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H ILGARDIA

A Journal of Agricultural Science Published by


the California Agricultural Experiment Station

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VOL. 23
No. 11

FEBRUA RY, 1955

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FIG VARIETIES: A MONOGRAPH 1, 2


IRA J. CONDIT 3
INTRODUCTION
THE COMMON FIG occurs in a great nu m ber of varieties, w hich hav e evolved m ainly
as natu ral seed lings du ring the m an y centu ries in w hich this fruit has been u nd er
cultivation. As ear ly as the fourth cen tury B.C., Theophras tu s (1916)4 rep orted that m ost
good fruits, including the fig, had received nam es. Ulysses, the hero of the Od yssey,
obtained from his father tw enty fig trees, all with nam es. In the first century of th e
Ch ristian Era, Pliny (1855) listed tw enty-nine varieties, with the localities in w hich they
w ere grow n, an d qu oted Cato, w ho also had given nam es to several var ieties. Pliny
fu rther stated : Since his [Cat os] d ay there hav e been so m an y nam es an d kinds com e
up, that even on taking this su bject into consid eration, it m ust be ap par ent to everyon e
h ow great ar e th e chan ges w hich hav e taken place in civilized life.
Variou s au thorities m aintain that certain figs n ow being grow n in Italy ar e directly
d escend ed by as exual propag ation fr om the clonal var ieties listed by Pliny, an d ar e
th erefore id entical with them . Bar nissotte, for exam ple, is referred by Gallesio to Fico
African o of Rom an tim es. The Mission (Fran ciscan a) fig of California, w hich w as
introd uced into th e N ew World over four hund red year s ago by th e Sp an ish explorers,
had u nd ou bted ly been p reviously propag ated in south ern Spain for m an y centuries.
Pliny listed nam es of figs an d gav e the color of m ature fruits, but did not d escribe
varieties in d etail. Porta, in his Pomarium of 1583 an d his subsequ ent m u ch lar ger w or k
of 1592, did little m ore than list var ieties of that period, but he gave citations to previou s
au th orities on syn onym y. Beginning with Ald rovand i in 1668, an d m ore sp ecifically
with Cu pan i in 1696, the accounts w ere sufficiently d etailed to enable later w riters to
com p are char acters an d to id entify varieties with m ore or less certainty. Subsequ en t
accou nts or d escriptions of fig var ieties ar e nu m erous as show n in the ap p end ed
bibliograp hy. Man y have been purposely om itted from this m on ograp h becau se th e
____________
1 Received for publication Ma rch 4, 1954.
2 Paper N o. 829, University of Californ ia Citrus Experim ent Station, Riversid e, Californ ia.
3 Professor of Subtrop ica l H orticu ltu re, Em eritus, and Subtrop ica l H orticu ltu rist, Em eritus, in the
Experim ent Station.
4 See Literatu re Cited for citations, referred to in the text by author an d d ate.

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Hilgardia

d escrip tions w ere very evid ently not bas ed on personal studies, but had been copied
from p reviou s au th orities. Too often, w e find , w riters copied verbatim , but failed to
m en tion th e source of th eir inform ation or to give credit to other au thors.
This is not the first attem p t to pu blish a m on ograp h of fig varieties. A w riter in
Revu e H orticole (1865, p.31) told ab ou t an Italian , Suffren d e Salerne, w ho had prepar ed
a m on ograp h covering th e d escriptions an d illustrations of 360 varieties. Appar ently
th e p u blication n ever got beyond the m an uscript stag e. Var ious au thors call atten tion
to a com pilation by Geny (1867) entitled Les figuiers spon tan s et cultivs d an s les
Alp es Mar itim es, Nice. According to Eisen, this unpublished m an u scrip t, w hich
consisted of colored plates without text, could not be locat ed for his stud y in 1901.
Several accounts of fig varieties ar e excellent an d d etailed ; exam ples ar e Vallese (1909),
Man n (1939), an d Sim onet et al. (1945). These d eal m ostly with restricted localities, an d
ar e n ot m onograp hic in char acter.
Probably th e m ost com plete p ublication is that of Eisen (1901), in w hich th ere w er e
d escribed or listed som e 348 com m on figs, 10 Sm yrna figs, an d 19 cap rifigs. Stud ents of
fig varieties have cau se for regret that Dr. Eisen could not have been m ore specific as to
w hich crop he w as consid ering in his d escriptive notes, an d that h e failed in m ost cases
to stat e the locality in w hich the specim ens w ere grow n. Obviously, m uch has been
published in the ensuing fifty years, an d h orticultu rists ar e enabled to stud y th e
behavior of varieties und er wid ely sep ar at ed an d var ied clim atic conditions.
Citations to early nu rsery catalogues in the United States are n ot includ ed. Peru sal of
several such catalogu es by H . R. Fulton, United States Depar tm ent of Agriculture,
show s that from 1771 to 1866, trees of nu m erous fig varieties w ere offered for sale at
p rices ran ging from fifty cents to one d ollar each. Prom inent am on g th ese nurseries
w ere th e following: William R. Prince, Par sons an d Co., an d Step hen F. Mills, all of
Flu shing, Lon g Islan d; John Bar tram an d Son, Philad elphia; William Kenrick, N ew ton,
Massachusetts; H ovey an d Co., Boston; an d Ellwan ger an d Bar ry, Rochester.
This m on ograp h of fig var ieties is based upon p ersonal observations an d studies
extending over a period of m ore than thirty years, m ostly in California, but also
including notes taken du ring visits to Fran ce, Algeria, Italy, Greece, Tu rkey, Spain, an d
Portu gal. A few stan d ar d varieties w ere fou n d grow ing even in Japan an d China w hen
th e au th or traveled in th ose countries in 19341935. Much has been lear n ed from th e
so-called Chiswick collection of figs, grow n in fou r distinct localities of California.
Introd u ced in 1894 by the United States Depar tm ent of Agricultu re from the Royal
H orticultu ral Society of Englan d, scions of each variety (som e sixty-six in all) w ere
successfully grafted on trees in the orchar d of the California Nursery Com pan y at
Niles.
A prized p ossession of the librar y of the University of California Citru s Experim en t
Station at Riversid e, is the record book con taining penciled notes as w ell as ou tline
d raw ings m ad e by John Rock an d Gustav Eisen of these figs as grow n at Niles an d at
Biggs. Subsequ ently, the collection w as transferred to th e United Stat es Plan t
Introd u ction Gar d en, near Chico, w here th e auth or m ad e notes on th e varieties in 1916,
1918, an d 1921. Cuttings of m ost of the varieties w ere established in a plot at Fresno in

Febru ary , 1955]


325

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

1920, at Riversid e in 1928, an d ag ain at Fresno in 1950. Nu m er ous introd uctions hav e
been m ad e from other p ar ts of the United Stat es an d from foreign countries, m ostly
th rou gh the Division of Exploration an d Intr od uction, United Stat es Depar tm en t of
Agricultu re. These ar e referred to in the text und er Plan t Introd uction (P.I.) num bers.
As to variety nam es, Starnes an d Mon roe w rote, in 1907, that n o fruit com p rising as
in this case bu t a single species, is so bad ly m ixed as is the fig in its nom enclature.
Reference to th e text show s that the Bru nswick has had at least tw elve different nam es
attached to it, an d the Brow n Turkey has at least fourteen syn on ym s. This confusion in
n om enclature is em p hasized by a com m en t from a corresp ond ent in Algeria, .....but
th e nam es chan ge from on e villag e to an oth er for the sam e variety, an d it w ould need a
volu m e to establish com plete syn onym s. Such varieties as Brow n Tu rkey, Brunswick,
an d the Ischia figs ar e u nd oubtedly id entical with var ieties gr ow n over a long p eriod in
som e Med iterran ean d istricts.
Recognized nam es hav e been established for the five com m ercial var ieties grow n in
California: Mission, Kad ota, Ad riatic, Calim yrna, an d Brow n Turkey. Any of their
variou s synony m s m ay be found in use in other areas.5 We have tried to clar ify, so far
as p ossible, the n om enclatu re of all var ieties treated in this m onograp h. Fou r types of
varieties ar e treated , nam ely, the Cap rifig, the Sm yrna, the San Ped ro, an d the
Com m on.
The u se of Cond its pu blication (1941a), entitled Fig Characteristics Useful in the
Identification of Varieties, is suggested for those w h o w ish to becom e m ore fam iliar with
th e d escriptive term s u sed in this m onograp h.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
In p resenting this m on ograp h of fig varieties, I wish to acknow led ge with sincere
ap preciation the assistan ce given by each of the m an y friend s an d co-w orkers d uring
th e long years in w hich I hav e fam iliar ized m yself with the peculiar char acters of this
subtropical fruit. I am especially grat eful to the following persons: Julius End erud, w ho
for n early tw enty years has faithfully helped to m aintain var ious fig plots, has kep t
record s of th eir p erform ance, an d has been of assistan ce in other innum erable w ay s;
Richar d H . Bu rnett, w hose ability as an illustrator is show n in several of th e ou tline
d raw ings of fig fruits; B. R. Am end , Portland , Oregon, w ho, during the past fifteen
years, has supplied m e with p rop ag ating m aterial of m an y varieties an d has given m e
n otes on their behavior; Robert Wa rner, Director of Research, an d m em bers of th e
Research Com m ittee, California Fig Institute, Fresno, for conducting variety tests at
Fresn o an d Merced ; Stou ghton Sterling, Philad elphia, w ho is conducting at the fam ily
h om e, Crisfield, Mar ylan d , a com m ercial fig orchard an d a test plot of prom ising
varieties; an d Avery Field, Riversid e, for th e excellent color plates, num bers 6 to 12.
The United States Depar tm ent of Agriculture has kindly coop erat ed in variou s w ays.
To th e following m em bers of the Depar tm en t p ar ticular ly I wish to express m y
__________
5 See the alphabetical, cross-referenced list of var iety n am es, starting on page 481. Th is also serves as a fin d ing
list,
or
in d ex,
so
th at
the
d escrip tion
of
any
variety
m ay
be
read ily
located .

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Hilgardia

ap preciation: H . R. Fulton, Plan t Pathologist, Beltsville, Mar ylan d, now retired , in w hose
com p an y tw o very interesting and rew ar ding trips w ere taken to historic places of
Virginia an d Mar ylan d, resulting in the collection and id entification of at least fourteen
varieties, including several gr ow n by th e ear ly colonists; B. H. Morrison, form erly
H ead , an d C. O. Erlan son, n ow H ead , of th e Division of Plan t Exploration and
Introd u ction, Beltsville, Mar ylan d, w ho hav e diligently pu rsu ed requ ests for
introd uction of fig m at erial from various par ts of the w orld; Perez Sim m ons,
en tom ologist, Fresn o, California, for ph otogr ap hs of trees show n in plates 3 an d 4; an d
J. F. Mag ness, Bu reau of Plan t Industry, for establishing an d m aintaining a fig-var iety
collection at Fresn o Stat e College, Fresno, w ith Elm er Snyd er an d L. A. Thom pson in
direct char ge.
VARIETIES OF THE CAPRIFIG TYPE
Cap rifigs ar e char acterized by the presence insid e the syconium of sh ort styled pistillate
flow ers, the ovaries of w hich m ay be inhab ited by the lar vae of the fig insect,
Blastophaga psenes Cav. In one or m ore crops, staminate flow ers w hich prod uce
p ollen m ay be presen t. Three crops of a cap rifig tree are generally recognized an d, as
Eisen (1896) pred icted , their Italian nam es have becom e househ old w ord s in var ious figgrowing countries. These nam es are: Mam m e, the first or winter crop, m aturing in
California in ear ly Ap ril; p rofichi, the second or spring crop, m aturing in June; an d
m am m oni, the third crop, m atu ring in late sum m er. Fu rther d etails ab ou t th ese nam es
an d crop s m ay be found in nu m erou s pu blications, am on g w hich ar e the following:
Eisen (1896, 1901), Rixford (1918a), an d Condit (1920a).
Cap rification, th e p ractice of providing for the p ollination of the long styled flow ers
of ed ible figs, has been car ried on since an cien t tim es in Asia, Africa, an d Europ e, an d
varieties of cap rifigs w ere und ou btedly recognized an d nam es ap plied to them .
Con trary to the statem ent of Eisen (1901) that no cap rifigs had previously been
d escribed , Gasp ar rini published d escrip tions an d illustrations of several var ieties over a
centu ry ag o. Eisen him self d escribed fifteen var ieties und er variety nam es, an d fou r
m ore u nd er nu m bers. The m ost fully d etailed d escriptions with illustrations are those
of F. Vallese (1909) an d N. Man n (1939a).
There are very few record s of at tem p ts to classify cap rifig var ieties into group s or to
sep ar at e them by m ean s of a key. One such key, published by W. T. Swingle (1905),
includ ed seven principal var ieties of N eap olitan caprifigs distinguished from each oth er
by size, shap e, an d lobes of leav es, length of p etiole, an d form an d color of fruit. A key
to th e id entification of cap rifigs can be constructed for the varieties com m only grow n in
an y on e district but, like m ost botanical keys, it can har dly be sufficiently perfected to
av oid m istak es in id entity, owing to local variation in size, shape, color, or oth er
char acters. A sam ple dichotom ou s key to the principal caprifigs grow n in California is
given h ere.

Febru ary , 1955]


327

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Fig

Varieties

Suggestive Key for Identification of California Caprifigs,


Profichi Crop
Internal Color of figs w h ite w ith no trace of p in k , violet, or p u rp le.
External Color green or yellow ish green .
Figs becom in g soft and ed ible w h en m atu re, w ith little if an y p ollen ;
blastop hagas seld om issu in g from th em ...................................Croisic
Figs not p u lp y w h en m atu re, u su ally w ith n u m erou s p ollen-bearin g
stam ens and insect-inhabited flow ers.
Bod y of fig lon ger than broad ; n eck and stalk often som ew hat
cu rved ; base of leaf tru ncate; tree w ith rou nd ed top ,
sp read in g ................................................................Stanford
Bod y of fig oblate or sp h erical; n eck thick and short; b ase of
leaf shallow ly su bcord ate; tree w ith u p righ t branches..............Maslin No. 150
External color violet, p u rp lish black, or green shad ed w ith violet.
Fru it stalk or p ed u ncle slend er, g en erally u p to 1/ 4 in ch lon g , or lon ger .
Figs green u ntil alm ost m atu re, then chan gin g to p u rp lish black ;
leaves variable, non lobed , or on ly shallow ly lobed to lyrate or
laciniate..........................................................................Ficus palmata
Figs w h en im m atu re colored brow n , p u rp lish black w h en m atu re
leaves 3- to 5-lobed .......................................................Ficus pseudo-carica
Fru it stalk or p ed u ncle m ostly th ick and short.
Figs sm all, seld om over 1-1/ 4 inch es in d iam eter; leaf p etioles and
tw igs p u rp lish brow n and d ensely p u bescent; n eck gen erally
som ew hat flattened .......................................................Brawley
Figs larger , 1-1/ 2 inch es or m ore in d iam eter; leaf p etioles and tw igs
green , not p u bescent; green color of fru it p ersistin g u n til m atu rity ,
then becom in g p u rp lish black ; n eck rou nd in cross section .................Maslin No. 91
Internal color of figs p u rp le or violet.
Figs w ithou t a d istinct n eck .
Eye in center of a d ep ression ; bloom consp icuous; size m ed iu m or above;
season late.................................................................................Milco
Eye slightly p rotru d in g ; bloom d elicate; size m ed iu m or below ; season
early ...........................................................................................Roeding No. 1
Figs w ith a d istinct neck .
N eck not p rom inent, short and thick , seld om u p to 1/ 4 inch lon g .
Ribs p rom in ent; su rface corru gated .....................................Roeding No. 4
Ribs, if p resent, not form in g corru gated su rface.
Eye p rotru d in g from broad , rou nd ed ap ex; size m ed iu m or below ;
n eck short.................................................................Roeding No. 1
Eye not p rotru d in g .
Eye m ore or less flu sh w ith th e su rface.
Flecks of w h ite inconsp icuou s; size below m ed iu m to
sm all; tree w ith slend er, u p right branch es; bark of
tru n k scaly ..............................................Roeding No. 2
Flecks of w h ite very consp icu ous; size m ed iu m to larg e;
tree d ense; bark of tru n k fu rrow ed .....Samson
Eye som ew hat d ep ressed ; bloom consp icuou s............................Milco
N eck m ore or less p rom in ent.
N eck flatten ed in m ajority of sp ecim ens.
Bark of tree tru n k scaly ; figs below m ed iu m to sm all; skin color
red d ish brow n w h en m atu re...................................Roeding No. 2
Bark of tru n k sm ooth ; figs m ed iu m ; color green .........Roeding No. 4

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N eck rou nd or an gu lar in cross section .


Size m ed iu m , 1-1/ 2 inches or less in d iam eter .
Bod y of fig obovate, top-shap ed , or oblate; w h ite flecks ver y
consp icuou s; circu lar m osaic sp ots p resent on m an y fig s
early in th e season , cau sin g them to becom e m alform ed
and to d rop p rem atu rely ; Color d eep green ; bark of tru n k
fu rrow ed .......................................................................Samson
Bod y of fig sp h erical; w hite flecks sm all, fairly p rom in ent;
color light green ; bark of tru n k sm ooth ..................Roeding No. 1
Size above m ed iu m to large, over 1-1/ 2 inches in d iam eter .
Tree d ensely branched .
Term inal bu d s taw n y ; lateral fru it bu d s colored violet;
bark of tru n k sm ooth ..........................................Roeding No. 3
Term inal and lateral bu d s green ; bark of tru n k
fu rrow ed ................................................................Samson
Tree op en , w ith u p righ t h abit of grow th ; term inal bu d s
green ; figs ver y large....................................................Excelsior

Caprifigs with Interior Violet or Purple; Skin Green


The following list of varieties is divid ed into group s, based first on internal color of
m eat an d pulp, an d secondly on external color of skin. A miscellan eous group includ es
th ose w hich can not be classified , becau se of inad equ at e d escrip tions.
Agouat. Described by Mau ri (1939a); fou nd near Sidi-Aich, vicinity of Beni-Ou rlis,
Algeria. Tree vigor ous an d p rod uctive; leaves an d fruits resem ble th ose of Tit-enTsekou rt, bu t figs ar e lar ger an d longer, with eye not so r osy; interior violet.
Akoran. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939a) from trees at Beni-Aissi, Algeria.
Tree vigorous, prod uctive; leav es lar ge, generally 5-lobed . Fruit lar ge, 2 inches broad
by 1-1/ 2 inches long, d ep ressed at the ap ex, green at m aturity; texture firm , w ell able to
withstan d tran sp ortation; interior violet.
Amellal. (N am e signifies w hite, becau se of the light color of the m ature fruit.)
Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939a) a var iety of w hich on e tree only has been
p rop ag ated in the vicinity of Mekla.
Tree d iffuse, very prod uctive; seas on early; leav es lar ge, 3- or 5-lobed . Fruit lar ge, 2
to 2-1/ 4 inches in diam eter, resem bling that of Illoul, bu t less ribbed ; green at m atu rity;
interior violet.
Arzagane. Described by Man n (1939a); found at Beni-Aissi, w here it is also called
Am erza gou. Tree vigorous, prod u ctive, som ew hat later than Tit-en-Tsekou rt. Fruit
p yriform ; interior violet.
Azigzaou. (N am e signifies g reen, referring to th e color of the m atu re fruit.)
Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939a); fairly w ell distributed near Mekla.
Tree very vigor ous, requ iring a w ar m an d su nny exp osu re, com p act an d erect;
seas on late; leav es alm ost entire, thick, an d d eep green. Fruit lar ge, 2 to 2-1/ 4 inches
broad , up to 2 inches long, som ew hat oblate; stalk short; color green; eye scales tinged
red ; interior violet. Textu re firm , especially good for tran sp ort.
Beurzel. Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939a). Variety found in the vicinity of
Sidi-Aich, w here it is called Azigzao u ; also confu sed with Ad ras Violet; resem bles

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329

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Fig

Varieties

Agou at, but is ear lier. Profichi lar ge, less elon gated than fruits of Ad ras Violet, green at
m atu rity; interior violet.
Excelsior (syn. Taylor). A seedling first distribu ted by G. P. Rixford , United States
Depar tm ent of Agricultu re; grow n an d fruited ab out 1916 by H . P. Taylor, Exeter,
California, w ho sold nu m erous cuttings at one d ollar a foot; d escribed by Cond it
(1928a) an d illustrat ed by him (1928c).
Tree vigorous and upright; term inal buds green; leaves m ediu m ; lateral sinu ses
m ed ium ; petiolar sinus broad ; base truncate to subcord ate. (Plate 13.)6
Mam m e crop fair, with m an y fruits im perfect; figs lar ge, up to 1-1/ 2 inches in
diam eter, pyriform , with sh ort, thick neck; ribs fairly prom inent; eye slightly d epressed ;
color green; interior light pu rple.
Profichi crop good ; figs very lar ge, u p to 2 inches in diam eter an d 3 inches in length,
p yriform , with lon g, thick neck; ribs fairly prom inent an d elevat ed ; eye in center of a
slight d epression; w hite flecks conspicuou s; color green; interior purple; pollen
ab u nd an t; cavity rath er sm all for su ch a lar ge fig. A m idseas on cap rifig of lar ge size,
bu t otherwise of n o p ar ticular m erit; not grow n com m ercially.
Forbes (syn. Forbes H ar d y). A seedling also distribu ted by G. P. Rixford ; gr ow n an d
fruited by C. T. Forbes, Fresno, California; described by Condit (1928a) an d illustrat ed
by him (1928c).
Tree with sp read ing habit of grow th; term inal bud s green.
Mam m e crop fair; figs m edium , spherical to pyriform , with short, flatten ed neck; ribs
fairly prom inent; color green; interior p urple.
Profichi crop fair only; figs m edium , turbinate, with distinct neck gen erally
com p ressed or flatten ed ; ribs p rom inen t an d som ew hat elevated w hite flecks lar ge,
scattered; color green to yellowish green; interior purple. A cap rifig of no par ticular
valu e, an d no longer propagated .
Heiny No. 1. A seedling d eveloped by Francis H einy, Braw ley, California; seld om
fou nd in com m ercial fig orchar ds.
Tree m od erat ely vigorous; term inal buds green. Leaves m ediu m , som ew hat glossy
ab ove, 3- to 5-lobed ; upper sinuses m od erately d eep an d nar row , low er shallow ; base
su bcord ate to truncate; m argins coarsely crenat e to d entate.
Mam m e figs m ed ium , turbinate, with short neck; skin color d ar k green; interior
purple.
Profichi crop fair; figs m edium , turbinate, with thick neck; w hite flecks conspicu ou s;
eye scales straw color; skin green; interior purple; seas on late.
Kearney. A seedling distributed by G. P. Rixford und er his N o. 2,830 in 1916, an d
fruited at Kearn ey Par k, Fresn o. Described by Cond it (1928a) an d illustrat ed by him
(1928c) ; also d escribed by Brooks an d Olmo (1946); seld om found in com m ercial fig
districts.
Tree vigorous, sp read ing, with green term inal bud s; leav es above m ediu m 3- to 5lobed ; sinuses of m ed ium d epth; base truncat e to su bcord ate; outer m ar gins coarsely
serrate.
Mam m e crop good ; figs lar ge, tu rbinate, with very sh ort, thick neck an d stalk, or
neck absent; ribs p rom inent; color green, often tinged with violet w hite flecks ver y
conspicuous; scales of eye often tinged violet; interior pu rple.
_____________
6

All

p lates

w ill

be

found

at

back

of

th is

issue,

in

consecutively

num bered

group.

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Profichi crop inclined to be sm all; figs lar ge, tu rbinate to sph erical; neck an d stalk
short, thick; color light green; interior pu rple; m eat w hite tinged with violet; inclined to
becom e soft an d pulpy. Mid seas on.
Mam m oni figs nu m erous, unusually lar ge, m aturing over a lon g seas on; pulp y and
attractive to d ried-fruit beetles.
Mendolaro. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909); m ore com m on in Lecce
district than Colom baro.
Leav es sm all, gen erally 5-lobed . Mam m e figs rath er sm all, oblate, d eep green, par tly
tinged with violet. Profichi m ediu m , turbinate; color green; interior light violet;
stam ens nu m erou s.
Milco (syn. End rich). See d escriptions by Eisen (1901), Roeding (1914), Rixford
(1918a), Cond it (1920a, 1947); illustrations of tree an d fruit by Condit (1920a), an d of
fruit (1933). According to Eisen, this var iety w as im p orted by G. N . Milco fro m
Dalm atia. On the oth er hand, Rixford stat es that there is little d oubt that it w as
introd uced by W. B. West u nd er the nam e Verd oni, an d later exploited by Milco, w h ose
nam e it bear s. H ow ever, this is in conflict with statem en ts by Maslin (1890, pag e 410)
an d oth ers that Verd oni is the nam e und er w hich W. B. West introd uced the Wh ite
Adriatic from Italy. Milco is the old est and for several d ecad es the m ost wid ely
distributed caprifig in California; trees ar e still fou nd in com m ercial orchar d s, bu t ar e
n ow seld om p ropagated or plan ted .
Trees u pright, w ell bran ched ; term inal bud s green; leav es m ed ium , m ostly 5-lobed;
sinuses m edium ; base subcord ate; surface som ew hat glossy, gray green in color;
p etioles taw ny to slightly violet near insertion with blad e.
Mam m e crop good ; figs m edium , 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, spherical, m ostly withou t
neck; ribs inconspicuous; w hite flecks num erous, com m only tinged with violet; color
green; bloom pr om inen t; interior purple. Mam m e figs ar e generally regard ed as
excep tionally resistan t to frost d am age.
Profichi crop fair to good ; figs m edium , obliqu e-spherical to turbinate, m ostly
withou t n eck; ribs nar row , only slightly elevated; eye in center of a d efinite d epression.
surface dull green, with prom inent bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge, scattered , fading out at
m atu rity; interior light purple. Seas on late. (Plate 6.)
Roeding No. 1. See d escriptions by Eisen (1901), Roed ing (1903, 1914), Rixford
(1918a), an d Condit (1920a, 1933, 1947), with illustrations of profichi (1920a, 1933). It
w as introd uced from Mean d er Valley of Turkey in 1887 by Fred Roeding, Fresno, an d
for m an y year s w as the m ost wid ely plan ted of an y cap rifig becau se of tree vigor an d
eas e of p ropagation; it w as later su persed ed by better var ieties.
Tree vigorous, sp read ing, with green term inal bud s, inclined to prod u ce nu m erous
h ollow , p olleniferous figs or blan ks; leav es m edium , 3- to 5-lobed , middle lobe broad
tow ard ap ex, nar row ed tow ard bas e; sinuses rather shallow ; bas e cord ate; m argins
coarsely crenat e thr ou gh ou t; su rface d ull.
Mam m e crop good ; figs sm all, oblate-spherical, without neck; ribs indistinct, nar row ;
color green, with conspicuous, sm all w hite flecks; interior p urple.
Profichi crop good if w ell colonized by blastophag as; figs var iable, sm all to m ediu m ,
from 1 to 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, turbinat e to spherical, with or with ou t sh ort,

Febru ary , 1955]


331

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

p rom inent neck; ribs p resent but inconspicuous; eye slightly protruding from th e
rou nd ed apex; color light green; w hite flecks fairly lar ge an d scattered ; interior purple.
Seas on m ediu m ear ly. (Plate 6.)
Roeding No. 4. A variety of uncertain origin an d id entity; p robably introd uced by
th e Fan cher Creek N ursery, Fresno, but exact record s lost; see d escriptions by Condit
(1920a, 1947).
Tree vigorous, u pright, with slend er bran ches m uch like those of Roeding N o.2; bar k
sm ooth, not scaly; leav es below m edium to sm all, 3- to 5-lobed ; sinuses m od erately
d eep an d open; bas e truncate to som ew hat d ecurrent.
Mam m e crop gen erally good ; figs m edium , up to 1-1/ 4 inches in diam eter, sp herical,
withou t n eck, or pyriform , with neck som ew hat flattened ; stalk sh ort; ribs fairly
p rom inent; eye sm all, with chaffy scales; w hite flecks prom inent, scattered ; color green,
with rath er p rom inent bloom ; interior p urple.
Profichi crop good ; figs m ed iu m or lar ger, turbinate; eye pr otrud es from the slightly
d epressed apex; neck sh ort or som etim es w an ting, occasionally m ore prom inen t an d
som ew hat flatten ed ; color green, with nu m erous and prom inent w hite flecks; interior
d eep pu rple. Seas on late.
Anoth er cap rifig com m only d esignated as N o.4 differs from the above in having
p rofichi with prom inen t ribs p rod ucing a corru gated surface, an d with prom inent n eck
distinctly flatten ed . Roeding N o.4 has no par ticular value as a cap rifig except for th e
late seas on of ripening of the p rofichi.
Rotondo (syn. Cap rificus sphaerocar p a Gaspar rini). Descrip tion of Gasp ar rini (1845)
qu oted by Vallese (1964). Profichi sp herical, som ew hat ribbed ; stalk short; color green;
pulp light violet.
Samson (syn. Mar kar ian N o. 1). See d escription by Condit (1920a, 1947) an d
illustration by him (1920a). Original California tree is on the Stan ford ran ch, Vina;
introd uced from Asia Minor by the Bulletin Com p an y, San Fran cisco, 1882; propagated
an d distributed by W. H . Sam son, Corning, as Cap ri N o.5, an d d escribed by him in 1906
as a very com pact grow er an d p roductive of all three crop s; later distributed by H en ry
Mar karian , Fresn o, as Mar karian N o.1; lar ge trees com m only found in com m ercial fig
plan tings.
Tree m od erately vigorous, exceptionally d ense or m u ch bran ched ; trunks of old er
trees char acteristically fu rrow ed or creas ed ; term inal buds green; leav es m edium , 5lobed , som etim es w ith additional basal lobes; sinuses of m od erat e d epth; bas e cord ate;
m argins crenat e; su rface som ew hat glossy.
Mam m e crop fair; figs m edium , obliqu e-tu rbinate, with short neck an d stalk; ribs
fairly prom inen t; color green, with num erous an d conspicuous w hite flecks; interior
d eep pu rple.
Profichi crop fair; figs m edium to lar ge, turbinat e, with neck p rom inent and thick or
som etim es tap ering an d up to 1/ 2 inch lon g; ribs m od erately prom inent; w hite flecks
lar ge, an d very conspicu ous on im m ature fruit; color light green; bloom prom inent;
interior violet-purple; stam ens generally good but som etim es ru sty an d u np rod uctive
of p ollen. Midseas on. (Plate 6.) Profichi ar e invariably affected by a virus w hich causes
som e of the you ng figs to becom e m alform ed an d to d rop , or to be blemished with
m osaic spots in the form of a ring or crescent. See Condit (1920a, fig. 12), an d Condit
an d H orn e (1943).

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San Antonio. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Leav es very sm all,


scab rou s, d ar k green ab ove, shallowly 3-lobed . Profichi flask-shap ed ; ap ex round ed,
with the center p r otruding like a nip ple; neck prom inent, grad u ally nar row ing to th e
stalk; color p ea green; interior violet.
Tardivo (syn. Gaglian o d el Cap o). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909); also
d escribed by De Rosa (1911).
Leav es lar ge, intense green, som ew hat scab rou s on u pp er sid e, generally 3-lobed;
sinuses shallow . Profichi of m edium size; neck short; ap ex round ed , slightly nippled at
center; color clear green, with few w hite flecks; interior pu rple.
Tit-en-Tsekourt (syn. Ain-el-H adjel). Listed by H an oteau an d Letourneu x (1872).
Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939a). N am e signifies eye of the par trid ge,
becau se of the rosy color of the eye scales. Recognized throu gh out Kabylia by its
variety nam e.
Tree sp read ing, p rod uctive; leav es lar ge, 3-lobed .
Profichi lar ge, from 1-1/ 2 to 2 inches in diam eter; bod y spherical, with short neck;
eye conspicu ou s, on accou nt of rosy scales; color green; interior violet.
Caprifigs with Interior Violet or Purple; Skin Green,
Tinged with Darker Shades of Brown or Violet
Abetroune. Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939a); nam ed after place of origin;
regard ed as on e of the earliest var ieties at Tizi-Rached , Algeria.
Tree p rod uctive an d vigorou s; leav es alm ost en tire, or som etim es 5-lobed. Profichi
lar ge, up to 2 inches in diam eter, pyriform , w ith m edium stalk; color green, som etim es
tinged with violet at m aturity; eye scales green, or r ose-tinted ; interior violet.
Adras Violet. Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939a) ; found with Ad ras Blan c,
bu t is later in seas on of m atu rity an d has a violet interior. At Ouad hias, Algeria, it is
som etim es erron eou sly called Beu rzel, an d is also confused with other varieties.
Tree generally of lar ge size, m uch bran ched , com p act, an d very p rod uctive; leav es
gen erally 5-lobed , but variable.
Profichi sm all, 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, p yriform ; stalk short; color green, tinged
with violet at m atu rity; interior violet.
Ayers. A var iety found in the orchar d of A. F. Ayers an d of other grow ers n ear
Merced , California; similar in habit of grow th to trees of Roeding N o. 2, but term inal
bud s ar e violet-brow n, an d fruit char acters ar e d ecid edly different. Leaves below
m ed ium size.
Mam m e crop good ; figs below m ed ium to sm all in size, som ew hat oblate; neck
ab sen t or very sh ort, an d often slightly flattened ; ribs fairly prom inen t; color green,
tinged with violet; w hite flecks conspicuou s; interior very light pu rple.
Profichi below m edium in size; neck fairly p rom inent, slightly flattened ; stalk short;
w hite flecks conspicu ou s on the green surface; apex broad , not d epressed; interior
purple.

Febru ary , 1955]


333

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Gemini II. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Leav es very sm all, bright
green above, ordinar ily d eeply 7-lobed , m ore rar ely 5- or 3-lobed. Profichi conical,
elon gated , obliqu e, ribbed , rather long-stalked ; color bright green, with w hite flecks,
becom ing yellowish violet at com plete m aturity; interior light violet.
Mam m oni an d m am m e crops n ot observed .
Grosso. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Leav es of m edium size,
scab rou s, d eep green above, lighter below , asym m etrical, 5- or 3-lobed , sinuses d eep
an d broad . Profichi very lar ge, obliqu e-pyriform ; ap ex round ed , slightly nippled at
center; color bright green, chan ging at m atu rity to pale green tinged with violet;
interior violet.
Hamma. Introd uced in 1901 from Algiers as a very valuable variety, found grow ing
by a ston e qu ar ry above the Jardin dEssai du H am m a. It is probably from this tree
that th e Blastop haga w as introd uced into California in 1899. (Swingle, in d escription of
P.I. N o. 6,475; see also, N o. 6,481, P.I. Inventory N o. 10.)
Tree vigorou s; leav es m edium , 3- to 5-lobed ; bas e truncate to su bcord ate. Mam m e
crop fair at Riversid e, California; figs below m edium , pyriform , w ith prom inent shor t
neck; w hite flecks prom inent; surface sm ooth , har dly at all ribbed ; color green; interior
violet.
Profichi crop good ; figs below m edium , pyriform , with p rom inent n eck and short
stalk; color green u ntil m ature, th en becom ing reddish violet with conspicu ous bloom ;
interior violet. Qu ality fair, but not w orth y of com m ercial plan ting.
Howard (syn. Solm s-Lau bach N o. 3). Described by Eisen (1901); received (probably
at Niles, California) from Solm s-Laubach, Nap les, an d nam ed for L. 0. H ow ar d . A
violet-brow n fig with violet interior; p robably never wid ely propag ated or distribu ted.
Kara Mor. (Tu rkish nam e signifies purplish black.) This var iety supplies over sixty
p er cent of th e cap rifigs of th e Mean d er Valley, according to Condit an d Baskay a (1948).
Tree lar ge, vigorous; leav es d eeply lobed , m uch like th ose of Sar i Lop. Figs lar ge,
top -shap ed, with neck; color p urplish black; interior pu rple.
Magnissalis. See account of Roed ing (1914) an d d escription by Condit (1920a)
introd uced from Aidin, Turkey, by G. C. Roed ing in 1901, an d nam ed alter S. G.
Mag nissalis; now rare or n on existent in California.
Tree vigor ous, d ensely bran ched , with lar ge leav es; term inal bud s green. Mam m e
crop gen erally good ; figs m edium , sp herical, m ostly withou t neck; eye lar ge,
p rotruding from ap ex; scales green, or violet-tinted; ribs fairly prom inent; color green,
flushed with light violet; w hite flecks few , scattered ; interior purple.
Profichi ab ove m edium to lar ge, pyriform , with p rom inent n eck; ribs nar row , very
slightly elevat ed ; eye fairly lar ge, not d ep ressed ; color green, with d elicate bloom ; w hite
flecks irregular in size, fairly conspicuous; interior pu rple. A green fig, but placed in this
section becau se of the violet m am m e figs.
Montesino. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Leav es m ed ium in size,
gen erally 3-lobed , bu t rarely entire or nearly so; sinuses rather shallow .

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Profichi obliqu e-pyriform , with round ed , slightly nippled apex; stalk rat her lon g; color
green, becom ing violet at m atu rity; interior violet.
Ricciuto (syn. Cap rificus ru gosa Gaspar rini). Description of Gaspar rini (1845) qu oted
by Vallese (1904). A var iety com m on at Portici, an d regar d ed m ore highly than
Chiajese on accou nt of its greater prod uction of blastophag as.
Mam m e sm all, spherical, ru gose, som ew h at flatten ed at the ap ex; color violet.
Profichi lar ge as a guinea hens egg; ribs elevated ; color green; pulp light violet.
Rock (syn. Solm s-Lau bach N o.2). Described by Eisen (1901). Received in California
from Solm s-Lau bach, N aples, an d nam ed for John Rock, Niles. Rock (according to
Eisen) w as the ow ner of the lar gest assortm ent of fig var ieties collected in one place.
A p yriform cap rifig, with violet-colored ribs an d violet interior. Probably never
p rop ag ated or distributed.
Roeding No. 2. See d escription by Eisen (1901) as Sm yrna N o.2, an d by Roed ing
(1903, 1914), Rixford (1918a); an d Condit (1920a, 1947). Introd uced by Fred Roeding,
Fresn o, with Roeding N o.1, bu t is seld om found in com m ercial plan tings.
Tree d istinctive, on account of its up right habit of grow th an d slend er twigs; bark of
tru n k scaly, as show n by Cond it (1941a, figure 20); leav es below m ediu m , m ostly 5lobed ; sinuses, of m ediu m d epth; base cord ate; surface som ew hat glossy.
Mam m e crop sm all or none; figs sm all, 1 inch or less in diam eter, spherical, withou t
neck; ribs narr ow , m ostly prom inent; eye scales pinkish; color greenish violet; interior
purple.
Profichi crop fair to good ; figs sm all to m ed iu m , spherical to p yriform , with
p rom inent n eck that is often flattened ; ap ex round ed, with eye slightly protruding;
surface sm ooth, glossy, greenish yellow , becom ing red dish violet at com plete m atu rity;
interior pu rple. Seas on later than Roeding N o.1.
Mam m oni crop p ractically non e.
Roeding No. 3. See d escriptions by Eisen (1901, as Sm yrna N o.3), Roed ing (1903,
1914), an d Condit (1920a, 1933, 1947), with illustrations of fruit (1920a, 1933). It w as
introd uced in 1887 by Fred Roeding, Fresno, with Roeding N o.1 an d Roed ing N o.2,
from Mean d er Valley of Turkey. Cu ttings w ere plan ted an d num bered from on e to
th ree in the nursery row ; N o.3 proved to be the earliest in seas on of m atu rity, an d N o.2
th e latest. Roed ing N o.3 shares with Stan ford th e distinction of being th e m ost valu able
an d highly regard ed cap rifig var iety in California (plate 3).
In good soil, tree is vigorou s, m u ch bran ched , with short, slend er tw igs;
distinguished from m ost com m on varieties by the br ow n or violet coloration of
d orm an t fruit an d term inal buds, an d by the violet color of the m am m e figs. Leav es
below m ed iu m to sm all, 3- to 5-lobed ; m iddle lobe broad ab ove, narrowing tow ard
bas e; sinuses of m edium d epth; base subcord ate; m argins crenat e; surface som ew hat
glossy.
Mam m e crop generally good , u sually consisting of tw o typ es of figs, both m ed ium in
size, up to 1 or 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, oblat e to oblique-tu rbinate, with or with out
short, thick neck; figs of one typ e are green or light violet in color; ribs prom inent;
textu re som ew hat soft or p unky; ap par ently n ot fully inhabited by blastophag as;

Febru ary , 1955]


335

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

suscep tible to frost injury. Figs of the second type are violet-pu rple in color; ribs either
n ot p rom inen t or entirely absent; textu re solid or firm ; w hite flecks sm all an d
inconspicu ou s, som ew hat m as ked by violet coloration of skin; eye d epressed , in center
of th e broad ly flattened apex; scales reddish br ow n; interior purple, with m eat also
tinged with violet.
Profichi crop very good ; p olleniferous or u ninhab ited figs inclined to stay green an d
rem ain on tree; insectiferous figs var iable, from m edium to lar ge, up to 2 inches in
diam eter an d over 2 inches in length, pyriform , with neck p rom inent, som etim es
curved , an d often distinctly flattened ; ap ex broad , flattened , with the eye pr otrud ing
from center of a slight d epression; eye scales chaffy, erect at m atu rity; ribs prom inent,
nar row ; color light green, with w hite flecks num erou s an d conspicu ous; bloom
p rom inent; interior p urple. Seas on early. (Plate 6.)
Mam m oni crop sm all but am ple.
Rosso. Described by De Rosa (1911) Profichi subsp herical, alm ost sessile eye scales
rosy; color violet; pulp light red, som ew hat edible at com plete m aturity.
Schwarz (syn. Solm s-Lau bach N o. 4). Described by Eisen (1901); received in
California from Solm s-Lau bach, N aples, an d nam ed for E. A Schw ar z. A pyriform
cap rifig of violet-brow n skin color an d violet interior Probably not pr opagated or
distributed .
Solms-Laubach (syn. Solm s-Lau bach N o.1). Described by Eisen (1901) received from
Solm s-Laubach, N aples, bu t ap p ar ently not prop agat ed or distributed in California.
Profichi obliqu e-turbinate, m ah ogan y brow n, with violet flu sh in sun; m eat yellowish
w hite, with a few violet streaks.
Caprifigs with Interior White; Skin Green
Ak-kaba. A Turkish var iety w hich tran sports w ell becau se of its thick m eat,
according to Condit an d Baskay a (1948). Figs very lar ge, pyriform , light green; interior
w hite or very light pink.
Azaim (syn. Orzid an e). Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939a) as var iety fou nd
at Beni-Aissi, near Fort N ational; som etim es confused with Ad ras Blan c.
Leav es generally 5-lobed , with shallow sinu ses. Profichi rath er lar ge, u p to 2 inches
in diam eter, sp herical, with su rface alm ost sm ooth; color green; eye scales green,
som etim es rose-tinted ; interior w hite; texture firm , read ily transp orted . Seas on ear ly,
sam e as Illoul.
Bianco (syn. Cap rificus leucocar pa Gaspar rini). Described an d illustrat e Gaspar rini
(1845); d escription qu oted by Vallese (1904). A var iety little grow n near N ap les, as it
p rod uces few blastophag as.
Mam m e abou t 1 inch long, sm ooth, turbinate; color green to violet. Profichi ab ou t
twice as lar ge as m am m e; color pale green; pulp w hite. The "Bian co" d escribed by De
Rosa (1911) ap pear s to be a different variety.
Colombaro. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909); cultivated und er oth er
nam es near Lecce, an d in m an y ad jacent districts.
Tree vigorous; leav es of m edium size, gen erally 3-lobed; sinuses d eep.

