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Historyofwatches

Connectedto:
WatchBalancewheelMainspring

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

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Portabledrumwatchwithsundial.The24hourdialismarkedinRomannumeralsontheouterband
andinArabicnumeralsontheinnerone.[1]
Mostofthe500yearhistoryofwatchesconsistedofthedevelopmentofthemechanicalwatch.
Watchesevolvedfromportablespringdrivenclocks,whichfirstappearedin15thcenturyEurope.
Portabletimepiecesweremadepossiblebytheinventionofthemainspringintheearly15thcentury.
NurembergclockmakerPeterHenlein(orHenleorHele)(14851542)isoftencreditedastheinventor
ofthewatch.[2][3]HewasoneofthefirstGermancraftsmanwhomade"clockwatches"(taschenuhr),
ornamentaltimepieceswornaspendants,whichwerethefirsttimepiecestobewornonthebody.His
fameisbasedonapassagebyJohannCochlusin1511:[4][5]
PeterHele,stillayoungman,fashionsworkswhicheventhemostlearned
mathematiciansadmire.Heshapesmanywheeledclocksoutofsmallbitsofiron,which
runandchimethehourswithoutweightsforfortyhours,whethercarriedatthebreastor
inahandbag
However,otherGermanclockmakerswerecreatingminiaturetimepiecesduringthisperiod,andthere
isnoevidenceHenleinwasthefirst.[3][4]
Thewatchwhichdevelopedfromthe16thcenturytothemid20thcenturywasamechanicaldevice,
poweredbywindingamainspringwhichturnedgearsandthenmovedthehands,andkepttimewitha
rotatingbalancewheel.Theinventionofthequartzwatchinthe1960s,whichranonelectricityand
kepttimewithavibratingquartzcrystal,provedaradicaldeparturefortheindustry.Duringthe1980s
quartzwatchestookoverthemarketfrommechanicalwatches,aneventreferredtoasthe"quartz
crisis".Althoughmechanicalwatchesstillsellatthehighendofthemarket,thevastmajorityof
watchesnowhavequartzmovements.
Oneaccountoftheoriginoftheword"watch"isthatitcamefromtheOldEnglishwordwoecce
whichmeant"watchman",becauseitwasusedbytownwatchmentokeeptrackoftheirshifts.[6]
Anothersaysthatthetermcamefrom17thcenturysailors,whousedthenewmechanismstotimethe
lengthoftheirshipboardwatches(dutyshifts).[7]

Clockwatches

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Theearliestdatedwatchknown,from1530
Thefirsttimepiecestobeworn,madeinthe16thcenturyintheGermancitiesofNurembergand
Augsburg,weretransitionalinsizebetweenclocksandwatches.[8]These'clockwatches'were
fastenedtoclothingorwornonachainaroundtheneck.Theywereheavydrumshapedcylindrical
brassboxesseveralinchesindiameter,engravedandornamented.Theyhadonlyanhourhand.The
facewasnotcoveredwithglass,butusuallyhadahingedbrasscover,oftendecorativelypiercedwith
grillworksothetimecouldbereadwithoutopening.Themovementwasmadeofironorsteeland
heldtogetherwithtaperedpinsandwedges,untilscrewsbegantobeusedafter1550.Manyofthe
movementsincludedstrikingoralarmmechanisms.Theyusuallyhadtobewoundtwiceaday.The
shapelaterevolvedintoaroundedformthesewerelatercalledNurembergeggs.Stilllaterinthe
centurytherewasatrendforunusuallyshapedwatches,andclockwatchesshapedlikebooks,
animals,fruit,stars,flowers,insects,crosses,andevenskulls(Death'sheadwatches)weremade.
Theseearlyclockwatcheswerenotworntotellthetime.Theaccuracyoftheirvergeandfoliot
movementswassopoor,witherrorsofperhapsseveralhoursperday,thattheywerepractically
useless.Theyweremadeasjewelryandnoveltiesforthenobility,valuedfortheirfineornamentation,
unusualshape,orintriguingmechanism,andaccuratetimekeepingwasofveryminorimportance.[9]

