - Salts can be prepared by several

Metal + Acid → Soluble salt + Hydrogen gas

+ 2HCl (aq) → Zn (s) THE NEN SERIES
+
2HCl (aq) →
Zn (s)
THE NEN SERIES

ZnCl 2(aq) +

H 2(g) .

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O-Level chemistry notes 2015-2016 school year prepared by Nkemzi E.N

Preparation of salts

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(b) Neutralisation:

A base (alkaline) is titrated against an appropriate acid solution during which the required salt is formed.

Place a known volume of acid (e.g. HCl) in a conical flask.

Add an indicator to the acid (if phenolphthalein is added, the colour will be colourless).

Add alkali (e.g. NaOH) from a burette until indictaor changes colour (phenolphthalein will change colour from colourless to pink). This is the end point of titration and neutralisation is completed.

Record volume of alkali used.

Repeat whole process again with the known volumes of acid and alkali to produce salt solution (but do not add indicator).

Heat salt solution by evaporation method to evaporate all water and obtain salt crystals.

If salt is not heat stable, crystallisation method is used instead to obtain salt crystals instead of evaporation to dryness.

Dry the salt crystals.

Method is suitable for the preparation of salts of reactive metals such as sodium and potassium.

Preparation of salts - - - - - - - - - - - (b) Neutralisation

Alkaline + Acid → Soluble salt + water NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) .

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(c) Action of acids on insoluble bases:

Such insoluble bases include insoluble oxides e.g CuO, and insoluble hydroxides e.g AgOH, Cu(OH) 2 , Fe(OH) 2 , Fe(OH) 3 .

To some warm dilute acid solution in a beaker, add some oxide powder and stir.

Keep adding oxide powder while stirring until the excess oxide powder can no longer dissolve no matter the degree and duration of stirring.

Filter the mixture to remove the undissolved oxide powder.

Transfer the filtrate collected which is the soluble salt solution to an evaporating dish.

Heat the filtrate to evaporate most of the water until a saturated solution is formed by crystallisation.

Leave the saturated solution to cool and dry until salt crystals are formed.

Dry the salt crystals.

Examples of salts prepared by this method are salts of copper, iron etc.

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Metal oxide + Acid → Soluble salt + water

CuO (s) +

H 2 SO 4(aq)

CuSO 4(aq) +

H 2 O (l) .

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(c) Action of acids on carbonates:

For a soluble carbonate e.g group I carbontes such as Na 2 CO 3 , K 2 CO 3 etc, the carbonate solution is titrated against an appropriate acid solution during which the required salt is formed. An appropriate indicator is used to indicated the point of complete reaction.

For insoluble carbonates e.g CaCO 3 , ZnCO 3 etc, the carbonate powder is added to some warm dilute acid solution in a beaker and stir.

Keep adding the carbonate powder while stirring until the excess carbonate powder can no longer dissolve no matter the degree and duration of stirring.

Filter the mixture to remove the undissolved carbonate powder.

Transfer the filtrate collected which is the soluble salt solution to an evaporating dish.

Heat the filtrate to evaporate most of the water until a saturated solution is formed by crystallisation.

Leave the saturated solution to cool and dry until salt crystals are formed.

Dry the salt crystals.

Examples of salts prepared by this method are salts of calcium, barium, strontium etc.

- THE NEN SERIES
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THE NEN SERIES

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O-Level chemistry notes 2015-2016 school year prepared by Nkemzi E.N

Preparation of salts

Metal carbonate + Acid → Soluble salt + carbon dioxide + water CaCO 3(s) + 2HCl (aq) → CaCl 2(aq) + CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) .

Preparation of insoluble salts

  • - Insoluble salts are usually prepared using the following methods

  • - (a) Double decomposition reaction:

  • - In this method, two solutions of soluble salts are mixed to form a precipitate of the insoluble salt.

  • - Place a known volume of one soluble salt solution in a beaker.

  • - Keep adding the other soluble salt solution and stir to mix until no more precipitate forms.

  • - Filter out the precipitate.

  • - The residue is the insoluble salt you are trying to get.

  • - Wash residue with water.

  • - Dry the insoluble salt crystals.

  • - Salts that can be prepared by this method are BaSO 4 , SrSO 4 , AgCl, AgBr, AgI, PbCl 2 etc because they are all insoluble salts.

Preparation of salts Metal carbonate + Acid → Soluble salt + carbon dioxide + water CaCO

Aqueous salt 1 + Aqueous salt 2 → insoluble salt + Aqueous salt 3 AgNO 3(aq) + NaCl (aq) → AgCl (s) + NaNO 3(aq) .