336
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

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Mam m e crop sm all. Profichi lar ge, pyriform , with long neck; color green, d otted with
w hite flecks; interior w hite; cavity relatively sm all. Seas on first ten d ay s of July.
Mam m oni very few .
Croisic (syns. Saint John, Cord elia, Pingo d e Mel, Gillette). Described as Croisic by
Solm s-Laubach (1882, 1885), Trab ut (1901), Leclerc du Sablon (1908), Rixford (1920a),
an d Cond it (1942, 1947). Described as Saint John or Saint Johns by Wythes (1890b,
1900b), Wr ight (1895), Eisen (1901), Bunyar d an d Thom as (1904), Star nes an d Monroe
(1907, as Saint Jean Blan c), B. A. Bunyar d (1925), 0. T. (1905), Thom pson (1925), an d
Preston (1951). Described as Cord elia by Eisen (1896, 1901). Described as Pingo d e Mel
by Colem an (1887a), Eisen (1901), Thom as (1902), H enslow (1902), Cheffins (1905),
Royal H orticultural Society (1916), an d Cond it (1921b).
In 1882, Solm s-Lau bach rep orted observations both at Cr oisic an d at Cherbou rg,
Fran ce, of an edible fig w hich, like the cap rifig, had a zone of m ale flow ers insid e near
th e eye. Three year s later he expressed the opinion that Cr oisic is sim ply a highly
d evelop ed cap rifig d ep rived of the blastophag as w hich norm ally inhabit caprifigs. In
July, 1893, Gustav Eisen n oticed in the San Fran cisco m arket som e lar ge yellow figs
shipp ed from Cord elia, California. H e exam ined the fruit an d found every one with a
fully d evelop ed zone of m ale flow ers, fully rip e, an d with an abund an t, perfectly
d evelop ed p ollen. Eisen conclud ed that this fig w as possibly id entical with th e Cr oisic
d escribed by Solm s-Lau bach, bu t he placed it in a special class, the Cord elia, or Ficus
car ica relicta. At a m eeting of th e Royal Horticultu ral Society, July 8, 1902, H enslow
cited the fig variety Pingo d e Mel as an exception to th e rule that all edible figs ar e
fem ale, since its fruit bore stam ens.
Accord ing to Wyth es (1890b), the Saint John, exhibited by Veitch an d Sons, Chelsea,
at th e Tem ple Show in Lond on, w as a w elcom e ad dition to the list of good varieties. In
1900, Wy thes expressed the opinion that Pingo d e Mel an d Saint John w ere n ot th e
sam e. H ow ever, George Bunyard , also O. T. an d Thom pson, regard ed the tw o as
id entical, an d recom m end ed the variety as one of th e best for forcing in pots.
Trees of the Cr oisic ar e occasionally found in California, especially in the vicinity of
San Francisco Bay . They are also grow n in a sm all w ay in Oregon und er the nam e
Gillette, becau se cu ttings w ere obtained from the Gillet Nu rsery, N evad a City,
California. P.I. N o. 6,952, obtained from Malta as Tin Baitri or Saint John, an d N os.
18,858 an d 18,885 of the Chiswick collection, hav e all proved to be id entical with Croisic.
Tree vigorou s an d productive; leav es m edium to lar ge, m ostly 5-lobed; sinuses
m ed ium , nar row ; bas e subcord ate.
Profichi m ed ium or above, u p to 1-3/ 4 inches in diam eter, pyriform w ith distinct
neck; ribs prom inent, with surface often som ew hat corru gat ed ; eye fairly lar ge, with
yellowish-green scales; color greenish yellow ; interior w hite; edible pulp insipid , lacking
in su gar ; stam inate flow ers few , gen erally lacking in pollen.
Mam m oni crop scan ty in interior valleys but fair in cool, coas tal clim ates; figs m uch
th e sam e as profichi.
Elma. (Tu rkish nam e signifying ap ple.) Described by Cond it an d Baskay a (1948).

Febru ary , 1955]


337

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Tree lar ge, with prom inent nod al sw ellings; leaves d ar k green. Figs lar ge, spherical,
green, with w hite interior. Less productive of blastop hag as than som e other cap rifigs.
Gemini I. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Leav es of m ed iu m size;
gen erally 5-lobed , with d eep sinuses. Profichi m edium , top-shap ed , with broad ,
rou nd ed apex; color green; interior w hite. Mam m oni an d m am m e crops not observed .
Hajji Mestan. A Turkish var iety, nam ed after a p erson, according to Cond it an d
Baskay a (1948). Figs con tain nu m er ous blastophagas, but sh rivel easily in hot w eather;
for som e unaccou ntable reas on, this var iety is m ore suscep tible than other cap rifigs to
attacks of Lonchaea aristella Beck., the black fly.
Figs m edium , pyriform , light green; interior w hite.
Illoul (syn. Aoriv). Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939a); nam e d erived from
place of origin; var iety very com m on at Tizi-Rached , Fort N ational, w here it rep resents
fifty per cent of the caprifigs of the district grow n near Mekla und er the nam e Aoriv.
Tree vigorous, diffusely bran ched , productive; leav es 3- to 5-lobed , rar ely entire.
Profichi rather lar ge, 1-1/ 2 to 2 inches in diam eter, sp herical; stalk thick an d sh ort;
surface slightly ribbed ; color greenish yellow ; eye green; interior w hite. Seas on very
early.
Kongur. A Turkish variety, nam ed after a place, accord ing to Cond it an d Baskaya
(1948). Figs m edium , top -shap ed , green; interior w hite. Seas on late.
Kuyucak. A Tu rkish var iety, nam ed after a place, accord ing to Cond it an d Baskay a
(1948). Tree of m edium size; leav es shallow ly lobed. Figs m edium , pyriform , green;
interior w hite. Seas on late.
Loomis. Seed ling N o.147, from the Maslin orchar d at Loom is; d escribed by Rixford
(1918a) as producing one of the earliest crop s in the orchard . Trees never plan ted
com m ercially an d now rarely found . Profichi lar ge, with distinct neck an d p rom inent
ribs; color green; interior w hite.
Madel (syn. Oum ad el). Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939a); nam ed for th e
p rop rietor of the original plan ting, located by the railroad at Sidi-Aich; also grow n in
Tak ricts, valley of the Sou m m am , und er the nam e Oum ad el. Tree vigorous an d
p rod uctive. Profichi with w hite interior. Season early.
Markarian (syn. Mar karian N o. 2). Described an d illustrat ed by Cond it (1920a).
Variety p ropagated an d distribu ted by W. H . Sam son, Corning, California, probably
from a tree introd uced from Asia Minor by the Bulletin Com pan y of San Francisco;
d escribed by Sam son (1906) as Cap ri N o. 3; later obtained by H en ry Mar kar ian , Fresn o,
an d grow n as Mar karian N o. 2.
Tree w ith up right bran ches, similar in habit of grow th an d foliag e to that of Sar i Lop
(Calim yrna). Rar ely found in collections of cap rifigs.
Mam m e crop light; figs m edium or above, oblate, withou t neck; stalk thick an d short,
inclined to be flatten ed; ribs nar row bu t prom inent; eye rather lar ge, in center of a
distinct, crat erlike p rotrusion; color light green; interior w hite.
Profichi crop fair to good ; figs lar ge, u p to 2 inches in diam eter, pyriform ,

338
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

with neck often distinctly flatten ed ; eye in cen ter of a broad d epression; ribs few bu t
p rom inent; w hite flecks scattered , inconspicuou s; color light green; interior w hite.
Mid seas on.
Maslin seedling caprifigs. See accounts by Rixford (1912, 1918a). Seedlings
distributed u nd er num bers by the United Stat es Depar tm ent of Agriculture an d given
nam es as follow s: N o. 70, Bleasdale; N o. 144, Mason; N o. 147, Loom is; N o. 148,
N ew castle. These varieties ar e separ at ely m entioned in this w ork, in their respective
color grou ps. N one have been plan ted com m ercially, an d trees ar e now seld om fou nd ,
or are com pletely lost. Man y show close relationship to Sar i Lop (th e p robable fem ale
p ar en t), in having branches with sw ollen nod es, lar ge, d eeply-lobed leav es, an d profichi
with flattened neck.
Maslin No. 150. An unnam ed Maslin seedling, of sufficient m erit to w ar ran t
inclusion in a com m ercial plan ting at Orosi, California.
Tree u p right, with bran ches som ew hat sw ollen at the nod es; term inal bud s green.
Leav es lar ge, m ostly 5-lobed ; sinuses rath er shallow ; bas e broad ly subcord ate; p etiole
thick, of m ediu m length; m argins shallowly crenate.
Mam m e crop fair; figs lar ge, oblique-tu rbinate to oblate; neck som etim es flatten ed ;
eye in center of a craterlike p rotrusion; ribs prom inent, narrow ; color light green, with
scattered w hite flecks; interior w hite.
Profichi crop good ; figs lar ge, onion-shap ed ; neck prom inent, som ew hat flattened ;
ribs slightly elevat ed ; apex broad , not d ep ressed ; color green; interior w hite.
Mason. Seedling N o.144, from the Maslin orchar d at Loom is; d escribed by Rixford
(1918a); nam ed after S. C. Mas on, w ho discovered it. Figs lar ge, green; interior w hite.
N ot grow n com m ercially.
Medloub (syn. Bou Ankir). Briefly d escribed by Mau ri (1939a). Variety found at SidiAich, but tree not in prod uction; resem bles Ad ras Blan c, bu t is green, with w hite
interior.
Newcastle. Seedling N o. 148, from the Maslin orchar d at Loom is; d escribed by
Rixford (1918a). Figs lar ge, turbinate, with flatten ed neck; color green; interior w hite.
Primaticcio. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Leaves lar ge, generally 3lobed ; sinuses d eep . Profichi m ediu m , turbinat e; color d eep green; interior w hite.
Samson caprifigs. Varieties obtained by W. H . Sam son, Corning, from th e Stan ford
ran ch, Vina, an d distributed und er nu m bers in 1906. N o. 1 w as later id entified as
Stan ford , an d N o. 5 as Sam son (Mar karian No.1).
Stanford. Described an d illustrat ed by Cond it (1920a, 1933); d escription only (1947).
This var iety w as m entioned by Rixford (1912) u nd er the nam e Stan ford as a splendid
tree, growing at the Stan ford ran ch at Vina. It w as raised from a cu tting im p orted by
th e w riter du ring the winter of 1881-1882, from the Sm yrna district of Asia Minor.
Accord ing to A. N adir an d M. H alit (1929), Kara Ilek, th e best cap rifig of the Sm yrna fig
district, is the sam e as Stan ford . Distributed by W. H . Sam son, Corning, as Cap ri N o. 1
Stan ford an d Roeding N o. 3 ar e the best com m ercial var ieties of caprifig gr ow n in
California.

Febru ary , 1955]


339

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Tree vigorous, sp read ing (see plate 3, an d Cond it, 1920a); term inal buds green; leav es
ab ove m edium to lar ge, 5-lobed , m iddle lobe up to 2-3/ 4 inches broad ; sinuses m ediu m
to d eep ; bas e tru ncate to subcord ate or d ecurren t; m argins crenat e on u pper half of
lobes, entire tow ard the bas e; su rface slightly glossy. (Plate 13.)
Mam m e crop good ; figs m ed iu m or above, up to 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, obliquetu rbinate, m ostly with sh ort, thick neck an d short stalk; ribs p resent, slightly elevated ;
w hite flecks lar ge an d conspicuous; color green, with prom inent bloom ; eye scales light
green.
Profichi crop excellent; figs ab ove m ed ium , pyriform , gen erally oblique; neck d istinct,
often som ew hat cu rved; stalk up to 1/ 4 inch long; ribs not prom inent; eye scales chaffy;
w hite flecks scattered , inconspicuou s; color light green; interior w hite (plate 6).
Mid seas on.
Mam m oni crop sm all but am ple.
Taranimt. Listed by H an oteau an d Letourneux (1872); d escribed an d illustrat ed by
Mau ri (1939a); figs very similar to those of the Sm yrna-typ e Tar an im t, hence the nam e;
cultivated at Beni-Aissi, Algeria.
Leav es entire, or nearly so. Profichi lar ge, u p to 2 inches in diam eter, pyriform , with
short stalk; color green; interior w hite. Seas on ear lier than Ad ras Violet.
Caprifigs with Interior White; Skin Brown or Purplish
Adras Blanc. Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939a); fou nd in Kabylia u nd er
variou s nam es, such as Azaim at Ou adhias, an d p robably Bouhioua at Beni-Aissi; at
Sidi-Aich it m ay be the sam e as Am eza
Tree vigorous, very com pact, prod uctive; leaves 3- to 5-lobed .
Profichi m edium , 1-3/ 4 inches in diam eter, p yriform ; stalk very short; color green,
tinged with violet; interior w hite. Seas on ear lier than that of Ad ras Violet bu t less
p rolon ged .
Averane. Described by Mauri (1939a). N am e indicates a foreign or im p orted var iety.
Fou nd at Beni-Aissi. In app ear an ce of tree, foliag e, an d fruit it resem bles Ad ras Blan c,
bu t th e seas on is later, an d the profichi ar e violet-black outsid e.
Brawley. A seed ling prod uced by Fran cis H einy, Braw ley, from a cross of Kad ota
with pollen of Ficus pseud o-car ica.
Bran ches an d twigs slend er, pu bescen t; term inal bud s dingy green or slightly violet;
leav es sm all, entire to m ostly 3-lobed ; sinuses shallow ; base truncate; m argins finely
serrate.
Mam m e crop g ood ; figs sm all, up to 7/ 8 inch diam eter, spherical; neck sh ort,
distinctly flatten ed; ap ex rou nd ed , with eye slightly protruding; stalk short; ribs fairly
p rom inent; color violet, with distinct bloom ; w hite flecks p resen t, bu t obscured by bod y
color; interior w hite; stam ens present. Rep or ted to be exceptionally resistan t to winter
injury.
Profichi crop good ; figs sm all or below m edium , up to 1-1/ 4 inches in diam eter,
tu rbinate, with slend er n eck; ribs som ew hat elevat ed ; eye slightly protruding from th e
rou nd ed apex; w hite flecks scar ce, practically ab sent; color green, grad ually chan ging to
red dish pu rple; interior w hite. Midseas on. A good cap rifig, except for its sm all size.

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Hilgardia

Bsikri. P.I. N o. 6,478, from Chetm a oasis, near Biskra, Algeria, in 1900. Profichi crop
good at Riversid e, California. Figs m ed iu m , pyriform ; neck sh ort, prom inent,
som ew hat flattened ; stalk short; ribs nar row , som ew hat elevated; eye m edium ,
p rotruding slightly from ap ex; color violet-brow n at m aturity; interior w hite; cavity
sm all; qu ality fair. Seas on late.
Ficus palmata Forsk. This Indian form of F. car ica, probably introd uced by Dr. F.
Fran ceschi, of San ta Bar bar a, has lon g been found in fig collections in Algeria an d
California, an d in both places has been used for h ybridizing. See Trab u t (1922) an d
Cond it (1947). N o nam ed varieties hav e been established. Practically evergreen in mild
clim ates, with new grow th starting in late Jan uar y. The char acter of earliness is
inherited by hybrid s.
Trees variable in vigor an d habit of grow th; twigs pu bescent, slend er; term inal bud s
green or colored; leav es very variable, from entire or nonlobed to d eeply dissected .
(Plate 13.)
Mam m e figs usually contain staminate flow ers w hich m ature pollen.
Profichi crop gen erally good , but figs ar e too sm all for use in com m ercial
cap rification. Figs m ostly pu rple ou tsid e, an d invar iably w hite insid e; stigm as of ver y
you n g figs som etim es distinctly colored pink.
Ficus pseudo-carica Miq. This species, indigenous to Eritrea an d Abyssinia, w as
introd uced into California by Dr. F. Franceschi, of San ta Bar bara, in 1902; som etim es
d esignated as Abyssinian cap rifig. Like F. palm ata, it has been used for hybridizing
with F. car ica. See Fran ceschi (1912), Rixford (1912, 1918a), Rixford an d H einy (1911),
Trab ut (1922), an d Condit (1947, 1920a); the last with illustration of fruit an d leav es.
The tree has slend er, willow y bran ches, with d orm an t bud s violet; leav es sm all,
m ostly 3-lobed; sinu ses m ed iu m ; bas e truncate; texture thin, velvety; p etioles ver y
pubescen t, russet in color; m osaic spots prom inent, with som e leav es d w ar fed or
m alform ed . (Plate 13.)
Mam m e figs sm all, pyriform , with prom inent, slend er n eck an d lon g, slend er stalk;
color violet-pu rple; interior w hite; staminate flow ers p resent.
Profichi sm all, elon gated -pyriform , with slend er neck an d long stalk; ribs nar row ;
eye p rotruding; color br ow n to p u rplish black; interior w hite. (Plate 6.)
Maslin No. 91. This seedling, from the Maslin orchar d at Loom is, is occasionally
fou nd in variety collections. Unlike m ost Maslin seedlings, the figs ar e purple ou tsid e
rat h er than green ; interior w hite. It has not been given a variety nam e.
Van Lennep. Listed in the 1915-1916 catalogu e of Fan cher Creek N urseries, Fresno;
introd uced from Sm yrna by P. Van Lennep of Auburn; variety probably lost. Profichi
purplish brow n; interior w hite.
Miscellaneous Caprifigs; Interior Color not Determined
Algiers No. 1 an d No. 2. Listed by Eisen (1901) as forw ar d ed by W. T. Swingle from
Algeria to th e United Stat es Depar tm ent of Agricultu re, an d then to John Rock, Niles,
California.
Bardakji. Mentioned by N ad ir an d H alit (1929) as a variety from the Sm yrna district,
Tu rkey.

Febru ary , 1955]


341

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Belamie. P.I. N o. 6,487, from Algiers in 1901.


Bleasdale. Seedling N o. 70, from Loom is, California; d escribed by Rixford (1918a) as
on e of th e m ost valu able seedling cap ri trees of th e Maslin orchar d . N am ed for Dr.
John Bleasd ale, a p rolific w riter on the fig. Figs green; interior color not stated .
Variety never grow n com m ercially, an d probab ly lost.
Booung. P.I. N o. 6,488, from Ch etm a oasis, near Biskra, Algeria, in 1901.
Bourlier. P.I. N o. 6,490, from Algiers in 1901. A var iety m uch p rized by the Kabyle
fig grow ers, w h o cam e fifteen m iles or m ore to get figs for cap rification. N o
d escrip tion of this var iety, or of Belam ie an d Booun g, in Inventory N o.10.
Brackett (syn. Pau l Meyer N o. 2). Described by Eisen (1901). Var iety sent by Dr.
Paul Meyer from Italy to N iles, California, an d nam ed after G. B. Brackett. Tree
spread ing. Profichi m edium , green.
Bulletin (syn. Sm yrna N o.4). Briefly d escribed by Eisen (1901). Variety includ ed in
th e original im p ortation of the Bulletin Com pan y, San Fran cisco. Tree of sturd y
grow th. Profichi lar ge, tu rbinate, greenish yellow in color.
Chiajese (syn. Cap rificus oblongata Gasp ar rini). Description of Gaspar rini (1845)
qu oted by Vallese (1904). A var iety found com m only on the prom ontory of Posilipo
an d in th e streets of Chiaja, Italy. N ot m uch esteem ed for cap rification, on account of
soft textu re and sm all nu m ber of blastop hag as. Seas on early. Profichi m edium ,
oblon g, sm ooth. Color green to violet.
Grande (syn. Cap rificus gigan tea Gaspar rini). Description of Gaspar rini (1845)
qu oted by Vallese (1904); illustrat ed by Gasp ar rini. Profichi turbinate, alm ost sessile.
Color greenish violet.
Kongouz. One of fou r varieties in the Sm yrna district of Turkey, according to N ad ir
an d H alit (1929).
Maslin. Described by Eisen (1901). A seed ling accid entally raised in San Fran cisco
an d nam ed for E. W. Maslin.
Figs lar ge; color not stat ed .
Meyer (syn. Pau l Meyer N o.1). Described by Eisen (1901); sent by Dr. Pau l Meyer
from N ap les to Niles, California, as a m ost valu able var iety. Tree u pright. Figs
m ed ium , yellowish green.
Mitchell. Described by Eisen (1901). Originated in a San Fran cisco gar d en, probably
as a seed ling, an d w as nam ed for the d on or. Leav es with petioles bright red . Profichi
tu rbinate, with long neck an d stalk; probably red w hen m ature.
Mor. Listed as a late variety by Trab ut (1904).
Pedunculato (syn. Cap rificus ped unculata Gaspar rini). Description of Gaspar rini
(1845) qu oted by Vallese (1904). N am e refers to th e variable fruit stalk, w hich is often
sw ollen. Fou nd occasionally at Portici an d N aples. Profichi m edium , turbinate,
som ew hat ribbed ; color green.
Rivers (syn. Italian N o. 2). Described by Eisen (1901) as a var iety im p orted by John
Rock, Niles, California, from Thom as Rivers & Son, Lond on; supposed to be of Italian
origin. Tree of strong, d ense grow th. Profichi turbinate, green.

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Swingle (syns. Algiers N o. 3, Cap ri Sm yrna N o. 4). Described by Eisen (1901) as a


variety im p orted by th e United States Departm ent of Agricultu re fr om Algiers, an d
established on th e place of George Roeding, Fresn o. Blastop hagas w ere first
successfully colonized on this tree in the sp ring of 1899. N am ed for W. T. Swingle.
Mam m e figs lar ge, greenish yellow .
Taylor (syn. Italian N o.1). Described by Eisen (1901). Intr od uced by the United
States Depar tm en t of Agricultu re from Italy as Troan o; nam ed by Eisen for W. A.
Taylor. Tree of spread ing grow th. Profichi m edium , light green, with a pu rple tint.
Mam m oni lar ge, unu su ally ear ly.
Thaberkant (a black fig) an d Tifouzal. Listed by H an oteau an d Letourneux (1872).
Neapolitan caprifigs. A collection of cap rifig cuttings obtained in 1902 at N aples by
W. T. Swingle (1905), an d introd uced und er Plan t Introd uction N os. 8,829 to 8,847. N o
variety nam es are given, bu t seven of the principal kinds ar e d escribed an d separ ated
by a b otan ical key, bas ed m ainly on leaf char acters.
See P.I. N os. 6,773 to 6,823 for record of m iscellan eous caprifigs introd uced in 1901
from vicinity of Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria, m ostly withou t var iety nam es.
The following d escrip tion of cap rifigs on the islan d of Malta is by J. Borg (1922):
A consid erable p rop ortion of seed lin gs, esp ecially th ose originatin g from the w hite or ligh t-colored
ed ible varieties, p rod u ce u neatable fru its; and w h en th ey p rod u ce several crop s, they are called
cap rifigs, and fru it m ay be u sed as such . H ow ever , th e fru it of the tru e cap rifigs is alw ays m ore or less
d ry , becom in g soft at m atu rity , bu t n ever flesh y or lu sciou s as the ed ible figs. A d ry cap rifig is
essential for the p rop er d evelop m ent of the Blastop haga, and th erefore good sorts of cap rifigs are alw ays
p rop agated b y cu ttin gs or layers, or bu d d ed on seed lin gs. The tw o best-know n cap rifigs are th e socalled w h ite cap rifig (d uccar abjad) and the red cap rifig (d uccar atim ar). Th e w hite cap rifig is that m ost
frequ ently m et w ith . Its fru its are w h itish green , w ith red scales at the orifice. Th e red cap rifig is
sm aller , rou nd , or som ew hat flattened , of a u niform , ru sty green ish-red color it is d rier than th e w hite
variety , and is p referred w h en ever obtainable. A late variety of green cap rifig , p rod u cin g lon g fru its,
w hich m atu re th eir galls abou t three w eeks later than th e other sorts, is m u ch valu ed for the
cap rification of late or second ary crop s of figs w h ich oth erw ise w ou ld be lost.

VARIETIES OF THE SMYRNA TYPE


Sm yrna-typ e figs reach full m aturity only as a result of p ollination of the flow ers an d
th e subsequ ent d evelop m ent of the ovules into fertile seed s. They have long been
grow n in Asia Minor, Greece, N orth Africa, an d Portu gal, an d it is in these cou ntries
that varieties hav e grad ually been selected for culture. The following list includ es th ose
varieties w hich ar e nam ed an d d escribed in pu blications av ailable.

Febru ary , 1955]


343

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Smyrna-type Figs with Skin Green or Yellow; Pulp White,


Amber, or Very Light Red
Borsamele (syn. In gan nam iele). Described by Guglielmi (1908) an d Donno (1952),
th e latter in d etail.
Leav es 3- to 5-lobed ; term inal bud s brow n, accord ing to Donn o (1951a). Brebas
rarely p rod uced . Second -crop figs m edium , 1-3/ 4 by 2-1/ 4 inches, oblate-spherical;
stalk sh ort; eye op en, scales light rose; skin color yellowish green according to
Guglielmi, bluish green according to Donno; pulp light rose w hen m ature; b orsam ele
(like a bag or p ou ch of h oney). Much esteem ed as a fresh fruit; of little use for d rying.
Eisen. Seedling N o.52 from Maslin orchar d, Loom is, California; d escribed by Rixford
(1918a). Cuttings d istributed, but var iety n ever established in cultivation.
Kaab el Ghazal. P.I. N o. 6,461; a Dam ascus fig gr ow n in Algeria before introd uction
into the United Stat es in 1901. Figs m ed ium , yellow , honey color insid e. (See P.I.
Inven tory N o. 10.)
Khazouri. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Djerba, Tu nisia, as a Sm yrna-typ e
variety.
Leav es sm all, 5-lobed ; up per sinuses d eep, op en; petiole short. Figs sm all, 1-1/ 2
inches in diam eter, spherical; skin glossy, light green in color; pulp am ber.
Malaki. Introd uced from Algeria in 1901 und er P.I. N o. 6,466, but originally from
Dam ascu s. (See P.I. Inven tory N o. 10.) Figs lar ge, yellow , with honey-colored pulp;
splitting w hen ripe.
Rosa. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909); grow n in a limited w ay in Lecce
Province only.
Tree of consid erable size; leav es m ostly 5-lobed. First crop none; second crop
consu m ed fresh, not good for d rying on accoun t of the d elicate skin. Cap rification is
p racticed by local grow ers, but it is not certain that this is necessar y for th e variety.
Figs lar ge, top -shap ed , flattened at ap ex; stalk sh ort; color lem on yellow , tinged with
green; ribs slightly elevated , bran ched; skin thick bu t tend er, com m only checking an d
revealing the w hite m eat; interior w hite; flav or sw eet, very d elicate.
Sari Lop (syns. Lob Injir (or Ingir), Erbeyli, Calim yrna, Aidin). N am e from sari,
y ellow , an d lop, d elicious. See accou nts by Eisen (1901, with frontispiece
illustration), Roeding (1903, with color plate), Trab u t (1904, 1923), Sam son (1906), Mills
(1914), Rixford (1918a), Borg (1922), Davis (1928), H ag an (1929), Burger an d De We t
(1931), Man n (1942), Cond it (1920b, 1923, 1933, 1947), Cond it an d Baskay a (1948), Ozb ek
(1949), an d Tam aro (1948, as Esmirna) . See also, Condit (1941a, figures 2, J, 3, an d 6.)
This var iety has been grow n in the Mean d er Valley of Turkey for several centu ries;
introd uced into California at variou s tim es; first com m ercial plan ting m ad e in 1886 by
Mr. Fred Roeding an d his son, George, at Fresno, but no crop secured u ntil 1900 after
th e successful introd uction of blastophag as. Calim yrna w as the result of a $25.00

344
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

p rize offered by George C. Roeding for the best nam e for th e var iety as grow n in
California. Trab u t an d Man n both rep ort the variety unsuccessful in Algeria.
Trees vigor ou s; hab it of grow th up right (plate 1), with prom inent nod al sw ellings on
old er fram ew ork bran ches (plate 4). See Con dit (1933, figs. 8, 10, 11; 1941a, figs. 15, 16).
Leav es above m edium to lar ge, m ostly 5-lobed ; upp er sinuses d eep, of m edium wid th,
low er shallow ; bas e tru ncate to shallowly cord at e; u pper m argins shallowly crenate,
low er entire; upper su rface dull; leav es on su cker w ood with m uch nar row er lobes an d
d eeper sinuses. (Plate 13.)
Breba crop fair in som e seas ons; called Yel Injur, or w ind figs, in Tu rkey, accord ing
to H agan . Brebas lar ge, p yriform , with prom inent neck; color g old en yellow ; p ulp
am ber, alm ost seedless; flav or insipid .
Second -crop figs lar ge, up to 2-1/ 2 inches in diam eter an d 2 inches from bas e to ap ex,
oblate-spherical; neck thick, short, an d flattened ; av erage w eight 70 gram s; stalk sh ort;
ribs nar row , elevated, rather prom inent; eye lar ge, op en (as illustrat ed by Cond it,
1941a); scales chaffy, dingy straw color; surface som ew hat glossy, with d elicate bloom ;
w hite flecks inconspicu ous, m as ked by yellow ; color gold en yellow to light lem on
yellow , attractive; m eat w hite, 1/ 8 inch thick; pulp am ber to light straw berry; flav or
rich an d sw eet; qu ality excellent, both fresh an d d ried ; seed s nu m erous. According to
Ozb ek, the seed s of Sar i Lop av erage 708 p er gram in num ber. Seas on m edium . Main
d efects ar e lar ge eye, an d tend ency to split in unfav orable w eather. (Plates 8; 11; 12;
15, C.)
Scionto (syn. Fico Aggiu nto). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Cultivated
in the vicinity of Brindisi. Like Dottat o Bian co, it is eat en fresh an d is used for d rying,
bu t requ ires cap rification. There is no breba crop.
Leav es lar ge, generally 5-lobed . Figs m edium ; b od y sp herical; neck prom inent; stalk
very sh ort; skin greenish yellow , with scattered w hite flecks; pulp w hite; flav or sw eet,
very d elicate.
Terat ology com m on in this var iety, with one fruit sup erim p osed ab ove an oth er,
hence the term aggiu nto, or ad d ed.
Snowden. An u nid entified var iety found on the place of P. W. Snow d en, Mod esto, in
1922, an d therefore nam ed after him ; other trees located at Escalon. Scions grafted in a
Kad ota tree at Fresn o in 1924 bore fruit for m an y years; young trees bore lar ge figs of
excellent qu ality in 1953.
Tree vigorous; leav es above m edium to lar ge, m ostly 3-lobed.
Breba crop non e; m ain crop good . Figs lar ge, up to 2-3/ 8 inches in diam eter an d
2-3/ 4 inches in length; average w eight 93 gram s; shap e pyriform , bod y spherical; neck
p rom inent, cu rved an d som ew hat flattened ; stalk sh ort; ribs elevat ed , fairly prom inent;
eye lar ge, open; surface som ew hat glossy, with d elicate bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge,
scattered, conspicuous; color lem on yellow , attractive; m eat w hite; pulp am ber. Flav or
rich, sw eet; qu ality excellent, both fresh an d d ried. Worthy of m ore extensive trial.
Figs inclined to split in unfav orable w eather.
Sultanie. P.I. N o. 6,465; a Dam ascus fig gr ow n in Algeria before introd uction into the
United States in 1901. Figs m edium , yellow , w hite insid e; splitting w hen rip e.

Febru ary , 1955]


345

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Smyrna-type Figs with Skin Green or Yellow; Pulp Various


Shades of Red
Abate (syns. Arba, Par ad iso of Cavolini, Pan etto, Albachiar a). Described an d
illustrat ed by Vallese (1909); d escribed by Gu glielmi (1908), De Rosa (1911), Tam ar o
(1948), an d Donno (1952). Cultivated in Lecce Province especially for prod uction of
fresh fruit.
Tree vigorous in good Soil; leav es usually 3-lobed , lar ge; twigs an d buds d escribed by
Donn o (1951a).
Figs oblate-sp herical, slightly d epressed at the ap ex; stalk sh ort; eye op en; ribs
num erou s, elevated; color yellowish green; skin checking crisscross at m aturity; pulp
rose color, very sw eet; seed s nu m erous.
Abiarous. Described briefly an d illustrat ed by Trab ut (1904, 1923) an d by Mau ri
(1942); d escribed by Mazires (1920). Sp ar sely plan ted near Sidi-Aich.
Tree vigorou s, p rod uctive, with lar ge, 5-lobed leav es. Figs globular , without neck or
with a very sh ort, inconspicu ous one; size 2 inches in diam eter by 2-1/ 4 inches in
length; stalk short; color bright green; p ulp garn et, solid; qu ality good . Seas on m or e
p rolon ged than that of Tam eriout.
Aboucherchaou. (N am e signifies r ou gh, becau se of th e rugose char acter of the
leav es.) See d escrip tion by Trab ut (1904, 1923), an d Blin (1942), as Tham cingoult or
Thab ou hiab oult. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939b, 1942). Som etim es called
Tab ou yah bou lt, but this nam e is also used for th e variety Alekak e. Listed by
H an oteau an d Letourneu x (1872) as Abou harchaou, an d as not requ iring caprification.
Esp ecially interesting becau se it m atures about tw o w eeks earlier than other au tu m n
figs.
Tree vigorou s, erect, productive; leav es generally 3-lobed .
Figs oblate-sp herical, up to 2 inches in diam eter and 1-1/ 2 inches in length; ribs
slightly elevated ; eye lar ge, 1/ 4 inch across, open; scales green, chan ging to car m ine
with light m argin; color green; pulp dar k red ; flav or sw eet; qu ality good . Fruits too
w atery for d rying, spoiling even on the tree.
Akca. Described an d figu red by Ozb ek (1949). The nam e signifies w hitish, on
accou nt of the light color of the d ried fruit, w hich is mixed with oth er varieties for the
m arket in Izm ir, Tu rkey.
Trees n ot com m only plan ted ; leav es m ostly 5-lobed . Figs lar ge, oblate, resem bling
th ose of Sar i Lop; av erage w eight 66 gram s; stalk short; eye sm all but open; color light
green; pulp red . Used m ostly fresh; nu m ber of seed s per gram , 683.
Alekake (syn. Tab ou yah b oult in som e districts). Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri
(1939b, 1942). N am e signifies tend er or soft, on account of the consistency of th e
m atu re fruit. Probably th e variety d escribed an d illustrated by Trab u t (1904) und er th e
nam e Thaiad elst is the sam e as Alekak e at Tizi-Rached. See also Blin (1942). Alekake
resem bles Abou cherchaou, but its leav es have m ore lobes, the fruits ar e lar ger an d
m ore oblate, of sup erior qu ality, an d the seas on is 12 to 15 d ay s later.
Tree vigorous, sp read ing, prod uctive; leav es lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed .
Figs oblate, up to 2-1/ 4 inches in diam eter and 1-1/ 2 inches in length; stalk sh ort; eye

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

op en, 1/ 4 inch across; scales br ow n w hen m ature; color green; pulp red ; texture fine;
qu ality very good . One of th e best for table use; equ ally good d ried.
Amesas. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1942). Tw o different varieties ar e fou nd
at Mechtras und er this nam e, w hich m ean s d ull. Am esas E.A. Tree very p rod uctive;
leav es 5-lobed . Figs are sm all, globular , an d green, with rose-colored pulp that is
insipid and ferm ents read ily; qu ality of d ried fruit poor. Am esas E.P. Tree with leav es
n onlobed or shallowly 3-lobed ; figs sm all; stalk short; pulp pale rose, of fine texture bu t
tasteless.
Aranim-Amellal. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939b, 1942), w ho rep orts that
Aran im is m asculine for Tar an im t (r eed ); but the exact connection betw een the w ord
an d this var iety of fig is not clear . Am ellal m ean s w hite. See also Blin (1942).
H an oteau an d Letourneu x (1872) list Aran im as a var iety not requ iring caprification.
Tree of m od erat e vigor; leav es 5-lobed .
Figs m ediu m , short-pyriform , abou t the sam e size an d shape as those of Aran im Aberkan e; stalk sh ort; skin thin, par chm entlike, closely ad herent to th e m eat; eye
closed , with greenish-w hite scales bord ered brow n; color green; pulp red; flav or sw eet ;
qu ality very good . Defects ar e th e thin skin and the tend ency to split. Cou nts show an
av erage of 864 seed s for split fruits an d 744 for nonsplit fruits.
Bardajic (syns. Bar d ajik, Bar d ak jik). N am e from tw o Turkish w ord s, bar d ak ,
p itcher, an d jik, sm all, the fruit resem bling a w at er pitcher in general shape. See
accou nts by Eisen (1901), Roeding (1903, 1914), Rixford (1918a), N adir an d H alit (1929),
H ag an (1929), Condit (1920b, 1947), an d Ozbek (1949). A var iety grow n in coas tal
districts near Sm yrna, w here resid ents an d visitors becom e fam iliar with the early
m orning cries of the ped dler, Bar d ajic! Bar dajic! as he calls attention to the fresh figs
car ried in pan niers on th e back of a d on key.
Tree com p act, spread ing; leav es lar ge, 5-lobed, with shallow sinuses.
Figs lar ge near th e coas t, sm aller in the interior, p yriform , with p rom inent n eck; stalk
long, slend er (sh ort, according to Ozb ek); ribs distinct; eye sm all; color green; w hite
flecks scattered , sm all; skin thin, checking crisscross at m aturity; pulp scar let; flav or
sw eet. Qu ality excellent fresh, bu t n ot good for d rying becau se of th e d ar k, tou gh skin,
an d red color of p ulp.
Ozb ek gives the average w eight of Bar d ajic figs as 52 gram s an d the nu m ber of seed s
p er gram as 1057. Experience with th e Bar d ajic at Fresno California, has been
u nsatisfactory, on account of splitting of the fruit on the tree.
Blowers. Described by Eisen (1901), an d Rixford (1918a), as one of the var ieties
imp orted by the Bulletin Com pan y, San Fran cisco, in 1882, an d first plan ted on th e place
of R. B. Blow ers, Wood lan d ; never plan ted com m ercially, an d p robably lost. Figs
m ed ium , globose; ribs prom inent; color lem on yellow ; pulp pink.
Castelhano Branco (syn. Euchr io Bran co). See account by Mello Leotte (1901), an d
d escrip tion with illustrations by Bobon e (1932). The form er stat es that the w ord

Febru ary , 1955]


347

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

eu chr io is from the archaic eucha, chest, an d caixa case; i.e., fig of th e case. H e
also gives Euchr io Preto as a syn onym ; bu t Bobone p oints out distinctions in size,
color, an d flav or. Both requ ire caprification an d produce a second crop only.
Cas telhan o figs ar e turbinate, rou nd ed at ap ex; color green, obscurely tinted
chestnu t; pulp car mine; flav or agreeable; qu ality fair. Seas on m ed iu m . According to
Mello Leotte, these figs, prop erly m atured, ar e unrivaled in qu ality, an d bring high
p rices in the m arket.
Changelge (syn. Ghengelje). Listed by N ad ir an d H alit (1929), also by Condit an d
Baskay a (1948), as a Tu rkish fig, w ell kn ow n to grow ers but not wid ely plan ted.
Chefaki. Described by Minan goin (1931) as a Sm yrna-type fig from H am m am et,
Tunisia. Leav es lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed ; petiole short. Figs without distinct neck; skin thin,
glossy, pruin ose, yellow in color; eye nearly closed ; pulp red.
Cheker Injir (syns. Leker Injir, Sheker Injir, Seker). Described by Eisen (1901),
Roed ing (1903), Cond it (1947), an d Ozb ek (1949). The nam e signifies sugar fig. The
variety is grow n on the islan d of Chios; also in the sou thern par t of the Sm yrna fig
district for h om e consu m ption. Of no par ticular value in California, either fresh or
d ried .
Figs m edium , oblate-sp herical, with short neck; color greenish yellow ; ribs distinct;
pulp dar k straw berry in color; seed s sm all.
Ozb ek gives the average w eight of Cheker figs as 31 gram s an d the nu m ber of seed s
p er gram as 1,179. It has the sm allest seed s of an y of th e tw elve d escribed by Ozb ek.
Choer (syn. Biskra). Collected at Biskra, Algeria, by W. T. Swingle in 1900, an d
introd uced by the United States Dep ar tm en t of Agriculture as P.I. N o. 6,480. (See P.I.
Inven tory N o. 10.)
Tree very vigorou s; bran ches d rooping. Leaves very lar ge, n onlobed to 3- to 5lobed ; u pp er su rface dull; upper sinu ses shallow an d broad in 3-lobed leaf to d eep an d
m od erately br oad in 5-lobed leaf; mid dle lobe broad , sp atulate, som etim es au ricled;
bas e subcord ate; m argins crenat e (plate 13). Leav es p ractically im m une to m osaic, as
stat ed by Swingle (1928).
Figs lar ge, up to 2-1/ 4 inches in diam eter, turbinate, with very sh ort, thick neck and
short stalk; m an y specim ens trian gular in cross section; average w eight 62 gram s;
surface d ull, with d elicate bloom ; eye m ediu m to lar ge, op en; color grass green t o
greenish yellow ; pulp straw berry; flav or strong; qu ality p oor. Tests in California hav e
been u nfav orable on account of p oor qu ality of fruit an d tend ency to split. (Plate 14, B.)
Cueritesto (syn. Cesario). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). An
u ncom m on variety p rod ucing second -crop figs only, but in great abu nd an ce; ordinar ily
cap rified .
Leav es sm all, m ostly 3-lobed ; sinuses of m edium d epth. Figs below m ediu m size,
spherical, without n eck; color greenish yellow ; skin not very thick, rather difficult to
p eel; pulp light red ; flav or som ew hat pu ngen t.
Djaferi. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gab s, Tunisia, as a var iety requ iring
cap rification. Leav es sm all, 3-lobed , som e w ith sinuses indistinct. Figs spherical, with

348
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

very sh ort neck; ribs present; eye closed ; color light green; pulp bright red .
Djebali. Tw o green figs w ere d escribed und er this nam e by Minan goin (1931). N o.1,
from Gabs, Tunisia, is rep orted to yield w ell as the result of caprification. Figs sm all;
with spherical bod y and long, slend er neck; color light green; pulp red ; seed s
num erou s. N o.32, from Zarzis, requ ires cap rification. Figs with indistinct neck; skin
thick, light green in color; pulp brow n.
Fietta (syns. Jetta, Treccia). Described an d illustrat ed by Gu glielmi (1908), Vallese
(1909), an d De Rosa (1911). Cultivated in the province of Lecce.
Leav es lar ge, 5-lobed ; sinu ses d eep . Breba crop none. Second crop prolific;
com m only caprified . Second -crop figs lar ge, oblate-spherical, without n eck; stalk sh ort;
color greenish yellow ; skin checking irregularly, thin, not easily peeled ; pulp light red ,
sw eet, but som ew hat acid; seed s ab u nd an t. Consu m ed both fresh an d d ried.
Gk Lop. Described by Condit an d Baskaya (1948) an d Ozb ek (1949). Turkish nam e
signifies g reen d elicious. Recom m end ed for coas tal districts of Sm yrna w ith high
relative hu m idity.
Figs lar ge; stalk short; eye op en; color green, with light-straw berry pulp. Wh en
d ried , skin is lighter colored than that of Sar i Lop, bu t sugar content is low er.
Ozb ek gives the average w eight of Gk Lop figs as 71 gram s, an d the nu m ber of
seed s p er gram as 827.
Hilgard. Seed ling N o.153 from th e Maslin orchar d, Loom is; nam ed in honor of E. W.
Hilgar d ; d escribed by Rixford (1918a). Trees plan ted only for trial; var iety p robably
lost.
Figs m ediu m , oblate, lem on yellow ; eye op en, with pink bracts; neck very sh ort, or
n one; p ulp red; qu ality excellent. Fruits alm ost im m une from splitting.
Isly. Described by Trab ut (1901, 1904) as a new seedling fig suitable for d rying. See
also Blin (1942). Tree vigor ou s, rem arkably prolific, with lar ge leav es. Figs lar ge,
oblate, yellowish green; eye lar ge, op en; pulp red, sw eet, rich; seed s fertile.
Jadi (syn. Iadi). Described by Minan goin (1931) from H am m am et, Tu nisia. Leav es
m ed ium , 5-lobed . Figs oblate-spherical, with short neck an d nar row ribs; color
greenish yellow ; pulp red. Cap rification is reported to be necessar y.
Kalamata (syn. Messenia). A var iety im p orted by the University of California from
Athens, Greece, in 1930, an d rep orted to be id entical with the com m ercial fig of
Kalam ata. Pan os Th. Anag nostop oulos, Athens, rep orts in a letter d ated Mar ch 22,
1953, that the Kalam ata fig is the sam e as Sar i Lop of Turkey. See account by Condit
(1924). Description is from figs p roduced at Riversid e since 1933.
Figs m edium , sp herical to ob ovate; neck very short an d thick; ribs not p rom inent;
eye lar ge, open; surface som ew hat glossy, with d elicate bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge,
conspicuous; skin green, unat tractive, often discoloring an d checking crisscross at
m atu rity; pulp dar k straw berry; flav or rich, sw eet; qu ality good . Com m ercially inferior
becau se of poor skin color, d ar k pulp, an d ten d ency to split.