Pocketwatches
Styleschangedinthe17thcenturyandmenbegantowearwatchesinpocketsinsteadofaspendants
(thewoman'swatchremainedapendantintothe20thcentury).[10]Thisissaidtohaveoccurredin
1675whenCharlesIIofEnglandintroducedwaistcoats.[11]Tofitinpockets,theirshapeevolvedinto
thetypicalpocketwatchshape,roundedandflattenedwithnosharpedges.Glasswasusedtocoverthe
facebeginningaround1610.Watchfobsbegantobeused,thenameoriginatingfromtheGerman
wordfuppe,asmallpocket.Thewatchwaswoundandalsosetbyopeningthebackandfittingakey
toasquarearbor,andturningit.
Thetimekeepingmechanismintheseearlypocketwatcheswasthesameoneusedinclocks,invented
inthe13thcenturythevergeescapementwhichdroveafoliot,adumbbellshapedbarwithweights
ontheends,tooscillatebackandforth.However,themainspringintroducedasourceoferrornot
presentinweightpoweredclocks.Theforceprovidedbyaspringisnotconstant,butdecreasesasthe
springunwinds.Therateofalltimekeepingmechanismsisaffectedbychangesintheirdriveforce,
buttheprimitivevergeandfoliotmechanismwasespeciallysensitivetothesechanges,soearly
watchessloweddownduringtheirrunningperiodasthemainspringrandown.Thisproblem,called
lackofisochronism,plaguedmechanicalwatchesthroughouttheirhistory.
Effortstoimprovetheaccuracyofwatchespriorto1657focusedoneveningoutthesteeptorque
curveofthemainspring.[10]Twodevicestodothishadappearedinthefirstclockwatches:the
stackfreedandthefusee.Thestackfreed,aspringloadedcamonthemainspringshaft,addedalotof
frictionandwasabandonedafteraboutacentury.Thefuseewasamuchmorelastingidea.Acurving
conicalpulleywithachainwrappedarounditattachedtothemainspringbarrel,itchangedthe
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leverageasthespringunwound,equalizingthedriveforce.Fuseesbecamestandardinallwatches,
andwereuseduntiltheearly19thcentury.Thefoliotwasalsograduallyreplacedwiththebalance
wheel,whichhadahighermomentofinertiaforitssize,allowingbettertimekeeping.

Balancespring

Drawingofoneofhisfirstbalancesprings,attachedtoabalancewheel,byChristiaanHuygens,
inventorofthebalancespring,publishedinhisletterintheJournaldesSavantsof25February1675
Agreatleapforwardinaccuracyoccurredin1657withtheadditionofthebalancespringtothe
balancewheel,aninventiondisputedbothatthetimeandeversincebetweenRobertHookeand
ChristiaanHuygens.Priortothis,theonlyforcelimitingthebackandforthmotionofthebalance
wheelundertheforceoftheescapementwasthewheel'sinertia.Thiscausedthewheel'speriodtobe
verysensitivetotheforceofthemainspring.Thebalancespringmadethebalancewheelaharmonic
oscillator,withanatural'beat'resistanttodisturbances.Thisincreasedwatches'accuracyenormously,
reducingerrorfromperhapsseveralhoursperday[12]toperhaps10minutesperday,[13]resultingin
theadditionoftheminutehandtothefacefromaround1680inBritainand1700inFrance.The
increasedaccuracyofthebalancewheelfocusedattentiononerrorscausedbyotherpartsofthe
movement,ignitingatwocenturywaveofwatchmakinginnovation.
Thefirstthingtobeimprovedwastheescapement.Thevergeescapementwasreplacedinquality
watchesbythecylinderescapement,inventedbyThomasTompionin1695andfurtherdevelopedby
GeorgeGrahaminthe1720s.InBritainafewqualitywatcheswenttotheduplexescapement,
inventedbyJeanBaptisteDutertrein1724.Theadvantageoftheseescapementswasthattheyonly
gavethebalancewheelashortpushinthemiddleofitsswing,leavingit'detached'fromthe
escapementtoswingbackandforthundisturbedduringmostofitscycle.
Duringthesameperiod,improvementsinmanufacturingsuchasthetoothcuttingmachinedevisedby
RobertHookeallowedsomeincreaseinthevolumeofwatchproduction,althoughfinishingand
assemblingwasstilldonebyhanduntilwellintothe19thcentury.