  • - (a) Direct combination reaction:

  • - Some metallic salts such as halides and sulphides can be prepared by directly combining the elements that make up the salt. It is also suitable for the preparation of soluble salts.

  • - This method is used for preparing binary salts (salts containing only two kinds of elements).

  • - Special method of recovery may not be required as no side reaction may take place to contaminate the salt.

Preparation of salts Metal carbonate + Acid → Soluble salt + carbon dioxide + water CaCO

Hydrated and anhydrous salts

Metal + halogen → salt (metal halide)

Zn (s) +

Cl 2(aq)

ZnCl 2(s) .

Metal + sulphur → salt (metal sulpide)

Fe (s) +

S (s)

FeS (s) .

  • - Some salts are recovered from solution with molecules of water chemically attached.

  • - These molecules of water are known as water of crystallisation.

  • - Salts with molecules of water of crystallisation are called hydrated salts.

  • - Salts without molecules of water of crystallisation are called anhydrous salts.

  • - When hydrated salts are heated strongly, they lose their water of crystallisation. This is described as a chemical reaction.

Hydrated salts

Anhydrous salts

CuSO 4 .5H 2 O

NaCl

CoCl 2 .6H 2 O

Na 2 SO 4

FeSO 4 .7H 2 O

KBr

Efflorescence, deliquescence and hydgroscopy

  • - The terms explain the changes certain substances undergo when exposed to the air.

THE NEN SERIES
THE NEN SERIES

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O-Level chemistry notes 2015-2016 school year prepared by Nkemzi E.N

Preparation of salts

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When certain substances are exposed to the air, they either lose their water of crystallisation or absorb moisture from the surroundings.

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(a) Efflorescence:

When some substances are exposed to air, they lose some or all of its water of crystallisation to the atmosphere, thereby reducing in weight.

In the process, the substance changes from the crystalline form to the powder form.

For example, FeSO 4 . 7H 2 O and Na 2 SO 4 .10H 2 O are crystalline salts that effloresce by losing all of their water of crystallization when exposed to air. Na 2 SO 4 .10H 2 O (s) → Na 2 SO 4(s) + 10H 2 O (g) .

Crystals

powder

Na 2 CO 3 .10H 2 O when exposed to air loses 9 of its molecules of water of crystallization. Na 2 CO 3 .10H 2 O (s) → Na 2 CO 3 .H 2 O (s) + 9H 2 O (g) .

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(b) Deliquescence:

Some substances absorb moisture when exposed to air and dissolve in the moisture to form solutions. The process could either be physical or chemical.

Example, solid NaOH, CaCl 2 , P 4 O 10 , FeCl 3 , KOH, MgCl 2 .

CaCl 2 absorbs moisture when exposed to air and dissolve in the moisture to form a solution of calcium chloride (CaCl 2(aq) ).

CaCl 2(s) +

salt

H 2 O (l)

→ CaCl 2(aq) .

moisture

solution

P 4 O 10 absorbs moisture when exposed to air and reacts with the moisture to form a solution of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4(aq) ).

P 4 O 10(s)

oxide

+

6H 2 O (l)

moisture

→ 4H 3 PO 4(aq) .

solution

Deliquescent substances can be used as drying agents for gases.

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Some substances absorb moisture when exposed to air but do not dissolve in the moisture to form

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solutions. Such substances are said to be hygroscopic.

The process is accompanied by increase in the mass of the salt due to moisture absorbed from the air and the powder form of the substance converted to crystals.

In some cases, the colour of substance changes. For example, anhydrous copper (II) sulphate is white but hydrated copper (II) sulphate is blue.

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CuSO 4(s)

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White anhydrous

powder

5H 2 O (s) → CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (g) .

moisture

blue hydrated

crystals

Examples of such substances include solids such as CaO, CuSO 4(s) , CoCl 2(s) , CuO and some liquids such as concentrated H 2 SO 4 .

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Uses of salts

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Use in the production of soap e.g NaCl in salting out process.

Used in flavouring food e.g NaCl and preserving food e.g NaNO 2 , Na 2 SO 3 .

Used as fertiliser e.g KCl, NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , KNO 3 etc.

Used in the production of important chemicals e.g NaOH, H 2 and Cl 2 from NaCl.

Used as drying agents e.g CaCl 2 .

Used in photography e.g silver salts such as AgBr.

Disadvantages of salts

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Some are harmful e.g KCN kills easily if it enters the body.

Over use of fertilisers causes leaching and eutrophication in rivers.

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Too much salt can cause high blood pressure

THE NEN SERIES
THE NEN SERIES

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O-Level chemistry notes 2015-2016 school year prepared by Nkemzi E.N