Febru ary , 1955]


349

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Karayaprak (syn Dlekgazi). Described by H ag an (1929), Cond it an d Baskay a (1948),


an d Ozb ek (1949). Grow n in som e par ts of th e Sm yrna fig district on account of its
resistan ce to fruit diseases an d insects. Figs sm aller an d skin coarser an d thicker than
that of Sar i Lop ; used both fresh an d d ried, m ostly in hom es.
Leav es m ostly 5-lobed , bu t m an y nonlobed , unusually d ar k green. Figs m ediu m ,
oblate; eye sm all; color yellowish green; pulp light straw berry.
Ozb ek gives the average w eight as 43 gram s, an d the nu m ber of seed s p er gram as
839.
Kassaba. Described by Eisen (1901), Roed ing (1903, 1914), Rixford (1918a), an d
Cond it (1947). Introd uced into California in 1882 by th e Bulletin Com p an y, San
Fran cisco, but never gr ow n com m ercially.
Trees vigor ous, upright; wid ely scattered am ong Sar i Lop trees in the Mean d er
Valley; also plan ted as a bord er tree at Kassab a. Leav es 3- or 5-lobed , m edium ,
som ew hat glossy ab ove; u pp er sinuses shallow an d nar r ow , low er very shallow , or
n one; base tru ncate to broad ly cord ate; m argins serrate.
Figs lar ge, tu rbinate, or som etim es oblat e; neck thick, short; stalk sh ort; ribs fairly
p rom inent an d elevated ; eye m edium , sm aller than that of Sar i Lop; su rface d ull; color
p ale green; pulp straw berry; flav or rich, sw eet; qu ality very good . Seas on late. Dried
figs read ily distinguishable by th e d ar k-red pulp. (Plate 15, A.)
Khadir. Described by Minan goin (1931) as a Sm yrna-type fig from Dra Tam ar ,
Tunisia. Leav es variable, som e sm all an d hear t-shap ed , others lar ger, d eeply 3-lobed;
p etiole long. Figs sm all, spherical, withou t neck; skin of fine texture, green in color; eye
closed ; pulp red.
Kouffi Vert. Described by Minan goin (1931) as a Sm yrna-typ e fig from Kala Srira,
Tunisia. Leav es m ed iu m , 5-lobed , low er lobes n ot clear ly d efined . Figs lar ge, sessile;
skin thick; color light green, d ar ker on ribs; pulp dar k red.
Lebi. Described an d figu red by Ozb ek (1949). Found occasionally in the gard ens of
th e Mean d er Valley. N ot a p opular variety, either fresh or d ried, but notable becau se
of its resistan ce to cold.
Leav es m ed iu m , gen erally 5-lobed; lobes som ew hat au ricled; base truncate. Figs
m ed ium , oblate; average w eight 31 gram s; eye sm all, open; scales pink; skin yellow ,
finely pu bescent, m ed ium thick, easy to p eel; pulp light red ; flav or fiat. N um ber of
seed s p er gram , 861.
Madoui. Described by Minan goin (1931) as a caprified fig from Dra Tam ar, Tu nisia.
Leav es lar ge, 5-lobed ; petiole long. Figs sm all, oblate, withou t neck; eye closed ; skin
thick, green in color; pulp hollow at the center, bright red.
Malaki Blanc (P.I. N o. 6,464). A Dam ascus fig, grow n in Algeria before introd uction
into th e United States in 1901. Figs m ediu m , yellow , with red pulp; not splitting w hen
rip e.
Mamari (P.I. N o. 6,463). Sam e sou rce as Malaki Blan c. Figs m ediu m , yellow , red
insid e; splitting w hen ripe.

350
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Maple-Leaved. Described by Eisen (1901) an d Roed ing (1903). A var iety im p orted
from Tu rkey by G. C. Roeding, an d given a local nam e d erived from th e form of th e
leaf. H e rep orted it to be a fig of inferior qu ality, of no value for d rying.
Merchini. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Dra Tam ar , Tunisia. Leav es
m ed ium , 3- to 5-lobed . Figs oblate, often oblique, sessile; skin thin, greenish yellow ;
pulp rose-colored ; seed s lar ge.
Mota (syns. Allam od a, Mod a). Described by Donno (1951a, 1952) as a variety of
Lecce Province.
Tree with green term inal bud s, an d 3- to 5-lobed leav es. Brebas rare. Second -crop
figs m ed ium , 2 inches long by 1-3/ 4 inches in diam eter, top -shap ed ; stalk short,
stron gly attached to th e bran ch; ribs nu m erous; eye op en; color light green; w hite
flecks scattered, nu m erou s; pulp light red , very sw eet very good for d rying. Seas on
early.
Mouzai. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gafsa, Tunisia. Leav es lar ge,
som ew hat concav e above. Figs lar ge, spherical; skin thin, sm ooth, yellow in color; p ulp
light red .
Panettaro (syns. Alban ega, Pan ettiero, Abban ega). Described an d figu red by Vallese
(1909); brief account by Guglielmi (1908); d escribed in d etail by Donno (1952) as
Alban ega.
Tree vigor ou s; leav es lar ge, 5- to 7-lobed ; term inal bud s green, according to Donn o
(1951a). Figs lar ge, oblate; stalk very sh ort; eye op en; color yellowish green; ribs
slightly elevated; skin checking; pulp light straw berry, filling the cavity; flav or sw eet,
very d elicate. One of the better figs w hen consu m ed fresh. It is not m uch used for
d rying on account of its late seas on of m atu rity.
Pasulito (syn. Pasuella). Described by Guglielm i (1908) an d De Rosa (1911). Rar ely
p rod uces brebas; second crop usually cap rified.
Tree robust; leav es lar ger than those of m ost oth er varieties, ordinar ily 5-lobed . Figs
spherical, with short stalk; color greenish yellow ; skin checking at m aturity; eye scales
rose-colored ; pulp red; seed s lar ge, nu m er ous. Usu ally consu m ed fresh.
Pazzo (syn. Paccio). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909); d escribed by
Guglielmi (1908), De Rosa (1911), an d Tam ar o (1948). Wid ely grow n in Terra dOtran to.
Tree m od erately vigorous; leav es m ostly 5- to 7-lobed . Figs spherical, m edium , with
short stalk; eye lar ge; scales rose-colored ; skin yellowish green; pulp bright red; seed s
lar ge, very nu m erou s. Quality m ediocre w hen d ried.
Rixford. Seedling N o. 114 from the Maslin orchar d , Loom is; nam ed by W. T.
Swingle in hon or of G. P. Rixford . See accou nts by Swingle (1909) an d Rixford (1918a).
Distribu ted as a prom ising variety, since at Loom is the eye of m ost figs becam e sealed
with a d rop of gu m ; found to be unsatisfactory, on account of d ar k-straw berry p ulp
an d inferior qu ality w hen d ried .
Round White Smyrna. See d escription by Eisen (1901). An unid entified var iety,
imp orted from Turkey.
Sesso (syns. Sessu ne, Peloso, Pilosa, Piloso, Lungo Bian co). Described an d pictured
by Vallese (1909). Described by Guglielmi (1908) an d De Rosa (1911). The var iety Fara,

Febru ary , 1955]


351

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

d escribed by Donno (1952), ap p ear s to be the sam e as Sesso.


Tree vigorou s, with green term inal buds, according to Don no (1951a). Leav es lar ge,
gen erally 5-lobed . Brebas non e. Second crop ab und an t an d esteem ed for d rying; figs
resistan t to rain dam age.
Second -crop figs lar ge, oblate-spherical, flattened at th e ap ex; stalk short; ribs
num erou s; eye op en; color can ar y yellow , d otted with w hite flecks; skin thick, easily
p eeled ; pulp red ; flav or very sw eet, d elicate.
Sigilli. Described an d figured by Ozb ek (1949) as a var iety found rar ely in the
Mean d er Valley of Tu rkey. Fruit consu m ed m ostly fresh.
Figs lar ge, oblate, with sh ort stalk, strongly attached to the bran ch; av erage w eigh t
58 gram s; eye op en; skin green, n ot easily peeled ; pulp light red ; flav or flat. Num ber of
seed s p er gram , 930.
Souaba-el-Adjia Blanche. Described by Minan g oin (1931), from Menzel Tem ine,
Tunisia, as a var iety requ iring caprification.
Leav es above m edium , 5-lobed; upper sinuses d eep, alm ost closed, petiolar sinu s
op en; p etiole thick an d sh ort. Figs m edium , 2 inches long by 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter,
p yriform ; stalk very short; skin very thin, light green in color; pulp slightly hollow , light
red .
Stanford. See d escription an d accou nts by Rixford (1918a, 1920b), Condit (1922a,
1947), an d Close (1929). Im p orted by th e Bulletin Com pan y, San Fran cisco, in 1882, an d
established on the Stan ford ran ch, Vina. Cuttings distribu ted by W. H . Sam son,
Corning, an d by G. P. Rixford ; nam ed in hon or of Governor Lelan d Stan ford . Variety
com m only called Stan ford N onsplitting becau se of its resistan ce to splitting in
u nfav orable w eath er.
Trees som ew hat m ore vigorous an d d enser in grow th than those of Sar i Lop , as
show n by Condit (1941a, fig. 16); leav es with d eep sinuses an d lyrat e m argins, thu s
read ily distinguishable, even in the nursery row , from Sar i Lop, the leav es of w hich
hav e en tire m argins. Mostly regard ed with disfav or by grow ers, on account of low
tree yields, light w eight, an d m edium size of fruit.
Figs m edium , spherical; neck sh ort, som ew hat flattened ; av erage w eight 48 gram s;
stalk short; ribs nar row ; eye m edium , op en; surface d ull, with d elicate bloom ; w hite
flecks fairly lar ge an d conspicuous; color g reen; pulp dar k straw berry; flav or rich;
eating qu ality good . Dried figs light in color.
Sultane Bi-longue. Described by Minan goin (1931), from Djerba, Tunisia, as a
variety requ iring fcond ation.
Leav es lar ge, 3-lobed ; sinuses nearly closed . Figs very m uch like th ose of Bezoult
Rhad em at Kala Srira, bu t th e skin color is yellow rath er than violet; pulp red . (See
Besoul-el-Khad em , p .356.)
Sultani (P.I. N o. 6,462). Originally grow n at Dam ascu s, Syria; later introd uced into
California from Rouiba, Algeria, in 1901. (See P.I. Inventory N o.10.)
Tree slow -gr ow ing; nod al sw ellings on branches very conspicuou s. Leav es bad ly
m ottled by m osaic; var iety no lon ger grow n. Description is from trees an d fruit at
Riversid e.
Figs lar ge, green; w hite flecks unu su ally lar ge an d conspicuou s; su rface glossy; p ulp
bright straw berry; qu ality fair. Very suscep tible to splitting.

352
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Tabelout. Briefly d escribed by Trab ut (1904, 1923), an d Bu n (1942), as Thab elout;


d escribed an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939b, 1942). N am e from belou t, s m all glan d ,
p robably on account of the sm all size of th e fruit.
Tree rather vigorous, prod uctive; leav es 3-lobed , often nonlobed . Figs sm all, shortp yriform ; stalk short; eye m edium ; color green; pulp red ; flav or su bacid . Quality good
fresh; too sm all for com m ercial m ar ket.
Tabelout (large-fruited). Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939b, 1942), as a
variety at Tizi-Rached . Similar to Tab elou t, but with lar ger fruits. Figs of inferior
qu ality.
Tadefouit. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939b, 1942). Grow n at Tizi-Rached,
w here it is som etim es erron eou sly called Imlloui. Eisen (1901) lists Thad hefouith as a
w hite fig from Kabylia, w hich d oes not requ ire cap rification.
Tree m od erately vigorous. Leav es generally 3-lobed . Figs short-pyriform , with neck
very inconspicuous; stalk short; eye m edium ; color green; pulp red , sw eet. Quality
good , both fresh an d d ried.
Taharit. Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939b, 1942). One variety called Tar lit at
Tam azirt, an d an other know n as Taid elt at Sidi-Aich, ar e both very similar to Tah ar it.
Tree vigorous. Leav es 5-lobed . Figs oblate-spherical, without neck; stalk short; ey e
op en; color yellowish green; pulp light red; flav or m ild. Quality good fresh, bu t
m ed iocre d ried.
Takourchit. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1942). Trees found near Sidi-Aich,
w here this variety is som etim es called Azigza ou. Tree m od erat ely vigorou s, erect.
Leav es 3- to 5-lobed . Figs m ed iu m , globular; eye lar ge, op en; color light green; p ulp
red .
Tameriout (syns. Taam rou th, Thaam riout, Bou giotte, an d erroneou sly, Imlloui).
Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939b, 1942). N am e from Ait Aam ar, near Bou gie,
w here th e variety originated. Thaam riout, briefly d escribed an d illustrat ed by Mazires
(1920), an d by Trab ut (1904, 1923), as very com m on near Tizi-Ouzou, m ay be the sam e
variety. See also Bu n (1942) an d Montagnac (1952). The bulk of d ried figs at Bou gie
consists of Tam eriout; it is later in m atu ring an d m ore sensitive to d rou gh t an d heat
than Tar an im t. Successfully introd uced into California in 1950 as P.I. N o. 153,693.
Tree vigorous, erect. Leav es 5-lobed .
Figs p yriform , with prom inent neck; stalk short; eye m edium ; color light green; m eat
thin, w hite; pulp red, very sw eet. Quality good, fresh or d ried .
Taranimt (syns. Thaar an im t, Tag ou aou t). See d escrip tion an d illustration by Trab u t
(1904, 1923). Descriptions by Mazires (1920), Mauri (1939b, 1942), an d Blin (1942). See
also Montagnac (1952). N am e signifies r eed, possibly becau se the figs ar e d ried on
reed trays in the m ou ntains of Kabylia. It is the principal fig of Tizi-Ouzou; m ost of th e
orchard s in the Sebaou Valley ar e plan ted to it, as the yield is generally better than from
Tam eriou t; it is som ew hat ear lier in m atu ring than th e latter, bu t m ore exacting in
cap rification. Introd uced into California recently as P.I. N o. 153,694. H an oteau an d

Febru ary , 1955]


353

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Letou rn eu x (1872) list Thar an im t as Sm yrna-type, prod ucing brebas as w ell as second crop figs.
Tree com p act, vigorous, p rod uctive. Leav es gen erally 3-lobed .
Figs pyriform ; neck not pr om inent; stalk over 1/ 4 inch in length; eye m ed ium ; color
green; m eat m ed iu m thick; pulp red, very sw eet. Quality good , both fresh an d d ried .
Taurisano. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909), an d Donn o (1952), as a
variety grow n in Lecce Province, w here grow ers m aintain that it requ ires cap rification.
Tree lar ge. Leav es m edium , generally 3-lobed, with shallow sinuses. Twigs an d bud s
d escribed by Donn o (1951a).
Breba crop prod uced only in fav orable seasons; figs sm all, top -shap ed, greenish
yellow ; pulp straw berry.
Second -crop figs oblate-sp herical; stalk short; color light green; pulp rose red . Seas on
second w eek in August. Used m ostly for d rying in spite of tou gh skin inferior flav or,
an d nu m erous seed s.
Tazarift. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939b, 1942). N am e signifies alum ,
p robably on account of the acid flav or of th e m atu re fruit; cultivated at Tizi-Rached, but
n ot w ell know n.
Figs globular , with short neck; stalk sh ort; eye m ediu m ; color green, with d elicate
bloom an d w hite flecks; pulp car m ine. Fresh fruit esteem ed becau se of its distinctive
flav or; d ried fruit too sm all for m arket.
Trs um Prato. Described an d illustrat ed by Bob one (1932) Collected in Algar ve, an d
believed to be of the Sm yrna typ e. Figs m edium , pyriform , with p rom inen t n eck; skin
greenish yellow , sm ooth, som etim es checking; pulp rose-colored ; flav or agreeable;
qu ality good .
Verdescone (syns. Verd esco at Mesagne; Verd one at Tar an to; Acriesto at Carosino).
Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Cultivated esp ecially in the Tar an to d istrict;
consu m ed fresh an d d ried . It p rod uces few if an y brebas.
Leav es m edium , usually 5-lobed , with d eep sinuses. Figs lar ge, flask shap ed , with
p rom inent neck; ribs slightly elevat ed ; skin green, m ed ium thick; pulp red; flav or ver y
ag reeable.
West. Seed ling N o. 14 from the Maslin orchar d , Loom is; nam ed by W. T. Swingle
(1909) in h onor of W. B. West, Stockton. See d escription by Rixford (1918a). Rep orted
to bear a fair first crop; distribu ted as a p rom ising var iety, bu t d iscar d ed by grow ers
becau se the fruits w ere inferior to Sar i Lop in size an d color.
Wilson. Described by Eisen (1901) an d Rixford (1918a). Variety distributed by
United States Depar tm ent of Agricultu re in 1891, an d nam ed in hon or of the secretary,
Jam es Wilson. Grow n only for trial, an d prob ab ly lost.
Yediver. Described an d figu red by Ozb ek (1949) as a var iety occasionally grow n in
th e Mean d er Valley.
Figs m edium , oblate, with short stalk; averag e w eight 45 gram s; eye op en; skin thin,
pubescen t, yellow ; pulp red ; flav or sw eet, ar om atic. Nu m ber of seed s per gram , 930.

354
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Smyrna-type Figs with Skin Dark (Various Shades of Violet


to Black); Pulp White or Amber
Euscaire (syn. Eu scaire Preto). Introd u ced as P.I. N o. 18,851 in 1906, with the
Chiswick collection of English figs; listed but not d escribed by Eisen (1901); requ ires
cap rification in California.
Tree u p right, op en; term inal buds br ow n. Leav es m ed ium , glossy above; u pp er
sinuses of m ed ium d epth an d wid th, low er sinuses shallow ; base cord ate, som etim es
tru ncate or even d ecu rrent; m argins w av y, coar sely crenate; textu re harsh, thick. (Plate
13.)
Figs m edium , pyriform , with a prom inent neck; av erage w eight 40 gram s stalk thick,
up to 1/ 2 inch long; ribs nar row , elevated ; eye m edium , op en; scales violet; w hite flecks
lar ge, conspicu ou s; color black; skin checking lengthwise, as sh ow n by Cond it (1941 a,
fig. 8, A); pulp am ber; flav or rich, sw eet. Quality excellent fresh, but inferior an d sm all
in size w hen d ried. Of no com m ercial im p ortan ce. (Plate 15, B.)
Hamriti. Described by Minan goin (1931) as a variety requ iring caprification at Kala
Srira, Tu nisia.
Leav es m ed ium , 3- to 5-lobed ; sinuses d eep, som etim es closed . Figs with short, thick
neck; skin thin; eye alm ost closed ; color d ark violet, with ban d s alm ost black; pulp
am ber.
Scancaniso (syn. Fico d ella Villa of Cavolini). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese
(1909); probably the sam e var iety d escribed by Guglielmi (1908) as Scan saniso. Plan ted
m ore com m only than Turco; occasionally prod uces a breba crop in fav orable seas ons;
cap rification gen erally practiced .
Leav es lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed . Figs lar ge, broad ly turbinate; n eck an d stalk b oth sh ort;
color rosy violet; skin checking; pulp w hitish. Highly esteem ed for fresh consu m ption.
Smyrna-type Figs with Skin Dark (Various Shades of Red, Brown,
or Violet to Black); Pulp Various Shades of Red
Abougandjour. Described an d illustrat ed by Mauri (1942). N am e signifies long
beak, ow ing to the par ticular ly long stalk. Grow n near Fort N ational; also com m on at
Mechtras, Boghni, an d Dra-el-Mizan , w here it is appreciated for its p roductiveness an d
good keeping qu alities.
Tree vigorou s, com p act. Leaves rat h er sm all, 3-lobed . Figs globular ; neck sh ort; size
m ed ium ; stalk over 1/ 2 inch in length; color violet-black; pulp gar net, solid.
Adjaffar. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1942). Trees w ell distributed in the
Sou m m am Valley; som etim es confused with Azeud jar ; know n as Aze goush by som e
grow ers near Sidi-Aich.
Tree vigorous, very p rod u ctive. Leav es generally 5-lobed ; p etiole often tinged with
red .
Figs globular , ab ove m edium ; neck m issing; skin rath er thick; color violet, with
scattered w hite flecks; pulp red ; qu ality good .
Aghan. Introd uced from Afghan istan und er P.I. N o. 134,750, as a hard y fig, able to
withstan d zero tem p eratures. At Riversid e it produced sm all, p urple figs with d eep
straw berry p ulp that w ere of no par ticular value.

Febru ary , 1955]


355

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Agouarzguilef. Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1939b, .1942). Abachlaou, also


fou nd at Tizi-Rached , m ay be the sam e.
Tree vigorous, diffuse, very p rod uctive; leav es 5-lobed.
Figs m ediu m , oblate-sp herical, slightly obliqu e; stalk short; neck n one, ribs n ot
p rom inent; color black, with w hite flecks; pulp red , sw eet. Quality good for d rying, bu t
inferior to Azeud jar . Seas on later than Tar an im t.
Agoussim. Described an d illustrat ed by Mauri (1942). Found in the region of SidiAich.
Tree m od erat ely vigorous, diffuse, very p rod uctive. Leav es 5-lobed ; p etiole slend er,
tinged with red .
Figs m edium , globular , withou t neck; stalk sh ort; color violet-black, d ar ker at the
ap ex; pulp gar n et, of good qu ality. Seas on som etim es earlier than that of Tam eriou t.
Aranim-Aberkane. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939b, 1942). The w ord
ab erkan e signifies black; it is listed by Trab ut (1904) an d Blin (1942) as a black fig.
Tree m od erat ely vigor ous, som ew hat erect. Leav es 3- to 5-lobed , with nar row an d
d eep sinu ses.
Figs m edium , short-pyriform , with neck an d stalk both sh ort; skin thin,
p ar chm entlike; eye half op en; color black with w hite flecks; m eat thin; pulp red , sw eet.
Quality excellent fresh, bu t inferior d ried on account of tou gh skin. Fruit inclined to
split in w et w eat h er. Split figs av erage 1,008 fertile seed s; sound figs, 884.
Averane (syn. Aberakm ou ch at Mekla). Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939b,
1942). N am e signifies stran ger, probably becau se of its introd uction from an oth er
place into Tizi-Rached , or even into Kabylia.
Tree vigorous, com p act an d erect, very p r od uctive. Leav es gen erally 5-lobed ; petiole
slend er, green, tinged with car m ine. Trab ut (1904, 1923) briefly d escribed Averan e as
hav ing nonlobed leav es. See also Blin (1942).
Figs below m edium , globular , withou t neck; stalk sh ort; eye p ar tly op en, scales
tinged with car m ine; color black; pulp red, sweet. Quality good . Seas on fairly ear ly.
Avouzegar. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1942). N am e signifies r eddish,
owing to th e char acteristic violet-red tint of fruit at m aturity.
Tree vigor ou s, diffu se, very prod uctive. Leaves 5-lobed . Figs globular , flattened at
th e ap ex, m edium in size, reddish violet in color; eye sm all, closed; pulp red . Of fair
qu ality, bu t too sm all after d rying.
Azendjar. See brief account by Trab ut (1904, 1923), an d Blin (1942), as Azenjar .
Described an d pictured by Mau ri (1939b, 1942). H an oteau an d Letou rn eux (1872) list
Ajenjar as a com m on fig, bear ing tw o crops. N am e signifies g ray-green, on accou nt
of the green tint, w hich p ersists even on the m ature fruit. Figs regard ed by Kabyles as
th e best of d ried figs; not acceptab le in m arket, h ow ever, on account of black color.
Tree very vigor ous, diffu se, p rod uctive; low er bran ches tend ing to d roop. Leaves
lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed .
Figs m edium , 1-3/ 4 by 2 inches, short-pyriform , with neck p ractically none; ey e
m ed ium ; color black, d otted with w hite flecks, often shad ed green tow ar d the eye; p ulp
d ar k red , very sw eet. Quality very good , both fresh an d d ried.

356
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Bardakjik Black. Described by Eisen (1901) as a black fig of Asia Min or, w here it is
consid ered one of th e best for fresh consu m p tion.
Barli. Tw o ap par en tly different Sm yrna-type varieties, d escribed as Bar li by
Minan goin (1931). One, from Dra Tam ar, Tunisia, has sm all, elongated figs, with
red dish skin an d light-red pulp. The other, from Monas tir, prod uces figs that ar e
oblate, ribbed , an d withou t stalk; skin thin, light green; pulp red; seed s num erous.
Belmandil. (syn. Cara Lisa). Described by Mello Leotte (1901). N am e com es fro m
bello, fine, an d m an dil (roup a), linen, in reference to the texture of the skin.
Sp ecim ens collected at Loul, Portu gal, an d d escribed by Bobon e (1932) u nd er th e nam e
Cara Lisa, w ere very sim ilar , an d probably identical to Belm an d il.
Breba crop n on e; second crop requ ires caprification. Second -crop figs globular ,
withou t n eck, sm ooth; stalk short; color green tinged with violet; pulp car m ine; flav or
sw eet an d ag reeable; qu ality good .
Besoul-el-Khadem. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) an d by Minan goin
(1931) as Bezoult Rhad em from Gabs, an d by Vald eyron an d Crossa-Raynau d (1950)
as Bezoul-el-Khad em . The last au thors stat e that this nam e p robably includ es several
different clon es, having figs of similar shap e and of violet color. Leav es 3- to 5-lobed , or
often n onlobed . Figs m edium ; skin thick, violet in color; p ulp d ar k red, hollow at
center.
Minan goin also d escribed Bezoult Rhad em or Bou Defi from Tar zis as a d ar k-violet
fig, with pom egran ate-red pulp. Furth erm or e, he record ed a var iety of th e sam e nam e
from Kala Srira, prod ucing lar ge, pyriform figs, violet in color, with red pulp. The
latter requ ires caprification.
Biddin-el-Brel. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Dra Tam ar , Tunisia, as a
Sm yrna-typ e fig. Tree p rod uctive. Leav es sm all, 3-lobed , or som etim es nonlobed . Figs
with long, slend er neck; eye sm all; skin thin; color reddish violet, with thin lines nearly
black; pulp red ; seed s num er ous.
Bou-Ang. Described by Minan goin (1931) as a variety requ iring caprification at
Gab s, Tu nisia. Leav es lar ge, 3-lobed; upp er sinuses very d eep; petiole slend er. Figs
with sh ort n eck; eye closed; color greenish yellow , tinged with violet; pulp red .
Bou-Harrak. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Ras-el-Djebel, Tunisia as a
Sm yrna-typ e fig of m od erate qu ality. Figs lar ge, som ew hat oblate, with short neck;
skin thin, dar k violet; pulp red .
Castelhano Preto (syns. Euchr io Preto, Castelhan o d a Rocha). Described by Mello
Leotte (1901) an d Bobon e (1932); the latter illu strat es three different form s, as gr ow n at
Cacela an d Silves in Algar ve.
Figs turbinate to p yriform ; stalk up to 1/ 2 inch lon g; color d ar k violet; pulp dar k
chestnu t, coarse, sw eet; qu ality good .
Habtir. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929), an d Minan goin (1931), as a fig
d eep violet or black in color, sm all to m edium in size neck not distinct; eye n early
closed ; pulp dar k red . Accord ing to Minan goin, it requ ires cap rification.
Kara Injir. Described by H agan (1929) as a black fig, grow n in n orthern an d eastern
Tu rkey. Fruit rather d ry, thick-skinned, an d gen erally poor in qu ality.

Febru ary , 1955]


357

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Khalouli. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Djerba, Tunisia, as a variety


fcond er.
Leav es rath er lar ge, 3-lobed ; sinu ses d eep , near ly closed. Figs spherical, sm all, 1-1/ 2
inches in diam eter; stalk short; skin rather thick, d ar k violet in color; pulp red .
Kouffi Rouge. Described by Minan goin (1931) as a var iety requ iring caprification at
Kala Srira, Tunisia.
Leav es lar ge, 7 by 7 inches, 5-lobed; upper sinuses very d eep. Figs lar ge, sessile,
som ew hat oblate; skin thin, light green, tinged with wine red at the ap ex; ribs violet;
pulp red ; seed s num erous.
Lugliatico (syns. Lugliar olo, Migliar olo). Described by Porta (1592), Sem m ola (1845,
with figure), Gasp ar rini (1845, as Ficu s p olym orp ha var. julian a), an d by Sav astan o
(1885), as a fig of m edium size, pu rplish black in color, with rosy p ulp. Pasqu ale (1876)
d escribed it as a spherical fig; color green, shad ed with black.
Marabout (syns. Sultan e d u Mar ab ou t, Aseltan i). Introd uced in 1928 at requ est of
University of California by United States Depar tm ent of Agriculture, und er P.I. N o.
77,480, from E. Rollan d, Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria. Corresp ond ence with N. Mau ri, Algiers,
indicates that this is the sam e as Aseltan i, a variety very little plan ted , having lar ge,
colored fruit, of no valu e for d rying. This m ay be the one w hich Trab ut (1904)
d escribed an d pictured as Thab ou kal (Tab ou kal) or Sultan e, with a long n eck like that of
a w ater jar .
Tree in California u nusually vigorous, with thick bran ches, form ing a d ense, com pact
top . Leav es lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed ; u pper sinuses shallow , nar row , low er sinuses n one, or
very shallow ; base shallowly cord ate; m argins crenate; p etiole green, tinged with pink.
Figs lar ge, up to 2-1/ 4 inches in diam eter an d 3 inches in length, pyriform , with
rou nd ed apex; neck very p rom inent, often 3/ 4 inch long, som etim es curved an d
som ew hat an gular ; av erage w eight 66 gram s; stalk short, or often up to 1/ 2 inch long;
ribs nar row , slightly elevat ed , prom inent on account of early coloration d eeper than
bod y, eye lar ge, open, bu t ostiole closed by scales; surface glossy, with prom inent
bloom ; w hite flecks sm all, scattered, conspicuous; color purplish black on bod y, shad ing
to light green on the neck; m eat w hite, thick; pulp straw berry, rath er coar se in texture;
flav or rich, sw eet. Quality very good fresh. Seas on later than that of Sar i Lop ; figs
con tinue to m ature over a lon g period . A prom ising var iety for the fresh-fruit m arket.
(Plate 14, A.) See also Condit (1941a, fig. 2, T).
Mor. Described an d figured by Ozb ek (1949). N am e signifies violet, on accou nt of
th e violet color of the fresh an d d ried fruit. Trees scar ce in Turkish gar d ens. Figs
lar ge, oblate, with long stalk; av erage w eight 55 gram s; eye sm all, par tly open; color
light green, tinged with pu rple; pulp red . Num ber of seed s p er gram , 793.
Mor Gz (literally, violet au tu m n). Described by Ozb ek (1949) as a var iety rar ely
fou nd in the Mean d er Valley.
Leav es m ediu m , 5-lobed . Figs ab ove m edium , sp herical; stalk m ediu m lon g; eye
sm all, par tly open; skin thick, violet on a green background ; pulp red , fibrous; flav or
fiat. Consu m ed fresh. Num ber of seed s p er gram , 861.

358
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Napoletana. Described by Donn o (1951a, 1952) from Lecce Province of Italy.


Bran ches with brick-red term inal bud s an d 3- to 5-lobed leav es. Grow ers car efully an d
rep eatedly caprify the figs of this var iety. Brebas ar e seld om p rod uced . These tw o facts
distinguish it from N ap olitaine, d escribed elsew here.
Second -crop figs m edium , obovat e to p yriform ; stalk up to 3/ 8 inch in length; ribs
num erou s; eye op en, scales yellowish or violet; color green, tinged with violet; w hite
flecks scattered , nu m er ou s; pulp light red . Consu m ed m ostly fresh. Seas on late, m idAugu st to October.
Passacanne. Described by De Rosa (1911). Tree robust. Leav es usually 5-lobed . Figs
oblate; stalk short; eye sm all, scales colored car mine-violet; skin violet; pulp salm onrose; seed s m ed iu m , scattered . Ordinar ily consum ed fresh.
Purple Bulletin Smyrna. Descriptions by Eisen (1901) an d Roeding (1903) conflict in
certain d etails, such as shap e, neck, an d stalk. Includ ed in the fig im p ortation from
Tu rkey by th e Bulletin Com pan y, San Fran cisco, in 1883.
Figs lar ge, oblate-pyriform , with short neck; color p urplish br ow n, with lar ge w hite
flecks; pulp am ber to light straw berry. Qu ality good fresh, bu t p oor d ried, on accou n t
of tou gh skin an d u nattractive color.
Purple Smyrna. A var iety d escribed by Eisen (1901) an d Roeding (1903, 1914).
Im p orted from th e Sm yrna d istrict by G. C. Roed ing, Fresno. Tree a d ense grow er.
Figs sm all, globular , purplish black. Quality good fresh or d ried . Of no par ticular valu e.
Rherabi (syn. Corbeau ). Described by Minan goin (1931) from Ras-el-Djebel, Tunisia,
as a var iety requ iring caprification.
Leav es lar ge, 3-lobed ; sinuses of m ediu m d epth, open. Figs spherical, ab ov e
m ed ium , 1-7/ 8 inches in diam eter; skin of fine texture, distinctly ribbed; stalk very
short; eye closed ; color black; pulp solid , red .
Salatello (syn. Salated dhu ). Described by De Rosa (1911). Tree lacking in vigor, with
bran ches sh ort-jointed . Leav es lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed. Figs oblate; stalk very sh ort; color
green, tinged with violet-br ow n; pulp car m ine; seed s lar ge, num erou s; flav or insipid.
Soltanine. Described briefly by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929). Probably the sam e fig
d escribed by Minan goin (1931) u nd er th e nam e Soltan i, from Dra Tam ar, Tunisia,
requ iring caprification.
Leav es lar ge, 3-lobed . Figs m edium , sp herical, with elon gat ed neck; skin of fine
textu re, red dish violet in color; pulp dar k red; qu ality very good .
Taklit. Described an d illustrat ed by Man n (1942). N am e signifies n egress, on
accou nt of black color of fruit. Spar sely cultivat ed in the valley of th e Sou m m am .
Tree vigorous, very prod uctive. Leaves 5-lobed . Figs globular , sm all; color black;
very few if an y w hite flecks; pulp d eep red; qu ality good .
Taroumant. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1942) from a single tree at BeniOurlis. N am e signifies g renad e, p robably from the ap pear an ce of the red pulp in
fruits split after rain. Figs lar ge, greenish violet; pulp gar net, texture coarse; qu ality
p oor.
Techich (syn. Assel). Described by Minan goin (1931) as a Sm yrna-typ e variety fro m
Menzel Temine, Tunisia.

Febru ary , 1955]


359

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Leav es sm all, generally 3-lobed , with som e 5-lobed or even nonlobed ; sinuses d eep,
op en. Figs below m ed iu m , 1-1/ 2 by 1-3/ 8 inches, pyriform ; stalk practically none; skin
very thin, light brow n in color; pulp red .
Turco. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909). Trees lar ge, with sm all, 5-lobed
leav es; not com m only fou nd . Figs below m edium , ovoid; stalk short; color violet; p ulp
red .
Zafrani. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Monastir, Tu nisia. Leav es m ediu m , 3lobed ; upper sinuses d eep, closed; p etiole short. Figs sm all; neck short; skin rather
thick, d ar k violet in color; ribs p resent; pulp light red . An attractive fruit, requ iring
cap rification.
Smyrna-type Figs Lacking Complete Descriptions
Hammani. Described by Minan goin (1931) from H am m am et, Tu nisia, as a var iety
that requ ires cap rification. Leaves below m ediu m , 5-lobed; upper sinu ses d eep, op en.
Figs som ew hat oblate, 1-1/ 2 by 1-3/ 4 inches; stalk very short; color light yellow .
Khlouth. Described by Minan goin (1931) from El Oudiane, Tu nisia. Leav es very
lar ge, 5-lobed ; sinuses d eep an d open; petiole long, up to 4 inches. Figs lar ge; neck
short; ribs present; skin thick, glossy, light green in color. Requ ires caprification.
Teen Kazzi. A Sm yrna-typ e fig, introd uced in 1927 fr om Beiru t, Syria, u nd er P.I. N o.
72,615. N o prod uction of fruit in California.
Thaaranimt Entael Hadjar (syn. Azerou at Tizi-Ouzou). Described by Trab ut (1923).
Tree vigorou s, with d roop ing branches; leav es lar ge. Figs light green in color; n eck
elon gated . Fruit easily har vested , becau se it d ries on the tree; w ell regard ed in the
m arket.
Thamkarkor Rose. Described by Trab ut (1904, 1923) as a sm all, round fig, born e so
p rofu sely as to han g like grap es on the twigs. Observed at Sedd ouk, w here the sm all,
d ried fruits w ere som etim es sou ght by consu m ers. See also Blin (1942).
Zidi. Described an d illustrat ed in color by Vald eyron an d Cr ossa-Raynau d (1950) as
a Tu nisian var iety prod ucing a second crop only. Tree of lar ge size. Leav es often ver y
lar ge. Figs lar ge, violet-black; u sed fresh. Caprification necessar y.
The following varieties, listed an d very briefly d escribed by Trab u t (1904, 1923), m ay
be of th e Sm yrna typ e: Timlouit, Thaao ust, Thah ar chou, Thazg ouar t, an d Thaar lit.
H an oteau an d Letourneux (1872) list five kind s from Kabylia, believed to requ ire
cap rification: Thar an im t, El H ad j, Abou zou ggar , Mezzith, an d Thaza icht.
VARIETIES OF THE SAN PEDRO TYPE
San Ped ro-type figs com bine th e fruit-setting p eculiarities of both the Sm yrna an d th e
Com m on typ e on on e tree in a single an nual cycle. First crop figs (brebas) ar e of th e
Com m on type, an d d evelop par thenocarpically. Second -crop figs ar e of the Sm yrna
typ e, th e syconia d rop ping u nless stim ulated by p ollination an d fertilization of the lon gstyled flow ers.
All of th e tw en ty-one var ieties includ ed in the list of

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San Ped ro-type figs bear a m ore or less ab u ndan t crop of brebas. Since par th en ocar pic
d evelop m en t of second -crop figs is not a fixed char acter, the inclusion of certain
varieties or th e om ission of others m ay be qu estioned . An exam ple of a perplexing
variety is the King, w hich, without caprification, d rop s p ractically all of the m ain crop at
Riversid e, bu t m atures a lar ge p ercentage in coastal clim ates. Drap d Or is includ ed in
th e San Ped ro group , althou gh at Riversid e a sm all nu m ber of second -crop figs reach
m atu rity without th e stim ulus of cap rification. The following var ieties ar e divid ed into
tw o grou ps, based on th e color of skin an d pulp.
San Pedro-type Figs with Skin Green; Pulp Red
Cachpeiro Branco (p robable synonym s ar e Lam p o Bran co, Vindim o Bran co, San ta
Catarina, Rom a Branco). Described by Mello Leotte (1901) an d Bobone (1932);
illustrat ed also by th e latter. Cachop o, d escribed by Mello Leotte, m ay also be th e
sam e, although he rep orted the second crop set fruit without cap rification. Brebas
m atu re in Algar ve from th e m iddle of May to the end of Ju ne, w hile the second crop
rip ens in the m iddle of Au gust.
Brebas p yriform to turbinate, with thick neck an d short stalk; color greenish yellow .
Second -crop figs oblate-sp herical, without neck; p ulp rosy chestnut; texture coarse;
qu ality good .
Colombro (syns. Colum bo, Colom bra, Colum m one, Colom bon e, Colum baro, an d
p robably Colom bo Pazz o). Described by Sem m ola (1845, with illustration) by
Gasp ar rini (1845) as Colom br o; by Savastan o (1885) as Colom b o; by Vallese (1909) as
Colum m one, with illustration of leav es; by Siniscalchi (1911) as Colu m bro; an d by
Donn o (1951b) as Colum bar o. According to Vallese, the nam es Colum bo, Colom bon e,
etc., ar e p robably ap plied to different varieties with a profuse breba crop, com m only
called colu m m i or colom bi. Sav astan o stat ed that cap rification is indispensable for
Colom b o; Vallese, how ever, expressed d oubt in the m atter, since in som e districts the
p ractice of caprification is extend ed to all var ieties, w hether they requ ire it or not. De
Rosa (1911) fou nd that Colom b o Pazz o requ ired cap rification Donno d escribes th e tw o
crop s of Colu m baro in d etail, but d oes n ot m ention cap rification. Colom br o is gr ow n
in central Lecce Province an d near Cap e Leuca.
The tree has light-green term inal bud s and m ostly 5-lobed leav es; see Donn o (1951a)
for accou nt of bud s an d twigs.
Brebas n ot d escribed by Vallese, bu t rep orted by Sav as tan o to be sm all, sp herical,
green in color. Accord ing to Donn o (1951b) the brebas are lar ge, pyriform , light green
in color; pulp light red .
Second -crop figs (after Don no) m edium , 2 by 2 inches, sp herical; stalk up to 3/ 8 inch
in length; eye m ostly open; ribs nu m erou s, elevat ed ; skin color light green; pulp red .
Mostly consu m ed fresh.
Gentile (syns. Gen tilla, Figu e dOr, Fico d Oro, Tibu rtina of Pliny, Ficus carica pulchella
Risso). Described by Porta (1592), Tan ar a (1651), Ald rovan di (1668), Miller (1768),
H an bu ry (1770), Christ (1812), Forsyth (1803), Gallesio (1817), Risso (1826),

Febru ary , 1955]


361

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Lindley (1831), H olley (1854), Dochnah l (1855), Sauvaigo (1889, 1894), Eisen (1896, 1897,
1901), Bois (1928), Condit (1921b, 1947), Evreinoff (1947), an d Tam ar o (1948). Illustrated
by Eisen (1901) an d Condit (1921b).
According to Gallesio, the Gentile fig is the sam e variety record ed by Pliny as
Tibu rtina. Ald rovan d i called it Gentilium . It w as highly p raised by Gallesio, w ho said it
w ell d eserved the nam e it bears, Gentile, or d elicate; he ad d ed that he kn ew of n o
oth er variety w hich p rod uced brebas equ al to it in beau ty, d elicacy, an d flav or. Figs of
th e second crop, accord ing to Gallesio, reached a certain size, then shriveled an d
d rop p ed . Sau vaigo rep orted that the Gentile tree bears tw o crop s, but that figs of th e
second crop ar e n ot edible, since they d rop before they m ature. Trees are com m only
fou nd from N ap les to Toscan a an d along th e Italian Riviera. The Gentile d escribed by
Sim on et is regar d ed by them as id entical with Dottato.
According to Eisen, tw o cuttings of the Gentile w ere fou nd at San Lean d ro,
California, in 1852. They w ere plan ted in a nursery, an d one later d evelop ed into a
lar ge tree. The original plan t d ied, but a cu tting from it, plan ted on th e Kim ball place,
1859 H oover Street, H ay w ar d , is still growing an d producing brebas each year. Other
trees w ere rep orted by Eisen at Alam ed a an d at Knights Ferry. P.I. N o. 18,899 of th e
Chiswick collection is listed as Gentile, but n o California record s hav e been locat ed as to
behavior of trees from that introd uction. In coastal districts, the Gen tile is similar in
external fruit char acters to the King, but is m uch inferior to that var iety in color an d
textu re of pulp an d in eating qu ality. Gentile is n ot recom m end ed for d ooryard
plan ting, since trees of certain oth er varieties bear n ot only brebas but also m ain-crop
figs without caprification.
The tree is vigorou s, an d reaches lar ge size, with low er bran ches d roop ing. Leav es
ar e lar ge, an d 3-lobed . Descrip tion of brebas is after that of Eisen, an d from sp ecim ens
p rod uced by th e tree at H ay w ard .
Breba crop fair to g ood ; fruits ab ove m edium to lar ge; bod y sp herical, with short,
thick n eck; stalk very short; ribs not prom inent; eye lar ge, p rotruding, open, scales
rose-colored ; surface glossy, with d elicate bloom ; w hite flecks prom inent, num erous;
color green; pulp am ber to light straw berry; flav or sw eet, fairly rich; seed s few ; qu ality
good . N o d escription of cap rified second -crop figs is av ailable.
Com p ar ison of the fruits an d fruiting hab its of Gen tile an d White San Ped ro lead s
to the conclu sion that th ese tw o Italian var ieties ar e very similar , an d that th ey m ay b e
id entical.
Khdari. Described an d illustrat ed by Gras ovsky and Weitz (1932) as found in all
p ar ts of Palestine, w here it is grow n esp ecially for th e fresh fruit m ar ket. The nam e
signifies g reen.
Trees ar e very d istinctive in shape, with dar k-green leav es.
The d affou r (breba) crop is exceptionally good ; brebas lar ge, up to 3 inches in
diam eter, oblate-sp herical; neck missing; stalk sh ort; eye op en, with br ow nish scales;
skin thin, green; pulp light straw berry, very juicy; flav or sw eet an d rich. N ot used for
d rying.
King. The exact origin an d id entity of the King fig hav e n ot been d eterm ined .
Abou t 1930, cu ttings from a fig tree grow ing near Mad era, California, w ere plan ted by

362
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Sisto Ped rini, Western Evergreen Com pan y, at Los Altos an d at San Francisco. The
you n g trees prod uced such excellent fruit that hund red s of plan ts w ere p ropagated an d
distributed in Pacific Coast states and elsew here by the King Fig Plan tation, San
Fran cisco. See account by Brooks and Olm o (1949). The King tree is exceptionally
p rolific of the breba crop , w hich often sets three to five or m ore fruits close together,
som ew hat like the crop of certain cap rifigs. At Riversid e, an d in m ost other inlan d
districts, the m ajority of second -crop figs shrivel an d d rop for lack of caprification, a fact
w hich places this var iety in th e San Ped ro group of figs. In cool, coas tal sections, a fair
p ercen tage of the crop m atu res by par thenocar py, as explained elsew here by Condit
(1950).
Of all the varieties fruiting in the collection at Riversid e, the King is u nexcelled for the
p rod uction of brebas. Few h om e ow ners, how ever, have found the King satisfactory,
becau se of th e severe d rop ping of the second crop an d lack of know led ge as to the
cultural m ethod s m ost likely to give best results with this var iety. Bran ches of King
trees should n ot be cut back heavily in winter, as this rem oves the fruit bud s w hich
n orm ally produce a breba crop. A judicious thinning out of the old er w ood
occasionally w ould seem to be the best procedure. The following d escription is of trees
an d fruit grow n at Riversid e since 1941.
Tree m od erately vigorou s. Leav es m ediu m , 3- to 5-lobed ; base subcord ate; lateral
sinuses broad , shallow; upper surface som ew hat glossy, rugose; m argins shallowly
crenat e.
Brebas above m ed ium to lar ge, sh ort-pyriform , often obliqu e, with or without short,
thick neck; average w eight 88 gram s; stalk short; ribs p resent, but n ot p rom inent; w hite
flecks variable, lar ge an d wid ely scattered in som e, sm all an d num erous in oth ers; ey e
lar ge, scales chaffy or straw colored, semi-erect; color green; bloom prom inen t; m eat
thin, w hite; pulp straw berry; flav or rich; qu ality excellent. (Plate 16, A.)
Second -crop figs uncap rified, m ediu m , with or withou t sh ort neck; color greenish
yellow ; pulp am ber to very light straw berry; seed s few , tend er, hollow . Cap rified figs
with stalk very sh ort an d no n eck; average w eight 45 gram s; color d ar k green; p ulp
d ar k straw berry; flav or rich; qu ality good . (Plates 12; 16, B.)
Noce. Described by De Rosa (1911). The tree has slend er bran ches, an d lar ge, 5lobed leav es. It p rod uces brebas rath er abu ndan tly, bu t the fruit char acters ar e n ot
given. Second -crop cap rified figs ar e globular; stalk very short; color green; eye scales
rose; pulp red ; seed s lar ge an d num er ous. Matures Au gust an d Septem ber.
Pietri. P.I. N o. 102,018, received from Morocco in 1933 as Pietri, an d P.I. N o. 101,723,
from Sochi, Black Sea district, as Violet Delicat e, ar e id entical at Riversid e. These are
both very similar to Blan qu ette (P.I. N o. 102,007), also from Morocco, but originally in a
collection of varieties from Lrid a Province of Spain. All three sh ow the characteristic
bearing habit of the San Ped ro typ e.
Breba crop fair; figs m edium or ab ove, pyriform , with p rom inent, thick neck an d
short stalk; eye lar ge; color lettu ce green; pulp straw berry; qu ality fair. Very inferior to
King in p rod uctiven ess, size of fruit, an d qu ality.