Temperaturecompensationandchronometers

DiagramofEarnshaw'sstandardchronometerdetentescapement
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TheEnlightenmentviewofwatchesasscientificinstrumentsbroughtrapidadvancestotheir
mechanisms.Thedevelopmentduringthisperiodofaccuratemarinechronometerstodetermine
longitudeduringseavoyagesproducedmanytechnologicaladvancesthatwerelaterusedinwatches.
Itwasfoundthatamajorcauseoferrorinbalancewheeltimepieceswaschangesinelasticityofthe
balancespringwithtemperaturechanges.Thisproblemwassolvedbythebimetallictemperature
compensatedbalancewheelinventedin1765byPierreLeRoyandimprovedbyThomasEarnshaw.
Thistypeofbalancewheelhadtwosemicirculararmsmadeofabimetallicconstruction.Ifthe
temperaturerose,thearmsbentinwardslightly,causingthebalancewheeltorotatefasterbackand
forth,compensatingfortheslowingduetotheweakerbalancespring.Thissystem,whichcould
reducetemperatureinducederrortoafewsecondsperday,graduallybegantobeusedinwatches
overthenexthundredyears.
Thegoingbarrelinventedin1760byJeanAntoineLpineprovidedamoreconstantdriveforceover
thewatch'srunningperiod,anditsadoptioninthe19thcenturymadethefuseeobsolete.Complicated
pocketchronometersandastronomicalwatcheswithmanyhandsandfunctionsweremadeduringthis
period.

Leverescapement

ThomasMudge,inventoroftheleverescapement
Theleverescapement,inventedbyThomasMudgein1759andimprovedbyJosiahEmeryin1785,
graduallycameintousefromabout1800onwards,chieflyinBritainitwasalsoadoptedby
AbrahamLouisBreguet,butSwisswatchmakers(whobynowwerethechiefsuppliersofwatchesto
mostofEurope)mostlyadheredtothecylinderuntilthe1860s.Byabout1900,however,thelever
wasusedinalmosteverywatchmade.InthisescapementtheescapewheelpushedonaTshaped
'lever',whichwasunlockedasthebalancewheelswungthroughitscenterpositionandgavethewheel
abriefpushbeforereleasingit.Theadvantagesoftheleverwasthatitallowedthebalancewheelto
swingcompletelyfreeduringmostofitscycledueto'locking'and'draw'itsactionwasveryprecise
anditwasselfstarting,soifthebalancewheelwasstoppedbyajaritwouldstartagain.
Jewelbearings,introducedin1702byNicolasFatiodeDuillierinEngland,alsocameintousefor
qualitywatchesduringthisperiod.Watchesofthisperiodarecharacterisedbytheirthinness.New
innovations,suchasthecylinderandleverescapements,allowedwatchestobecomemuchthinner
thantheyhadpreviouslybeen.Thiscausedachangeinstyle.Thethickpocketwatchesbasedonthe
vergemovementwentoutoffashionandwereonlywornbythepoor,andwerederisivelyreferredto
as"onions"and"turnips".

