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The moisture content used in sand mix is usually not more than 2.5% .

Comparatively higher clay content is used with suitable additives such as dextrin so
as to control the spring back tendency of sand and prevent mould distortion.
For uniform composition of sand all over the pattern, especially when the latter is of
varying height, a contoured squeeze head is used , A self contoured which can
automatically adjust iitself is found ideal for overcoming the difficulty of preparing a
squeeze head of a fixed contour for each pattern. The head consists of a large
number of squeeze feet, each with its own piston and hydraulic cylinder. Each
cylinder is hydraulically connected through one or more manifolds. During the
squeeze operation, the pistons are fully extended and apply pressure on the sand.
Each piston continues the squeeze action through its squeeze feet till a pre set
value of pressure is reached. At this instant, the cylinder is no longer capable of
resisting any further pressure and a relief valve operates causing the pistons to
yield and a contoured squeeze head is formed to suit the shape of the pattern.
It is essential for patterns used in high pressure moulding to have fine finish and
polish, high strength and rigidity, so as to enable easy stripping, good wear
resistance and hardness, and accuracy. The patterns are made of cast iron , steel, or
epoxy resin. Sometimes,aluminum patterns are also used.wooden patterns are not
favoured. Large patterns are provided with suitable ribs and may also have
supporting plates. Wear strips may also be inserted at places where greater wear is
expected. In the case of cast- iron patterns, chrome-plating ensures good finish.

Selection and evaluation of High pressure

moulding machines
criteria for selection and evaluation of a
high pressure moulding machine largely
depends upon the requirement of the
individual foundry and the type of casting
with respect to weight and size which are
planned to be produced. In the present day
context, the saving of even a marginal
weight in the finished casting, could go a
long way in the economical operation of the

foundry. This coupled with the need for close

tolerances and reduction in machining time
are the other factors which determine the
selection and evaluation of the moulding
machines .still other criteria to evaluate
moulding machines include the ability to
draw the pattern with minimum draft ,the
capacity to utilize the maximum pattern
surface area and the ability to produce
uniform hardness throughout the height of
the mould. It is possible to locate the pattern
as close as 20mm from the moulding box
walls and still prevent soft pockets to high
green strength achieved during moulding.
The variation in hardness may be less than
5% even in moulds with a height of 350mm
and the total rejections both in the foundry
and machine shop may be well within 1-2%.

Moulding machine

Moulding processes may be classified as

hand moulding or machine moulding
according to weather the mould is prepared
by hand tools or with the aid of some

moulding machine. Hand moulding is

generally found to be economical when the
castings are required in a small nnumber on
the other hand, when the castings are
required in the large quantities, hand
moulding is more time consuming and
laborious and become expensive.
Considerable amount skill is also needed to
make good moulds by hand .in such cases ,
machine moulding is employed.

The main advantages of machine moulding

are as follows:
1. It's affords great saving in time , especially
when a large number of similar castings in
small sizes are required.
2. When the number of castings is
substantial, the additional cost of metallic
patterns and other equipment is
compensated by the high rate of production,
and the o overall cost per piece works out
lower than in the case of hand moulding.
3. The castings obtained are more uniform in
size and shape and more accurate than those

obtained by hand moulding due to steadier

lift of the pattern.
4. A semi skilled workers can do the machine
job where as hand moulding requires skilled