Febru ary , 1955]


363

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Second crop figs m edium , oblate-spherical, with out neck; stalk sh ort; color green;
pulp straw berry, gelatinou s in texture; seed s fertile; qu ality fair to p oor.
San Giovanni (syn. San ta Scian ni). Described by De Rosa (1911) as an Italian var iety,
p rod ucing som e brebas an d requ iring cap rification for the second crop.
The figs ar e spherical to oblate; size m ed ium , 2 inches in diam eter and 1-5/ 8 inches in
length; stalk very sh ort; eye m ediu m , scales rose-colored ; skin color green; pulp light
red ; seed s lar ge an d nu m er ous. Usually consu m ed fresh. N ot recom m end ed for
gen eral plan ting.
San Pedro (syns. San Ped ro Wh ite, Wh ite San Ped ro, Apple, Saint Peter). Described
by West (1882), Eisen (1885, 1896, 1897, 1901), Fan cher Creek N u rsery catalogue, Fresno
(18851886), Colby (1894), California Nursery catalogu e, Niles, (18891890), Star nes
(1903, 1907, the second with Monroe, both with illustrations), Roeding (1914), an d
Cond it (1921b, 1947). See also Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, 1).
The id entity an d synonym y of San Ped ro w ith a European var iety have not been
established . According to Eisen (1901, p.65), F. Pohnd orff, th en of Niles or vicinity,
imp orted the Wh ite San Ped ro u nd er th e nam e of Breba from Sp ain an d distributed it in
this cou ntry in 1883 or 1884. On th e other han d , Milco stated in 1884 that he had
imp orted the San Ped ro from Dalm atia ab out eleven years p reviously. It is not th e
sam e as San Piero, d escribed by Gallesio, nor San Pietro, both of w hich ar e treat ed
elsew here in this m on ograp h.
Since ab ou t 1885, San Ped ro has been wid ely d istributed in California, bu t n ow h ere
has it achieved com m ercial im portance, d espite the ad vertisem ent of one California
nursery that as a table fig this one is unsu rp assed, an d will exclud e all oth ers on th e
m arket. It w as grow n an d tested at the California Experim ent Stations, an d Colby
rep orted an alyses of th e fruit grow n at Fresn o in 1893. The tree that grew at Par lier,
Fresn o Cou nty, for m any years, an d that w as erroneously rep orted in the American
Fruit Grower, N ovem ber, 1929, as the lar gest fig tree in Am erica, w as of this var iety; n ot
of th e Ad riatic, as stated (plate 5). Trees of San Ped ro have been fruiting in the
collection at Riversid e since 1930, an d the following account is based on the behavior of
this var iety d uring th e intervening years.
The tree is rather op en, with d rooping bran ches; term inal buds ar e green. Leav es
variable in size an d lobing, m ostly 3- or 5-lobed ; surface som ew hat glossy; up p er
sinuses of m edium d epth an d wid th, low er very shallow , broad ; base shallowly
subcord ate to truncate; m argins coarsely an d shallowly crenat e.
Breba crop good ; figs ab ove m ediu m to lar ge, turbinate, with prom inent, thick neck,
or som etim es spherical withou t neck; averag e w eight 78 gram s; stalk short; ribs fairly
p rom inent; w hite flecks variable, conspicu ous on som e specim ens, few on others; eye
lar ge, scales straw color, erect; su rface glossy, with d elicate bloom ; color yellowish
green; m eat w hite; pulp am ber, tinged with straw berry; flav or m od erately rich; qu ality
fair to good . (Plate 17, A.)
Second -crop figs m ed iu m to lar ge, u p to 2 inches in diam eter an d ab ou t the sam e

364
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

in length, spherical or oblate, with short stalk; neck variable, present an d p rom inent, or
m issing; av erage w eight 58 gram s; ribs broad , prom inent; eye lar ge, op en, bu t
internally closed by scales; surface glossy; bloom fairly heavy; w hite flecks lar ge,
scattered, conspicuous; skin thick, rubbery in texture; color green to yellowish green;
m eat w hite, thick; pulp straw berry; seed s fertile, nu m erous; textu re gelatinous; flav or
insipid , flat; qu ality fair to p oor. Fruit inclined to split w hen nearing full m aturity. Of
little valu e, either fresh or d ried. (Plate 17, B.)
San Vito (syn. San tu Vitu). Described by Donn o (1951a, 1951b) as a variety of Lecce
Province.
Valu ed m ostly for its production of brebas; second crop requ ires
cap rification.
Trees have green term inal bud s, an d m ostly 5-lobed leav es. Brebas m edium , 2 by 2
inches, spherical, or som etim es ovoid ; eye op en, scales light yellow ; skin color d ar k
green; p ulp light red . Second -crop figs below m ediu m , oblate; eye op en; ribs
num erou s; color light green; w hite flecks scattered, var iable in size; pulp light red .
San Pedro-type Figs with Skin Bronze or Violet;
Pulp Amber or Red
Buino. Described by Portale (1910) as a variety prod ucing only a breba crop. Brebas
rat h er lar ge, spherical; stalk short; color d ark violet; pulp w atery, but agreeable in
flav or. Consu m ed fresh.
Carvalhal. Described by Mello Leotte (1901). N am e refers to a fig of th e Carvalhal
estate. Tree prod ucing ab u nd an tly first an d second crops, the latter being ar tificially
cap rified .
Leav es 3-lobed , with violet stip ules. Brebas lar ge, pyriform ; skin violet; pulp rosecolored . Second -crop figs sm aller, globose, of sam e color as brebas.
Castle Kennedy (syn. Kenned y). Described by Fowler (1865, 1866), H ogg (1866), K.
(1873), J. S. W. (1873), Wat ts (1890), Bar ron (1891), Massey (1893), Sim on-Louis (1895),
N orwich (1898), Eisen (1901, after H ogg), War d (1904), Star nes an d Monr oe (1907),
Reb oul (1908), Brotherston (1920), E. A. Bunyard (1925), Davis (1928), Burger an d De
We t (1931), an d Preston (1951).
A color illustration of Ficus carica kennedyensis H ort. is given in LIllustration
H orticole, vol. 13 (ser. 2, vol. 3), pl. 476. 1866. A w riter in the Gar d eners Ch ronicle,
N ovem ber 19, 1864, observed that Messrs. Law son an d Son w ere to distribute th e
Cas tle Kenned y fig, w hich had been exhibited in Scotlan d an d had obtained an aw ar d
from th e Edinbu rgh H orticultural Society. An an onym ous account in 1865 (Florist an d
Pom ologist, p .141) stated that this var iety had then existed at Cas tle Kenned y for n early
a centu ry; but h ow it cam e th ere or w hat w as its origin w ere m atters on w hich there
w as n o reliable inform ation. It w as believed to be qu ite distinct from an y oth er variety
in cultivation in Englan d. Archibald Fow ler, w ho grew this fig at Castle Kenned y, along
with Bru nswick an d Brow n Turkey, also m aintained that it w as distinct from both
varieties. Several rep orts indicate that the trees are p oor prod ucers; but on th e
con trar y, H ogg stated , The tree is an ab und an t bear er. A w riter of 1873, signed
sim ply
as
K.,

Febru ary , 1955]


365

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

rep orted that Cas tle Ken ned y w as w orthless as a cropper.....it is a runaw ay , unfruitful
variety, n ot w orth house r oom . Brotherston noted that in Englan d only on e crop,
p resu m ably th e first, is produced in a year. This seem s to confirm the rep ort of Burger
an d De Wet, that in South Africa the second crop requ ires caprification, a fact that places
th e variety in the San Ped ro grou p.
A letter d ated Ju ne 20, 1954, from Sir John Dalrym ple, Ear l of Stair, states that tw o
trees of th e Castle Kenned y fig ar e still being grow n m ainly for sentim ental reas ons at
Lochinch Castle, Stran raer, Wigtow nshire, Scotlan d. R. W. Rye, the head gard ener,
ag rees with K. ab ove that this fig is not w orth h ou se r oom as it is very shy in setting
fruit.
Cas tle Kenned y w as not includ ed in the Chiswick collection that w as introd uced into
California, nor is the nam e fou nd am on g those tested by th e Experim en t Station. P.I.
N o. 69,017, obtained from a French nu rsery in 1928 as Kenned y, has proved to be
id entical with Brunswick in tree an d fruit. Star nes an d Monroe rep orted in 1907 that in
Georgia, Castle Kenn ed y, obtained from the sam e French nursery as th e above
num ber, resem bled Dalm atian (Bru nswick), an d m ight p rove to be id entical with it.
Jud ging from the var ious accou nts of this var iety, th e Castle Kenned y is very sim ilar to
Bru nswick, bu t belon gs to th e San Ped ro rath er than to the Com m on grou p of figs.
H ogg d escribed the fruit as very lar ge, obovate; skin thin, tend er, greenish yellow on
th e neck, p ale brow n on th e bod y; pulp p ale red , soft, not highly flav ored .
Chiajese. Described by Sem m ola (1845), Gasp ar rini (1845), an d Duchar tre (1857).
This var iety, treat ed by Gaspar rini as Ficus polym orp ha, is regar d ed by Italian grow ers
as on e requ iring caprification.
The first crop is very sm all; brebas lar ge, turbinat e, d ar k-colored , m ed iocre in qu ality.
Second -crop figs m edium , spherical, taw ny-green in color; pulp red , of m ild flav or.
Used fresh.
Dauphine (syns. Daup hine Violette, Grosse Violette, Rond e Violette H tive, Rou ge
d e Argenteuil, Mussega N egra, Ficu s car ica punctulata Risso, Pag au dire, Adam ).
Described by Risso (1826), Bar ron (1868c, 1891), Lhrau lt (1872), Du Breuil (1876),
Sim on-Louis (1895), Eisen (1888, 1901), Forrer (1894), Schneid er (1902), Juignet (1909),
Mazires (1920), Bois (1928), Soc. N at. d Hort. d e Fran ce (1928), A. Rivire (1928),
Delplace (1933), Sim onet et al. (1945), Delbar d (1947), Evreinoff (1947), an d by Sim on et
an d Ch opinet (1947). Illustrated in black an d w hite by Du Breuil, Bois, Sim onet, an d
Cond it (1941 a, fig. 2, H). Illustrat ed in color by Delbar d , an d by Sim on et an d Chopinet.
Dau p hine is grow n near Par is for its ab und an t breba crop; it is also cultivated
extensively in sou thern Fran ce on accou nt of its lar ge, at tractive fruits, w hich car ry w ell
to d istan t m arkets. According to Sim on et et al., it is kn ow n at Sollies-Pont as Boule
d Or, Bou ton d Or, an d Grosse d e Juillet; but the last nam e is also given as a synonym of
Sultan e. These au thors also refer it to Mu ssega N egra (Ficus car ica pu nctulata Risso).
There are sm all plan tings of Dau phine n ear Tokyo, Jap an , w here the brebas rip en in
July.
In 1883, Daup hine w as introd uced into California from Englan d by John Rock

366
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

as Rond e Violette H tive, an d trees w ere plan ted for trial at variou s exp erim ent stations
in this state an d in Arizona. At the Tular e, California, station, it w as rep orted to be on e
of th e m ost p rom ising com m ercial sorts u nd er tests. P.I. N o. 18,912 of the Chiswick
collection w as lab eled Dau phine. Another one of the sam e collection, P.I. N o. 18,873,
lab eled Adam , w as found to be the sam e as Dauphine, both in tree an d in fruit. A
variety introd uced from Fran ce by Felix Gillet, N evad a City, as Pag au dire, has also
p roved at Riversid e to be id entical with Dauphine, although Eisen d escribed it as a
red dish-yellow fig.
Trees w ere und er trial at the Governm ent Date Gar d en, Ind io, before 1926, an d
several grow ers in the Coachella Valley obtained cuttings. Fr om one sm all com m ercial
orchard, the fresh figs w ere sent to m arket und er the nam e Superba. N o oth er
com m ercial plan tings hav e been m ad e in California, as Dauphine can har dly com p ete
successfully with other black figs such as Franciscan a (Mission) for fresh-fruit shipping,
an d its qu ality d ried is very inferior. Trees hav e fruited at Fresno since 1924, an d at
Riversid e since 1931.
In California, trees of Dau phine d rop all fruits of th e second crop u nless cap rification
is p racticed.
Tree vigorous, u pright; outer bran ches d roop ing; term inal d orm an t bu d s green,
shad ing to brow n or violet. Leav es m edium to lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed ; upper su rface
som ew hat glossy; upp er sinuses of m edium d epth an d wid th, low er sinu ses shallow
an d broad ; bas e subcord ate; m argins coarsely crenat e. Description of fruit is from
specim ens at Riversid e, in com parison with the account by Sim onet.
Breba crop generally good ; fruit lar ge, 2-1/ 2 by 2-1/ 2 inches, turbinate, with or
withou t a sh ort, broad neck; av erage w eight 92 gram s; stalk up to 1/ 4 inch lon g; ribs
broad , slightly elevated , m ore d eeply colored than bod y; eye lar ge, protruding, op en,
scales violet; skin of firm texture, resistan t; su rface glossy, with w hite flecks nu m er ou s
an d conspicuou s; bloom rather heavy, pruinose; color greenish violet in the shad e to
violet-p u rple on exposed sid e, shading to green tow ard the stalk; m eat w hite, alm ost
1/ 4 inch thick; pulp light straw berry; seed s lar ge, fairly nu m erous. Flav or fairly rich,
bu t lacking distinctive fig char acter. Quality fair to good ; especially good for shipping
fresh. (Plate 18, A.)
Second -crop figs m u ch the sam e as brebas, except for sm aller size; shap e oblatespherical; pulp gelatin ous with fertile seed s; av erage w eight 70 gram s; qu ality p oor;
(Plate 18, B.)
Drap d'Or (syn. Royal Vineyard). The id entity of Drap dOr is in d oubt. If it is
regard ed by French confectioners as one of the best figs for crystallized an d glac fruit,
as stat ed by Eisen, w hy should the variety n ot be d escribed in French pu blications? The
only d escrip tions fou nd ar e those of Eisen (1897, 1901), Bar ron (1891), Star nes an d
Mon roe (1907), an d of Wood roof an d Bailey (1931). A var iety w as grow n an d tested
u nd er the nam e Drap d Or at the California Experim ent Stations from 1891 to 1895;
sou rce of th e trees w as probably the California Nu rsery Com p an y, Niles, since that
nursery im p orted trees fr om Englan d in 1883. According to Shinn (1893), Drap dOr did
w ell at the Tular e station, an d in 1914 he includ ed it in the list of var ieties

Febru ary , 1955]


367

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

gen erally cultivated . On d ooryard trees fruited in various par ts of California, the breba
crop has been fair to good , but th e second crop is sm all unless cap rification is p racticed.
P.I. N o. 18,838 of the Chiswick collection, listed as Peau Dure, is probably th e sam e
variety, as th e fruiting habit at Fresno an d Riversid e is similar to that of the trees ju st
d escribed . Brebas confor m closely in char acters to th e d escrip tion given by Eisen, an d
to his illustration.
Royal Vineyard w as d escribed an d illustrat ed in color by Bar ron (1871) as a n ew fig
of sterling m erit, on e of the very finest figs yet br ou ght into cultivation. It w as
nam ed for the nu rsery of J. an d C. Lee, H am m ersm ith, Englan d, w here the variety w as
fou nd without a lab el. Later d escriptions w ere by H yd e (1877) an d Bar ron (1891). P.I.
N o. 18,849 of th e Chiswick collection is lab eled Royal Vineyard ; it fruited at Niles,
California, an d w as d escribed an d also illustrat ed by Eisen (1901).
The tree of Drap dOr has an open habit of grow th, with bran ches som ew hat
d roop ing; term inal bud s green. Leav es m ediu m , som ew hat glossy above, light green
in color, m ostly 5-lobed ; upper sinuses of m edium d epth an d wid th, low er sinu ses
shallow ; low er lobes som etim es au ricled; base su bcord ate to truncate; m argins coarsely
crenat e. The following d escrip tion is from fru its gr ow n at Riversid e since 1930.
Breba crop sm all; fruits lar ge, pyriform , with prom inent curved neck; ribs p rom inent,
rend ering the su rface m ore or less corru gat ed , m uch like that of Pied d e Buf; ey e
som ew hat d epressed , with pink scales; color light coppery bronze, at tractive; pulp light
straw berry; flav or sw eet an d rich; seed s few . Eating qu ality excellent, but figs ar e to o
soft an d perishable for fresh-fruit m arket.
Cap rified figs of the second crop m edium to lar ge, p yriform , d ecid edly oblique;
av erage w eight 66 gram s; neck prom inent, rat her thick an d som ew hat curved ; stalk
from 1/ 2 to 1/ 4 inch long; ribs p rom inen t; eye op en, scales pinkish; color red dish
brow n to violet-brow n, d eep er at ap ex an d on exp osed sid e; pulp straw berry; flav or
rich; qu ality good . Cr op is sm all w hen cap rification is not p racticed , as a m ajor
p ercen tage of the figs shrivel an d d rop w hen im m ature.
Uncap rified figs m ed iu m , pyriform , with prom inent neck an d long, slend er stalk;
surface corrugated by raised ribs; eye m ediu m , op en, scales rose red; color br onze;
m eat thick, w hite; pulp h ollow at center, light straw berry, texture d ry; qu ality very
p oor. (Plates 9; 24, C.)
Fracazzano Rosso (syn. Ficazzan o). Second -crop figs d escribed an d illustrat ed by
Vallese (1909); figs of both crops d escribed by De Rosa (1911), w ho states that
cap rification is necessar y. Ficazzan o, d escribed by Portale 1910), is treated by De Rosa
as syn on ym ou s with Fracazzan o Rosso.
Leav es lar ge, m ostly 5-lobed .
Brebas lar ge, ovoid ; color violet, shading to dar k green tow ard the bas e; pulp rosecolored ; seed s few an d sm all.
Second -crop figs turbinate to obovate, abov e m ed ium ; n eck non e; stalk very sh ort;
eye m edium , su rrou nd ed by a yellowish au reole, scales violet; color rosy violet, light
green tow ar d the stalk; pulp red ; seed s lar ge; flav or sw eet. N orm ally preferred fresh.

368
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Lampeira (syns. Portogh ese, Lam pas, Figue d es Confiseurs). Described an d


illustrat ed by Gallesio (1817), Gaspar rini (1845, as Ficus pachycar p a var. lusitan ica),
Pasqu ale (1876), Mello Leotte (1901), Eisen (1901), Sim onet et al. (1945), Tam aro (1948),
an d Baldini (1953); the last with illustration of leaf an d brebas. It is also figured by
Tam aro. Accord ing to Gallesio, this var iety w as very com m on in Tuscan y, especially at
Florence, an d w as figured as N o.17 u nd er th e nam e Lam pas Portoghese. Eisen praised
it highly by stating: Wh at th e Wh ite San Ped ro is for And alusia in p roducing th e
lusciou s brebas, the Lam peira is for sou thern Portugal. It is probably this sam e variety
w hich Bobon e (1932) d escribed an d illustrat ed as Figo Burro, with the following
syn onym s: Bu rro, Gentio, Rom a Preto, Bisp o, Cachpeiro Preto, Bacalar Preto, Lam p o
Preto, an d Vindim o Preto. Lam p eira w as once introd uced into California, probably as
P.I. N o. 18,871, an d fruited at Niles, but n o later record s of its occurrence or behavior in
this stat e ar e available. The following d escrip tion is after that of Sim onet.
Tree m od erately vigorous. Leav es sm all; d eeply 3-lobed.
Brebas lar ge, abou t 3-1/ 2 inches long an d 2-1/ 2 inches broad , pyriform , with
p rom inent n eck an d m edium stalk; av erage w eight 102 gram s; eye lar ge, op en, scales
violet; color greenish yellow , tinged with violet on sunny sid e; skin glossy, rat h er thick;
m eat thin, w hite; pulp rosy am ber, with violet shad e tow ard the eye; seed s rath er
num erou s. Qu ality excellent; app ear an ce fine.
Second -crop figs m ediu m or below , ab out 2 inches long an d 1-1/ 2 inches broad ,
p yriform , with sh ort, thick neck; eye par tly open, scales rosy; skin d elicate, checking at
com plete m aturity, green flushed with violet; pulp d eep red ; seed s sm all. Second crop
negligible without cap rification.
Ottato Rosso. Described an d illustrated by Vallese (1909); d escribed in d etail by
Donn o (1952). Variety similar to Dottato Bianco in foliag e an d fruit; seld om prod uces a
breba crop . Grow ers disag ree on n ecessity for cap rification, p robably owing to
confu sion with tw o similar varieties; experim ents, how ever, have show n that
cap rification is essential to crop p roduction.
Leav es lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed ; sinuses of m edium d ep th; bud s an d bran ches d escribed
by Donn o (1951a).
Brebas lon g-pyriform , ribbed on low er par t of b od y; color light chestnu t on sid e
exp osed to sun; m eat w hite, tinged with violet; pulp am ber, very sw eet.
Second -crop figs ab ove m ed ium , ov oid, rou nd ed at ap ex; stalk up to 5/ 8 inch in
length; surface sm ooth, with scattered w hite flecks; eye op en; color reddish violet; pulp
am ber, tinged with red . One of the best for fresh consum ption; good also for d rying.
Petronciano (syns. Molignan o, Bar ban era). Described by Gaspar rini (1845, as Ficu s
p olym orp ha var. m elan ocar pa), Duchar tre (1857), Pasqu ale (1876), an d Sav astan o
(1885). According to the latter, th e tree bear s an ab u nd an t crop of brebas; th e second
crop is caprified. Figs m edium ; skin purplish black; pulp given as w hite by Gaspar rini;
as car nea by Sav astan o; ap par ently flesh-colored .
Pied de Buf. Described by La Brousse (1774), H ogg (1866), Bar ron (1891), an d Eisen
(1888, 1901). La Brou sse gave a dispar ag ing opinion of the fresh-fruit qu alities of

Febru ary , 1955]


369

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Pied d e Buf, but fou nd it very good d ried at Antibes, Fran ce. The other d escriptions
leav e on e in d ou bt as to th e specific crop, but it is p robable that both H ogg and Bar ron
hav e consid ered the breba crop only, as a second crop of figs is not com m only
p rod uced in Englan d. The slight attention given to this var iety by h orticultu ral w riters
is likely du e to the fact that second -crop figs m ostly d rop u nless cap rification-is
p racticed . The late Leroy Nickel, of Menlo Par k, California, obtained cuttings of Pied d e
Bu f from Englan d, an d d onat ed w ood for the Riversid e collection in 1927. Since that
tim e it has proved to be a prom ising variety for fresh fruit brebas an d for cap rified figs
of th e m ain crop. Its behavior at Riversid e has been better than in the cooler clim ate of
Los Angeles. Tree and fruit char acters are very m uch like th ose of Drap dOr, but th e
tw o are regard ed in this pu blication as distinct var ieties.
Pied d e Bu f trees are slow -growing an d d ensely bran ched , with term inal bud s
green in color. Leav es m ediu m , som ew hat glossy above, m ostly 5-lobed , the m iddle
lobe broad ly spatulate; up per sinu ses of m edium d epth an d wid th, low er sinu ses
shallow , basal sinuses nar r ow ; bas e cord ate; m argins coarsely crenat e. The following
d escrip tion is based on n otes m ad e of figs p roduced d uring fourteen fruiting seas ons.
Breba crop fair to good ; figs obliqu e-pyrifor m ; size lar ge, up to 2-1/ 4 inches in
diam eter an d 3-1/ 2 inches in length; average w eight 79 gram s; neck p r om inent, often
curved , an d up to 1 inch long; stalk slend er, 1/ 2 to 1 inch long; ribs very p rom inen t, th e
surface of th e fruit therefore corrugat ed ; eye above m edium , scales rose to violetbrow n; skin tend er, w axy or glossy in app ear an ce, with bloom fairly prom inent; w hite
flecks scattered, m ore or less concealed by bod y coloration; color H essian brow n,
shad ing to green or light br ow n on neck; m eat w hite, tinged with pink; pulp light
straw berry, slightly h ollow at the cen ter, textu re rat her coarse; qu ality good . Excellent
in app ear an ce, bu t not w ell ad apted to fresh-fruit shipping on account of tend er skin
an d ribbed surface. (Plate 23, A.)
Second -crop caprified figs obliqu e-pyriform , ab ove m edium to lar ge, up to 2 inches
broad an d 3 inches long; neck sh ort an d thick, or up to 1 inch lon g; av erage w eight 63
gram s; stalk slend er, often curved , up to 1 inch long, som etim es enlar ged or sw ollen
tow ard th e ap ex; ribs elevat ed , p rom inen t; w hite flecks scattered, fairly conspicu ous;
eye lar ge, op en, scales violet; skin som ew hat glossy, tend er checking at m aturity; color
chocolate brow n to m ah ogan y red, attractive; m eat w hite; pulp dar k straw berry; flav or
rich an d sw eet; qu ality excellent.
Uncap rified figs light in w eight; center hollow ; pulp am ber; qu ality p oor. (Plates 9;
14, C). See also Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, R).
VARIETIES OF THE COMMON TYPE
Figs of the Com m on typ e d evelop p ar th enocar pically, an d d o not usually requ ire th e
stim ulus of p ollination to bring the syconia to m aturity. Som e com m on figs, such as
Bar nissotte an d Verd al, d rop all or near ly all the fruit bud s of th e first crop but m ature a
good second crop . Others, such as Fran ciscana an d Dottato, have practically com plete

370
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

p ar th enocarpic d evelop m ent in both crop s. As p ointed ou t und er Bru nswick, the
exp ression of p ar th enocarpy is incom plete in som e varieties, an d is appar ently affected
by th e en viron m en tal com plex. As with the oth er typ es, th e varieties will be treated
u nd er groups bas ed on external an d internal color. The following key to som e of th e
varieties grow n in the collection at Riversid e is given in ord er to show differentiation of
imp ortan t char acters. For com parison, see the key to French fig var ieties by Sim onet et
al. (1945). See also Donn o (1951a) for char acters of tw igs an d bud s useful in
distinguishing varieties d uring the d orm an t seas on.
Suggestive Key for Identification of Common-type Figs at
Riverside, California
Figs of second or m ain crop gen erally on w ood of cu rrent season , and in axil of a leaf.
Seed s, if p resent, infertile or hollow u nless cap rification h as occu rred .
I. Color of fru it variou s shad es of green or yellow . (Plate 8.)
Figs
strip ed
or
band ed
len gthw ise,
w ith
green
and
yellow
alternatin g ........................................Panache
Figs not consp icuously strip ed , m ore or less u niform ly colored .
Pu lp w h ite or am ber .
Seed s
large,
consp icuou s;
su rface
d u ll.......................................................................................Blanche
Seed s inconsp icuou s or u nd evelop ed .
Stalk sw ollen or p rom in ently en larged tow ard bod y of fru it;
m an y
figs
d rop p in g
w h en
sm all............................................................................Anglique
Stalk not sw ollen ; few figs d rop w h en sm all; in cool seasons or
clim ates
m eat
is
violet-colored
next
to
skin .............................................................Dottato
Pu lp variou s shad es of red .
N eck not p resent, or ind istinct.
Stalk short and th ick , seld om over 1/ 4 inch lon g .
Size above m ed iu m to large.
Shap e short-tu rbinate, w ith broad ap ex; term inal d orm ant
bu d s
brow nish ;
lobes
of
leaves
broad .......................................................Genoa
Shap e lon g-tu rbinate, w ith base grad u ally contractin g
into th e sem blance of a n eck ; term inal bu d s green ;
lobes of leaves narrow ........................................................................San
Pietro
Size m ed iu m ; eye scales d ark to rose-colored ; fru it tu rbinate;
leaves glossy above, stiff and h arsh in textu re....Verd on e
Stalk lon ger , u p to 1/ 2 inch or m ore.
Stalk sw ollen or p rom in ently en larged ; su rface of fru it d u ll,
velvety ...........Yellow N eches
Stalk not sw ollen .
Figs
oblate;
eye
above
m ed iu m ,
op en ,
scales
straw
color..........................Grassale
Figs sp h erical or tu rbinate.
Color ligh t green to yellow ; eye scales often
brigh tly rose-colored ; w hite flecks inconsp icuou s......................Troiano
Color grass green ; eye scales chaffy or straw-colored ;
w hite flecks scattered , m ore or less consp icuou s................Monstrueuse
N eck p resent.
Stalk short and th ick , seld om over 1/ 4 inch lon g .

Dame

Mel

Eye scales brightly rose-colored ; n eck short.................................................Col de


Eye scales not brightly rose-colored , at least not th e su rface
scales; n eck p rom inent,
u p to 3/ 4 inch lon g, often cu rved ...........................................................Gota de

Febru ary , 1955]


371

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Stalk elon gated , u p to 1/ 2 inch or m ore in len gth .


Bod y
color
light
green
to
yellow ;
eye
scales
rosecolored ......................................Troiano
II. Color of fru it variou s shad es of bronze, b row n , ch estnu t, or light violet; not
d ark p u rp le or black . (Plate 9.)
Pu lp w h ite or am ber .
Stalk
thick,
often
p rom inently
sw ollen ;
size
m ed iu m ;
color
bronze........................Brunswick
Stalk not sw ollen ; size above m ed iu m to large.
Shap e p yriform to tu rbinate, com m on ly obliqu e; color bronze,
w ith
violet
tin ge...................................................................................................Archipel
Pu lp variou s shad es of red .
N eck not p resent.
Stalk som ew hat sw ollen or en larged tow ard bod y of fru it.
Skin color chocolate brow n ; figs ver y sm all, oblate..............................Early
Violet
Skin color green , flu sh ed w ith violet; figs below m ed iu m to sm all,
p rofu sely
born e................................................................................................Ischia
Stalk not sw ollen or en larged .
Skin color red d ish brow n ; su rface m arred b y circu lar blem ish es
at the ap ex w h en fu lly m atu re....................................................Gouraud
Rouge
Skin color violet-gray .
Bod y
of
fig
sp h erical;
season
of
m atu rity
early ................................Saint Jean
Bod y of fig tu rbinate to obovate; season of m atu rity late.........Partridge Eye
N eck p resent.
Color green , tin ged w ith violet or light brow n .
Ribs
p rom in ent,
colorin g
m ore
d eep ly
than
bod y ;
m id season ..............Martinique
Ribs
not
p rom in ent;
season
late...........................................................................Verdal
Color bronze to chocolate.
N eck p rom in ent, d istinct from bod y ; su rface w ith elev ated ribs,
m ore or less corru gated ; bloom often m issin g from ap ical zon e..........Malta
N eck not p rom inent; bod y of fig grad u ally n arrow in g to th e stalk
w ithou t
ap p arent
constriction .......................................................................Hunt
III. Color of fru it d ark violet or p u rp le to black. (Plate 10.)
N eck eith er not p resent, or short.
Pu lp
w h ite
or
am ber ;
shap e
tu rbin ate
to
oblate............................................................................Beall
Pu lp variou s shad es of red .
Stalk p ecu liarly crooked or cu rved ; sm all, im m atu re figs colorin g brow n ;
leaves
glossy
above....................................................................................................Bordeaux
Stalk not crooked .
Su rface of fru it d istinctly hairy or p u bescent; black color u niform
over entire fru it; tree slow-grow in g ; branches sw ollen at th e nod es
..............................................................................................................................
Pastilire
Su rface of fru it d u ll, on ly slightly p u bescent; basal p art of fru it

Black

rem ain in g green u ntil fu ll m atu rity .................................................................Ischia

N eck p resent, m ore or less p rom in ent.


Ap ex of m atu re fru it show in g zon e of green color ligh ter than bod y .
Green zon e encirclin g th e eye only .
N eck som ew hat flatten ed in m an y sp ecim ens.
Su rface of fru it glossy; textu re of skin u nu su ally firm and
ru b bery ;
late...................................................................................Vernino
Su rface of fru it d u ll; bloom thick , p ru inose; season m ed iu m
early ......................................................................................................Toulousienne
N eck rou nd in cross section ; ribs colorin g earlier than bod y .........Constantin e
Green zon e at ap ex eith er circu lar or irregu lar , and com m only
extend in g onto and d ow n on e sid e of the bod y .
Figs above m ed iu m to large, p yriform ; color p u rp lish black;
su rface
glossy..................................................................................................Barnissotte
(Key continu ed on n ext p age.)

season

372
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Gris

Hilgardia
Figs m ed iu m , oblate-sp herical or tu rbin ate; color violet, tin ged w ith green ;
m an y figs shrivel and d rop w h en sm all.........................................Bourjassotte

Ap ex of fru it colored u niform ly .


Figs above m ed iu m to large; eye large, op en ; p u lp hollow at

center ..................................................................................................................San Piero


Figs
m ed iu m ;
eye
m ed iu m ,
p artly
closed ;
solid .......................................Franciscana

p u lp

Common-type Figs with Skin Green or Yellow; Pulp


Amber or White
Albo (syns. Albicello, Albinillo, Bian chetta, Bian coletta, Bian colini, Blan ca, Blan qu ita,
Dorato, DOro, Gentile at Bologna, Mattan o, Moscad ello, Zentil). Described by Porta
(1583), Gallesio (1817), Gaspar rini (1845), Pasqu ale (1876), Rod a (1881), Eisen (1901, with
figu re), Tam aro (1948), an d Baldini (1953); the last with illustration of leaf, breba, an d
second -crop fruit.
Accord ing to Gallesio, it is one of th e few var ieties fou nd along the w hole coast of
Italy, bu t n ot in Fran ce or Spain. Gaspar rini d escribed Fico Albo with Fico Trojan o in
p ar en theses, an d also treated Biancolini as a distinct var iety. Eisen regard ed it as one of
th e best Italian figs, especially w ell regard ed in the m arkets of Pavia an d Milan . Tam ar o
d escribed the variety as Blan ca.
Tree of m edium size. Leav es m ostly 3-lobed ; bas e cord ate. N ot fruited at Riversid e,
California; resem bles very m u ch th e variety Angliqu e, d escribed elsew here in this
m on ograp h: Descrip tion is after that of Baldini.
Brebas alm ost sp herical, with short, thick neck; stalk short; color can ar y yellow ; pulp
w hite; qu ality good .
Second -crop figs m ediu m , oblate-spherical, flattened at th e ap ex; neck none stalk
m ed ium ; ribs indistinct; eye op en, with rose-colored scales; skin yellow ; pulp am ber,
alm ost seedless, very sw eet. Used m ostly fresh; som etim es d ried.
Angelina (syn. Argelina). Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910). Tree w ell
d evelop ed , with leav es similar to those of Bordissot Blan ca (Bar nissotte Blanche). Figs
below m ed ium , sp herical, yellowish green; skin thick; interior w hite. N ot a choice
variety, but com m only grow n in par ts of Mallorca.
Blanche (syns. Blan che dArgenteuil, Blanche Rond e, Grosse Blan che Rond e, Blan che
H tive, Blan qu o, Argentine, Blan che Fleur, Royale, Versailles, Blan qu ette an d Mad eleine
of som e au th ors, Mar seilles, Wh ite Mar seilles, Mar seillaise Wh ite, White N aples, Pocock,
Ford s Seedling, Rab y Castle, Wh ite Stan d ard, Wh ite Sm yrna, Quar teria, Vigas otte
Bian co). In 1700, Tournefort d escribed a fig var iety as La Grosse Blan che Rond e.
Gar id el (1715) qu oted this accou nt, but expressed d ou bt that it w as the sam e as the on e
called Blan qu o Com m u no, grow n in som e par ts of Fran ce. Duham el (1755) also qu oted
Tou rnefort, an d d esignated the variety as Figue Blan che. In his N ouveau w ork of
1809, Du ham el ag ain qu oted Tourn efort, as w ell as Gar id el, an d stated that the fig
kn ow n at Par is as Figu e dArgenteuil w as only a subvariety of Figue Blan che of
Provence, the differences betw een the tw o being m inor, an d d ue to

Febru ary , 1955]


373

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

clim atic influences. The fig d escribed an d illustrated in color by Carbon (1865a) as Figu e
Blan che Peau Verte m ay be the sam e variety.
Other accou nts of this fig as Blan che, Blan che dArgenteuil, Blanche Rond e, or Grosse
Blan che Rond e ar e by Merlet (1667), Liger (1702), Weston (1770), Knoop (1771), La
Brou sse (1774), Rozier (17811805); Mirbel (18021806), Lam ar ck (17831817), Bory
d e Saint Vincent (1824), N oisette (1821, 1829), Cou verchel (1839), Poiteau (18381846),
Dochnah l (1855), Duchar tre (1857), Forn ey (1863), Lhrau lt (1872), Sim on-Louis (1895),
Schneid er (1902), Juignet (1909), N om blot (1913), Mazires (1920), Leclerc (1925), Socit
N ationale d 'H orticultu re d e Fran ce (1928), A. Rivire (1928), G. Rivire (1930), Delplace
(1933), Delbar d (1947), an d Sim onet et al. (1945). Figue Royale w as d escribed by
Bernar d (1787), Du ham el (1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), an d N oisette (1829), with
Versailles as a synonym . On the oth er han d , it w as d escribed as Versailles, with or
withou t the syn on y m Royale, by Cou verchel (1839), Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876),
H ogg (1866), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887, 1947), Bar ron (1891), Eisen (1901), Bois (1928),
Blin (1942), an d Evreinoff (1947). Eisen regard ed Blan che an d Versailles as distinct, bu t
later au th ors, such as N om blot, Soc. N at. dH ort. d e Fran ce (1928), an d Sim onet et al.,
treat them as the sam e variety. See Rollan d (1914) for syn onym y.
Descriptions of this var iety as Wh ite Mar seilles ar e given by Brookshaw (1812),
Baxter (1820), Saw yer (1824), Lindley (1831), Rogers (1834), H olley (1854), MIntosh
(1855), Thom pson (1859), H ogg (1866), G. S. (1867, 1869), Bar ron (1868c, 1891), Rivers
(1873), Colem an (1887b), Lelon g (1890), Wyth es (1890a), Massey (1893), Burnette (1894),
Wr ight (1895), Forrer (1894), Eisen (1885, 1897, 1901), Thom as (1902), War d (1904),
Star n es (1903, 1907), Royal H ort. Society (1916), B. A. Bunyar d (1925, 1934), Cook (1925),
Arn old (1926), Fruit-Grow er (1936), Condit (1947), an d Preston (1951). Illustrations in
color are by Duham el (1809), Brookshaw (1812), N oisette (1821), an d Wr ight (1895).
Illustrations in black an d w hite ar e by Poiteau , Eisen (1901, fig. 75), Bois, Socit
N ationale dH orticultu re d e Fran ce, Star n es, Bunyar d (1934), Sim onet, an d Condit
(1941a, fig. 2, E).
The nam e Wh ite Mar seilles becam e attached to a fig that Brookshaw d escribed an d
illustrat ed in color in 1812 of fruit gath ered by him self from the original tree at th e
Archbishop of Can terburys p alace at Lam beth. This tree w as gen erally believed to
hav e been plan ted by Car dinal Pole du ring the reign of H en ry the Eighth. An oth er
accou nt, that of Baxter (1820), stat ed that a fig tree at Oxford w as introd uced by a Mr.
Pocock, h ence th e nam e Pococks fig; fruit exhibited on August 17, 1819, proved to be
that of th e Wh ite Mar seilles. John Wright (1895) referred to a lar ge tree of White
Mar seilles with a tru nk 6 feet 9 inches in circum ference 2 feet above the grou nd .
Saw yer, in 1824, rep orted that the fig he nam ed Fords Seedling w as som etim es called
th e Pocock, bu t w as m ore prop erly d esignat ed White Mar seilles. Var ious au thors,
including Lindley, Thom pson, an d H ogg, d escribed Wh ite Mar seilles, with Figue
Blan che as a syn ony m . The d escription an d illustration by Eisen in 1901 of Mar seillaise
Wh ite ar e regard ed here as p rop erly referring to Blan che. Wh ite Gen oa, as p ointed

374
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

ou t by Eisen, is distinct from Wh ite Mar seilles. According to Bunyard, Mar seilles is a
w ell established fav orite in Englan d, thriving both ind oors an d on w alls outsid e. Cap e
Wh ite, d escribed by Davis (1928), Burger an d De Wet (1931), an d Gay ner (1949), as a
w ell-kn ow n fig of Sou th Africa, appear s to be very similar to, if n ot id entical with,
Blanche. In southern India the Mar seilles is said by N aik (1949) to crop w ell on th e hills
over abou t 5,000 feet elevation.
Blan che is extensively cultivated in Provence, m ostly as a d rying fig. N ear Par is,
w here Blan che d Argenteuil has been cultivated for m an y centuries, elab orate m ethod s
of cultu re as d escribed by Lhrau lt, Juignet, an d others, have been follow ed for th e
p rod uction of the first crop. A fam ous tree of this var iety at Roscoff, Fran ce, plan ted by
th e Cap uchins in 1621, has been d escribed by Lam bertye (1874), Blan char d (1878, 1879),
an d by Mar tinet an d Lesou rd (1924). In 1924, the bran ches covered an ar ea of 600
squ ar e m eters; they w ere supp orted by 80 pillars, m an y of gran ite. The an nu al crop
w as rep orted to be 400 d ozen figs.
The variety d esignated Lem on in m ost of the south eastern United States is id entical
with Blan che. See d escriptions of Lem on by Star nes an d Monroe (1907) an d by Gou ld
(1923).
At Crisfield, Mar ylan d, an d at Cap e Charles, Virginia, trees of Mar seilles ar e n either
vigorous nor p rod uctive. N ear Portlan d, Oregon, this var iety ran ks first am ong th e
figs tested for h om e an d orchar d plan ting. A Portlan d nurserym an , B. R. Am end , in his
catalogue for th e seas on of 1942, d escribes this variety as Lattar ula (Italian honey fig), a
nam e su ggested by som e visitors from Italy. As d escribed elsew here, how ever, th e
Italian var iety Lattar ola has red , not w hite, pulp.
This var iety has lon g been grow n in California, m ostly und er the nam e Wh ite
Mar seilles. According to Shinn (1915), Wh ite Mar seilles w as grow ing at San ta Clar a an d
San ta Bar bar a before th e discovery of gold . As d eterm ined by Sau nd ers (1889), Wh ite
Sm yrna p roved to be the sam e variety. It w as ap par ently this fig w hich Lelong (1890,
1892) rep orted as found grow ing at Dow ney, Los Angeles County, w here there w as a
v ery lar ge fig orchar d , d evoted to the Mar seillaise, a sm all, w hite, sw eet fruit. Bu t
Eisen (1901) m entioned that an orchar d , p robab ly the sam e on e as above, had been dug
up on accou nt of th e figs souring so bad ly. N o other com m ercial plan tings hav e been
fou nd , bu t d ooryard trees are com m on, especially in sou thern California. It w as grow n
an d tested at the variou s California stations betw een 1893 an d 1903, an d an an alysis of
fruit grow n at Fresn o w as record ed by Colby in 1894. According to Eisen, Versailles
w as once grow n extensively by Felix Gillet, N evad a City; no records, how ever, hav e
been fou nd of its distribution or plan ting under that nam e.
Three varieties introd uced into California in the Chiswick collection all proved to be
id entical with Mar seilles; th ey are P.I. N os. 18,864, Vigas otte Bian co; 18,866, Quar teria;
an d 18,904, Figu e Blan che. Eisen ap pear s to be the only au thor w ho has d escribed the
first tw o, and he has listed them as distinct varieties. Excep t for m inor char acters, his
accou nt of the fruit coincid es closely with that of Blan che given here.