Massproduction
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AtVacheronConstantin,Geneva,GeorgesAugusteLeschot(18001884),pioneeredthefieldof
interchangeabilityinclockmakingbytheinventionofvariousmachinetools.[14]In1830hedesigned
ananchorescapement,whichhisstudent,AntoineLchaud,latermassproduced.Healsoinventeda
pantograph,allowingsomedegreeofstandardisationandinterchangeabilityofpartsonwatchesfitted
withthesamecalibre.
TheBritishhadpredominatedinwatchmanufactureformuchofthe17thand18thcenturies,but
maintainedasystemofproductionthatwasgearedtowardshighqualityproductsfortheelite.[15]
Althoughtherewasanattempttomoderniseclockmanufacturewithmassproductiontechniquesand
theapplicationofduplicatingtoolsandmachinerybytheBritishWatchCompanyin1843,itwasin
theUnitedStatesthatthissystemtookoff.AaronLufkinDennisonstartedafactoryin1851in
Massachusettsthatusedinterchangeableparts,andby1861wasrunningasuccessfulenterprise
incorporatedastheWalthamWatchCompany.[16]
Therailroads'stringentrequirementsforaccuratewatchestosafelyscheduletrainsdrove
improvementsinaccuracy.TheengineerWebbC.Ball,establishedaround1891thefirstprecision
standardsandareliabletimepieceinspectionsystemforRailroadchronometers.Temperature
compensatedbalancewheelsbegantobewidelyusedinwatchesduringthisperiod,andjewel
bearingsbecamealmostuniversal.Techniquesforadjustingthebalancespringforisochronismand
positionalerrorsdiscoveredbyAbrahamLouisBreguet,M.Phillips,andL.Lossierwereadopted.
Thefirstinternationalwatchprecisioncontesttookplacein1876,duringtheInternationalCentennial
ExpositioninPhiladelphia(thewinningfourtopwatches,whichoutclassedallcompetitors,hadbeen
randomlyselectedoutofthemassproductionline),ondisplaywasalsothefirstfullyautomaticscrew
makingmachine.By1900,withtheseadvances,theaccuracyofqualitywatches,properlyadjusted,
toppedoutatafewsecondsperday.[17]
TheAmericanclockindustry,withscoresofcompanieslocatedinConnecticut'sNaugatuckValley,
wasproducingmillionsofclocks,earningtheregionthenickname,"SwitzerlandofAmerica".[18]The
WaterburyClockCompanywasoneofthelargestproducersforbothdomesticsalesandexport,
primarilytoEurope.[19]Todayitssuccessor,TimexGroupUSA,Inc.istheonlyremainingwatch
companyintheregion.
Fromabout1860,keywindingwasreplacedbykeylesswinding,wherethewatchwaswoundby
turningthecrown.Thepinpalletescapement,aninexpensiveversionoftheleverescapement
inventedin1876byGeorgesFredericRoskopfwasusedincheapmassproducedwatches,which
allowedordinaryworkerstoownawatchforthefirsttimeothercheapwatchesusedasimplified
versionoftheduplexescapement,developedbyDanielBuckinthe1870s.
Duringthe20thcentury,themechanicaldesignofthewatchbecamestandardized,andadvanceswere
madeinmaterials,tolerances,andproductionmethods.Thebimetallictemperaturecompensated
balancewheelwasmadeobsoletebythediscoveryoflowthermalcoefficientalloysinvarand
elinvar.Abalancewheelofinvarwithaspringofelinvarwasalmostunaffectedbytemperature
changes,soitreplacedthecomplicatedtemperaturecompensatedbalance.Thediscoveryin1903ofa
processtoproduceartificialsapphiremadejewellingcheap.Bridgeconstructionsuperseded3/4plate
construction.

Wristwatches

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Mappin&Webb'swristwatch,advertisedashavingbeeninproductionsince1898
Somepeoplesaytheworld'sfirstwristwatchwascreatedbyAbrahamLouisBreguetforCaroline
Murat,QueenofNaples,in1810.[20][21][22][23][24]
Theconceptofthewristwatchgoesbacktotheproductionoftheveryearliestwatchesinthe16th
century.ElizabethIofEnglandreceivedawristwatchfromRobertDudleyin1571,describedasan
armwatch.Fromthebeginning,wristwatcheswerealmostexclusivelywornbywomen,whilemen
usedpocketwatchesupuntiltheearly20thcentury.Thiswasnotjustamatteroffashionorprejudice
watchesofthetimewerenotoriouslypronetofoulingfromexposuretotheelements,andcouldonly
reliablybekeptsafefromharmifcarriedsecurelyinthepocket.Whenthewaistcoatwasintroduced
asamanlyfashionatthecourtofCharlesIIinthe17thcentury,thepocketwatchwastuckedintoits
pocket.PrinceAlbert,theconsorttoQueenVictoria,introducedthe'Albertchain'accessory,designed
tosecurethepocketwatchtotheman'soutergarmentbywayofaclip.Bythemidnineteenthcentury,
mostwatchmakersproducedarangeofwristwatches,oftenmarketedasbracelets,forwomen.[25]
Wristwatcheswerefirstwornbymilitarymentowardstheendofthenineteenthcentury,whenthe
importanceofsynchronizingmaneuvresduringwarwithoutpotentiallyrevealingtheplantothe
enemythroughsignallingwasincreasinglyrecognized.Itwasclearthatusingpocketwatcheswhilein
theheatofbattleorwhilemountedonahorsewasimpractical,soofficersbegantostrapthewatches
totheirwrist.TheGarstinCompanyofLondonpatenteda'WatchWristlet'designin1893,although
theywereprobablyproducingsimilardesignsfromthe1880s.Clearly,amarketformen's
wristwatcheswascomingintobeingatthetime.OfficersintheBritishArmybeganusing
wristwatchesduringcolonialmilitarycampaignsinthe1880s,suchasduringtheAngloBurmaWar
of1885.[25]
DuringtheBoerWar,theimportanceofcoordinatingtroopmovementsandsynchronizingattacks
againstthehighlymobileBoerinsurgentswasparamount,andtheuseofwristwatchessubsequently
becamewidespreadamongtheofficerclass.ThecompanyMappin&Webbbeganproductionoftheir
successful'campaignwatch'forsoldiersduringthecampaignattheSudanin1898andrampedup
productionfortheBoerWarafewyearslater.[25]