Febru ary , 1955]


375

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Trees of Blan che ar e slow -growing, fairly d ense, with green term inal buds. Leav es
m ed ium , 3- to 5-lobed ; surface glossy ab ove; upper sinu ses of m edium d epth, nar row ,
low er sinuses shallow ; base subcord ate, som etim es au ricled ; m argins crenat e; m atu re
blad es often affected by necrotic sp ots (plate 13). The following d escrip tion of fruit is
from specim ens grow n at Riversid e since 1930.
Breba crop fair; figs m ed iu m or above, up to 2 inches in length an d 1-7/ 8 inches in
diam eter, tu rbinate, with br oad , rou nd ed apex; neck thick an d short, or absen t; stalk
slightly cu rved , 1/ 4 inch long; ribs few , inconspicu ous eye m edium , op en, scales chaffy,
erect at m atu rity; flecks very sm all an d incon spicuous, green rath er than w hite; bloom
d elicate; color light green; pulp an d m eat w hite; seed s lar ge, conspicuous; qu ality fair to
good .
Second -crop figs m u ch the sam e as brebas, except for sm aller size; av erage w eight 30
gram s; shap e sp herical to oblat e, m ostly withou t n eck; stalk up to 1/ 2 inch long. Flav or
fairly rich an d sw eet; qu ality fair as a fresh fruit, of light w eight an d poor qu ality w hen
d ried ; susceptible to fruit sp oilag e. (Plates 8; 26, A.)
Cap rification has little effect up on size an d color, either of skin or p ulp. Figs
p rod uced at Portlan d, Oregon, an d in coas tal districts of California, ar e u su ally lar ger in
size an d m ore oblate in shap e than th ose just d escribed . N ear Par is the second crop of
Blan che m atures in w ar m seas ons only.
Brindisino. Described by Gu glielmi (1908) as an oval, yellowish fig with am ber p ulp,
very sw eet; consu m ed m ore fresh than d ried.
Castellana. A variety u nd er this nam e w as received from Mlag a, Spain, 1925, as P.I.
N o. 62,778. The second-crop figs ar e below m ed ium in size, p yriform , yellowish green
in color; pulp am ber; qu ality p oor. (Plate 8.)
Citrato. Described by Gu glielmi (1908) as a m ediu m -sized fig of citron-yellow color,
hence the nam e. Pulp w hite, with num er ous seed s. Consu m ed fresh.
Colombo Bianco (syn. Colum m o Bian co). Described by Sem m ola (1845), Vallese
(1909), De Rosa (1911), an d Ferrari (1912). Illustrat ed by Sem m ola an d by Vallese;
regard ed by Sem m ola as corresp ond ing to Portoghese of Gallesio, but later w riters fail
to m ention this similar ity. Sem m ola stat ed that the figs som etim es d rop prem aturely,
or reach only par tial m atu rity; an d De Rosa expressed d oubt w heth er cap rification is
necessar y. Vallese d escribed Colum m o Bian co as very similar to Colum m on e
(Colom br o) in fruit, but different in leaf char acters.
Tree vigorous, at taining lar ge size. Leav es lar ge, as ym m etrical, m ostly 5-lobed.
Description of fruit is after Vallese an d De Rosa.
Brebas lar ge, 3 inches broad by 3-1/ 2 inches in length, elongat ed -tu rbinate, broad at
ap ex; eye lar ge; skin thick, checking at m atu rity, greenish yellow in color; pulp cream y
w hite.
Second -crop figs sm aller, 2-1/ 4 by 2-3/ 4 inches, nearly spherical; stalk sh ort; color
greenish yellow , with m an y w hite flecks; pulp w hite, or som etim es light rose-colored;
flav or sw eet, d elicate. Variety im p ortan t, not only for its excellent breba crop, bu t also
for th e m ain crop . Used both fresh an d d ried. According to Ferrari, brebas ar e used as
fresh fruit at Cosenza, an d not exp orted .

376
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Dore Nobis (or N orbu s). Briefly d escribed by Bar ron (1891), Shinn (1892, 1893,
1903), Forrer (1894), an d Star n es (1903, as Gold en N ar bu s, with illustrations) Described
an d figu red by Eisen (1901) as a m edium , p yriform fig, greenish yellow in color, with
am ber p ulp; very similar to Dore, bu t differing in color of p ulp; spelling of nam e
d ou btful. Introd uced in the Chiswick collection as P.I. N o. 18,892.
Dottato (syns. Abru zze s, Ad ottato, Binello, Dattero (?), Datteresi, Dottat o Bian co,
Grascello, Trifero, Med ot, Gentile, N ap oletan i, Ottat o, Uttato, Vottato, Kad ota,
Clar kad ota, End rich, White End rich, Wh ite Pacific, Ficus car ica binella Risso). Described
by Porta (1592), La Quintinie (1692), Tournefort (1700), Liger (1702), Gallesio (1817),
Risso (1826), Gasp ar rini (1845, as Ficus d ottata), Duchar tre (1857), Pasqu ale (1876), Rod a
(1881), Sav astan o (1885), Eisen (1888, 1897, 1901), Stuben rau ch (1903), Mingioli (1904),
Pellican o (1907), Star nes an d Monr oe (1907); Guglielmi (1908), Vallese (1909), Portale
(1910), De Rosa (1911), Ferrari (1912), Siniscalchi (1911), Clar k (1920), Borg (1922),
Cond it (1920c, 1921c, 1923, 1927, 1933, 1947), Anag nostop oulos (1937), Mauri (1942),
Sim on et et al. (1945), Tam aro (1948), Donn o (1951a, 1951b), Cas ella (1952), an d Baldini
(1953). Illustrat ed in color by Clar k; in black an d w hite by Eisen, Vallese, Condit, Mau ri,
Tam aro, Sim on et et al., Baldini, an d Cas ella. (See last for synon ym s.)
Dottato is probably th e m ost im p ortant single fig var iety grow n. It constitutes a
lar ge p ercentage of th e 70,000 tons of d ried figs prod uced an nually in Italy. In
California the am ou nt of d ried figs of this var iety totals over 3,000 tons, w hile 7,500
tons of fresh figs ar e can ned ; there are also m an y car load s of fresh fruit sent each
seas on to local an d distan t m arkets, an d d ooryard trees ar e nu m erous.
Accord ing to Gallesio an d som e oth er Italian w riters, Dottato is of an cient origin,
hav ing been praised by Pliny as an excellent fig for d rying. This an d a few oth er
varieties m ay, therefore, have been p erp etuat ed for som e tw enty centu ries as single
clon es by prop agation from cuttings. Porta d escribed it as Ottat o, a nam e w hich is still
u sed ar ou nd N aples. Gallesio rep orted that it is called Dottati at Sar zan a, Binellino at
Sp ezia an d Chiav ar i, Binelli an d Fichi di N ap oli at Genoa, Gentile at Voltri, N apoletan i at
Finali, Fichi di Calab ria an d Dattar esi in w estern Ligu ria. According to Vallese, it is
kn ow n as N ap oletan o at Coriglian o dOtranto, Lumincella at Fran cav illa, an d
Bian colella or N ar d eleo at Oria an d near Brindisi. The nam e Binelli is applied to Dottat o
by Risso becau se tw o fruits ar e often fou nd joined together at the peduncle. Und er his
accou nt of Dottat o, Gallesio qu oted the Latin d escription of Tournefort, w h o gave the
com m on nam e as Med ot, a syn onym also u sed by La Quintinie an d Liger. The latter
stat ed that Med ot is not raised m uch in Fran ce, as it is only m ediocre in qu ality.
Sim on et et al. d escribed Gentile, grow n at Cap d e Antibes, w here it is called Figu e d es
Abru zze s, an d add ed that this var iety ap p ear s to be the Dottat o of Italy. Fracatsan i,
introd uced in 1901 und er P.I. N o. 6,114 as on e of the finest table figs grow n on th e
islan d of Corfu, ap pear ed to be id entical with Dottato in the collection of varieties at
Chico, California.
Trifero is d escribed by Bar ron (1891) an d Eisen (1901). The following P.I. nu m bers
w ere lab eled Trifero: 18,855, in the Chiswick collection fr om Englan d; 86,802, from

Febru ary , 1955]


377

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Nikita, Yalta, Crim ea; an d 102,021, from Mar rak ech, Morocco. In variety trials all three
of th ese introd uctions proved to be id entical with Dottato.
Dottato is grow n com m ercially in all of the fig districts south of N ap les, as w ell as in
Sicily. Siniscalchi calls it the variety p ar excellence, an d states that it is rightly know n as
th e gold en fig. According to Ferrar i, it is th e one best ad ap ted to local conditions,
both alon g th e coas t, as at Agrop oli, an d in the foothill valleys, such as at Cosenza.
Both Gu glielmi an d Pellican o give it first ran k am ong the figs of sou thern Italy, an d De
Rosa classes it highly for prod uction of d ried figs, as it has few seed s, sw eet pulp, an d
d elicate, althou gh relatively thick, skin. It has been introd uced into Greece, w here
Anag n ostop oulos rep orts that trees prod uced an d m atu red fruit w ell.
The exact tim e of the first introd uction of Dottato into California is not know n.
Italian settlers in the foothill districts of th e San Joaqu in Valley u nd oubtedly introd uced
cuttings of this an d oth er varieties for plan ting; lar ge trees are still to be found on
ran ches established before the m iddle of th e past century. Wh ite Endich is the nam e
ap plied to a fig introd uced into the Stockton district before 1870 an d nam ed for Mr.
Endich of that city; later it w as found to be id entical with Dottato. The history of the
Kad ota fig an d its rise to p op ular ity has been related by Condit (1920c, 1927). Cuttings
distributed by Van Dem an (1890) of the United States Depar tm ent of Agriculture und er
th e nam e Dottato, w ere grow n by the nursery firm , Tw ogood an d Cutter, of Riversid e,
ab ou t 1889. The fruit exhibited in Los Angeles in 1893 attracted consid erab le attention,
an d creat ed a d em an d for trees. In 1898, Step hen H . Taft, of Saw telle, obtained cuttings
an d lab eled the variety Kad ota.
The nam e Wh ite Pacific w as given to a fig prop ag ated by W. R. Strong an d
Com p an y, Sacram ento, an d d escribed in their catalogue in 1883. It w as found on th e
place of a Mr. Wh ite at Pen ryn, hence the nam e; but accord ing to Milco (1884), trees of
th e sam e kind w ere scattered now alm ost every place over the State, esp ecially
ar ound Stockton. Lelong (1890) rep orted it from San Diego. Clar kad ota w as th e
ap pellation coined in 1920 by a d evelop m en t com pany at Stockton, an d purported to
rep resent trees of a superior strain. Both Wh ite Pacific an d Clar kad ota have proved to
be id entical with Dottato w h en trees ar e grow n sid e by sid e in the sam e orchard. P.I.
N o. 58,643 w as introd uced from Pad u a, Italy, as Dottato. It w as grow n an d tested at
th e California stations, an d w as rep orted to be the best w hite fig fruited at Pom ona in
1903, going throu gh fog an d rain withou t sou ring. Wood ar d (1938) rep orted that in
Georgia the Kad ota w as the sw eetest fig u nd er test, an d of superior qu ality, but that
trees w ere m ore subject to cold injury than those of Celeste (Malta). In 1948, a few
Kad ota trees w ere found near Diam ond Sp rings, Virginia.
Dottato is var iously rep orted as a on e-crop or a tw o-crop var iety, the nu m ber of
crop s d ep ending upon the locality w here grow n. For exam ple, at Riversid e an d in the
coastal districts of south ern California the trees seld om m ature perfect brebas; at
Fresn o, w here the d ay an d night tem p eratures of spring an d ear ly sum m er are m uch
higher, a good breba crop is p rod uced.

378
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Trees are gen erally vigorous, d eveloping naturally into a com p act, rou nd ed head
(plate 1); term inal, d orm an t bud s ar e green, as d escribed by Donno (1951a). Leav es
m ed ium , dull to som ew hat glossy ab ove, variab le, with nonlobed, 3-lobed , an d 5-lobed
leav es on the sam e tree, as show n by Condit (1927); upper an d low er sinuses m ostly
rat h er shallow ; base cord ate; m argins serrate to coarsely crenate.
Breba crop n one, or fair; fruit m ed ium to lar ge, p yriform , often som ew hat oblique;
av erage w eight 52 gram s; n eck thick, up to 7/ 8 inch long, som etim es curved ; stalk
variable, from sh ort to 1/ 2 inch long; ribs p resent, m od erately elevat ed , but m ostly
inconspicu ous; eye m edium to lar ge, open, with thick, chaffy scales; surface fairly
glossy; bloom d elicate; w hite flecks few , but lar ge an d conspicuous; color green to
yellowish green; m eat thin, tinged with violet; pulp am ber. Flav or rich an d sw eet;
qu ality excellent; seed s few , har dly noticeable. (Plates 7; 20, A.)
Second -crop figs variable from early to late par t of seas on an d u nd er differen t
clim atic conditions; size from below to above m edium , or even lar ge (1-3/ 4 inches in
diam eter by 2-1/ 4 inches in length); w eight ranges fr om 30 to 80 gram s; shap e sp herical
to ob ovate, with or withou t sh ort, thick neck; stalk variable, short an d thick, or
som etim es up to 1/ 2 inch long; ribs fairly prom inent in lar ger specim ens, or practically
ab sen t in sm aller fruit as used for can ning; eye m ed ium , ap par ently op en, but closed
within the orifice, often sealed with d rop of gu m ; scales straw color; surface glossy, with
d elicate bloom ; skin rath er thick, rubbery in texture, resistan t to injury in han dling;
color green in cool clim ates to gold en yellow in h ot interior valleys; m eat w hite, or
often tinted violet in coastal clim ates, as p ointed out by Condit (1950); pulp am ber;
seed s few , sm all, seed coat har dly or not at all sclerified. Flav or sw eet, but lacking
distinctive char acter; qu ality excellent, especially for preserving an d can ning; skin of
d ried fruit som ew hat thick an d tough. (Plates 12; 20, B.)
Cap rified figs lar ger, grass green; p ulp straw berry; seed s fertile. Good for d rying.
(Plates 8; 11.)
Early White (syn. Jau ne H tive). Described by Lindley (1831); his account w as
ap par en tly copied by H ogg (1866); also d escribed by Eisen (1888, 1901). Figs sm all,
tu rbinate-spherical, p ale yellow ; pulp am ber, not highly flav ored .
Edeisi (syn. Blati). Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a var iety grow n in
th e Jerusalem su bdistrict. Figs m edium , sp herical, flattened at th e ap ex; neck an d stalk
both sh ort; color light green; pulp am ber; qu ality fair.
Florentine. Described by Gould (1923) as a local var iety found at Alexan d ria,
Louisian a, an d lab eled Florentine; no m en tion, h ow ever, w as m ad e of this fig in the
1935 edition of Goulds pu blication. Fruit m edium to lar ge, pale green; pulp am ber.
Fracazzano (syn. Fracazzan o Bian co). Described by Guglielmi (1908), Vallese (1909,
with illustrations), De Rosa (1911), Tam aro (1948), an d Donno (1951b). According to
Vallese, this var iety is grow n th rou ghou t Lecce Province for its tw o crops of fruit, the
second m atu ring into early October if the w eather continues fav orable. De Rosa
rep orts that cap rification is practiced, bu t Vallese m aintains that the reas on gr ow ers p u t

Febru ary , 1955]


379

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

cap rifigs in th e trees is that cap rified figs m ature about fou rteen d ay s earlier than th ose
that are u ncap rified .
Leav es of m ediu m size, 3- to 5-lobed; term inal buds green, as d escribed by Donn o
(1951a).
Brebas m edium , turbinate, the bod y grad ually nar row ing tow ard the bas e into a
short neck; stalk short; color yellowish green; w hite flecks scattered; skin checking at
m atu rity; pulp am ber, sw eet; qu ality good .
Second -crop figs globular , slightly d ep ressed at the ap ex; stalk sh ort; ribs few ,
extending from base to ap ex; eye rather sm all, with rosy scales; skin thick; color
greenish yellow ; w hite flecks present; pulp cream y w hite, very sw eet; seed s few , rath er
sm all.
Hdadi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a subvariety of Sfar i, grow ing in
n orthern Palestine, an d resem bling Byadi in color an d size. Figs m ed iu m , green; eye
closed , scales straw -colored ; pulp am ber; flav or sw eet, good ; seed s few .
Hdeidarmal. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as an uncom m on var iety of
Palestine, also kn ow n as Droubi. Figs m ed ium , spherical, green; eye op en; pulp
brow nish am ber; flav or insipid.
Jaune de Toulouse. Described by Eisen (1901) as a very han d som e fig, lar ge, oblon g;
skin an d pulp yellow .
Kahramani. An Egyp tian fig, d escribed by Badie an d Gham raw i (1931). Tree of
m ed ium size; leav es d eeply lobed . Bear s tw o crops, the first of w hich is m ost
imp ortan t. App ear s in the m arkets earlier than Sultan i.
Figs m edium , oblate-sp herical; stalk short; skin thin, glab rous; color yellow ; pulp
am ber, seedless, very sw eet.
Kargigna. See short d escrip tion by Forrer (1894) as Rar gigna. Briefly d escribed by
Eisen (1901) as a var iety introd uced into California by G. N. Milco from Dalm atia. Figs
m ed ium or below , turbinate, light green; pulp am ber. Quality m ediocre; good only for
th e table.
Magdalen. Described by Eisen (1897, 1901), with illustration of leaf an d fruit; also, in
th e 1901 catalogue of Bar ren H ill Nursery, N evad a City, California, as a French fig, far
sup erior to th e Ischias an d the Celeste (Malta).
Star n es an d Monroe (1907) rep orted a test of M agd alena, received from California,
bu t trees had not fruited up to that tim e. The variety is here consid ered distinct from
Mad eleine, w hich Eisen gives as a synon ym .
Figs d escribed as sm all, turbinate-spherical, with long, slend er stalk; ribs p rom inent;
color greenish yellow ; pulp am ber.
Minuto Bianco. Described by Ferrari (1912) as a sm all, elon gated turbinate fig, with
short stalk; skin covered with a fine pu bescence; color greenish yellow ; pulp am ber.
Used both fresh an d d ry.
Mshaki. Briefly d escribed by Gras ovsky and Weitz (1932) as a var iety grow n at
Jenin, Palestine. It p roduces lar ge, light-green fruits, with h oney colored pulp, sw eet
an d good in flav or.
Ojo de Perdiz (syns. Ull d e Perdiu, Mar tinenca Blan ca). Described an d illustrat ed b y
Estelrich (1910) as a var iety com m only grow n at Man acor an d oth er tow ns on th e
islan d of Mallorca.

380
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

The tree has a rou nd ed head , an d lar ge, 3-lobed leav es.
Figs ar e lar ge, sp herical, or som ew hat elongat ed; eye wid e open, scales rosy; color
light green; pulp am ber; flav or m ild. Resistan t to sp oilag e in hum id w eather. Well
regard ed for use as cattle feed an d for d rying.
Pallaro. Briefly d escribed by Gasp ar rini (1845) as grow n at Portici, Italy. Brebas
d rop ; second -crop figs lar ge, globular ; color greenish yellow ; pulp am ber; flav or
m ed iocre. Listed , but n ot d escribed, by Sav astan o (1885).
Pelo de Buey. Described by Estelrich (1910) as a fairly com m on variety on th e islan d
of Mallorca. Figs ar e m ed iu m , d ar k green, with w hite pulp; used for cattle feed .
Poppa (syn. Copp a). Described by Guglielm i (1908), Vallese (1909), an d Donn o
(1952); leav es an d fruit illustrat ed by Vallese. The tree prod uces only a second crop ,
w hich m atures from m id-Augu st to late Sep tem ber. Accord ing to Vallese, som e
grow ers practice caprification for this variety, w hile oth ers m aintain that it is not
necessar y. Donn o, on the oth er han d , states that all grow ers cap rify Pop pa figs.
Leav es ar e m ed iu m , gen erally 3-lobed.
Figs lar ge, oblique-turbinate, d epressed at the ap ex; stalk very sh ort; ribs slightly
elevat ed ; skin checking crisscross at m aturity; color greenish yellow ; pulp dar k am ber;
seed s few . Consu m ed m ostly in the fresh state.
Raby Castle. According to tw o accounts in 1878 (see The Gar d en, 14:584 an d 16:316)
th e nam e Raby Castle w as given to a fig fou nd on an estate of th e sam e nam e in
Englan d; the tree bore tw o or three crops in the seas on m ore read ily than Brow n
Tu rkey. H ogg (1866) regard ed it as synon ym ou s with Wh ite Mar seilles (Blan che). The
ab ove accounts, how ever, also stat e that those w ho have seen th e tw o together w ou ld
never confou nd them . Raby Cas tle w as tested by John Rock at Niles, an d by th e
California stations at Pas o Robles, Jackson, and Tular e, but ap par en tly w as fou nd to be
an inferior variety.
Eisen (1901) d escribed an d figured it as m edium , sp herical, with prom inent ribs; skin
light green; pulp coarse, am ber; qu ality p oor. N ot w orth y of cultivation.
Reine (syn. Verd ale in LArige an d the H au te-Gar onne). Described by Ou nou s
(1863) as productive of tw o crops; on e of the m ost profitab le varieties for shipping
fresh. Figs m ediu m , oblate-sp herical, yellowish green; pulp w hite. Id entity n ot certain;
ap par en tly d ifferen t from Verd al an d Verte, both of w hich hav e straw berry-red pulp.
Schifo. Described by Portale (1910) as an Italian var iety, prod ucing m edium figs,
with very sh ort stalk; color pale yellow ; pulp am ber; seed s lar ge, nu m erous.
Seirolles (syns. Seirola, Seyroles, Sirore, Ficus car ica seirola Risso). Described by
Bernar d (1787), Duham el (1809), Risso (1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), Du
Breuil (1876), Sauvaigo (1889), Eisen (1888, 1901), an d Sim onet et al. (1945, with figu re).
This var iety, grow n in south ern Fran ce both for fresh fruit an d for d rying, has
ap par en tly not been tested in the United Stat es. The following account is after that of
Sim on et.
Breba crop none. Second -crop figs m edium to sm all, 1-1/ 2 inches long by 1-1/ 4
inches broad , p yriform to tu rbinate; av erage w eight 17.5 gram s; neck an d ribs fairly

Febru ary , 1955]


381

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

p rom inent; stalk short; eye sm all, closed , scales yellow ; skin firm , with d elicate bloom ;
color greenish yellow ; pulp am ber; seed s few . Quality good ; excellent for d rying.
Seas on late Septem ber.
Tossico. Briefly d escribed by Ferrari (1912) as an Italian fig, greenish yellow in color,
with am ber pulp; m atures in Septem ber.
Urjal (syns. Cap a Rta, Bran co). Described by Mello Leotte (1901) as Urjal, a
corru p tion of the w ord ar gel, signifying s oft; i.e., fig of the soft skin. Described an d
illustrat ed by Bob one (1932) as Cap a Rta, with syn onym s as ab ove.
This Portugu ese variety has tw o crop s.
Breba crop sm all; fruits lar ge, p yriform , green; pulp am ber. Second-crop figs below
m ed ium , turbinate, with out neck; stalk m edium ; pulp coar se in texture, am ber; qu ality
fair.
Verdeccio (syns. Verd ecchio, Verdichio, probab ly Verdino d i Brian za). Described by
Tan ar a (1651), Gallesio (1817), Gasp ar rini (1845, as Ficus hypoleuca), Duchar tre (1857),
an d Eisen (1888, 1901). Figu red by Gallesio an d by Eisen. In 1651, Tan ar a listed
Verd ecchio as a var iety resistan t to cold an d good for d rying. In 1668, Ald rovan di
includ ed Verd ecchij in a list of several Italian figs of that period . Gallesio d escribed it as
a variety highly esteem ed at Bologna an d in som e p ar ts of Lom bard y. Eisen d oes n ot
give th e sou rce of the m at erial w hich he described an d illustrat ed. Appar ently th e
variety has n ot at tracted fav orable attention in Italy, an d is not represented in an y
collection in California.
Second -crop figs below m edium , p yriform , according to Gallesio, spherical, withou t
neck, according to Eisen; color yellowish green; pulp am ber. Seas on late.
Verdillo (syns. Verd olino an d Verd oso), d escribed an d figured by Tam aro (1948),
ap pear s to be very sim ilar to Verd eccio.
Yaffawi (syns. Bourtaw i, Shourtaw i, Shheimi). Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz
(1932). Tree prolific, bearing regular ly. Figs lar ge, slightly elongated ; neck an d stalk
m ed ium ; eye alm ost closed , scales light green; color green, with ribs d ar k green; p ulp
am ber; seed s m an y.
Zonto. Described by Gu glielmi (1908) as a variety grow n in Lecce Province, Italy,
bearing spherical figs, with very sh ort stalk; color yellow ; pulp am ber; gen erally
consu m ed fresh.
Common-type Figs with Skin Green or Yellow; Pulp
Various Shades of Red
Abakor (syn. Abak ou r Am ellal). According to H an oteau an d Letourneux (1872), the
Kabyles retain th e Arab ic nam e bakou r, early, for this var iety, becau se of its
ab u nd an t crop of brebas. Listed by Eisen (1901) as Abak ou r Am ellal, p robably from
P.I. N o. 6,469; d escribed an d illustrat ed by Mann (1939b) ; see also Montagnac (1952).
Trees vigorous, p rod ucing tw o crop s. Leav es 5-lobed .
Figs m ed iu m , globular ; stalk short; ribs presen t; eye op en; skin green; p ulp rosecolored ; qu ality m ediocre. Brebas consu m ed fresh; second -crop figs gen erally d ried .

382
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

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Aberdin. Described by Risso (1826) as Ficu s car ica ab erdina. Figs ab ove m edium ,
spherical; stalk short; skin color green; p ulp red ; honeylike d rop often exuding from th e
eye.
Agresto. Described by De Rosa (1911). Tree with slend er bran ches, an d m ediu m , 5lobed leav es; breba crop sm all. Figs oblate, with slend er stalk; eye lar ge, with rosecolored scales; skin green; pulp light red , sw eet.
Ajlouni. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a very p op ular variety, one of
th e best in Sam aria; p robably introd uced to Ram allah from Sm yrna. Figs sm all,
p yriform , with m edium neck an d stalk; color green; eye alm ost closed ; pulp pinkish;
flav or good ; seed s m an y.
Amudi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a var iety grow n at N aza reth.
Figs m ed ium , spherical, with lon g stalk; skin green; pulp red; qu ality fair.
Anglique (syns. Melette, Petite Figue Gris, Cou courelle Blan che, Mad eleine, Ear ly
Lem on, Figu e dOr). See Rollan d (1914) for syn ony m y. There are m any d escriptions of
this var iety. The m ost n otew orthy ones follow. Merlet (1667), La Quintinie (1692),
Liger (1702), Tournefort (1719), Duham el (1768, 1809), Weston (1770), La Brousse (1774),
Rozier (1787), Le Berryais (1789), Mirbel (1802), N oisette (1821, 1829), Bory d e Saint
Vincent (1824), Lindley (1831), Cou verchel (1839), MIntosh (1855), Dochnah l (1855),
Forn ey (1863), H ogg (1866), G. S. (1867), Bar ron (1868b), Du Breuil (1876), H yd e (1877),
Colem an (1887b), Wat ts (1890), Massey (1893), Burnette (1894), Eisen (1901), Star n es
(1903), Star nes an d Mon roe (1907), Evreinoff (1947), an d Condit (1947). The color
illustration by Du ham el (1809) sh ow s a sm all, green fig with short, thick neck; th e on e
by Bar ron sh ow s a sp herical fig, bad ly split at the ap ex; it is also figu red by Starnes, an d
by Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, D)
Confu sion has existed as to the id entity of this var iety, as w ell as its syn onym s. La
Quintinie (tran slation by Evelyn) referred to the little grey fig, alm ost of a taw ny color,
called Melette in Gascon y. Tournefort d escribed it as Melette or Coucou relle, of sm all
size an d taw ny color. Duham el (1768) qu oted Tournefort, then d escribed the fruit as
very lar ge, of a yellow color. Bernard (1787) disagreed with Du ham el, an d believed the
d escrip tion of Tou rn efort char acterized the variety Cou courelle Brune better than
Angliqu e. Practically all later w riters d escribe the color as yellow . Mirbel called it
Angliqu e or Melette, an d stated that it w as cultivated in near ly all p ar ts of Fran ce.
Figu e dOr, P.I. N o. 18,880, an d Mad eleine, P.I. N o. 18,890, both of th e Chiswick
collection, p roved to be id entical at Riversid e. In view of the d escrip tions review ed an d
of th e sp ecim ens of Mad eleine fruiting at Riversid e, w e ar e inclined to agree with H ogg,
with G. S., an d with Bar ron, rather than Eisen, that Mad eleine is synonym ous with
Angliqu e. The Mad eleine listed by som e au thors as a syn ony m of Blan che (Versailles)
is differen t from the variety treated here. N ew French, d escribed by Ear le (1900), an d
by Price an d White (1902), an d listed as prom ising by Reim er (1910), is p robably
id entical with Anglique.
Angliqu e is found in California only in collections. The tree is m od erat ely vigorous,
bearing tw o crops. The leav es are variously d escribed as m ore entire than an y other,
an d longer than br oad , an d often have only three lobes. Leav es of Riversid e trees are

Febru ary , 1955]


383

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

m ed ium , m ostly 3-lobed ; upp er surface dull; upper sinu ses rat her shallow an d nar row ;
bas e su bcord ate to tru ncate; m argins coarsely crenate.
Breba crop fair to sm all; fruits m edium , up to 2 inches in diam eter, tu rbinatespherical; neck very short an d indistinct; stalk 1/ 4 inch long, sw ollen tow ard the ap ex;
ribs p resent, nar row ; eye lar ge, open, scales chaffy, bord ered with pink, often brightly
colored ; surface w axy or glossy; color lem on yellow , with w hite flecks few an d
inconspicu ou s; pulp light straw berry, h ollow at the center. (Plate 21, C.)
Second -crop figs very similar in ap p ear an ce to the brebas, but sm aller in size;
av erage w eight 32 gram s; shap e oblate-spherical, without neck; stalk u p to 3/ 4 inch
long, often curved , an d prom inently sw ollen at the ap ex; fruit of beau tiful ap pear an ce
on accou nt of th e w axy su rface, bright yellow color, an d rosy eye scales; pulp light
straw berry to alm ost am ber, h ollow , as show n by Condit (1941, fig. 11, C); flav or
insipid ; qu ality poor. Very susceptible to insect infestation th rou gh th e op en eye, an d
to su bsequ ent sp oilag e. (Plates 8; 14, D.)
Figs incom pletely par th enocarpic, m an y fruits d ropping w hen sm all; cap rified
specim ens m uch the sam e as uncap rified ones in size an d color, but with pulp bright
straw berry in color.
Anglique Jaune (syn. Vend m e). See d escription an d illustration by Eisen (1901)
from figs prod uced at Niles, California. Original tree from Thom as Rivers an d Son,
Lond on. Rep orted to be a m ost valu able fig, distinct from Angliqu e, with lar ge,
p yriform fruit, greenish yellow in color; pulp d eep red . This is p robably the sam e
variety d escribed by Lan gley (1728) an d Ballon (1692) as Anglique or Incar nad ine.
Arneo Bianco (syns. Verneo Bian co, Inverneo, Invernale, Inverneng o, In vernizzo ,
N atalin o, Tar d o). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909) as an unusually late fig,
con tinuing to m atu re into October or even Decem ber in fav orable seas ons; also
d escribed by Pellican o (1907), Gu glielmi (1908), Portale (1910), an d De Rosa (1911).
Tree lar ge. Leav es gen erally 5-lobed. Figs m ediu m , obovate; stalk very short; neck
ab sen t; skin pale yellow , with scattered w hite flecks; eye scales intensely rose-colored;
pulp red . Consu m ed fresh.
Assel bou Tchiche. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) an d by Minan goin
(1931). Leav es m ediu m , d eeply 3-lobed . Figs spherical, m edium in size; neck indistinct;
eye op en; color greenish yellow ; pulp light red.
Assouani (syn. Abiad Assu an ). Described by Badie an d Gham raw i (1931). Trees
m ed ium . Leav es d eeply 5-lobed . Tw o crops. Figs oblong or p yriform ; stalk short; ribs
p rotruding; skin thin, yellowish green, firm ly ad hering to the m eat; pulp light red ;
seed s few . Second crop continu es m atu ring until Jan uar y at Qena an d Assuan .
Badalhouce. Described an d figu red by Bobone (1932). Breba crop esp ecially good ;
fruits lar ge, p yriform , greenish yellow ; pulp car m ine; texture fine; qu ality very good .
Second -crop figs not d escribed .
Barnissotte Blanche (syns. Bar nissotte Wh ite, Bourjassotte Blan che, Bernissou Blan c,
Brogiotto Bian co, Bu rjassotte Bran co, Bordissotte (or Bordissot) Blan ca, Bourgassotte,
Bou rgeassotte, Olho d e Passar inho, Regalo, Rainha, Ficus carica meridionalis Risso).

384
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Described by La Brousse (1774), Bernar d (1787), Duham el (1809), Gallesio (1817), Risso
(1826), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), H ogg (1866),
Pasqu ale (1876), Du Breuil (1876), Sauvaigo (1889, 1894), Eisen (1888, 1901), Bar ron
(1891), Mello Leotte (1901), Mingioli (1904), Trabut (1904), Star nes an d Monroe (1907),
Estelrich (1910), Mazires (1920), Borg (1922), San chez (1922), Priego y Jar am illo (1922),
Leclerc (1925), Bois (1928), Bobone (1932), Bu n (1942), Sim onet et al. (1945), Evreinoff
(1947), an d Baldini (1953). Illustrations by Eisen, Star nes, Estelrich, Bobone, Sim onet,
an d Baldini.
In 1817, Gallesio rep orted Brogiotto Bian co to be the king of figs, an d believed it to be
a variety brou ght from Syria to Genoa som etim e d uring th e Crusad es. H e d escribed
th e tree as a gian t am ong fruit trees, som e m easuring over tw o m eters in tru nk
circu m ference. The var iety is wid ely distributed in Mediterran ean countries. Estelrich
rep orted that on Mallorca there ar e orchards plan ted exclusively to Bordissot Blan ca.
Bob on e collected specim ens of fruit from three different districts of Algar ve, an d
d escribed it as Burjassotte Bran co with three synonym s. Borg stated that it is the only
w hite fig n ot requ iring cap rification on Malta. Alth ou gh Bou rjassotte Blan che is
m en tioned by Shinn (1915) as one of the varieties cultivated in California, the existence
of au thentic trees is not kn ow n.
The tree bears a few brebas in som e seas ons only; the second crop is very prolific,
m atu ring over a lon g seas on. Leav es lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed . Descrip tion of fruit is after
Sim on et.
Second -crop figs m edium , 2-1/ 4 inches long an d broad , turbinate, som ew hat
flatten ed at the ap ex; av erage w eight 60 gram s; neck pr om inen t, short an d thick; stalk
short; ribs presen t, but n ot m arked ; eye lar ge, op en, often splitting at m aturity, scales
red ; skin rather firm , uniform ly yellowish green, with light bloom ; m eat w hite; pulp
red . Qu ality excellent fresh; also good for d rying.
Bayoudi (syn. Adsi Abiad). Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929), an d by Badie
an d Gham raw i (1931), as a var iety of the Com m on typ e bearing figs m edium in size,
oblate, with green skin an d rose-colored pulp
Minan goin (1931) d escribed three Tunisian varieties with similar nam es, all three
ap par en tly requ iring caprification. N o. 5, Baioudi, from Gab s, p rod uces m edium ,
oblate fruits, green in color, with red pulp. No. 17, Bioudi, from Gafsa, has sm all, oblate
figs, light green in color, with light-red pulp. N o. 56, El-Baioudi, from Menzel Temine, is
rep orted to bear above m edium , spherical fruits, with thick skin, green in color, an d red
pulp. Vald eyron an d Cr ossa-Raynau d (1950) rep ort that the above nam es probably
refer to several clon es hav ing fruits with light-colored skin.
Berdauda (syns. Grosse Berd oua, Verd aou ). Described by Du Breuil (1876), Sauvaig o
(1889), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). A lar ge, turbinat e fig, greenish yellow in color, with red
pulp, grow n in Provence, Fran ce.
Blancassa. Described by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901); Ficus car ica albid a Risso
given as syn on ym . Tw o crop s. Brebas subglobular , green, with yellow flush; pulp pale
rose. Second -crop figs subpyriform , greenish yellow ; pulp red.

Febru ary , 1955]


385

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Bontard. Tw o ap par ently different varieties ar e d escribed by Eisen (1901) u nd er this


nam e; no record is given of th e sou rce or the locality w here th e first w as grow n; it w as
a fig below m edium in size, with yellowish-green skin an d pink pulp. The second
accou nt refers to the Bontard received from the Royal H orticultural Society in the
Chiswick collection, first established at Niles, an d later at Chico, Fresno, an d Riversid e,
u nd er P.I. N o. 18,836. Descrip tion follow s, from trees fruiting at Riversid e since 1930.
Tree not vigorous, fairly d ense; term inal buds green. Leav es below m ed iu m to
sm all, m ostly 3-lobed ; upper su rface glossy; upp er sinus shallow , rather narrow ; bas e
subcord ate to truncate; m argins d entate.
Brebas few , m ediu m or above, var iable in size an d shap e, com m only obliqu ep yriform ; neck p r om inent, som etim es curved ; stalk short; eye m edium , op en, with
straw -colored scales; w hite flecks nu m erou s, fairly conspicu ous; color light green; p ulp
light straw berry; flav or m ild ; qu ality fair to poor.
Second -crop figs m edium , tu rbinate; neck thick, slightly flattened in som e specim ens;
av erage w eight 34 gram s; ribs present, but not conspicuous, of sam e color as bod y; eye
lar ge, op en, at tracting beetles; surface dull, with d elicate bloom ; w hite flecks
inconspicu ou s; color yellowish green; pulp very light straw berry to am ber, som ew hat
h ollow ; flav or m ild. Quality p oor; fruit very su bject to sp oilag e; a w orthless variety
here.
Cap rified figs lar ger, with dar k-straw berry pulp. (Plate 20, C.)
Borghino. Described an d figured by Baldini (1953) from the Firenze district of Italy.
Tree m od erately vigor ou s, prod ucing on e crop only; term inal bud s light green.
Leav es m ostly 7-lobed , with d eep sinuses; petiolar sinus nar row . Figs spherical, with
short neck an d m edium stalk; eye op en, su rrou nd ed by a br ow n ring; color light green;
pulp red , fairly sw eet; seed s num erous.
Bouin (syns. Bovin, Ficus car ica bovina Risso). Described by Risso (1826), Sauvaigo
(1889), an d Eisen (1901).
Tree with thick bran ches. Leav es m ostly 3-lobed . Figs ab ove m ediu m , elongat ed ,
broad est tow ard the ap ex; skin an d m eat stron gly ad hering to the pulp; color greenish
yellow ; eye p rojecting, su rround ed by a red iris; pulp bright red, of ag reeable flav or.
Boukrati. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a var iety gr ow n only in
n orth ern Palestine. Figs m edium , green; neck an d stalk sh ort; eye slightly op en, with
pinkish scales; pulp red . Good for fresh fruit.
Bourdissotte Blanche. Described by H ogg (1866); his d escrip tion closely follow ed by
Eisen (1888, 1901). Rep orted to be a good French d rying fig, distinct from Bourjassotte
Blan che. Figs sm all, spherical-tu rbinate; color greenish yellow ; pulp pale rose; flav or
rich.
Boutana. Described by H ogg (1866), Bar ron (1891), an d Eisen (1901, after these tw o).
Fruit m ed ium , oblique-oblate; ribs distinct; stalk short; skin d ow n y, green, withou t
bloom ; pulp dar k rose; flav or flat.
Brianzola (syns. Passin, Passet). Described by Gallesio (1817), Rod a (1881), Eisen
(1901), an d Tam aro (1948). The following account is after th ose of Gallesio an d Tam aro,
both of w h om rep orted Brian zola to be one of the better figs of Lom bard y.

386
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Figs sm all, gou rd shap ed ; color green; pulp red . Fresh fruit resistan t to han d ling
an d tran sp ort. Fruit shrivels on the tree, a fact w hich accounts for th e local nam e,
P assin (raisin) ; also d ries w ell in the su n, and is stored for winter u se.
Buttafarro. Described by Guglielmi (1908) as a m ed ium fig with thin, sm ooth skin,
yellowish green in color; pulp red ; m ostly consu m ed fresh; cultivated especially in the
vicinity of Squ inzan o.
Byadi (syn. Fallah i). N am e signifies w hite. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz
(1932).
Trees sm all in size, not very p rolific. Leav es d eeply lobed . Figs m ediu m , sp herical;
neck an d stalk sh ort; eye op en, scales br ow n; skin color light green; pulp light pink;
flav or sw eet; seed s few an d sm all. Mainly u sed for d rying.
Cabroliana (syn. Dou qu eiretta). Second crop only d escribed by Sau vaigo (1889) an d
Eisen (1901). Figs pyriform , 1-5/ 8 inches in diam eter, 2-1/ 2 inches lon g; color greenish
yellow ; pulp red . Grow n at Nice an d in Provence.
Caiana Blanca (syn. Ficus car ica can d olean a Risso, according to Sau vaigo). Described
by Sau vaigo (1889) as a pyriform fig with light-green skin an d red pulp.
Carabaseta. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as on e of th e best d rying figs
of Mallorca, receiving a g old m ed al at th e exposition in Man acor, 1896; see also accoun t
of Priego y Jaram illo (1922), an d of Cond it (1925). P.I. N o. 86,169, introd uced from
Lrid a Province in Sp ain in 1928 as Carabesseta, proved to be a striped fig very similar
to Pan ache.
Tree of m edium size, with 3-lobed leav es. Figs m edium , conical, clear green; p ulp
light red , very sw eet. Highly flav ored fresh, an d of especially good qu ality d ried.
Caravanchina (syns. Caravan china Bianca, Ficus car ica collina Risso). Specific nam e
collina im plies fig of th e hills. Described by Risso (1826), Sau vaigo (1889), an d Eisen
(1901).
Tree with long bran ches, prod ucing tw o crop s. Leav es 3- to 5-lobed ; blad e
som etim es p rolon ged to a point at the p etiole.
Brebas above m ed ium , pyriform , with elongat ed neck; eye p rom inent, with red dish
scales; m eat streaked with violet; pulp light red .
Second -crop figs tu rbinate, 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, greenish yellow ; pulp red .
Carlina. Described an d figu red by Estelrich (1910) as originating at Algaida from a
tree growing in a d ry w all.
Tree of m od erat e size. Leav es m ostly 3-lobed. Figs m ed ium ; skin firm , light green in
color; p ulp light red . Very good for d rying an d for cattle feed.
Cheihk-Ali. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gabs, Tu nisia. Leav es lar ge,
often n onlobed . Figs oblate, sessile, ribbed ; eye wid e open; color green, p ruinose; p ulp
red .
Cimeirenca Blanca. Described by Risso (1826) as Ficu s car ica cem en elea, or fig of
Amiez, Fran ce.
Tree sm all, very prolific; branches spread ing into the shap e of a p ar as ol. Leav es
sm all, glossy, 3-lobed , or often entire. Figs m ed ium , turbinate, with long stalk; eye
rosy; skin thick, light green; pulp red . Flav or very agreeable.

Febru ary , 1955]


387

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Fig

Varieties

Clauet. Described by Estelrich (1910) as a late Mallorcan var iety, with 3-lobed , d eeply
cleft leav es. Figs sm all, oblong, yellowish green in color; eye op en; pulp red . Well
regard ed for its qu ality.
Col de Dame (syns. Col di Signora, Col d e Se ora Blan ca, Col di Sign ora Bian ca, Col
d es Dam es, Col d e Dam e Blan c, Cu ello d e Dam a Blan ca, Figue d es Dam es, Pera, Fraga,
Ficus car ica d om ina Risso, Lucrezia, accord ing to Eisen). Described by Risso (1826),
Ounou s (1863), H ogg (1866), H yd e (1877), An on. (1878), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887,
1947), Sau vaigo (1889, 1894), Bar ron (1891), Colby (1894), Wr ight (1894), Eisen (1888,
1901), Wy thes (1902), Star n es an d Monroe (1907), Estelrich (1910), Priego y Jar am illo
(1922), Sn chez (1922), E. A. Bunyar d (1925), Condit (1925), Davis (1928), Bois (1928),
Blin (1942), Sim onet et al. (1945), Delbar d (1947), an d Evreinoff (1947). Color plate by
Anon. (1878) show s a yellow fig with red eye scales; both Estelrich an d Sim on et give an
ou tline d raw ing of th e fruit. See also Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, O).
In his accou nt of Figue d es Dam es, Risso refers to p reviou s d escriptions by Gar id el,
Bernar d , an d Duham el; the first tw o, how ever, m ad e no m ention of Col d e Dam e, but
d escribe Trom p e-Cassaire (Verte), a distinct variety. Since Risso d escribed this fig as
Figu e d es Dam es in 1826, an d a similar nam e is used by Sim onet in 1945, the variety is
d esignated in this p u blication as Col d e Dam e. It is wid ely distributed in sou th ern
Fran ce, an d especially in Spain w here, as Mazires (1920) stat ed, it probably originated .
On Mallorca the figs, both fresh an d d ried, ar e u sed for h og feed , an d at Palm a th e fresh
fruit is com m on in the m arkets. It has long been grow n for d rying at Fraga, an d at
Bar celona the fresh figs ar e used for preserves.
Col d e Senora Blan ca w as im p orted from Englan d in 1883 by John Rock, of Niles,
California; in 1894, it cam e in as P.I. N o. 18,891 of the Chiswick collection, also obtained
from Englan d . Fraga, P.I. N o. 96,439, originally from Lrid a, Spain, p roved to b e
id entical to Col d i Signora Bian ca. P.I. N o. 69,011, received from a French nursery in
1926 as Col d e Dam e, w as found at Riverside to be a different variety, having sm all,
green fruit, sm all eye, an d d ar k-straw berry pulp. It is very similar to Verte, an d m ay
be id entical with that variety. At Fresno, Col d e Dam e is inferior to Ad riatic (Verd on e)
for d rying, on account of p oorer prod uction of the tree, sm aller size of fruit, an d dar ker
color of p ulp. At Riversid e the figs ar e subject to sp oilag e, owing to insect infestation
an d splitting.
The tree is vigorous, upright in habit, with dingy-green term inal buds. Leav es
m ed ium , glossy ab ove, rath er stiff and har sh in texture, 3- to 5-lobed ; upp er sinuses
fairly d eep , m ar gins of lobes often overlap ping, low er sinuses shallow; base subcord ate
to tru ncate; m argins coar sely crenate. The following d escription is from fruit prod uced
at Riversid e since 1930; an d at Los Angeles an d Fresno in 1953.
Brebas n one, or very rare. Second -crop figs variable in size, from sm all to m ediu m ,
up to 2-1/ 4 inches long an d 2 inches in diam eter, sh ort-p yriform to spherical, or even
oblate-tu rbinate; average w eight 41 gram s; neck prom inen t, thick; stalk short; ribs
fairly broad , slightly elevated , but har d ly p rom inent; eye rather lar ge an d par tly op en,
scales com m only brightly colored , contras ting stron gly with the yellow skin; surface
d ull,

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

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with faint bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge, conspicuou s; color yellowish green to lem on
yellow ; skin som etim es checking at m atu rity, as show n by Cond it (1941a, fig. 8, C);
pulp straw berry, alm ost seedless. Flav or sw eet, but insipid; qu ality fair; seas on late.
Cap rified figs ab ove m ediu m , green; pulp dar k red ; seed s fertile. (Plates 12; 20, D).
Cordelire (syns. Servan tine, Coucou rela, Coucou relle, Coucourelle Gris, Ficu s
car ica tou rn efortian a Risso). See Rollan d (1914) for syn onym y. In 1700, Tournefor t
d escribed Figu e Cord elire or Servan tine, an d qu oted the d escription given by Cup an i
fou r year s earlier. The latter did not u se the sam e variety nam es, but rep orted that it
w as com m only kn ow n as Ficazz ini Vera. Later au thorities, w ho ap par ently d escribed
th e sam e var iety, ar e:
Gar id el (1715), La Brou sse (1774), Bernar d (1787), Rozier (1805), Du ham el (1809),
Lam arck (1817), Risso (1826), Lhrau lt (1872), Sau vaigo (1889, 1894), Eisen (1901),
Estelrich (1910, p robably), Rolet (1916), an d Leclerc (1925). This fig w as d escribed by
Duham el as Servan tine, showing illustrations in color; also by Risso as Ficu s car ica
cotignan a, com m only kn ow n as Observantine. Sim onet et al. (1945) consid er
Cord elire an d Cotignan a as id entical, an d give oth er local nam es, su ch as Clestine.
H ow ever, the last nam e is regard ed by Socit Pom ologiqu e d e Fran ce (1887, 1947)
also by Eisenas prop erly belonging to still an other French fig of ashy-gray color. See
accou nts of Observantine an d Clestine. Ap par ently Cord elire has n ot been grow n in
California, at least und er that nam e.
The tree of Cord elire prod uces tw o crops, of w hich the first is the m ost highly
regard ed . Leav es ar e 5-lobed , with the mid dle lobe unu su ally lon g.
Brebas ar e lar ger an d m ore elongat ed than figs of th e m ain crop ; qu ality good .
Second -crop figs sp herical, sm all, 1 inch in diam eter, according to Bernard , ab ou t
1-1/ 2 inches long an d 1-1/ 4 inches in diam eter, according to Risso; ribs elevated ; stalk
short; color yellowish green; pulp d elicate rose. Figs often plunged into boiling w ater
to facilitate d rying. Seas on early.
Cotignacenque (syns. Cotignac, Potignacen qu e). Described by Bernard (1787),
Duham el (1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), an d
Eisen (1901). A French fig, com m on at H yres.
Tree good in d ry soil. Leav es 3-lobed . Figs oblong, about 2 inches long and 1 inch in
wid th; stalk long; eye rose-colored ; skin sm ooth, greenish yellow ; pulp red . Qu ality
good , both fresh an d d ried. Figs d ry read ily on tree before d ropping.
Ctio (syn. Malag uenho Bran co). Described by Mello Leotte (1901) an d Bob on e
(1932)the latter with illustrationsas the m ost im p ortan t com m ercial var iety of
Algar ve. The orchard s of Lam eira ar e com posed alm ost w holly of Ctio trees. At
Cacela, it is kn ow n as Malag u enho Brav o.
Breba crop n on e. Second-crop figs m edium , turbinate; neck short an d thick or non e;
stalk sh ort; color green; pulp car mine; textu re coarse. Quality good , especially for
d rying.
Damascene. Described an d figured by Christ (1812) as a gold en-yellow fig with red
pulp.

Febru ary , 1955]


389

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Dame Blanche. Described an d figured by Sim on et et al. (1945) from sp ecim ens
collected at Sollies-Pont.
Tree bear s one crop only. Leav es sm all, 5-lobed .
Figs sm all, oval-pyriform , without neck; av erage w eight 17.5 gram s; ribs not ver y
ap par en t; stalk up to 1/ 2 inch long; eye m ediu m , circled by rosy, projecting scales; skin
velvety, checking at m atu rity, uniform ly greenish yellow ; pulp red ; texture fine; seed s
sm all, not very nu m erou s; qu ality m ed iocre.
Darji. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Menzel Tem ine, Tu nisia. Leav es
m ed ium , m ostly 5-lobed ; upp er sinuses deep, alm ost closed , low er sinuses less
p rom inent. Figs m edium , 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, practically sp herical; eye op en; skin
rat h er thick, light green in color; pulp light red .
Datte. Described by Gallesio (1817), Gaspar rini (1845, as Ficus d eliciosa var.
castan ea), Audibert Frres (1854), H ogg (1866), G. S. (1869), Du Breuil (1876), Pasqu ale
(1876), Rod a (1881), Bar ron (1891), Eisen (1888, 1901), Star n es an d Monroe (1907), an d
by Tam aro (1948, with figure). Gallesio rep orted the following local nam es in Italy Fico
Mad am a Rosso at Milan , F. Gen ovese at Pavia an d Lag go Mag giore, F. d ella Mad onna
at Bergam o, F. Rossetto at Vogh era, F. Lar de at Alessan d ria, an d F. Averen go an d F.
Datto at Torino.
Datte is rep orted to be com m on in northern Italy, w here the brebas ar e especially
esteem ed ; in south ern d istricts, second -crop figs ar e better than brebas. It w as
introd uced into th e United States in the Chiswick collection as P.I. N o. 18,845, an d
fruited in Georgia an d California, but trees ar e now found only in collections.
The tree is of slow grow th, with m an y sm all, slend er twigs; term inal bud s green.
Leav es m edium , glossy above, 3- to 5-lobed ; upp er sinuses of m edium d epth an d
wid th, low er sinuses shallow ; base su bcord at e to truncate; m argins very shallowly
crenat e. Description is from fruit prod uced at Riversid e since 1931.
Breba crop sm all or n one; fruit m ediu m or above, oblique-pyriform , with p rom inent,
often cu rved neck; stalk short; color green, tinged with violet from the und erlying
violet m eat; pulp dar k straw berry; flav or good .
Second -crop figs m ed iu m , up to 2-1/ 2 inches long an d 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter,
obliqu e-p yriform , but irregular in shape an d size; av erage w eight 28 gram s; neck up to
1/ 2 inch long, som etim es curved ; stalk thick an d short, or slend er an d over 1/ 2 inch
long; ribs slightly elevated , har d ly prom inent; surface dull, with light bloom ; w hite
flecks lar ge, scattered , conspicuous; eye m edium , op en, scales straw color; skin light
green, d iscolored by brow n sp ots at m atu rity; m eat w hite; pulp light straw berry, fairly
sw eet an d rich, bu t d ry in textu re; qu ality poor. A consid erable percen tage of the crop
d rop s w hen figs ar e sm all, indicating lack of cap rification.
Cap rified specim ens with d ar k-green skin; eye scales bright rose color; fruits inclined
to split at ap ex; pulp of a rich straw berry color, su bacid, but of agreeable flav or. Much
improved by caprification.
Variety generally p oor, both fresh an d d ried , an d not w orth y of fu rth er cultu re in
California. (Plate 22, D.) See also Condit (1941a, fig. 2, U).

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

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Daurada. Described by Risso (1826, as Ficu s car ica lutea), Sauvaigo (1889), an d Eisen
(1901), as a sm all, globular fig, broad at the ap ex; color greenish yellow ; pulp red .
Grow n near Nice, Fran ce.
Domestica. Briefly d escribed by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as a p yriform fig,
with greenish-yellow skin an d red pulp.
D Or de Laura. Description by Eisen (1888, 1901), after that of H ogg (1866). Figs
below m edium , oblong; ribs obscure; eye closed ; color yellowish green; pulp op aline,
sw eet; qu ality excellent.
Dore (syns. Figue d Or, Gou tte dOr). Described by Merlet (1667), Ballon (1692),
Liger (1702), Lan gley (1728), Socit Pom ologiqu e d e France (1887, 1947), Eisen (1888,
1901), Star nes an d Monroe (1907), Juignet (1909), Sim on et et al. (1945), an d Delbar d
(1947). Illustrat ed in black an d w hite by Star nes an d Monroe and by Sim onet.
Illustrat ed in color by Delbar d.
Dore is a French fig, rep orted by Merlet and oth er early w riters to be subject to
splitting or cracking of th e skin, an d therefore g ood only for hog feed ; the checked skin
also su ggested to them the torn robe of a beggar; in general, how ever, it is d escribed as
a han d som e fig of excellent qu ality. Star nes found in Georgia that Dore ap p ear ed to
be the sam e as Mag nolia (Brunswick), a rep ort w hich casts d oubt on th e id entity of th e
specim ens grow n. It is d oubtful, m oreover, w hether the true Dore has ever fruited in
California, although P.I. N o. 18,897 of the Chiswick collection w as lab eled as that
variety; n o trees ar e n ow know n to occu r in collections of varieties. P.I. N o. 102,013,
introd uced from Mor occo in 1933 as Goutte dOr, w as fou nd to be the sam e as Dottato
at Riversid e.
Tree of Dore p rod uces tw o crops. Leav es m ed ium to sm all, 3- to 5-lobed .
Description is after Sim on et, from fruit grow n at Bag nols-sur-Ceze.
Brebas lar ge, elon gated -pyriform , som ew hat obliqu e; length 3-1/ 4 inches, diam eter
2-1/ 4 inches; av erage w eight 85 gram s; neck not d istinct, m erging grad ually with the
bod y; stalk conical, sw ollen tow ard the junction with the fruit, ab ou t 1/ 2 inch long; ribs
n ot very w ell m arked ; eye in a slight d epression, lar ge, half op en; scales erect, yellow to
rose-colored ; skin d elicate, yellowish green, becom ing gold en yellow slightly tinged
with rose on the exposed sid e; pulp salm on; texture fine; seed s few ; qu ality fair.
Second -crop figs sm aller, globular , or short-pyriform ; stalk sw ollen; ribs none; color
sam e as brebas; pulp light rose. Quality good ; excellent for d rying.
Douqueira Blanca. Described by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as a fig
resem bling Dou qu eira N egra (Perroqu ine), except in color, w hich is yellowish green;
pulp bright red ; excellent as a fresh fruit.
Du Roi. Described by G. S. (1869), Bar ron (1891), Colby (1894), Shinn (1893, 1903),
Forrer (1894), Eisen (1897, 1901), Price an d Wh ite (1902, with figu re), Star n es (1903),
Star n es an d Monroe (1907, with figu re), Wood roof an d Bailey (1931), an d Blin (1942).
Du Roi is a good exam ple of a variety w hich w as once tested an d received high
p raise, but failed to becom e established . Very few accou nts of it ar e fou nd in
h orticultu ral publications of Englan d . H ow ever, it w as includ ed in the Chiswick
collection from that cou ntry as P.I. N o.18,843, an d tested wid ely by th e California

Febru ary , 1955]


391

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Exp erim ent Stations. Shinn rep orted in 1893 an d 1903 that Du Roi w as consid ered the
highest-flav ored fig grow n, especially in the foothills of the San Joaqu in Valley; trees
suffered severe winter inju ry at the Tular e Experim ent Station. Eisen regard ed it as on e
of th e very best figs, an d stated : It can n ot be too highly recom m end ed, an d will no
d ou bt becom e one of the m ost extensively grow n figs in California an d Arizona. His
illustration sh ow s four sp ecim ens that are pyriform an d of m edium size. Colby gave a
short d escrip tion of figs grow n at Tular e, an d an alysis of the fresh fruit. Price could not
hav e had the true Du Roi, for h e represented the Texas-gr ow n fruits as sm all an d dar k
purple. Star nes d escribed sp ecim ens from three different sou rces in Georgia, an d
illustrat ed one; the trees w ere found to be extrem ely p rod uctive, with fruit continuing
to m atu re until frost. In spite of its ear ly prom ise, Du Roi has ap par ently been lost
com pletely from collections of fig varieties in Georgia an d California. Description is
from that of Eisen; app ar en tly only one crop.
Figs ab ove m ed iu m , r ound -pyriform , obliqu e, with sw ollen cheeks; ribs few , slightly
elevat ed ; neck sh ort, variable; eye lar ge, with am ber scales; color pale bluish green;
pulp am ber, streaked with rose; texture fine; seed s m an y, m inute. Quality excellent,
both fresh an d d ried.
Bar ron (1891) d escribed it as sm all, roundish, pale yellow .
El Bitri. Described by Guilloch on (1913, 1927, 1929) an d H od gson (1931), fro m
Tunisia, as an interesting variety from the stan dp oint of prod uction an d qu ality. Also
d escribed by Minan goin (1931), from Gabs.
The tree bears tw o crop s. Figs lar ge, green to yellowish in color, sessile; neck n one;
eye op en; pulp red ; seed s few .
El Khadri. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) an d by Minan goin (1931) as
Kh ed ri. Figs with short, thick neck an d prom inent ribs; color green, as th e nam e
indicates; pulp red ; seed s num er ous.
Eyrogue (syn. DEyrogu e). Described by H ogg (1866) an d Eisen (1888, 1901) as a
French fig, below m ed ium in size, oblate, pale yellow in color; pulp light red , n ot
p ar ticular ly rich in flav or.
Fourrassa. Described by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as one of the lar gest of
au tu m n figs, oblon g, greenish yellow ; pulp red ; qu ality m ediocre.
Fqeisi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a midseas on fig of north ern
Palestine, m edium in size, sp herical, greenish yellow in color; pulp red ; seed s few .
Gambalunga (syn. Coscialu nga). Described by Sav as tan o (1885) as a m ediu m fig,
can ar y yellow in color, with red pulp.
Gennes (syns. Au bicon, Figue Fivre). Described by Merlet (1667), Liger (1702),
Bradley (1757), Trab ut (1904), an d Blin (1942). First crop sm all; second crop good .
Accord ing to Trabut, th e figs are pyriform , with very sm all eye, gray color, an d palerose p ulp. Lan gley (1728) d escribed Gen oa, called by the French, Figue d e Gennes or La
Figu e Fivre, as a lon g, brow nish purple fig.
Genoa (syns. Genoa Wh ite, Wh ite Gen oa). Described by Miller (1768), Forsyth
(1803), Lindley (1831), Rogers (1834), H olley (1854), MIntosh (1855), Dochnah l (1855),
Wh ite (1868), H ogg (1866), G. S. (1869), Massey (1893), Eisen (1885, 1897, 1901), Davis
(1928), Bu rger an d De Wet (1931), an d Condit (1947). Illustrat ed by Eisen, w ho stated

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Hilgardia

that th e id entity of this var iety an d the origin of its nam e had not been established . It is
n ot id entical with Mar seilles Wh ite, as given by Rogers an d by som e other au th ors.
Althou gh lon g grow n in Englan d , the Gen oa has not been favored so highly as certain
oth er varieties, p ar tly becau se the trees are su ch light producers. Davis rep orts that this
variety is grow n in all par ts of the Union of South Africa, w here it r ejoices in eleven
oth er nam es, am ongst them Wh ite Mar seilles. H e regard s the fruit as good both for
eating fresh an d for d rying.
In 1853, W. B. West, of Stockton, California, im ported several var ieties, including
Wh ite Genoa, from H ovey & Co., Boston; an d in 1883, the California Nu rsery
Com p an y, Niles, obtained it from Englan d. The variety w as tested at the California
Exp erim ent Stations, bu t d id not p rove to be ou tstanding, either in tree prod uction or in
fruit qu ality. Gen oa has not been plan ted com m ercially in California, an d is not
recom m end ed for d ooryar d plan ting in the interior valleys. H ow ever, in coastal
districts, som e grow ers rep ort excellent results with it. At San Sim eon, for exam ple, the
tree p rod uces tw o crops in fav orable seas ons; the first m atu res after the m iddle of
Augu st, an d following a short interm ission, the second crop continues until frost. At
San Jose th e tree bears w ell, but fruit is of p oor qu ality, an d is inclined to sp oil on
accou nt of th e lar ge eye an d hollow center. Both P.I. N o. 101,712, introd uced in 1933 as
Arab aly, an d P.I. N o. 101,719, introd uced as N eap olitan , from Sochi, N orth Cau casus,
p roved to be id entical with Genoa at Riverside.
Trees are of m od erate vigor, with spread ing bran ches; term inal buds taw ny to light
brow n, an unu sual char acter for a green-fruited var iety. Leav es m edium to lar ge, 3- to
5-lobed ; u pp er surface dull; upper sinuses of m ed ium d ep th an d wid th, low er sinu ses
shallow an d broad ; base broad ly subcord ate, som etim es au ricled ; m argins shallowly
crenat e. Description is from fruits produced at Riversid e an d Menlo Par k.
Breba crop sm all; fruits lar ge, 2-1/ 4 inches in diam eter by 2-1/ 2 inches in length, or in
coastal districts m ore elon gated , up to 3-1/ 2 inches; av erage w eight 80 gram s; shap e
obliqu e-p yriform , with sh ort n eck, or som etim es with longer, cu rved neck; stalk ver y
short; ribs rat h er p rom inen t, elevat ed ; eye m ed ium , open, scales chaffy or light rose;
w hite flecks m ore or less concealed by yellowish-green skin color; skin sm ooth; bloo m
inconspicu ou s; pulp light straw berry, hollow at center; flav or sw eet, but not rich; seed s
few , sm all; qu ality fair. (Plate 22, A.)
Second -crop figs m edium or above, u p to 2 inches in diam eter an d 2-1/ 4 inches in
length, som ew hat obliqu e, turbinate; averag e w eight 60 gram s; ap ex broad an d
flatten ed ; neck very short, or absent; stalk short an d thick, or som etim es curved , an d
up to 3/ 8 inch long; ribs elevated, m ostly prom inent; surface d ull; bloom hard ly
p ercep tible; color greenish yellow , blem ished by circular , brow n sp ots at m aturity; skin
thin, tend er, p eeling read ily; pulp am ber, tinged with straw berry, h ollow at center;
textu re gelatin ous; flav or m ild ; qu ality p oor; seed s practically none. Very susceptible to
spoilag e. (Plate 22, B.)
Cap rified specim ens with green skin color, d ar k-straw berry pulp, an d lar ge, fertile
seed s; inclined to split at m atu rity. Quality fair as fresh fruit, bu t p oor w hen d ried

Febru ary , 1955]


393

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Glati. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a var iety grow n in the Safad
subd istrict of Palestine. Figs sm all, spherical, green, with op en eye an d yellow scales;
pulp distinctive, on account of its purplish-red color. Leav es ar e u nusually thick.
Gorgone. Described by Risso (1826) as Ficus car ica gorgonea, but this nam e is n ot
fou nd in later publications. Figs m edium , oblong, narr ow ed tow ard the long stalk;
color greenish yellow ; eye lar ge, with a raised bord er; pulp light red .
Gota de Mel (syn. Gota d e Gom a). N am es signify h oney-d rop an d g u m -d rop ;
figs w hen ripening exud e a sugar y syru p from the eye. This var iety, received at
Riversid e in 1926 from Lrid a, Spain, is distinct fr om Fraga (Col d e Dam e) an d others in
th e collection; no d escription und er the above nam es has been found .
Tree m od erately vigorou s, with bran ches sw ollen at th e nod es; term inal bud s green.
Leav es m edium , som ew hat glossy above, m ostly 3-lobed ; upper sinu ses shallow ; bas e
subcord ate to truncate; m argins crenat e. Description is from figs p roduced at Riversid e,
Los Angeles, an d Fresn o.
Breba crop sm all; fruits elongat ed -pyriform , with neck over 1 inch long; stalk 1/ 4
inch long; ribs fairly prom inent; eye m ediu m , open; color green; pulp light straw berry;
flav or rich; eating qu ality good . Of no com m ercial value, on account of light crop an d
elon gated shape.
Second -crop figs m edium to lar ge, up to 2-1/ 4 inches long an d 2 inches broad ,
p yriform , with thick, prom inent neck that is often curved ; av erage w eight 40 gram s;
stalk thick, up to 1/ 4 inch lon g, constricted at its insertion with the thick neck; ribs
p rom inent, w ell elevat ed ; eye m edium , op en; surface dull; w hite flecks lar ge, scattered ;
color green; skin checking at m aturity, as show n by Condit (1941a, fig. 8, E); pulp light
straw berry; flav or rather stron g; qu ality fair.
Cap rified figs similar in size an d shap e, but with d ar k-red pulp. Variety of n o
p ar ticular value, on account of d iscoloration of skin at m atu rity an d suscep tibility to
splitting an d insect infestation. (Plate 22, C.) See also Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, Q.)
Gounti. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Dra Tam ar, Tunisia. Leav es lar ge,
m ostly 3-lobed . Figs sp herical, with short neck; skin of fine texture, green in color,
withou t ribs; pulp solid, rose color; seed s num erou s.
Anoth er variety, also d esignated as Gou nti, is d escribed by Minan goin from Kala
Srira. Leav es sm all, 3- to 5-lobed . Figs lar ge, with indistinct neck; eye op en; skin color
light green; pulp p om egran ate red .
A third var iety is d escribed by Minan goin as Gou nti, from H am m am et; it is rep orted
to requ ire cap rification. Figs sm all, p yriform ; skin thin, glossy, g old en yellow in color.
Grassale. Bar ron (1891) d escribed this var iety as bear ing sm all, pyriform figs. Eisen
(1901) regard ed Grassale as a syn on ym of Figue d e Grasse or Matar assa, the fruit of
w hich is d escribed as very lar ge. P.I. N o. 18,883 of the Chiswick collection w as received
in California as Grassale, an d fruited in several collections. At the Tular e Experim en t
Station of the University, it w as rep orted as a failure in 1890. The following d escription
is from trees grow ing at Riversid e since 1928.

394
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Trees sm all, lacking in vigor; term inal buds green. Leav es m ediu m , som ew hat
glossy above, m ostly 5-lobed ; both u pp er an d low er sinuses m od erately d eep an d
broad ; basal sinu s som etim es broad ly subcordate, but often narrow , or alm ost closed ;
m argins crenat e.
Breba crop non e. Second -crop figs oblate-spherical, below m ed ium to sm all; av erage
w eight 25 gram s; neck absent, or w hen p resent, short an d som ew hat flatten ed ; ribs
fairly conspicu ous; eye m ed iu m , op en; color green, becom ing sp otted with brow n at
m atu rity, unattractive; pulp light straw berry, or d ar k red w hen cap rified; qu ality p oor.
Very susceptible to sp oilag e. (Plate 17, D.)
Grasse (syns. Figu e d e Grasse, Matar assa, Figue Gris, Ficus car ica grassensis Risso,
Grassen qu e; the last accord ing to Du Breuil an d Eisen). Described by Bernard (1787),
Duham el (1809), Risso (1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), Duchar tre (1857),
H ogg (1866), Du Breuil (1876), Sau vaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). Bernar d
record ed this variety in 1787 as Figue d e Grasse, an d all other au thors follow ed this
n om enclature u ntil 1889, w hen Sau vaigo called it Matar assa. The account by Duham el
follow ed very closely that of Bernard , as in fact did several others, m ostly withou t
giving credit. Figu e Cas tex (Grasse) d escribed by Ou nous (1863) m ay be the sam e
variety. With th e excep tion of H ogg, British au thors ignore the variety, at least u nd er
th e nam e Grasse. H ow ever, P.I. N o. 18,850 w as received in California with th e
Chiswick collection u nd er th e lab el Grasse, an d fruited in variou s collections. At
Riversid e, this introd uction proved to be a violet-fruited var iety, id entical with
Bou rjassotte Gris. The following d escription is after that of Eisen, w ho rep orted it to
be highly recom m end ed for rich bottom lan ds.
Tree is vigorous, with 3-lobed leav es.
Figs very lar ge, 8 to 9 inches in circum ference by 3 inches in length, turbinate, with
flatten ed apex; neck sh ort; ribs d istinct; stalk very short; eye op en; skin thin, light
yellow , with d elicate bloom ; p ulp very d ar k red. A han dsom e fig, of m edium qu ality
w hen fresh, bu t better w hen d ried.
Grosse Jaune (syns. Aubico Blan co, Aubique Blan che, Tap a Car tin, Ficus car ica
m onstr osa Risso). Described by La Quintinie (1692) as La Grosse Jau ne; oth ers w h o
give this nam e p reference are Tou rn efort (1700), Gar id el (1715), La Brousse (1774),
Rozier (1805), Duham el (1809), Lam arck (1817), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), N oisette
(1829), Cou verchel (1839), Leclerc (1925), an d Evreinoff (1947). The following au th ors
u sed the d esignation Aubiqu e Blan che: Bernar d (1787), Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil
(1876), an d Bois (1928). Sauvaigo (1889, 1894) is follow ed by Eisen (1901) an d by
Sim on et et al. (1945) in listing an d d escribing this fig as Tapa Cartin, without an y
explan ation as to th e m ean ing of the nam e. Estelrich (1910) an d Priego y Jaram illo
(1922) d escribed it as Albacor Blan ca. Risso (1826) treat ed it as Ficus car ica m onstrosa,
or figu e a fruit m onstrueu x, becau se som e of th e figs exhibited m onstr osities,
rep orted by Sau vaigo an d by Penzig (1922) as the pr oliferation or su perim p osition of a
second ar y fruit at th e ap ex of a p rim ary one. Both Estelrich an d Sim onet figure a single
fruit. Lam ar ck presu m ed that this is the on e w hich Miller nam ed , La Grosse Blan che
d e Genes, his var iety N o.4.

Febru ary , 1955]


395

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

The tree has 5-lobed leav es, an d produces one crop only in southern Fran ce. The
following d escrip tion is tak en from that of Sim on et.
Second -crop figs p yriform , m ed ium in size, 2-1/ 2 inches long by 1-3/ 4 inches br oad ;
neck p rom inent, rat h er slend er, up to 3/ 8 inch in length; stalk m ediu m ; ribs present;
eye m ed iu m , closed, scales red ; color green to gold en yellow ; m eat w hite; pulp bright
red ; seed s sm all, nu m erous; qu ality good . Seas on late Septem ber.
Harraki (syn. Bou -H ar raq). Described by Minan goin (1931) from H am m am et,
Tunisia. Leav es m edium , thick, very rou gh, 5-lobed ; upper sinuses d eep, op en. Figs
m ed ium , 1-1/ 8 by 2 inches, oblate; stalk practically missing; eye op en; color citron
yellow ; pulp light red.
Ischia Yellow (syn. Cyp ru s). Described by Miller (1768); his account is closely
follow ed by m ost of the sam e au thors listed for Ischia Brow n, with the exception of
Eisen. Ischia Yellow is one of the Ischia figs, the id entity of w hich has not been
d eterm ined ; an d the variety has ap par ently been d iscar d ed. The fruit w as rep orted to
be lar ge, pyram id al, yellow in color; p ulp d ar k red .
Kaffi. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Kala Srira, Tunisia. Leav es m edium ,
glossy ab ove, 5-lobed ; sinuses d eep an d broad. Figs with short, thick neck; ribs present;
eye op en; skin thin, light green in color; pulp red .
Kommathri. Described by Badie an d Gham raw i (1931) as a one-crop var iety, gr ow n
chiefly near Alexan d ria.
Tree vigorou s, with erect branches. Leaves 5-lobed . Figs lar ge. p yriform ; stalk
m ed ium ; ribs distinct; skin easily peeled , yellowish green; w hite flecks prom inent; p ulp
d ar k red .
Krawi (syn. Krati at N azar eth). Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a very
good d rying fig.
Trees lar ge, prod ucing u p to 180 kilos (nearly 400 p ound s) per tree. Figs sm all to
m ed ium , turbinate; neck m edium ; stalk long; eye sm all with light br ow n scales; skin
sm ooth, light green; p ulp red, not juicy; flav or fair.
Lattarola. Described by Gu glielmi (1908) as an Italian var iety, m uch cultivated at San
Vito d Otran to, both for fresh fruit an d for d rying; briefly d escribed by Ferrari (1912).
The nam e refers to th e abund an ce of latex or milk in var ious par ts of the plan t.
Figs m edium , oblate; skin thick, checking; color clear yellow ; pulp red, very sw eet;
seed s num erou s.
Limoncello. Described by De Rosa (1911), with a footnote stating that in som e
districts it is know n as Fico Ottato; how ever, Dottato is treat ed elsew here in his
publication as a distinct var iety.
Tree vigorous. Leaves lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed . Figs ovoid, 2-3/ 4 inches long; stalk short;
skin greenish yellow , with scattered w hite flecks; eye sm all, scales yellowish; pulp red ;
flav or sw eet; seed s lar ge, nu m erous. Mostly consu m ed fresh; d ried prod uct m ediocre.
Lipari (syns. Petite Blan che Rond e, Lipar ensis, Blan qu etto, Esqu illar ello, Verte Petite,
Bou ton d u Gutre). Described by Cup an i (1696), Tournefort (1700), Gar id el (1715), La
Brou sse (1774), Rozier (1805), Bernard (1787), Du ham el (1809), Lam arck (1817), Bory d e
Saint Vincent (1824), Cou verchel (1839), N oisette (1829), Dochnah l (1855), H ogg (1866),
Socit Pom ologiqu e d e Fran ce (1887), Bar ron (1891), an d Eisen (1888, 1901).

396
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

This var iety, first d escribed by Cupan i as Ficus lipar ensis, is regard ed by var iou s
au th ors as bearing th e sm allest fruit of an y fig com m only grow n in France. Blan qu etto,
w hich Duham el gav e as a nam e u sed in Provence, should not be confused with Blan che
or Blan qu ette, a lar ger fig cultivated near Par is. The d escrip tion by Lam arck is alm ost
id entical with that of Rozier; he add ed that th e bod y of the fruit resem bles that of a
m u sh room . The nam e Bouton d u Gu tre, or b utton of th e gaiter, is also indicative of
th e shap e of th e fruit. H oggfollow ed by Eisen (1901)is on e of the few English
au th ors w h o give an accou nt of Lipar i. If it w as ever introd uced into California it
certainly did n ot becom e established und er this nam e, an d no record s ar e available of
an y plan tings.
Brebas ap par en tly none. Second -crop figs very sm all, 1/ 2 inch to nearly 3/ 4 inch in
diam eter, oblate, ribbed ; eye op en; color green; bloom thin; pulp pale rose; texture d ry,
coarse. Flav or sw eet and qu ality good in a w ar m clim ate, according to Eisen; but H ogg
rep orted it n ot at all w ell flav ored .
Lucano. Described an d figu red by Baldini (1953) from th e Firenze district of Italy.
Tree vigorous, erect; term inal buds brow n; one crop only.
Leav es m ostly 3-lobed , the m id dle lobe spat ulate, nar row ; lateral sinu ses d eep ; bas e
tru ncate; m argin crenate.
Figs p yriform , with short neck; stalk also short; eye op en, with yellowish bracts;
color citron yellow ; pulp of fine texture, hollow , alm ost seedless, brow n in color; flav or
sw eet an d ag reeable. Fruits consu m ed fresh, but also suitable for d rying.
Marqus (syn. Pon te d a Qu ar teria). Described an d illustrat ed by Bobone (1932);
kn ow n as Mar qu es at Lag os, an d as Pon te da Quar teria at Loul. Second-crop figs
m ed ium , oblate-sp herical, yellowish green; pulp red; textu re coar se; flav or agreeable;
qu ality fair.
Marseillaise (syns. Athn es, Figu e d e Mar seilles, Petite Mar seillaise, Ficu s car ica
m assiliensis Risso). Described by Tournefort (1700), Gar id el (1715), La Brou sse (1774),
Bernar d (1787), Rozier (1805), Mirbel (1806); Duham el (1809, with illustration), Bory d e
Saint Vincent (1824), Lam arck (1817), Risso (1826), Duchar tre (1857), H ogg (1866), Du
Breuil (1876), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887), Sau vaigo (1889, 1894), Eisen (1888, 1901),
Trab ut (1904), Rolet (1916), Mazires (1920), San chez (1922), Bois (1928), Blin (1942),
Sim on et et al. (1945, with illustrations), an d Evreinoff (1947). The d escriptions of this
variety by Tou rn efort, an d by several later au thors, d efinitely refer to the interior of
this fig as rosy or red , a char acter w hich differen tiates it from Mar seillaise Wh ite,
d escribed by Eisen (1901). Sauvaigo treat ed it as Mar seillaise or Figue d Athnes, an d
that is regard ed here as the correct syn onym y. See Rollan d (1914) for synonym s. It is
p rop erly d escribed by H ogg, but ap p ar en tly w as ignored by other English auth ors.
Mar seillaise, th ou gh sm all, is rep orted to be on e of the best figs for d rying in
Provence. It has probably been introd uced into California; if so, record s ar e lacking as
to its distribu tion. P.I. N o.102,017, received at Riversid e in 1933 from Morocco as
Mar seillaise, m ay be that variety; h ow ever, it p rod uced sm all, brow nish, an d w orthless
figs, id entical with Grassale, P.I. N o.18,883.