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PlanningmapforanAlliedcreepingbarrageatPasschendaeleatacticthatrequiredprecise
synchronisationbetweentheartilleryandinfantry
Theseearlymodelswereessentiallystandardpocketwatchesfittedtoaleatherstrap,butbytheearly
20thcentury,manufacturersbeganproducingpurposebuiltwristwatches.TheSwisscompany,Dimier
Frres&Ciepatentedawristwatchdesignwiththenowstandardwirelugsin1903.In1904,Alberto
SantosDumont,anearlyaviator,askedhisfriend,aFrenchwatchmakercalledLouisCartier,to
designawatchthatcouldbeusefulduringhisflights.[26]HansWilsdorfmovedtoLondonin1905
andsetuphisownbusinesswithhisbrotherinlawAlfredDavis,Wilsdorf&Davis,providingquality
timepiecesataffordablepricesthecompanylaterbecameRolex.[27]Wilsdorfwasanearlyconvert
tothewristwatch,andcontractedtheSwissfirmAeglertoproducealineofwristwatches.HisRolex
wristwatchof1910becamethefirstsuchwatchtoreceivecertificationasachronometerin
Switzerlandanditwentontowinanawardin1914fromKewObservatoryinGreenwich.[28]
TheimpactoftheFirstWorldWardramaticallyshiftedpublicperceptionsontheproprietyofthe
man'swristwatch,andopenedupamassmarketinthepostwarera.Thecreepingbarrageartillery
tactic,developedduringtheWar,requiredprecisesynchronizationbetweentheartillerygunnersand
theinfantryadvancingbehindthebarrage.ServicewatchesproducedduringtheWarwerespecially
designedfortherigoursoftrenchwarfare,withluminousdialsandunbreakableglass.Wristwatches
werealsofoundtobeneededintheairasmuchasontheground:militarypilotsfoundthemmore
convenientthanpocketwatchesforthesamereasonsasSantosDumonthad.TheBritishWar
Departmentbeganissuingwristwatchestocombatantsfrom1917.[29]

ACortbertwristwatchfromthe1920s.
ThecompanyH.WilliamsonLtd.,basedinCoventry,wasoneofthefirsttocapitalizeonthis
opportunity.Duringthecompany's1916AGMitwasnotedthat"...thepublicisbuyingthepractical
thingsoflife.Nobodycantruthfullycontendthatthewatchisaluxury.Itissaidthatonesoldierin
everyfourwearsawristletwatch,andtheotherthreemeantogetoneassoonastheycan."Bytheend
oftheWar,almostallenlistedmenworeawristwatch,andaftertheyweredemobilized,thefashion
sooncaughtontheBritishHorologicalJournalwrotein1917that"...thewristletwatchwaslittle
usedbythesternersexbeforethewar,butnowisseenonthewristofnearlyeverymaninuniform
andofmanymenincivilianattire."By1930,theratioofwristtopocketwatcheswas50to1.The
firstsuccessfulselfwindingsystemwasinventedbyJohnHarwoodin1923.In1961thefirst
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wristwatchtraveledtospace,itwasRussian.