Febru ary , 1955]


397

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

The tree bears only one crop, m aturing in Sep tem ber. Leav es are sm all, 3- to 5lobed . The following d escrip tion is after that of Sim onet, from fruit grow n at SolliesPont.
Figs sm all, 1-3/ 8 inches long an d ab ou t the sam e in diam eter, turbinate to
subglobular , with indistinct neck; av erage w eight 22.5 gram s; ribs num erous, rath er
p rom inent; stalk up to 1/ 2 inch long; eye m edium , surround ed by a red aureole; scales
rose, flat; skin checking at m aturity, uniform ly greenish yellow ; pulp straw berry; flav or
sw eet; qu ality good .
Martigiano. Described an d figured by Baldini (1953) as an Italian var iety, prod ucing
on e crop only in the district of Car m ignan o n ear Firenze.
Trees u nu sually vigorou s; term inal buds green. Leav es 3-lobed , or alm ost n onlobed ;
sinuses very shallow an d nar row ; base cord ate; m argin crenate. Figs sp herical, withou t
neck; stalk sh ort; eye sm all, open, with rosy scales; skin checking at m aturity, light
green in color; pulp red ; seed s few . Consu m ed fresh.
Mastroleone (syn. Mastru glione).
Described by Gu glielmi (1908) as grow n
p rincipally in the area of San Vito d ei N orm anni, Italy. Figs oval; skin green; pulp red ,
very sw eet. First-crop figs sold fresh; those of the second crop , m aturing in Sep tem ber,
ar e m ostly d ried .
Meloncella (syn. Melonced dha). Described by Guglielmi (1908) an d Vallese (1909),
th e latter with illustrations of leav es an d fruit. According to Vallese, this variety is
wid ely gr ow n in Lecce Province, both for fresh fruit an d for d rying.
Tree lar ge. Leaves both 3- an d 5-lobed . Figs pyriform , with neck grad ually
nar rowing fr om b od y to the short stalk; ribs slightly elevat ed ; color greenish yellow ;
pulp light rose.
Meou (syns. Figu e Mielleuse, Ficus car ica m ellifera Risso). Described by Risso (1826),
Sau vaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), an d Sim onet et al. (1945). F. car ica m ellifera w as
d escribed by Risso as a fig with luscious fruit, the one of all var ieties w hich in d rying
conserves its sw eetn ess without chan ge. Sau vaigo record ed the sam e var iety as Figo
d e Meou , ap p ar en tly a Provenal term . The following d escrip tion is a com plex of
accou nts from the sources listed ab ove.
Tree is up right, with 3-lobed leav es. There ar e tw o crop s.
Brebas lar ge, 2 to 2-1/ 4 inches in diam eter, turbinate; skin thin, checking, greenish
yellow ; eye p rotruding; m eat violet; pulp red, very sw eet an d syru py.
Second -crop figs globular , up to 2 inches in diam eter; stalk sh ort; color pistachio
green; pulp light red . Good for d rying, bu t inferior w hen fresh.
Monaco (syns. Monaco Bian co, Fico d ella Lunigian a). Described by Gallesio (1817),
Gasp ar rini (1845, as Ficus d eliciosa var. latifolia), Audibert Frres (1854), H ogg (1866),
Pasqu ale (1876), Bar ron (1891), Eisen (1888, 1897, 1901), Wy th es (1902), Wr ight (1894),
Forrer (1894), Stubenrau ch (1903), Bunyar d an d Thom as (1904), Star nes an d Monroe
(1907), De Rosa (1911), an d Tam ar o (1948). Illustrat ed by Eisen (1901) an d by Tam ar o.
Accord ing to Gallesio, this var iety originated in the district of Lunigian a, w here the fruit
w as highly esteem ed . It w as grow n at Gen oa an d other places in northern Italy, bu t
ap par en tly has not been m uch distribu ted in Fran ce. H ogg rep orted Monaco

398
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

as a coarse fig, inclined to split, an d not a first-rat e variety. On the other han d , Wy thes
classed it as superior to Brow n Turkey in flav or, but n ot so reliable in prod uction.
Monaco Bian co w as introd uced into Californ ia in the Chiswick collection as P.I. N o.
18,853, an d fruited at Niles, w here Eisen found it to be a very good , juicy fig, splendid
for th e table. If it w as grow n at Chico, no record is av ailable as to its behavior. At
variou s California stations, rep orts w ere conflicting, as the following qu otations show :
Quality is fair to good , an d the bearing capacity is lar ge (Tular e); The best lar ge fig at
th e station (Pom ona); O ne of the m ost u seful figs at the station (Jackson); For m er
recom m end ation...consid erab ly m odified ; m ore than half the crop sou red on th e tree in
1896 (Pom ona). The var iety has since disapp ear ed , an d no trees are know n to exist in
collections.
In Italy the tree is lar ge, with shallowly lobed leav es; it prod uces tw o crop s. The
following d escrip tion is from various accounts.
Brebas abund an t, especially along th e coas t, oblon g, with prom inent n eck an d ver y
short stalk; skin green, with w hite flecks; m eat streaked with violet, as in Dottato; p ulp
rose-colored , of fine textu re; qu ality excellent.
Second -crop figs (accord ing to Eisen) lar ge, 2-1/ 2 inches by 2 inches, tu rbinate,
rou nd ed at the ap ex; neck very short; ribs nar row , slightly elevated on the bod y, bu t
n ot on th e n eck; eye wid e open, with lar ge, taw ny scales; skin dar k green; paler on th e
sunny sid e; bloom thin; pulp red ; qu ality good . Consu m ed m ostly fresh, according to
De Rosa.
Monstrueuse (syn. Grosse Monstru euse d e Lip ar i). Described by Bar ron (1868c, 1870,
1891), H ogg (1871; with figu re), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). Illustrat ed by Bar ron (1870)
from fruits prod uced at Chiswick; he rep orted it as Grosse Monstrueuse d e Lipar i, a
French variety, com par atively unknow n in Englan d. P.I. N o. 18,846 of the Chiswick
collection has fruited in several test orchard s und er the nam e of Monstrueuse. Dou bt
has existed as to th e id entity of this var iety, w hich, accord ing to Bar ron, has a lightbrow n or chestnut-colored skin in Englan d, w hile California sp ecim ens ar e green in
color. This discrepan cy can be explained by th e fact that Bar rons account is of th e
brebas only, w hich in California hav e a general green color bu t are com m only flushed
with violet from th e und erlying colored m eat. P.I. N o. 18,878, lab eled Dr. H oggs Clar e,
is the sam e as Monstru eu se. In Englan d it is essentially a first-bearing kind, an d
rarely yields a second crop.
Cu ttings fr om five d ifferent gar d ens in Was hington, D.C., have p rod uced fruit
id entical with that of Monstru eu se in test plots in California, d em onstrating th e fact that
this variety is being successfully grow n in the eas tern United Stat es. At Riversid e,
California, the breba crop is excep tionally good . Second -crop figs ar e lar ger an d better
in the coastal district of Los Angeles than at Riversid e, as pointed ou t by Condit (1950).
App ar ently Monstru eu se w as n ot tested at the early California Exp erim ent Stations,
an d only recen tly hav e its good qu alities recom m end ed it for trial as a d ooryard fruit.
The tree is vigorou s, with broad , d ense top; term inal bud s ar e green. Leav es
m ed ium to lar ge, som ew hat glossy ab ove, 3- to 5-lobed , the for m er pred om inating;
upp er sinu ses shallow ; base cord ate; m argins crenat e.
Brebas above m ed iu m to lar ge, obliqu e-pyriform , m ostly with distinct, thick neck;

Febru ary , 1955]


399

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

av erage w eight 47 gram s; stalk thick, up to 1/ 2 inch long; eye m edium , open, scales
straw color, or tinged with pink; w hite flecks scattered , p rom inent; color green, tinged
with violet fr om th e u nd erlying m eat; pulp dar k straw berry, w ith a char acteristic fig
flav or; qu ality good . (Plate 19, A.)
Second -crop figs m ed ium or ab ove, u p to 2-1/ 2 inches lon g an d 2 inches in diam eter,
tu rbinate, without n eck, or with short, thick neck; average w eight 40 gram s; stalk u p to
5/ 8 inch long; w hite flecks lar ge an d scattered ; ribs nar row , very slightly raised ,
showing par tly as thin lines of d ar k green; eye m edium , op en, scales taw ny, erect; color
grass green; pulp very light straw berry, solid, or slightly hollow at center; flav or sw eet,
rich; qu ality good .
Cap rified figs som ew hat lar ger, inclined to split at ap ex; pulp dar k straw berry; seed s
num erou s. (Plate 19, B.)
Moresca (syn. Gentilla Rou ssa). Described by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as a
variety prod ucing tw o crop s near Nice. Brebas lar ge, oblique pyriform , with long n eck;
eye scales red ; color gray; pulp pale red. Second crop figs not d escribed .
Moscatel Branco (syn. Pingo d e Mel). Described an d illustrat ed by Bobone (1932) as
a Portugu ese variety, not grow n com m ercially, but wid ely distributed in Algar ve. The
nam e Pingo d e Mel, h on ey-d rop, is som etim es given becau se of th e honeylike gu m
w hich exud es from the eye. The trees generally p rod uce tw o crops.
Breba crop sm all; fruits pyriform , with short, thick neck an d short stalk; color
yellowish green; pulp red, with traces of violet.
Second crop h eavy; figs p yriform to sph erical; skin sm ooth, som ew hat p uberulent;
color d ar k green; pulp red ; textu re fine; qu ality very good .
Mussega (syns. Cou g ou rd an a, Figu e Reine, Ficus car ica linnean a Risso). Described
by Risso (1826), Du Breuil (1876), Sauvaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1901). Grow n in south ern
Fran ce, at Nice, Aix, an d Saint-Rm y.
Leav es are lar ge, com m only 3-lobed. Descriptions ap ply only to figs of th e second
crop . These ar e of m ediu m size, p yriform , with slend er neck; skin thin, light green; eye
with red scales; pulp bright red ; flav or ag reeable.
Mwazi (N orthern). Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a var iety distinct
from th e Mw azi grow n in south ern Palestine. Figs lar ge, elongat ed pyriform , with
p rom inent neck an d m ediu m stalk; eye som ew hat op en, with purplish scales; skin thin,
glossy, green; pulp light red , containing m an y lar ge seed s; texture d ry; flav or flat.
Neimi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as an Egyptian var iety, kn ow n in
th e north ern p ar t of that country as Shu hm ani. Figs sm all, greenish yellow ; neck long;
stalk short; eye sm all, open, scales brow nish; pulp light straw berry; seed s m an y, sm all.
Noursi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a globular fig; size m edium ;
color green; eye op en, scales yellowish; pulp red; seed s m an y, sm all. It is grow n in the
Safed Su bdistrict of Egyp t.
Pajajero. Described by Escriban o y Perez (1884) as gr ow n in Mu rcia, Spain, for its
second crop; used for eating fresh as w ell as for d rying. P.I. N o. 58,663, introd uced
from Mlag a in 1927 as Blan qu illa, proved to be the sam e as Pajajero at Riversid e. See
also sh ort accou nt by Cond it (1925).
Tree is of m edium size. Leav es rather sm all, shallowly lobed. Figs globular ,

400
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

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below m edium to sm all, up to 1-1/ 4 inches long; stalk sh ort an d thick; skin color
greenish yellow ; pulp rose-colored , juicy an d sw eet.
Panache (syns. Figa Turca, Mar avilla, Princessa, Ray onne, Cou rgette Raye, Jasp e,
Lim on e, Bourjassotte Pan ache e, Pre Hilar ion, Striped, Tiger, Zigar ella, Col di Signora
Pan ache, Variegato, Fracazzan o Rigat o, Bracoted esco, Ficus car ica radiata Risso, Ficus
p achycar p a var . fasciata Gasp ar rini). Described by Risso (1826), Gaspar rini (1845),
Audibert Frres (1854), H ogg (1866), Pasqu ale (1876), Bar ron (1869b, 1891), Soc. Pom ol.
d e Fran ce (1887, 1947), Eisen (1888, 1901), Sauvaigo (1889), Colby (1894), Cusin (1900),
Trab ut (1904), Star nes an d Mon roe (1907), Vallese (1909), Roeding (1914), Borg (1922),
Cond it (1921b, 1928b, 1947), Davis (1928), Blin (1942), an d Sim onet et al. (1945).
Illustrat ed in color by Bar ron (1869b) an d Condit (1941a). Illustrat ed in black an d w hite
by Vallese, Cond it (1928b, 1941a, fig. 8, D), an d Sim onet.
In Dend rologia N atu ralis, pu blished in 1668, Ulisse Ald rovan di d escribed an d
illustrat ed a fig d esignated as ficus virgat a fru ctu, or virgat e fruit, m ar ked with
alternating ban d s of yellow an d green. A tran slation (courtesy of Mrs. P.H.
Tim berlak e) of an interesting speculation as to its origin follow s: Wh ether or not ther e
is an y truth in w hat Palladius stated in Mar tins, title 10, to wit, that the bicolored fig
sprou ts from tw o bran ches (the w hite an d the d ar k kind) w hich hav e been twisted
togeth er an d tightly bound , so that th e bud s ar e forced to m ix their juices, an d com bine
by this m ean s the distinct peculiar ities of both, it is at least n ot certain that th ey hav e
ever gr ow n togeth er naturally.
It w as probably this sam e fig w hich Risso d escribed as Ficu s car ica radiata, an d
Gasp ar rini as Fico Lim on e.
Accord ing to Cond it (1928b), the origin of this sectorial chim era has not been lear ned .
Bar ron (1869b) d escribed it as a sp ort from the better-kn ow n Col di Signora Bian ca, on e
of th e finest Italian var ieties.
Borg rep orted that this var iegated fig, Tina ta Span ja, grow n at Mar sascala in
Malta, is said to be of Spanish origin, an d need s cap rification. P.I. N o. 86,169, obtained
from Lrid a, Sp ain, in 1928, has proved at Riversid e to be id entical with Pan ache, an d
to belon g to the Com m on type of figs. Individual trees ar e found in wid ely separ ated
localities of California, but there is little if an y interest in extending its cultu re.
The tree is m od erately vigorous and upright in habit of grow th; bark of you ng twigs
com m only taw ny or br ow n, an d striped with yellow ; term inal bud s green. Leaves n ot
variegat ed , ab ove m ediu m to lar ge, m ostly 5-lobed ; upper sinuses of m edium d epth,
rat h er narrow , low er sinuses shallow , basal sinuses nar row , or in som e alm ost closed ;
upp er an d basal lobes often au ricled; m argins coarsely crenate; surface dull. The
following d escrip tion of fruit is from specim ens produced at Riversid e since 1930.
Brebas n one. Second -crop figs m edium , up to 2-1/ 4 inches in length an d 2 inches in
diam eter; av erage w eight 40 gram s; shap e p yriform , with neck prom inen t, an d
som ew hat flattened in som e specim ens; stalk to 3/ 8 inch long; ribs practically ab sent;
surface glossy, with a d elicate bloom ; w hite flecks inconspicu ous; eye m edium or
ab ove, op en, scales var iable, from chaffy to light violet; color light yellow , with
alternate ban d s of green, the latter fading out at com plete m aturity; m eat thick, w hite;

Febru ary , 1955]


401

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

pulp straw berry, m ealy in textu re; qu ality m ediocre to p oor. (Plates 8; 26, D.)
Cap rified figs ar e som ew hat lar ger, with pulp blood -red in color. Splitting of fruit
bad , even w hen u ncaprified, as show n in color illustration by Bar ron.
Passanudo. Described an d illustrat ed by Bobone (1932). Second -crop figs m ediu m ,
tu rbinate or oblat e; stalk very short; skin yellowish green, sm ooth, dull, com m only
checking w hen m ature; pulp car m ine, coarse, of ag reeable flav or; qu ality good .
Pecciolo Bianco. Described an d figured by Baldini (1953) from Firenze, Italy.
Tree of m edium size, with op en h ead an d green term inal buds. Leav es m ostly 5lobed ; upp er lobes spatulate, low er lobes trian gular ; bas e shallowly cord ate. Figs
p yriform , with short, slend er neck; stalk 5/ 8 inch in length; eye closed , scales rosy; color
light yellow ; pulp red, flav or m od erately sw eet; seed s m an y. Highly regard ed for table
u se.
Pennese. Described by Pasqu ale (1876) as a light-green to yellow fig, top shap ed,
with red pulp. Fu rther listed only by Sav astan o (1885).
Pero. Described by De Rosa (1911). Leaves lar ge, m ostly 3-lobed. Breba crop only
occasionally prod uced . Second -crop figs m edium , pyriform ; stalk lon g; eye lar ge, with
salm onyellow scales; color green; w hite flecks num erous; pulp red; seed s num erou s,
lar ge. Used m ostly fresh.
Perticone. Described an d illustrat ed by Baldini (1953) from Firenze, Italy.
Tree vigorou s, with light-green term inal bud s. Leav es m ostly 5-lobed, the lobes
spatulate an d obtuse; upper sinuses d eep , m od erately open; bas e cord ate; m argin
crenat e.
Brebas long-pyriform , with indistinct neck; stalk thick, inserted obliquely on the
recep tacle; eye lar ge, open; color d ar k green, flushed with brow n tow ard the ap ex; light
flecks num er ous, prom inent; pulp solid, light red; seed s num erous.
Second -crop figs sp herical, with out neck; stalk thick, short; eye lar ge, op en; ribs
indistinct; color light green; light flecks num er ous; pulp light red; seed s num erous.
Con su m ed fresh an d d ried; also used for processing into m arm alad e.
Peters White. Local nam e for an unid entified var iety d escribed by Eisen from
Atw ater, California. Tree bears tw o crops of m edium -sized green figs; with pink pulp.
Pissalutto (syns. Pissalu tto Bian co, Pitalusse, Pittalusse Blan che, Poussouluda, Sar nese
Bian co). Described by Gallesio (1817), Sem m ola (1845), Pasqu ale (1876), Du Breuil
(1876), Sav astan o (1885, p robably), Sau vaigo (1889, 1894), Eisen (1888, 1901), Trab u t
(1904), Mingioli (1904), Mazires (1920), Blin (1942), Sim onet et al. (1945), an d Tam ar o
(1948). According to Gallesio, Pissalu tto is the sam e variety listed by Pliny an d
Colum ella as ficus livian a, on e of th e best figs of the Rom an Era, an id entification
w hich Eisen consid ered highly d oubtful. Sar nese, d escribed by Gaspar rini (1845) an d
Sav astan o (1885), is probably the sam e var iety. The fruit is figured by Sem m ola, Eisen,
an d Sim onet. Pissalutto is com m only grow n in Liguria, an d is esp ecially w ell liked at
Sar zan a, w here it is called Binello; it is also reported to d o w ell in Tuscan y, Corsica, an d

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

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Sar dinia; according to Gaspar rini, it w as caprified at N aples. In southern Fran ce it is


grow n u nd er th e nam e, Pittalusse Blan che.
This var iety has not been p rop erly tested in California. P.I. N os. 77,481 an d 113,651
rep resented cu ttings obtained from Italy as Pissalutto, but the fruit produced at
Riversid e did not confor m to the d escriptions given by Italian authors. Pitalouse,
d escribed an d illustrat ed by Price an d White in Texas, w as a brow n fig, an d appar ently a
different variety from th e one n ow und er consid eration. Pissalutto is a on e-crop fig,
very few if an y brebas being p roduced .
The tree is rep orted by Gallesio to be m od erately vigor ous, bu t not so lar ge as that of
Dottato. Leav es are lar ge an d 5-lobed , with the term inal lobe consid erab ly longer than
th e lateral on es. The following d escription is tak en from that of Sim onet.
Second -crop figs m edium , pyriform , with p rom inent, slend er n eck, up to one inch in
length; av erage w eight 35 gram s; stalk slend er, often over 1/ 2 inch long; eye sm all,
p ar tly op en, scales nu m erous, brick red ; skin d elicately pruinose, checking at com plete
m atu rity; color greenish yellow to gold en yellow ; m eat w hite; pulp of fine texture, red .
Quality good , esp ecially fresh. Stan d s ship m ent w ell on account of the firm skin.
Pounchuda. Described by Risso (1826) as Ficus car ica acuta; later d escribed by
Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as a variety prod uctive of tw o crops. Figs of th e
second crop ar e of m ed ium size, oblong, with long stalk, pistachio green to yellowish in
color; p ulp red, honeylike in flav or.
Processotto. Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909), from Lecce Province in Italy.
Leav es lar ge, generally 5-lobed . Second -crop figs m edium , tu rbinate, with broad ap ex
an d sh ort, thick neck; stalk very sh ort; skin checking, but read ily peeled; color greenish
yellow ; pulp red .
Quarai. Described from Ras-el-Djebel, Tunisia, by Minan goin (1931). Leav es
m ed ium , 5-lobed ; upper sinuses d eep, nearly closed; petiole thick, short; term inal bud
thick, green. Figs lar ge, 2-1/ 2 by 2 inches, pyriform ; stalk short; eye op en; skin thick,
light green in color; pulp h ollow , light red.
Ravignon. Rep orted by Colby (1894) as a lar ge fig, p yriform , greenish yellow in
color, with br ow n sp ots; pulp pale straw berry. Prod uced at th e Tular e Experim en t
Station in California.
Rebanquio. Described an d figured by Bobone (1932) as a pyriform , green fig, with
red pulp of good qu ality.
Redd-el-Gouch. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gafsa, Tunisia. Leav es lar ge,
3-lobed ; p etiolar sinus wid e open. Figs sm all; eye w id e op en; skin thick, green in color;
pulp red , som ew hat hollow .
Rizzello (syn. Rizze d dhu). Described by Vallese (1909), with illustrations of leav es
an d fruit; also d escribed by De Rosa (1911). Wid ely cultivated in the vicinity of Gallip oli,
Lecce Province.
Leav es are lar ge, as ym m etrical, m ostly 5-lobed . Breba crop none. Second crop figs
below m edium , oblate-sp herical; stalk very short; neck practically ab sent; eye lar ge,
scales rose-colored; w hite flecks conspicuou s; color greenish yellow ; pulp light red ;
seed s lar ge an d num erou s. Som e consu m ed fresh, but m ostly d ried.

Febru ary , 1955]


403

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Rondella Blanca (syn. H elene). Described by Risso (1826) as Ficus car ica helena, an d
referred to as Rond ella Blan ca by Eisen (1901). Risso stat ed that the var iety w as n ot
m u ch cultivated , as the fruits w ere very su bject to sp oilag e from insect infestation.
The tree prod uces tw o crops. Figs spherical, on a long stalk; eye lar ge, r ose-colored;
skin tend er, greenish yellow ; pulp red , sw eet.
Rougette. Described by H ogg (1866) an d Eisen (1888, 1901, after H ogg). Figs below
m ed ium , obovat e, sm ooth; eye closed ; color coppery yellow on bod y to yellow on
stalk; pulp red ; qu ality m ed iocre.
Salerne (syn. Ficus car ica salernitan a Risso). Described by Bernar d (1787), Duham el
(1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), Risso (1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839),
an d Eisen (1901). The id entity of this var iety is som ew hat confused . In their accounts of
Salerne, Bernard , Du ham el, an d Risso all referred to th e Latin d escription of Tournefort.
The latter, h ow ever, gave th e com m on nam e as La Grosse Blan che Rond e, w hich is
syn onym ou s with Blan che. Bernard an d Duham el also rep orted that the fruits of
Salerne w ere subject to sp oilag e on accou nt of the op en eye, th rou gh w hich rain w ater
p enetrat ed . Eisen referred to th e op en eye, bu t add ed that the fruit w as n ot subject to
d rop ping, or injury by rain.
Auth ors generally ag ree that Salerne trees bear no breba crop. Second crop figs ar e
d escribed as ab ove m ed iu m , globular , with short stalk; skin color pistachio green; p ulp
red , flav or agreeable. Very good for d rying. Seas on ear ly.
San Pietro. Described by Trab ut (1904), Blin (1942), Socit Pom ologiqu e d e Fran ce
(1947), an d Cond it (1947). Illustrat ed in color by Condit (1941a). In 1901, the United
States Dep ar tm ent of Agriculture introd uced a variety of fig und er P.I. N o. 5,919 an d
th e nam e San Pietro. It cam e from Lesina (Hvar) Islan d, Dalm atia, an d w as rep orted to
be an early-seas on fig of exceptionally lar ge size. Trees at Chico, California, w hen seen
in Augu st, 1916, w ere p rod ucing m ediu m -sized figs, green in color, with am ber pulp.
In 1926, cu ttings of San Pietro w ere obtained from the late Leroy Nickel, of Menlo Par k.
These w ere gr ow n first at Fresno, an d since 1932, in the collection of varieties at
Riversid e. It w as such a satisfactory var iety at Menlo Par k that it alm ost stopped the
qu est for a better fig (according to the gardener, Theod ore Woolley), prod ucing tw o
crop s of excellent figs, both u nd er glass an d ou t of d oors. The account by Trab ut, an d
esp ecially that of th e Socit Pom ologiqu e d e Fran ce, leav e little d oubt that th e San
Pietro d escribed by th em is the sam e as th e on e now und er trial in California, w hich is
treated herewith. H ow ever, if the variety d oes have m erit, as the second accou nt
stat es, it seem s stran ge that oth er French an d Italian horticulturists hav e not includ ed it
in their pu blications.
The tree at Riversid e is only m od erately vigorou s; term inal bud s ar e green to dingy
brow n. Leav es m ed iu m , glossy above, variable, som e 3-lobed with shallow sinuses an d
broad lobes, others 5-lobed with d eep sinu ses an d lon g, narrow lobes, both upper an d
basal lobes com m only au ricled ; base cord ate; m ar gins very shallowly crenat e. (Plate
13.)
Breba crop fair; figs lar ge, up to 2 inches in d iam eter an d 2-3/ 4 inches in length,
obliqu e-p yriform , with p rom inent n eck; stalk short; eye m ediu m , open; w hite flecks

404
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

lar ge, scattered ; surface d ull; ribs few , only slightly elevated; color light green; m eat
thin, tinged with violet; pulp dar k straw berry; flav or rich, sw eet; qu ality good .
Second -crop figs lar ge, up to 2-1/ 4 inches broad an d 3 inches long, turbinate, m ostly
withou t neck, or neck present an d grad u ally narrow ed from bod y to stalk; av erage
w eight 73 gram s; stalk sh ort; ribs bran ched , slightly elevat ed ; apex broad , flattened ; eye
ab ove m edium , op en, scales chaffy or pink, with scar ious m argins; w hite flecks few ,
lar ge, wid ely spaced ; color yellowish green; pulp light straw berry, hollow ; flav or fairly
rich. Quality m ediocre; d ried color p oor.
Cap rified specim ens have d ar k-straw berry, solid pulp, with lar ge seed s; av erag e
w eight 88 gram s. Recom m end ed for trial in coastal sections of California only. (Plate
25, A.)
Scaranzone. Described by Guglielmi (1908) as found in the vicinity of Squ inzan o,
Italy. Figs lar ge, spherical; skin sm ooth, thick; color yellowish; pulp red, m od erat ely
sw eet. Consu m ed fresh.
Sfari. Described an d illustrat ed by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as the best d rying fig
of th e Safad Subdistrict; also grow n near N azar eth. The nam e signifies y ellow .
Figs m edium , p yriform , with lon g neck; eye op en, scales pink; color yellow ; pulp
light red .
Quality good , especially w hen d ried.
Sharrawi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a variety grow n n ear
N ablu s, Palestine. Figs m edium , pyriform ; eye alm ost closed; skin thin, greenish
yellow ; pulp light red; flav or su bacid; seed s sm all.
Shtawi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a very late fig, grow n in
Sam aria an d Galilee. Figs pyriform ; neck m edium ; stalk long; eye alm ost closed , scales
light yellow ; color green; pulp red ; seed s few , sm all.
Sicile (syn. Ficus car ica siciliana Risso). Described by Risso (1826), Sauvaigo (1889),
an d Eisen (1901), as a Sicilian var iety, introd uced into Fran ce an d gr ow n n ear Nice. The
d escrip tion by Eisen of first-crop figs follow s closely that of previous auth ors.
Figs lar ge, pyriform , the bod y ab ru ptly nar row ed to form th e n eck; stalk rather lon g;
eye lar ge; skin checking, yellowish green in color; m eat violet; pulp p ale red .
Signorella (syn. Cerva). Described by Ferrar i (1912) as a Sicilian var iety, having a
light-green skin color an d red pulp of a som ew hat bitter flav or.
Slati. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a very ear ly variety, gr ow n in
Sam aria. Figs sm all, sp herical; stalk long; skin thin; color green; pulp pale red; seed s
num erou s.
Sucrada (syn. Ficu s car ica sacchar ata Risso, or su gar fig). Described by Risso
(1826), Sau vaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1901), as a variety grow n in a sm all w ay in the Alp es
Mar itim es, producing tw o crops.
Brebas pyriform , greenish yellow , tinged with brow n on th e ribs. Second crop figs
p yriform ; stalk long; eye rose-colored; skin glossy, light green to yellow ; pulp pale red .
Flav or very sw eet, therefore subject to attacks by bird s.

Febru ary , 1955]


405

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Sulomo. Described by De Rosa (1911), but not recom m end ed for further plan ting in
Italy. Brebas scar ce. Second -crop figs subspherical, 2 inches by 1-3/ 4 inches; stalk short;
eye rath er lar ge, scales yellow ; skin green; pulp am ber, tinged with rose; seed s
num erou s.
Sydawi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a variety fou nd in Acre an d
N azar eth subdistricts only; p robably introduced from Sid on or Syria. Figs sm all,
spherical, withou t neck; stalk fairly lon g; eye op en, scales bright red; skin thick, green in
color; p ulp red; seed s few .
Tbani (syns. Tlabi, Jalbou shi, Um m -et-Tab at, Deat-el-Arab ).
Described by
Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932). Figs lar ge, elongated ; neck an d stalk short; eye slightly
op en, scales yellowish; color greenish yellow , d ar ker green on th e ribs; pulp red .
Flav or sw eet an d good . Seas on Augu st.
Tordo. Described by Gu glielmi (1908). The nam e signifies a var iety su bject to attack
by bird sespecially the t ord o, or thrushbecau se of the sw eetn ess of the pulp.
Second -crop figs lar ge, oblate, with short stalk; skin thick, glossy; color d eep green;
pulp red ; seed s num erous, lar ge. Consum ed m ostly fresh near San Vito, Lecce
Province.
Toscana (syn. Floren tina). Description by Sau vaigo (1889), tran slated by Eisen (1901);
a French variety, prod ucing tw o crops. Brebas lar ge, oblique-pyriform ; eye prom inent;
color greenish yellow ; pulp am ber, streaked with violet, highly flav ored . Second-crop
figs not d escribed .
Troiano (syns. Trojano, Cam p anella). Described by Porta (1583, 1592), Gallesio
(1817), Sem m ola (1845), Gaspar rini (1845, as Ficus leucocar p a), Duchar tre (1857),
Pasqu ale (1876), Sav astan o (1885), Eisen (1901), Pellican o (1907), Gu glielmi (1908),
Vallese (1909), Ferrari (1912), Condit (1947), an d Tam ar o (1948, with figu re).
Illustrations of leav es an d fruit ar e given by Sem m ola; also by Vallese, w ho regar d ed
Cam p an ella as a synonym . Porta, an d later Gallesio, consid ered Troian o to be the sam e
variety listed by Pliny und er the nam e Livia. In the vicinity of N ap les this var iety is
extensively cultivated , an d is highly esteem ed for its prod uction of fruit over a lon g
seas on in late sum m er an d fall. Albo, w hich som e au thors consid er the sam e as
Troian o, p rod uces tw o crops, an d is treated in this m on ograp h as distinct. A var iety
fou nd grow ing on Sm ith Islan d, near Crisfield, Mar ylan d, an d grow n in the California
collection und er the nam e Sm ith Islan d Lem on, has proved to be practically id entical
with Troian o.
Accord ing to Eisen (1901, p . 65), the Trojan o w as introd uced into California by W.
B. West in 1878, but did not prove satisfactory in Stockton, an d w as never d istributed .
It w as gr ow n an d tested at th e California Experim ent Stations from 1890 to 1903, an d at
Pom ona w as found to be valuable an d w orth plan ting in that district. Van Dem an
(1890) rep orted that cuttings of Trojan o had been distributed from Was hington, D.C.
P.I. N o. 40,499, forw ar d ed from N ap les in 1915 by Dr. Gustav Eisen as Troiar o, w as
recom m end ed by him for plan ting in south ern California. The fruits w ere rep orted n ot
to be affected ad versely by fall rains, an d to be p ossessed of ad van tages not found in
an y other variety ripening at the sam e tim e. Three trees have been locat ed in
California an d id entified as Troian o; one at Ontar io, an other at Red w ood City, an d a
third at Vacav ille. A var iety im p orted from Italy prior to 1940 by a San Fran cisco
nursery
und er

406
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

th e nam e Verd oni, has also pr oved to be the sam e as Troian o. It can be recom m end ed
for h om e plan ting, especially in coas tal districts; but can har dly com p ete with Dottato
for can ning pu rp oses, on accou nt of its straw berry pulp, w hich will color the syrup in
w hich it is processed . The figs ar e too sm all for a com m ercial dried prod uct. The
following d escription is based on th e behavior of trees fruiting at Riversid e since 1935,
an d at Fresno in 1953.
Tree vigorou s; term inal buds greenish violet. Leav es m ed ium , som ew hat glossy
ab ove, m ostly 3-lobed ; upp er sinuses shallow ; base cord ate; m argins crenate.
Breba crop n on e. Second -crop figs below m edium to sm all, up to 1-1/ 2 inches in
diam eter, spherical to tu rbinate; av erage w eight 35 gram s; neck m ostly ab sent, or w hen
p resen t, very sh ort an d thick; stalk up to 3/ 4 inch long, often curved ; ribs nar row ,
elevat ed , fairly p rom inen t; eye lar ge, op en, scales rose pink; w hite flecks inconspicu ous;
surface d ull, with d elicate bloom ; skin prom inently checked crisscross at m aturity; color
yellow , som etim es faintly tinged with brow n on the exposed sid e; m eat w hite; p ulp
straw berry; qu ality fair to good . (Plates 8; 12; 26, E.)
Cap rified specim ens lar ger, av erage w eight 41 gram s; color green; p ulp dar k
straw berry; seed s fertile.
Unnequi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a popular var iety in Palestine,
u sed for d rying. Figs m ediu m , spherical to obliqu e-pyriform ; stalk long, distinctively
enlar ged or sw ollen near bod y of the fruit; neck none; eye op en, scales brow n; skin
green; pulp light straw berry, sw eet; seed s num er ou s; qu ality fair.
Verdale Blanche (syns. Verd ala Blan ca, Verdal White, Ficus car ica var iabilis Risso).
Described by Risso (1826), Eisen (1901), an d Sim onet et al. (1945), as a var iety grow n in
Provence. Figs sm all, p yriform , with long neck; skin light green; pulp blood red .
Verdeal. Described by Mello Leotte (1901) an d Bobon e (1932), th e latter with
illustrations. A Portu guese variety, prod ucing a good second crop in August. Figs
m ed ium , short-pyriform to oblat e, with or w ithout short, thick neck; stalk short; color
d ar k green; pulp car mine; qu ality fairly good .
Verdino. Described an d illustrat ed by Baldini (1953) from Firenze, Italy, prod ucing
on e crop only.
Tree vigorous; term inal bud s green. Leav es m ostly 3-lobed ; sinuses shallow, nar row ;
bas e cord ate; m argins alm ost entire. Figs p yriform , with short, slend er neck; eye sm all,
op en, w ith rosy scales; stalk short; skin checking at m aturity, d ar k green in color; p ulp
red . Consu m ed m ostly fresh.
Verdone (syns. Grosse Verte, N ebian , Ad riatic, Wh ite Ad riatic, Fico d i Fragola,
Straw berry). Described as Verd one by Gallesio (1817), Gaspar rini (1845), an d West
(1882). Described as Grosse Verte by Audibert Frres (1854) an d Bar ron (1867, 1868a,
with outline d raw ing). Described as N ebian by H ogg (1866), Wr ight (1894), an d E. A.
Bunyar d (1925). Described as Ad riatic by Eisen (1885, 1887, 1888, 1897, 1901), Massey
(1893), Forrer (1894), Colby (1894), Ear le (1900), Wy thes (1902), Star nes (1903), Star nes
an d Mon roe (1907, with figure), Mills (1914), Roeding (1914), Potts (1917), Roberts
(1917); Condit (1920d, 1921c, 1923, 1933, 1947), Davis (1928), Bu rger and De Wet (1931),

Febru ary , 1955]


407

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Gras ovsky and Weitz (1932), an d by Wood roof an d Bailey (1931). See account an d
color plate of Ad riatic by Lelon g (1890) an d by Taylor (1898); trees ar e figu red by
Cond it (1933).
In 1727, Richar d Bradley rep orted that he had introd uced the Verd one fig into
Englan d from Italy. Alm ost a hu nd red years lat er, Gallesio published a good account of
this var iety, then extensively grow n in the vicinity of Rom e. Gaspar rini briefly
d escribed it, giving credit to Gallesio for his earlier account; bu t oth er Italian w riters
ap par en tly ignore it. Verd e Gen til, d escribed by Tam aro (1948) m ay be the sam e
variety. The nam e Verd on e (greenfinch) w as given on account of th e green color of
th e skin. With the exception of Audibert Frres, w ho called it Grosse Verte, French
au th ors om it reference to this variety. The origin an d significan ce of the nam e N ebian ,
u sed by H ogg, have not been d eterm ined . Bu nyar d stat ed that N ebian is m uch grow n
in California for d rying, u nd er the nam e Ad riatic. Davis, also Burger an d De We t,
rep ort that in South Africa the Wh ite Ad riatic is a very consistent bearer of figs, good
for jam an d for d rying. Gras ovsky an d Weitz stat e that it p roduces good crops of highqu ality fruit in Palestine. Bar ron (1868a) d escribed Grosse Verte as on e of the lar gest,
han d som est, an d richest-flav ored varieties in cultivationw ell suited for p ot cultu re.
Star n es found White Ad riatic an excellent var iety in Georgia.
The following notes on th e Verd one (Wh ite Ad riatic) in California ar e taken from th e
accou nt by Eisen (1901, p.70). The first im p ortation w as m ad e by W. B. West from an
English nursery, via Pan am a, in 1865. Later, Dr. Sposati, of Stockton, is said to hav e
received the sam e var iety from his native hom e in Italy und er the nam e Fico di Fragola,
or straw berry fig. G. N. Milco fou nd ten-year -old trees grow ing on the Cap tain Gray
ran ch at Atw ater, recognized their value, an d lab eled them Ad riatic as stated by Milco
(1885). Milco d id m u ch tow ard m aking th e var iety know n, but also m uch tow ard
keeping the grow ers in the d ar k as regard s its tru e nature. Since 1884 the variety has
been extensively cultivated in California an d distributed to m an y of the sou thern states,
esp ecially Florid a. It is a fine var iety in som e localities, but in others w orthless. See
also d iscussion by Milco an d oth ers (1887), on varieties.
The Chiswick collection from Englan d included N ebian as P.I. N o. 18,863 an d Grosse
Verte as P.I. N o. 18,876. These tw o proved to be id entical in the plan tings at Niles an d
Chico. At th e California Experim ent Stations, from 1893 to 1901, trees of the Verd on e
(Ad riatic) grew vigorously, but at Tular e they w ere very susceptible to frost d am age,
an d the second-crop figs sou red bad ly. (See rep ort of Forrer, 1894.) H ow ever,
com m ercial plan tings, m ad e in both the Sacram ento an d San Joaqu in valleys, proved
th e ad ap tability of th e variety to clim atic an d soil conditions, an d for several d ecad es it
w as the lar gest prod ucer of d ried figs in California. The bearing acreage of Verd one
trees in 1953 w as 6,921, an d in 1952-1953 there w ere 7,699 tons of d ried figs shipped to
th e trad e. In com par ison, the Sar i Lop (Calim yrna) acreage w as 10,267, an d 9,505 tons
w ere m arketed as d ried fruit.
Trees of th e Verd on e plan ted in d ooryard s are n ot so satisfactory for p rod u ction of
figs for hom e use as ar e certain other kinds, on account of the lack of a first crop an d
th e su scep tibility of th e fruit to sp oilag e. In the vicinity of Los Angeles, how ever, good

408
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

results hav e been secured by heavy p ru ning of trees an d the resultan t production of a
crop w hich m atu res late in the seas on. The influence of clim ate upon fruit char acters is
esp ecially m arked in this var iety. Cond it (1950) states that figs picked at Merced , in the
interior valley, on Sep tem ber 24, 1949, for exam ple, show ed a pulp light straw berry in
color, an d a m eat thin an d w hite. Figs of the sam e variety, picked three d ay s later at
Mission San Jose, w here th e clim ate is cool, sh ow ed the pulp to be blood red an d the
m eat tinged with violet.
The following account of Verd one is based on observations of com m ercial plan tings
an d of individ ual trees over a long period, an d of trees fruiting in the collection of
varieties at Riversid e since 1932.
Trees vigor ous, d ensely bran ched , with broad , spread ing crow n. (Plate 2.) (See also
Cond it, 1941a, fig. 15.) Terminal buds green. As alread y p ointed out (Cond it, 1947,
p .103), leav es of Verd on e trees ap pear a w eek or ten d ay s before th ose of Sar i Lop an d
m ay, therefore, be seriously injured by late frosts, w hile leav es of the latter escap e
injury. Leaves m edium , d ecid edly glossy above, stiff in texture, m ostly 5-lobed; upp er
sinuses d eep, m od erat ely broad , low er sinuses fairly shallow; base broad ly subcord ate
to tru ncate; m iddle lobe sp atulate, with upp er m argins coarsely crenate, low er m argins
en tire; leaf m osaic fairly conspicuou s, with occasional twigs having bad ly distorted an d
d w ar fed leav es, as show n by Condit an d H om e (1933). (See also plate 13.)
Breba crop very sm all, or non e (crop of 1953 w as u nu su ally heav y as the result of
frost d am age to term inal buds an d the resultan t pushing out of lateral fruit bud s); figs
m ed ium or above, obliqu e-pyriform , m ostly with p rom inent n eck, up to 3/ 4 inch long;
stalk thick, som etim es sw ollen, up to 1/ 4 inch long; ribs nar row , inconspicuous; w hite
flecks fairly nu m erous an d prom inent; eye m edium , scales greenish, with scar iou s
m argins; skin thin, colored greenish violet by th e u nd erlying d ar k-violet m eat; pulp
d ar k straw berry; flav or rich; qu ality good . (Plates 7; 16, D.)
Second crop good ; figs in hot, interior valleys ar e m ed ium ; tu rbinate, with or withou t
short, thick n eck; average w eight 50 gram s; stalk u p to 3/ 4 inch long, often som ew hat
curved ; ribs slightly elevated , bu t har dly p rom inent; eye m edium , op en, scales chaffy,
straw to flesh color, or som etim es pink; surface dull, with d elicate bloom ; w hite flecks
lar ge, p rom inen t, wid ely scattered ; color green to greenish yellow ; m eat thin, w hite;
pulp light straw berry, som ew hat hollow at the center. Flav or fairly rich, of a
char acteristic fig type. Qu ality good , especially for d rying. In cool clim ates figs ar e
lar ge, grass green outsid e; pulp blood red; qu ality excellent. (Plates 8; 16, C.)
Cap rified figs ar e m edium or above, d eep green; p ulp solid, d ar k red; flav or
p eculiarly acid. As m an y as 1,600 fertile seed s in a single fruit. (Plate 11.)
Verte (syns. Cu r, De Cou r, De Cu ers, Verd alle, Verd ale, Des Dam es, Figue
d Esp ag ne, Trom p e-Chasseur, Trom p e-Cassaire, Ischia Green, Figue d Hiver, Ficus
car ica au lica Risso). Described as Verte by Merlet (1667), La Quintinie (1692), Tournefort
(1700), Liger (1702), Gar id el (1715), Lan gley (1728), La Brou sse (1774), Rozier (1805),
Duham el (1809), Christ (1812), Lam arck (1817), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824),

Febru ary , 1955]


409

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Cou verchel (1839), an d Leclerc (1925). Described as De Cou r or De Cu ers by Bernard


(1787), Risso (1826), Du Breuil (1876), an d Eisen (1901). Described as Verd ale by La
Brou sse (1774), H ogg (1866), an d Socit Pom ologiqu e d e France (1947, probably).
Described as Trom p e-Chasseur or Trom p e-Cassaire by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Sim on et et
al. (1945). Described as Ischia Green by Miller (1768), H an bury (1770), Forsyth (1803),
Brookshaw (1812), Green (1824), Lindley (1831), Burnette (1894), Ear le (1900), Leclerc
(1925), Stan sel an d Wy che (1932), an d Condit (1947). See Rollan d (1914) for synony m y.
The fruits ar e illustrat ed in color by Duham el an d by Brookshaw .
Merlet d escribed Figue Verte (also called Verd alle or Figu e d Espag n e) as bearing few
brebas, bu t m an y second -crop figs, som e of w hich rem ain on th e tree over w inter and
m atu re in the spring, hence the nam e, Figue dHiver. Gar id el stat ed that it w as also
called Trom p e-Cassaire becau se of its resem blan ce to Bourjassotte, w hich also han gs on
th e tree during winter. Eisen rep orted that this green fig ap p ear s unripe even w hen
m atu re; th erefore, it is called Trom p e-Chas seur, h u nters d eception. Cou verchel
listed it as Figue Verte d es Dam es or De Guers, but did not explain the significan ce th e
latter nam e, w hich m ay be a corrup tion of De Cuers. The su ggestion of Rozier, that
Verte m ight be the sam e as Ischia Green of Miller, is accep ted as correct after
com p arison of d escriptions by th e var ious au th ors cited. Contrary to the rep orts of
som e horticulturists, such as H ogg, Eisen, Star nes, an d Gould, Ischia Green an d Ischia
Wh ite ar e regar d ed here as distinct varieties. Sauvaigo referred Verte to Ficus carica
falaciosa of Risso, but this Latin term inology has n ot been found in the 1826 edition of
Risso, w h o d escribed Figue d e Cou r und er F. carica aulica. Lan gley treated Verte as a
green fig, called in Fran ce, Figue Verte an d in Italy, Verd one. The latter, h ow ever, is
regard ed in this m on ograp h as distinct.
Verte is rep orted to be one of the better figs of Provence, esp ecially at Grasse an d
Toulon. English w riters, beginning with Miller, stat e that the skin is thin, green, and
w hen fully ripe, is stained by the m eat to a brow nish cast; also, that the interior pu rple
color will stain linen or p ap er. As ear ly as 1832, the William Kenrick N u rsery, N ew ton,
Massachusetts, offered for sale trees of Green Ischia at one d ollar each. In 1894, Ischia
Green w as includ ed in the Chiswick collection as P.I. N o. 18,856. It has long been
grow n in the sou th ern United States, bu t on account of confusion with Ischia White,
rep orts on its behavior m ust be car efully evalu ated. H ow ever, the variety has certainly
n ot been n early so w ell regard ed or extensively plan ted as hav e Brow n Turkey, Celeste
(Malta), or Bru nswick. A sm all com m ercial plan ting is on th e place of Stoughton
Sterling, Crisfield , Mar ylan d. Tw o trees hav e been locat ed in California d ooryard s; on e
in the yard of C. W. Gat es, 128 Fey Drive, Burlingam e; the other on the place of John
Kruttschnitt, San Mateo. Ischia Green has been received an d tested at Riversid e with
m at erial from th e following localities: Crisfield , Mar ylan d; Sherm an , Angleton, an d San
Antonio, Texas.
The fruit is late in m aturing, but of good qu ality. The very light prod uction of
brebas, th e sm all size of th e m ain-crop figs, an d its late seas on of m atu rity, ar e factors
sufficient

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

to prevent m uch extension of Verte, at least in California. A variety lab eled Calvert,
briefly d escribed by Close (1933), w as received in 1929 from th e Angleton, Texas,
station, nu m bered 8,370. This has proved to be id entical with Verte at Riversid e, an d
both ar e very similar to Col d e Dam e.
Bran ches of the tree have term inal buds, green in color. Leav es below m ediu m ,
glossy above, non lobed to 3-lobed ; upper sinuses shallow ; base broad ly subcord ate t o
tru ncate; m argins coarsely crenate. Description is from figs produced at Riversid e since
1942, an d at Fresno in the seas on of 1953.
Brebas few , or rarely prod uced, as rep orted by Sim onet; figs m edium , pyriform , with
p rom inent neck and short stalk; eye sm all, scales straw color; w hite flecks sm all,
num erou s, conspicu ou s; color green; bloom d elicate; m eat thin, violet; pulp straw berry.
Second -crop figs sm all; tu rbinate, without neck, or p yriform , with prom inent,
som ew hat flatten ed neck; av erage w eight 40 gram s; stalk up to 1/ 4 inch long; eye
sm all, fairly w ell closed , scales taw ny; ribs nar row , fairly w ell elevat ed ; w hite flecks
scattered, conspicu ou s; color grass green; m eat w hite; pulp d ar k straw berry; qu ality
good . Seas on late.
Cap rified figs hav e m uch th e sam e char acters, bu t th e p ulp is blood red in color.
(Plate 17, C.)
Vescovo. Described an d figured by Vallese (1909) as a var iety grow n in the district of
Fran cav illa, Italy.
Leav es are of m edium size, m ostly 5-lobed. Second -crop figs turbinate, with ou t
neck; stalk sh ort; ribs inconspicuous; skin of fine texture, read ily p eeled ; color greenish
yellow ; bloom d elicate; pulp light rose; flav or not very sw eet, som ew hat acid.
Violada Blanca (syn. Violeta of Genoa). Described an d figured by Tam aro (1948) as a
tree of lar ge size an d extraordinar y vigor, with 3-lobed leav es. Brebas d o not m ature.
Figs lar ge, short-pyriform , with thick neck; skin thin, checking lengthwise; color
green; pulp wine red . Used p rincipally fresh, bu t also d ried.
Yellow Neches. This var iety w as received in 1929 from Station N o. 3, Angleton,
Texas, u nd er num ber 8,374. See references to it by Close (1929) an d by Stan sel an d
Wy che (1932). Its exact id entity has n ot been d eterm ined. Appar ently, it is an Old
World fig that w as introd uced in ear ly colonial day s, since a tree of the sam e variety
w as found growing at Jam estow n, Virginia, in October, 1940. Other trees have been
fou nd in fou r different localities of California. A consid erab le percen tage of th e second
crop at Riversid e d rops w hile im m ature, ap par en tly from lack of cap rification. The
nam e N eches probably refers to th e sw ollen stalk, w hich is m ore pr om inent than in
an y other variety of th e California collection. (See Condit, 1941a, fig. 4, B.) It has
n othing to recom m end it for hom e plan ting, as there ar e m an y varieties sup erior in
p rod uctiven ess of tree an d in qu ality of fruit.
The tree is m od erately vigorou s, d ensely branched; nod al sw ellings rath er
p rom inent; term inal, d orm ant bu d s green. Leaves sm all, dull on upper surface, m ostly
3-lobed , upp er sinu ses rath er shallow ; base cord ate; m argins coarsely crenate.