Electricwatches
Seealso:Electricwatch
Thefirstgenerationelectricpoweredwatchescameoutduringthe1950s.Thesekepttimewitha
balancewheelpoweredbyasolenoid,orinafewadvancedwatchesthatforeshadowedthequartz
watch,byasteeltuningforkvibratingat360Hz,poweredbyasolenoiddrivenbyatransistor
oscillatorcircuit.Thehandswerestillmovedmechanicallybyawheeltrain.Inmechanicalwatches
theselfwindingmechanism,shockproofbalancepivots,andbreakresistant'whitemetal'mainsprings
becamestandard.Thejewelcrazecaused'jewelinflation'andwatcheswithupto100jewelswere
produced.

Quartzwatches
Seealso:Quartzcrisis

ThefirstSwissquartzclock,madeafterWWII
Theintroductionofthequartzwatchin1969wasarevolutionaryimprovementinwatchtechnology.
[30]Inplaceofabalancewheelwhichoscillatedat5beatspersecond,itusedaquartzcrystal
resonatorwhichvibratedat8,192Hz,drivenbyabatterypoweredoscillatorcircuit.Inplaceofa
wheeltraintoaddupthebeatsintoseconds,minutes,andhours,ituseddigitalcounters.ThehigherQ
factoroftheresonator,alongwithquartz'slowtemperaturecoefficient,resultedinbetteraccuracy
thanthebestmechanicalwatches,whiletheeliminationofallmovingpartsmadethewatchmore
shockresistantandeliminatedtheneedforperiodiccleaning.Thefirstdigitalelectronicwatchwith
anLEDdisplaywasdevelopedin1970.In1974theOmegaMarineChronometerwasintroduced,the
firstwristwatchtoholdMarineChronometercertificationandaccurateto12secondsperyear.
Accuracyincreasedwiththefrequencyofthecrystalused,butsodidpowerconsumption.Sothefirst
generationwatcheshadlowfrequenciesofafewkilohertz,limitingtheiraccuracy.Thepowersaving
useofCMOSlogicandLCDdisplaysinthe2ndgenerationincreasedbatterylifeandallowedthe
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crystalfrequencytobeincreasedto32,768Hzresultinginaccuracyof510secondspermonth.By
the1980s,quartzwatcheshadtakenovermostofthewatchmarketfromthemechanicalwatch
industry.Thisupheaval,whichsawallwatchmanufacturingexceptluxurymechanicalwatchesmove
totheFarEast,isreferredtointheindustryasthe"quartzcrisis".

Radiocontrolled
In1990,Junghansofferedthefirstradiocontrolledwristwatch,theMEGA1.Inthistype,thewatch's
quartzoscillatorissettothecorrecttimedailybycodedradiotimesignalsbroadcastbygovernment
operatedtimestationssuchasWWVH,receivedbyaradioreceiverinthewatch.Thisallowsthe
watchtohavethesamelongtermaccuracyastheatomicclockswhichcontrolthetimesignals.
Recentmodelsarecapableofreceivingsynchronizationsignalsfromvarioustimestationsworldwide.

Smartwatch
Thissectionrequiresexpansion.(December2013)
Mainarticle:Smartwatch

Seealso
PatekPhilippe
Breitling
FortisUhrenAG
IWC
Longines
Raketa
Historyoftimekeepingdevices
ZenoWatchBasel
Horology

References
1.^"PortableDrumWatch".TheWaltersArtMuseum.
2.^Carlisle,RodneyP.(2004).ScientificAmericanInventionsandDiscoveries.USA:JohnWiley
&Sons.p.143.ISBN0471244104.
3.^abUsher,AbbotPayson(1988).AHistoryofMechanicalInventions.CourierDover.p.305.
ISBN048625593X.
4.^abDohrnvanRossum,GerhardThomasDunlap(1996).HistoryoftheHour:Clocksand
ModernTemporalOrders.USA:Univ.ofChicagoPress.p.121.ISBN0226155102.
5.^FromCosmographiaPomponiiMelae,1511
6.^"Watch".TheNewEncyclopaediaBritannica,15thEd.4.EncyclopaediaBritannica,Inc.
1983.pp.746747.ISBN085229400X.RetrievedJune3,2012.
7.^Haven,KendallF.(2006).100GreatestScienceInventionsofAllTime.LibrariesUnlimited.
p.65.ISBN1591582644.
8.^Milham,WillisI.(1945).TimeandTimekeepers.NewYork:MacMillan.pp.133137.ISBN0
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780800087.
9.^Milham1945,p.141
10.^abPerez,Carlos(2001)."ArtifactsoftheGoldenAge,part1".Carlos'sJournal.TimeZone.
Retrieved20070606.
11.^"Pocketwatch".EncyclopediaofAntiques.ClocksandWatches.OldandSold.
12.^Milham1945,p.226
13.^"ARevolutioninTimekeeping,part3".AWalkThroughTime.NIST(NationalInst.of
StandardsandTechnology).2002.Archivedfromtheoriginalon20070528.Retrieved2007
0606.
14.^"GeorgesAugusteLeschot".
15.^Glasmeier,Amy(2000).ManufacturingTime:GlobalCompetitionintheWatchIndustry,
17952000.GuilfordPress.ISBN9781572305892.Retrieved20130207.
16.^Roe,JosephWickham(1916),EnglishandAmericanToolBuilders,NewHaven,Connecticut:
YaleUniversityPress,LCCN16011753.ReprintedbyMcGrawHill,NewYorkandLondon,
1926(LCCN2724075)andbyLindsayPublications,Inc.,Bradley,Illinois,(ISBN9780
917914737).
17.^Milham,1945,p.475
18.^Calderwood,Cliff."TheSwitzerlandofAmerica".
19.^Anderson,Joseph(1896).ThetownandcityofWaterbury,Connecticut,Volume2.NewYork:
ThePriceandLeeCompany.
20.^DianaReidHaig."WalksThroughNapoleonandJosephine'sParis".2003.p.114
21.^"TheBreguetsaga".
22.^JulieMgevand."Breguetcelebratesitsrichhistory".2012.
23.^SidinVadukut."Breguetand200yearsofthewristwatch".2012.
24.^JeremyBlack."ThePowerofKnowledge:HowInformationandTechnologyMadethe
ModernWorld".2014.p.
25.^abc"THeEvolutionoftheWristwatch".
26.^Assumpo,MaurcioTorres(2014)."AhistriadoBrasilnasruasdeParis".Editora
LeYa/CasadaPalavra.
27.^RolexJubileeVadeMecumpublishedbytheRolexWatchCompanyin1946.
28.^JohnE.Brozek."TheHistoryandEvolutionoftheWristwatch.".InternationalWatch
Magazine.
29.^Hoffman,Paul(2004).WingsofMadness:AlbertoSantosDumontandtheInventionof
Flight.HyperionPress.ISBN0786885718.
30.^Perez,Carlos(November23,2001)."PrometheusBound:Thefinalparadigmofhorological
evolution".Carlos'Journal.TimeZone.RetrievedApril23,2008.

Externallinks
Functioningofasimplemechanicalwatch
Picturesandoverviewoftheearliestwatches
PeterHenlein:PomanderWatchAnno1505
Categories
Categories:
Watches
Relatedtopics

QuartzcrisisTheQuartzCrisis,(alsoknownastheQuartzRevolution),isatermusedinthe
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watchmakingindustrytorefertotheeconomicupheavalscausedbytheadventofquartzwatches
inthe1970sandearly1980s,whichlargelyreplacedmechanicalwatches.NurembergNuremberg
(/njrmbr/German:NrnbergGermanpronunciation:[nrnbrk])isacityonthePegnitz
riverandtheRhineMainDanubeCanalintheGermanstateofBavaria,intheadministrative
regionofMiddleFranconia,about170kilometres(110mi)northofMunich.Itisthesecond
largestcityinBavaria(afterMunich),andthelargestinFranconia(Franken).PeterHenleinPeter
Henlein(alsospelledHenleorHele)(1485August1542),alocksmithandclockmakerof
Nuremberg,Germany,isoftenconsideredtheinventorofthewatch.Hewasoneofthefirst
craftsmentomakesmallornamentaltaschenuhr,portableclockswhichwereoftenwornas
pendantsorattachedtoclothing,regardedasthefirstwatches.
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Historyofwatches
Introduction
Clockwatches
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Temperaturecompensationandchronometers
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