Febru ary , 1955]


411

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Breba crop sm all; figs sm all, 1-1/ 4 inches in length and diam eter, turbinate, with or
withou t distinct neck; stalk u p to 1/ 2 inch long, an d m u ch sw ollen; ribs few , but w ell
elevat ed ; eye m edium , op en, scales pink; color green; pulp straw berry; qu ality fair.
(Plate 23, C.)
Second -crop figs m u ch the sam e as brebas, sp herical to turbinate, gen erally withou t
neck; average w eight 12 gram s; stalk prom inently sw ollen, up to 1 inch long; ribs
nar row , inconspicuous; w hite flecks indistinct, scattered ; eye m ed iu m , scales rose pink;
surface dull, with faint bloom , som ew hat p uberulent; color green to light yellow ; m eat
w hite; pulp straw berry, practically seedless; flav or insipid; qu ality poor. (Plate 23, D.)
Cap rified figs lar ger, with dar k-straw berry pulp an d su bacid flav or.
Zamozujica. Introd uced in 1901 from Lesina (H var) Islan d, Dalm atia, as P.I. N o.
5,921, an d rep orted to be a good fig, with unusually tend er skin; d ried figs shipped in
qu an tity to Trieste. Trees at Chico, California, w ere studied in Augu st, 1916, an d found
to prod u ce m ed iu m fruits, similar to the Pajajero, or so-called bird fig, of the Vacav ille
district. Var iety established at Riversid e in 1941 from cu ttings received from Angleton,
Texas.
Second -crop figs below m edium to sm all, pyriform , with prom inent, sh ort n eck; eye
m ed ium , with rose-colored scales; skin color green; pulp straw berry; qu ality p oor.
Zimitza. Described by Colby (1894) an d Eisen (1901). According to the latter, it w as
introd uced into California from Dalm atia; the tree grew w ell, an d prod uced late in the
seas on; p ossibly id entical with N atalino (Arneo Bian co).
Figs m ediu m or below , turbinate, with long stalk; neck n one; eye closed ; color olive
green; pulp am ber, with a tinge of red, hollow .
Common-type Figs with Skin Green or Yellow;
Pulp Color not Designated
Agulla. Described an d illustrat ed by Estelrich (1910) as a var iety bearing fruit similar
to that of Alican tina. Figs sm all, green, resistan t to rain dam age; read ily d ried.
Alicantina (syns. Blan cassa, Blan ca Clar a, Cantina, Blan qu eta). Described by Estelrich
(1910), San chez (1922), an d Priego y Jaram illo (1922).
Tree u pright, with 5-lobed leav es; wid ely plan ted on the islan d of Mallorca. Figs
spherical, m edium ; stalk slend er; color green . Highly regard ed, both fresh an d d ried .
Resistan t to sp oilag e in w et w eather.
Biter Abiod. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) an d Minan goin (1931) as a
variety p rod ucing tw o crops. Listed by H od gson (1931) an d Vald eyron an d Cr ossaRay nau d (1950) as good for brebas, w hich ar e early, very lar ge, pyriform , an d green in
color.
Second -crop figs (according to Minan goin) large, oblate, sessile; eye wid e open; skin
very thin, green. Vald eyron states that the second crop som etim es requ ires
cap rification.
Bontalette. Listed by Eisen (1888, 1901) as a w hite fig, used for d rying at Brign oles,
Fran ce.

412
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Caseta. Described an d figu red by Estelrich (1910). A var iety similar to Par ejal, bu t
fruit sm aller, green er in color, an d less pulpy. For d rying, it is rep orted superior to
Alican tina, an d even m ore resistan t to rain d am age. At Pollensa, w here it probably
originated , it is highly regard ed , an d the d ried fruit is the first of an y var iety to ap p ear
in m arkets.
Castagnola. Described by Sau vaigo (1889) and Eisen (1901) as a m edium sized fig,
globular , bright green in color. Grow n near Sav oy, France.
Cervone. Listed by Gasp ar rini (1845), u nd er Ficu s d eliciosa var . m axim a, as a
tu rbinate fig, yellow in color.
Cistallino. Described by Ferrar i (1912) as an Italian var iety of m edium size,
spherical; skin green, glossy; tree prolific; season early; not m u ch grow n.
Comadre. Regar d ed by Eisen (1901) as the best w hite d rying fig of sou thern
Portu gal. The term com ad re, h ow ever, com m only d esignat es a grad e of d ried figs,
an d not an y d istinct var iety.
Dois Flha. Described an d illustrat ed by Bobone (1932) as a com m on Portu guese
fig, so nam ed becau se tw o figs ap p ear in the axil of each leaf. Figs ar e globular , with
short stalk an d greenish-yellow skin.
Du Japon. Described by Sim onet et al. (1945) as a variety that closely resem bles
Dalm atia an d Blanche N av ello. Tw o crops are prod uced . Brebas lar ge to very lar ge,
elon gated -pyriform . Second -crop figs m ed ium , pyriform , greenish yellow in color;
qu ality m ediocre.
El Nouchi. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) as a sm all, spherical fig of
yellow color, rat h er good in flav or, m aturing in Augu st.
Espagnole (syn. DEsp ag ne). Described by Duchar tre (1857), Sau vaigo (1894), an d
Eisen (1888, 1901), as a very good , light-green fig, cultivated at Aix, Fran ce.
This m ay be the sam e as Verte, d escribed elsew here.
Fettouai. Described by Guilloch on (1913, 1927, 1929) as a fig of m edium size,
globular , yellow in color, m atu ring in August.
Gajico. A var iety listed by Pellican o (1907) as a caprified, yellow fig, of little
imp ortan ce.
Graissane. See Rollan d (1914) for synonym y. Described by Gar id el (1715), La
Brou sse (1774), Rozier (1805), Lam arck (1817), Duham el (1809), N oisette (1829), an d
Eisen (1901). According to Gar id el, trees of Graissan e are fou nd throu ghou t Provence;
bu t this is contrad icted by Duham el. The latter briefly d escribes the fruit as spherical,
flatten ed at the ap ex; skin light-colored ; flav or insipid.
Hospitalire. Briefly d escribed by Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), an d Eisen
(1888, 1901), as a greenish-yellow fig of Salon, France; good for d rying.
Jorba. Described an d illustrat ed by Estelrich (1910) as bear ing fruit similar to that of
Alican tina. Figs of sm all size, green in color, easily d ried .
Levant (syn. Turqu e). Described briefly by Du ham el (1755, 1809); his accou nt
follow ed by Cou verchel (1839) an d Eisen (1901). A var iety seld om cultivated in Fran ce;
leav es d eeply lobed ; figs lar ge, yellow .
Llimonenca. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as a sm all, lem on colored fig,
spherical in shap e, late in m aturing; used m ostly for cattle feed.

Febru ary , 1955]


413

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

New French. Described by Ear le (1900) as a sm all, spherical, light colored fig, of
m ed ium qu ality. (May be id entical with Anglique-see p.382.)
Parejal (syns. Julia in Ibiza, Par echal in Valencia). Described an d figured by Estelrich
(1910); see also account by Priego y Jar am illo (1922).
Tree at tains consid erable size. Leav es 3-lobed . Breba crop sm all, of little value.
Second -crop figs m edium to lar ge, conical; stalk m ed ium , coriaceous; skin checking at
m atu rity; color d ar k green; color of pulp not specified . Used for d rying an d for cattle
feed .
Su bvarieties ar e Par ejalina an d Par ejal Ray ad a, or Pintad a.
Pelosa. Described by Estelrich (1910) as a var iety occasionally found in Mallorcan
villag es. Called Pelosa becau se of the pubescent skin. Second crop figs m edium ,
conical, yellowish green; flav or m ild . Used for cattle feed. Crop m atures by m idSep tem ber.
Pilosella. Described by Ferrari (1912) as a green fig, with short, thick stalk; skin
pubescen t; m atu res in Sep tem ber.
Prcoce (syn. Petite Blan che). A var iety briefly d escribed by La Quintinie (1692),
Cu p an i (1696), Liger (1702), an d Tou rnefort (1719), as prod ucing m ed iu m -sized, green
fruit, of m ediocre qu ality. According to Liger, it w as not m uch esteem ed in Fran ce, an d
p robably w as not distributed.
Ragusa (syn. Rag u saine). Described briefly by Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876),
an d Eisen (1888, 1901), as a light-green fig of fair qu ality, introd uced from Dalm atia into
Fran ce. Introd uced into California by G. N . Milco, und er the nam e Dalm atian . It w as
tested at the California Experim en t Stations, an d w as found at Tular e to resem ble th e
Sm yrna of California, an d the Brunswick, excep t that it is m ore flattened an d one-sid ed
in shape.
Reginella. Described by Guglielmi (1908) as a var iety m aturing an ab u nd an t fall crop
in Lecce Province, Italy. Figs lar ge, oval, greenish yellow in color. Consu m ed fresh.
Serra. Described an d illustrat ed by Estelrich (1910) as a variety grow n n ear Pollensa,
Mallorca, m ainly for hog feed . Figs below m edium , turbinate, withou t neck; stalk
short; color greenish yellow ; pulp of good flavor.
Sextius. Listed by Du Breuil (1876) an d Eisen (1888, 1901) as a yellow fig of good
qu ality, grow n n ear Aix, Fran ce.
Sultani. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a lar ge, rou nd, green fig of
good qu ality, grow n in Jenin, Palestine.
Tassiret. Briefly d escribed by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) as a below m ediu m ,
yellowish fig, m aturing in Augu st in Tunisia.
Tiboulenque (syn. Tibourenqu e). Listed by Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), an d
Eisen (1888, 1901), as a w hite fig of Fran ce, very good both fresh an d d ried. N o fruit
char acters given.
Tira (syns. H ortella, Filera). Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as a Mallorcan
variety, sim ilar in fruit char acters to Alican tina. Second crop figs m ediu m , sp herical,
yellow in color; qu ality excellent for d rying.
Vacal. Described an d figu red by Estelrich (1910) as a Mallorcan fig of m inor
imp ortan ce. Figs m edium , oblate-spherical, without neck; eye lar ge; color light green;
w hite flecks nu m erous, sm all. Used for cattle feed an d for d rying.

414
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Common-type Figs with Skin Dark (Various Shades of Red,


Brown, or Violet to Black); Pulp White or Amber
Abboudi (syns. Ghorabi, Ghozi). Described by Badie an d Gham raw i (1931) as an
Egyp tian var iety, bearing tw o crop s that m ature a fortnight earlier than other kinds.
Figs m ed ium , oblate, ribbed; stalk sh ort; skin thin, purplish black; pulp yellowish w hite.
Albanera. See d escrip tion by Porta (1592). Ferrar i (1912) gives it as a Sicilian fig, n ot
com m only grow n; fruits sp herical, black; pulp am ber.
Arbal. The only d escription found is that of Eisen (1901). Includ ed in the Chiswick
collection from Englan d as P.I. N o. 18,861. N ot fruited at Riversid e; the following
d escrip tion is after Eisen.
Figs m edium , p yriform ; ribs m an y, bu t indistinct; eye sm all, open; skin olive green;
flushed with violet; pulp am ber; a fine, highly flav ored fig, of p oor ap pearan ce.
Archipel (syns. De lArchip el, Osborn, Osborns Prolific, H ar d y Prolific, Figu e Gris,
Rond e N oire?). In 1854, Audibert Frres described a variety of fig und er th e nam e
Archip el, having a single crop of reddish-brow n fruits with pale-yellow pulp, m aturing
in Sep tem ber. Other French au thors ap p ar en tly ignored the variety d esignat ed as
Archip el. H ogg (1866) an d Eisen (1888) d escribed it as De lArchipel. The later accou nt
by Eisen (1901) is based on fruit prod uced by the Archipel that w as introd uced from
Englan d in the Chiswick collection, an d estab lished at Niles, California, as P.I. N o.
18,835. This d escrip tion, an d that of Bar ron (1891), fit closely th e fruit char acters of th e
variety kn ow n as Osborns Prolific. Furtherm ore, in the collection of var ieties at
Riversid e, Archipel, obtained from Angleton, Texas, as P.I. N o. 18,835, has proved to b e
id entical with Osborn. P.I. N o. 18,879 of the Chiswick collection, lab eled H ar d y Prolific,
w as also id entical with Archip el. The nam e Archip el is, therefore, given priority. P.I.
N os. 60,493 an d 69,014, introd uced from France as Figue Gris, ar e both th e sam e as
Archip el at Riversid e. The sam e is true of Rolan d ine N o. 102,020, from Morocco.
Osborns Prolific is d escribed by S. (1878), Moore (1879), Colem an (1887b), Bar ron
(1891), Massey (1893), Wy thes (1893), Eisen (1901), Star nes an d Monroe (1907), Royal
H ort. Society (1916); E. A. Bunyar d (1925), Cook (1925), Davis (1928), Cond it (1947), an d
Preston (1951). According to Bu nyard, this variety w as introd uced into Englan d in
1878-1879 by Messrs. Osborn, of Fulham , an d w as d esignated Osborns Prolific on
accou nt of th e prod uctiveness of the trees. Eisen refers to an account by H ogg, bu t n o
m en tion of th e Osborn is fou nd in the 1866 edition of The Fruit Man ual by that au th or.
Bar ron an d Wy thes both regard ed the var iety as id entical with Brow n Turkey.
The fact that English nu rseries hav e been confused over these tw o varieties is
indicated by exp eriences with recent introd uctions into California. Cuttings received in
1929 as Brow n Tu rkey pr od uced fruit in 1933 id entical with Archipel (Osborn). On the
oth er han d, Brow n Turkey, introd uced und er P.I. N os. 93,275 an d 95,598, bore fruit in
both cases typical of that variety and entirely distinct from Archip el.

Febru ary , 1955]


415

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

The variety Rond e N oire has proved in California tests to be id entical with Osborn in
som e plots, an d different in oth ers. The d escription an d illustration of Rond e N oire by
Eisen (1901) fit the Archipel closely, even th ough he stated that it is very distinct from
that var iety. In th e collection of figs m aintained by th e late Leroy Nickel at Menlo Par k,
th e Rond e N oire an d Osborn w ere id entical. N everalla, listed in the 1942 catalogu e of
Willam ette Fig Gar d ens, Portlan d , Oregon, by B. R. Am end , has p roved at Riversid e to
be id entical with Archipel.
Variou s French grow ers im p orted Osborn from Englan d , an d issu ed rep orts on its
behavior. Am ong these are th e following Anon. (1882), Carrire (1881, 1884), B. Rivire
(1907), an d Reboul (1908).
Archip el (Osborn) w as tested at the Am ad or, Tular e, an d Paso Robles Experim en t
Stations in California betw een 1889 an d 1896, an d w as rep orted to prod uce high-qu ality
figs in ab und an ce. Individ ual trees have been fou nd in the foothills of Merced an d
Mar ip osa counties in var ious localities near San Francisco Bay , an d in sou thern
California.
Trees are u pright in habit of grow th; term inal d orm an t bud s ar e green in color.
Leav es above m ed iu m , 3- to 5-lobed , the bas al lobe som etim es au ricled ; upper sinu ses
of m ed iu m d epth an d wid th, low er sinuses shallow , basal sinus som etim es nar row an d
alm ost closed, but generally open, form ing a cord ate bas e; m argins coarsely crenate;
surface som ew hat glossy. The following d escrip tion is from fruit produced at Riversid e
since 1930.
Breba crop good .
Figs above m edium , p yriform , som ew hat obliqu e; neck
p rom inent, often elon gat ed ; stalk short; ribs n ot p rom inent, m ostly evid ent as d ar kcolored ban d s; eye m edium , op en, scales reddish br ow n; skin cracking or checking at
full m atu rity; color bron ze, tinged with violet; bloom d elicate; m eat w hite; pulp cotton y
w hite, tinged with pink; texture sp on gy or m ealy; flav or som ew hat strong; qu ality fair.
Of d ou btful value, on accou nt of u nattractive color an d poor flav or.
Second -crop figs variable in size, from 2 to 2-1/ 2 inches lon g an d 1-1/ 2 to 2 inches in
diam eter; average w eight 58 gram s; shap e p yriform to turbinate, com m only obliqu e;
neck thick, up to 3/ 4 inch long; stalk variable; ribs very slightly elevated , coloring m or e
d eeply than bod y; eye m edium , open, scales light brow n, scar iou s on m argins; surface
d ull; bloom d elicate; w hite flecks lar ge, scattered , not prom inent; color bronze, with
violet tinge; pulp am ber, alm ost seedless; texture m ealy, inclined to be som ew hat d ry;
flav or insipid; qu ality p oor. (Plates 9; 27, D.)
Cap rified specim ens of lar ger size; external color d ar ker violet; p ulp straw berry,
seed y. Figs p ractically w orthless in interior valleys, either d ried or fresh; very m uch
subject to sp oilag e. In cool, coastal clim ates, fruit sizes ar e lar ger, an d figs ar e of good
to excellent qu ality for fresh consu m ption.
Barbillone. Described by Eisen (1901), Schneid er (1902), Juignet (1909), N om blot
(1913), Mazires, (1920), A. Rivire (1928), Socit N ationale d 'H orticulture d e Fran ce
(1928), Delplace (1933), Delbar d (1947), an d Evreinoff (1947). Illustrat ed in color by
Delbar d . Origin u ncertain, bu t rep orted to be a bud sport of Blan che, an d nam ed for
th e grow er at Argenteuil w ho found it.
Tree p rod uctive of brebas; second crop sm all.

416
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Brebas m edium to lar ge, variable in shap e, bu t com m only p yriform ; ribs distinct;
stalk sh ort; eye lar ge, with p rotruding scales; skin thin, easily p eeled, greenish violet in
color; p ulp am ber, tinged with red . Qu ality very good , superior to that of Blan che for
fresh fruit.
Second -crop figs m ediu m ; neck lacking; eye sm all, open, with d ar k-colored scales;
skin thin, violet-black; pulp am ber, coarse, juicy.
Beall. Described by Brooks an d Olm o (1946) an d by Condit (1947). A chan ce
seedling, fou nd by W. A. Beall in the San ta Clar a Valley, California, an d tran splan ted by
him to Fresno, w here it fruited in 1922. Char acters su ggest Archipel (Osborn) as th e
fem ale p ar ent; variety rep orted w ell w orth y of plan ting in d esert valleys an d in coastal
clim ates for th e p rod uction of fresh fruit.
Tree m od erately vigorous, bear ing tw o crop s; term inal buds violet-br ow n. Leav es
m ed ium or lar ger, d ull to slightly glossy above, m ostly 5-lobed ; upp er an d low er
sinuses of m ed iu m d epth an d width; basal lobes often au ricled ; base cord ate, the sinu s
gen erally nar row ; m ar gins crenate. Fruit d escrip tions ar e from Riversid e, California,
specim ens.
Brebas lar ge, up to 3 inches long by 2-1/ 4 inches in diam eter, pyriform , with
p rom inent, thick neck; av erage w eight 71 gram s; stalk thick, up to 1/ 4 inch lon g; eye
m ed ium , op en; w hite flecks scattered , fairly conspicu ous; color brow n to p urplish black,
shad ing to green on th e n eck; pulp w hite; flav or fairly rich; qu ality good . (Plate 18, C.)
Second -crop figs m edium to lar ge, oblate to turbinate, with or with out a sh ort, thick
neck; average w eight 66 gram s; stalk sh or t an d thick; ribs elevated , m ore d eeply
colored than bod y; eye m ed iu m , op en, with violet scales; su rface som ew hat glossy,
with distinct bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge, con spicuous; color clar et-brow n to cop per y
black, lighter tow ar d the stalk; skin checking at m aturity; pulp am ber, h ollow at center;
flav or fairly sw eet an d rich. (Plates 16; 18, D.)
Cap rified figs with light-straw berry pulp an d lar ge, fertile seed s; d ried figs of p oor
color an d qu ality.
Brunswick (syns., after H ogg an d Eisen: Bay sw ater, Bou ghton, Black N ap les, Brow n
H am bu rgh, Clar e, Clm entine, De Saint Jean , H an over, Mad onna, Lar ge Wh ite Tu rkey.
Also Mag n olia, Dalm atian ). Described by Duham el (1755), Miller (1768), H an bu ry
(1770), Brookshaw (1812), Anon. (1828), George Lindley (1831), John Lindley (1841),
Rogers (1834), Morren (1852), H olley (1854), MIntosh (1855), Thom pson (1859), H ogg
(1866), White (1868), Bar ron (1868c, 1891), Jam es And erson (1874), H yd e (1877), West
(1882), Massey (1893), Burnette (1894), Wr ight (1895), Forrer (1894), Eisen (1885, 1897,
1901), Ear le (1900), Price an d White (1902), Star n es (1903), Star nes an d Monroe (1907),
Van Velzer (1909), Hu m e (1915), Potts (1917), Gould (1919), Cook (1925), Mow ry an d
We ber (1925), Davis (1928), Traub an d Frap s (1928), E. A. Bunyar d (1925, 1934), Stan sel
an d Wy che (1932), Condit (1921b, 1922b, 1941b, 1947), Arn old (1926), Fruit-Grow er
(1936), Wo od ar d (1938, 1940), Delbar d (1947), an d Preston (1951). Illustrations of th e
fruit in color are by Brookshaw , Anon. (1828), John Lindley, Morren, an d Jam es
And erson. Illustrations in black an d w hite are by Potts, Price, Traub, E. A. Bunyar d ,

Febru ary , 1955]


417

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

an d Condit (1941a fig. 2, L). Leav es ar e figu red by Eisen, Price, Van Velzer, Gould ,
Trau b, an d by Wood roof an d Bailey.
Bru nswick is an other variety abou t w hich consid erable confu sion has existed . Much
of this ar ises from th e fact that m ost English d escriptions an d illustrations d eal with the
first-crop fruit, w hich h orticultu rists in the United States have fou nd so d ifferent fro m
figs of th e m ain crop. Furtherm ore, as Eisen stat ed in 1901, this var iety is erroneou sly
kn ow n in California an d par ts of the South as Brow n Turkey; in fact, price qu otations of
fresh figs in the Los Angeles m arkets still refer to Brunswick w hen the actu al var iety on
sale is San Piero (Brow n Turkey).7 This var iety has ap par ently been wid ely distribu ted
in fig-growing cou ntries, an d various nam es hav e been attached to it. Cuttings of the
following num bers have fruited at Riversid e, an d all w ere found to be id entical with
Bru nswick.
BaidiP.I. N o. 80,294, from Palestine.
Belle DameP.I. N o. 69,010, from Fran ce.
Belle Dame BlancheP.I. N o. 86,790, from Yalta, Crim ea.
Blanche dArgenteuilP.I. N o. 92,304, from Fran ce.
BrunswickP.I. N o. 93,276, from Englan d.
Col di SignoraP.I. N o. 102,099, from Morocco.
DalmatiaP.I. N o. 102,010, from Morocco.
DorP.I. N o. 101,715, from the Cau casus.
KennedyP.I. N o. 69,017, from Fran ce.
KennedyP.I. N o. 102,015, from Morocco.
KhurtmaniP.I. N o. 80,297, from Palestine.
Magnolia, from Texas; cuttings from local trees at Greenwich, Connecticu t; also, fro m
th e vicinity of Was hington, D.C.
Reference to d escrip tions of som e of these var ieties fou nd elsew here in this rep ort
will sh ow that the nam es are n ot syn onym s of Brunswick; therefore, the m aterial w as
sen t incorrectly id entified . Cas tle Kenn ed y is similar to Brunswick, but is generally
regard ed as a distinct var iety.
Accord ing to Rogers, the Brunswick w as introd uced in the early d ay s of Miller
u nd er the nam e of Mad onna, w hich ou ght never to have been chan ged ; bu t on th e
accession of George I, it w as nam ed as ab ove. Lindley used the nam e Brunswick in
p reference to Mad onna becau se it w as the better know n of the tw o. The nam e
M ag n olia ap p ear ed in a publication by Thom as Affleck in 1854 as a synony m of
Jau ne, a French fig. Som etim e p reviously, a tree ped dler had gone th rou gh par ts of
Texas offering m agn olia trees for sale; w hen plan ted , it w as found that the trees
p rod uced figs rather than m agnolia leav es an d flow ers, hence the nam e of the variety.
Van Velzer stated that Bru nswick had m any p et nam es, am on g them Mag n olia,
H an over, an d Mad onna. H e ad d ed: Those w ho still contend that th e Mag nolia is a
new variety, distinct from the Brunswick, can discover their error by stud ying th e
leav es, bark, w ood , an d fruit, w hich hav e char acteristics an d habits that distinguish it
from all oth ers. Som e nurserym en profit from this misconception by bu ying cuttings
of Bru nswick trees at a m uch low er price than is asked for Mag nolia w ood , an d selling
th em afterw ard as the sam e stock.
_______________
7 For further com m ents regar d ing confusion in this synonym y, see d escriptions of Brow n Tu rkey (page 428) an d
San Piero (p age 467).

418
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Audibert Frres (1854) d escribed Figu e Clm en tine, a variety d esignated as


Aubergine at Avign on.
Both Thom pson an d H ogg regard ed Clm en tine as
syn onym ou s with Bru nswick. In Japan , som e grow ers have confused Brunswick with
Wh ite Gen oa; it w as once a p op ular var iety, but has been su persed ed by Daup hine.
In Texas, the Bru nswick (Mag n olia) is grow n extensively as a p reserving fig. It is
com m only fou nd as a d ooryard tree in the sou theas tern United States, an d at
Was hington, D.C., there are prolific specim ens growing alon g the sou th w all of the
N av al Observatory (plate 2). The variety is not so p opular , how ever, as Brow n Tu rkey,
becau se of the tend ency of th e fruits to split an d sp oil. In N ortham pton an d Accom ac
cou nties, Virginia, Bru nswick fig trees are com m on, an d ar e locally know n u nd er th e
nam e Silver Leaf, thou gh the significan ce of the nam e is not clear . In California, trees
of this var iety are d w ar f in habit of grow th u nless w atered copiou sly. Sm all
com m ercial plan tings hav e failed to be profitab le, as the prod uction of can ning figs p er
acre is consid erab ly less than that of Dottato. As pointed out by Chan dler (1934), the
Bru nswick is incom pletely par thenocar pic in California, as fruit bud s ar e form ing and
d rop ping prem aturely all sum m er. In Texas, this fruit d rop is alm ost or qu ite negligible
on vigorous trees. George Lindley regard ed the Brunswick as one of the m ost u seful of
th e hard y figs in Englan d, esp ecially on w alls with a sou thern exp osure. It is n ot
recom m end ed for forcing u nd er glass in com p arison with Brow n Turkey, as the
im m ature figs ar e inclined to d rop.
Trees, at least in California, ar e slow -grow ing, spread ing, with fairly thick twigs; the
term inal bud s ar e green. Leav es, as d escribed by Miller, ar e m ore narrowly lobed than
th ose of m ost other varieties; such leav es esp ecially char acteristic of heavily pruned
trees with vigor ous branches, ar e 5-lobed , with d eep sinuses, the basal lobes au ricled;
m argins of lobes coarsely an d irregular ly crenate; bas e cord ate; leav es from fruiting
bran ches som ew hat glossy above, 3- to 5-lobed , with lobes broad er an d base truncate
(plate 13). The following d escription is of fruits prod uced at Riversid e an d at Fresno.
Breba crop gen erally very sm all; brebas lar ge, u p to 3-3/ 4 inches long an d 1-3/ 4
inches in diam eter, pyriform , d ecid edly obliqu e; neck a continuation of the bod y, or
har d ly distinguishable from it; stalk thick, often sw ollen up to 1/ 2 inch long; ribs few ,
indistinct; eye m ed iu m , wid e open, scales pinkish; surface m ostly d ull, som ew hat glossy
at th e ap ex; w hite flecks fairly num erous, bu t har dly conspicuous, becom ing m as ked as
fruit m atu res; color reddish brow n, with a tinge of violet in the sun, m uch lighter
brow n to greenish on th e shad ed sid e an d on the neck; m eat w hite; pulp am ber, with a
tinge of pink, h ollow , textu re m ealy; flav or flat, lacking char acter; qu ality fair. (Plate 21,
A.)
Second -crop figs m edium , oblique-tu rbinate; av erage w eight 42 gram s; neck ab sent;
stalk thick, up to 1/ 4 inch lon g, often prom inently sw ollen, as sh ow n by Condit (1941a,
figs. 4, A an d 9, B); ribs inconspicu ous, com m only colored m ore d eeply than bod y; eye
m ed ium , open, scales violet-brow n; w hite flecks num erous an d conspicuous, irregular
in size an d shap e; skin checking at m aturity; color bronze; pulp am ber, tinged with

Febru ary , 1955]


419

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

straw berry, h ollow at center; seed s sm all, or rudim entary, th e fruits therefore
com m only referred to as seedless; flav or sw eet, fairly rich. Quality good fresh;
excellent for preserving; inferior for d rying. (Plate 21, B.)
Cap rified figs strikingly different from uncap rified on es, lar ger in size; av erage
w eight 67 gram s; color bron ze, shad ed with violet, especially on ribs; pulp d eep
straw berry, solid; seed s num er ous; flav or sw eet an d rich.
Chiattarella. Described by Ferrari (1912) as an Italian fig, globular in shap e, black in
color, with honeylike pulp.
Datil (syns. Agrad able Blan co, Am able). Described by Tam aro (1948) as a var iety
extensively gr ow n in Italy, p rod uctive of one crop only.
Figs m edium , bellshap ed; skin d elicate, checking at m atu rity; color light yellow ,
tinged with red at m aturity; pulp w hite, very sw eet. Used m ostly d ried.
Goureau. Described by Ounous (1863) as a French variety, prod ucing tw o crop s.
Figs lar ge, greenish black, with w hite pulp. They stan d tran sp ort w ell.
Grosse Superfine. Described an d illustrat ed in color by H erincq (1850) as a new kind
obtained at La Sau ssay e, near Par is. Figs lar ge, p yriform , ribbed ; color green, shad ed
with violet; pulp yellowish, sw eet.
Jorest. Described by Eisen (1901) as a very p roductive an d han d som e French fig of
exqu isite qu ality; fruit m edium , oblong-tu rbinat e; skin red; pulp w hite.
Leon. Described in the 1911 catalogue of Glen Saint Mar y N ursery, Florida, an d by
Close (1929), as a seed ling on th e place of J W. Coles, Tallah assee; not wid ely
distributed . Figs rep orted to be lar ge, turbinat e, green, with brow nish tint; p ulp am ber.
Marinera. Briefly d escribed by Ferrari (1912) as a m ediu m -sized fig, very little
grow n at Cosenza, Italy. Figs similar to th ose of Reggitan a (skin black, pulp am ber),
bu t th e stalk is not so short.
Marsaoui. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Ras-el-Djebel, Tunisia. Leav es sm all,
3-lobed . Figs ovoid , with short neck; eye som ew hat op en; skin thin, violet, with
greenish stripes; pulp w hite; seed s fairly num erous, scattered.
Marzelli. Described by Eisen (1901) as a violet-purple fig with w hite opaline pulp;
grow n in Italy.
Matelassa (syn. Matelassiera). Description by Eisen (1901), after that of Sau vaigo
(1889), as a var iety grow n in Nice an d Provence. Brebas lar ge, lop sid ed; skin d ar k red ;
pulp yellow . One of th e few figs with dar k skin an d light pulp.
Mwazi (syns. Khu rtm an i, Eseli). Described and illustrat ed by Gras ovsky an d Weitz
(1932) as one of th e best figs for fresh use grow n in sou thern Palestine.
Trees ar e lar ge, bu t n ot very prolific; breba crop good . Second -crop figs lar ge,
p yriform , with prom inent n eck; stalk sh ort; eye op en, scales purple; skin thin, glossy,
greenish, with purple ribs; pulp am ber; flav or sw eet an d d elicious.
P.I. N o. 80,297, introd uced into California as Khurtm an i, p roved to be id entical with
Bru nswick.

420
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Osborn Prolific (Ru st). Tw o or three d ecades ago, th e Edw ar d H . Rust Nurseries,
Pasad ena, California, obtained som e fig cuttings fr om a tree p eddler w ho said that th e
variety w as originally from Englan d. The nu rsery propagated the m aterial, an d
even tu ally distribu ted it und er the nam e Osborn Prolific. Trees have been located in a
few d ooryar d s at Arcadia, San Gab riel, an d Pasad ena, an d scions hav e fruited at
Riversid e since 1950. Brebas are seld om p rod uced . The m ain crop, how ever, rip ens
over a long seas on, an d is highly regard ed for fresh-fruit consu m ption.
Leav es above m ed iu m , m ostly 5-lobed ; upper sinuses of m ediu m d epth, low er
sinuses shallow , basal sinu ses broad ; base som etim es truncate, usually cord ate; upp er
m argins coarsely serrate, low er m argins entire.
Second crop figs ab ove m ediu m , pyriform , with bod y 2 inches long by 1-3/ 4 inches
in diam eter; average w eight 40 gram s; neck thick an d short, or often slend er, an d u p to
1 inch long, d ecid edly flatten ed , also cu rved ; stalk slend er, u p to 1 inch lon g, allowing
th e fruit to han g with the ap ex d ow nw ar d; ribs narr ow , slightly raised; eye m ediu m or
ab ove, op en; w hite flecks few , elongated , inconspicuous; su rface som ew hat glossy, skin
checking crisscross at com plete m aturity; bloom d elicate; color br onze to violet-brow n;
m eat w hite; pulp am ber, or light straw berry, som ew hat hollow ; flav or sw eet an d rich;
seed s m ed iu m ; qu ality fair. (Plate 28, B.)
Reggitana. Described by Ferrari (1912) as a var iety from Reggio, Calab ria, hence th e
nam e. Figs rather elongat ed ; color black; pulp am ber.
Roja (syn. Rojal). Described an d illustrat ed by Estelrich (1910) as a var iety w hich
p rod uces brebas in ab und an ce near Algaida, Mallorca; these ap pear in qu an tity in the
m arkets of Palm a. Also d escribed by Priego y Jaram illo (1922). Figs of the m ain crop
ar e resistan t to rain d am age, an d ar e highly regard ed for their qu ality; the variety is
th erefore cultivated in all the Balear ic Islan d s.
Brebas lar ge, egg-shap ed ; stalk thick; skin color red dish brow n; pulp am ber.
Second -crop figs m uch the sam e, m aturing in August an d Sep tem ber.
Tw o su bvarieties ar e given. The first, Roja d en Bar dina, rar ely p rod uces brebas. The
second , Roja d e Son Su au , prod uces no brebas, w hile the m ain crop figs ar e of a d ar ker
red color than are th ose of Roja.
Russello. Described by Pasqu ale (1876, with figure) an d Pellican o (1907) as a lateseas on Italian fig, of m ed ium size, p yriform , yellowish brow n in color; pulp am ber.
Scavello (syn. N ero). Described by Ferrari (1912) as a variety wid ely grow n in Italy,
esp ecially at altitud es up to 2,109 feet. Breba crop good . Second -crop figs turbinate,
red dish violet; pulp am ber. Consu m ed both fresh an d d ried. Seas on late.
Common-type Figs with Skin Dark (Various Shades of Red, Brown, or Violet to
Black); Pulp Various Shades of Red
Adam. Described by Eisen (1888, 1901), Bar ron (1891), Davis (1928), an d by Bu rger
an d De Wet (1931). P.I. N o. 18,873, introd uced from Englan d as Adam , proved to be
id entical with Dauphine; P.I. N o. 102,003, from Morocco, also lab eled Adam ,

Febru ary , 1955]


421

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

p rod uced sm all green figs of no value. Apparently this is a French variety, the original
nam e having been lost; said to be d esirable on account of its good first crop .
Brebas above m ed ium , turbinate, with m edium n eck; eye lar ge; skin dull green, with
violet flush; pulp am ber-w hite.
Second -crop figs m edium , ribbed ; color yellowish brow n; p ulp d ull am ber to red.
Useful for d essert in Sou th Africa.
Albacor de Gr an d Albacor Comun. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as
black, oblong figs with red pulp; su bvar ieties of Albacor. The second is w ell regar d ed
on accou nt of its ab u nd an t m ain crop, good for d rying.
Amarouna (syn. Ficu s car ica am ara Risso). Second crop only d escribed by Risso
(1826), Sauvaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1901). Figs m edium , pyriform ; skin red dish br ow n,
checking at m atu rity; eye prom inent; p ulp red, of a bitter taste; seed s m an y.
AsqalawiAsmar. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a m edium sized
black fig, distinguished by a bright-red circle ar ound the open eye; pulp pink, rather
d ry; seed s few
Aubane. Described by Risso (1826) as Ficus car ica au ban a. A var iety grow n rarely in
sou th ern Fran ce. Figs m ed iu m , p yriform ; skin rather thick an d tough, checking
crisscross; color light green, tinged with red dish violet; pulp light red .
Azaich. Described an d illustrat ed by Mau ri (1939b, 1942). Cr op m atu res soon er than
that of th e Sm yrna-type Averan e, w hich is an ad van tage und er som e conditions of
culture an d clim ate. Listed by H an oteau an d Letourneu x (1872) an d Eisen (1901) as a
com m on fig, bearing tw o crops.
Tree rather vigor ou s an d p rod uctive; leav es generally 5-lobed ; petiole u su ally tinged
with carmine.
Figs pyriform , som ew hat oblique; neck thick an d p rom inent; stalk short; eye
m ed ium , with rosy scales; color black; pulp red . Quality good , both fresh an d d ried.
Bacorinho. Described an d figured by Bobon e (1932) as com m only grow n at Loul,
Portu gal. Figs turbinate; stalk short; skin green, with obscu re violet tint; pulp car mine,
coarse; qu ality good .
Bargemon. Described by Bernard (1787), Noisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), Eisen
(1901), an d Leclerc (1925). Figs sm all, oblong to su bglobular ; skin pale violet, on a
yellow background ; pulp red . Quality excellent, both fresh an d d ry. Seas on late.
Barnissenca (syns. Bernissenca, Bernar d , Bernissenqu e, Bar nissenqu o, Mar tinenca,
p robably Vernisingue or Vernissenqu e, Ficus car ica bernardi Risso). Described by
Bernar d (1787), Du ham el (1809), Risso (1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839),
Escriban o y Perez (1884), Sau vaigo (1889), Eisen (1888, 1901), Estelrich (1910), San chez
(1922), Priego y Jar am illo (1922), an d Sim onet et al. (1945). See th e account of Sar reigne
in this m on ograp h, regarding the confusion of that variety with Bar nissenca. The latter
is a fig of Provence, rep orted to d o best in a m oist, rich soil, an d ap t to d rop its fruit
w hen gr ow n on d rier ground. Risso gives the seas on of m aturity as Septem ber to
Decem ber. Sauvaigo em p hasizes this by stating that Bar nissenca is one of the varieties

422
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in w hich late figs of th e second crop m ay rem ain on the tree d uring the w inter,
m atu ring in the spring. As p ointed out und er the d escription of Sar reigne, the variety
Bar nissenca is prop erly referred to as Ficu s carica bernard i of Risso, an d not to F. car ica
garid eli, as given by Sau vaigo, an d later by both Eisen an d Sim onet. Mar tinenca is
d escribed an d figured by Estelrich, with Bernissenqu e as a synonym ; on accou nt of its
qu ality an d resistan ce to bad d rying w eath er in the fall, gr ow ers on the Balear ic Islan d s
call it the qu een of black figs.
Vernisingue has been d escribed by Merlet (1667), Ballon (1692), Liger (1702), Lan gley
(1728), Bradley (1757), H an bury (1770), Christ (1812), Audibert Frres (1854), H ogg
(1866), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887, 1947), Eisen (1888, 1901), an d by Star n es an d
Mon roe (1907, with illustration).
Merlet called it Vernisingue, a nam e w hich Liger stated w as very plainly inven ted.
The sp elling Vernissenqu e w as ad op ted by both H ogg an d Eisen. The latest account,
that of Socit Pom ologiqu e d e Fran ce, lists it as Vernissan gue, with Vernissenqu e as a
syn onym , an d ag rees with m ost early au thors that the external color of th e fig is ashy
violet or violet-brow n. Eisen, how ever, follow ed H ogg in d escribing the skin as
p erfectly black, without a trace of lighter color. All of this leads to the conclusion that
th e id entity of Vernissenqu e is very m uch in d oubt. The evid ence seem s to p oint to th e
conclusion that it is the sam e as Bar nissenca, in spite of the fact that Eisen (1901)
rep orted it to be a distinct an d w ell-char acterized fig, superior in flav or to th e sm all,
rou nd Verd al, w hich it som ew hat resem bles.
The tree of Bar nissenca bears a second crop only. N o record s of its occu rrence in
California hav e been fou nd. Description of fruit is com piled from accounts of variou s
au th ors.
Figs m edium or below , abou t 1-1/ 4 by 1-1/ 2 inches, oblique-spherical; skin thin,
ad hering to the pulp; color violet-brow n; pulp bright red ; textu re w at ery; qu ality
m ed iocre.
Barnissotte (syns. Bellegar d e, Bernissou N egra, Bou rjassotte N oire Bouriag eotte,
Brogiotto Fioren tino, Brogiotto N ero, Prcoce N oire, Burjassotte Preto, Grosse
Bou rjassotte, Grosso Figo, Monacello, Ficus polym orpha var. d epressa Gaspar rini, F.
car ica bar nissota Risso). Described by Tan ar a (1651), Merlet (1667), Cu pan i (1696),
Gar id el (1715), Tou rnefort (1719), La Brou sse (1774), Bernar d (1787), Rozier (1805),
Duham el (1809), Gallesio (1817), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), Risso (1826), N oisette
(1829), Cou verchel (1839), Sem m ola (1845), Dochnah l (1855), Duchar tre (1857), H ogg
(1866), Du Breuil (1876), Rod a (1881), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887, 1947), Bar ron (1891),
Eisen (1888, 1897, 1901), Sau vaigo (1889, 1894), Massey (1893), Mello Leotte (1901),
Star n es an d Monroe (1907), Tschaen (1908), Estelrich (1910), N om blot (1913), Rolet
(1916), Mazires (1920), Borg (1922), San chez (1922), Priego y Jaram illo (1922), Leclerc
(1925), Bois (1928), Bobone (1932), Sim on et et al. (1945), Sim on et an d Chopinet (1947),
Condit (1947), Delbar d (1947), Evreinoff (1947), an d Baldini (1953). Color illustration b y
Duham el; also by Sim onet (1947). Figured in black an d w hite by Sem m ola, Estelrich,
Star n es an d Monroe, an d Baldini.

Febru ary , 1955]


423

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Bar nissotte is wid ely grow n in Italy, in sou thern France, an d in p ar ts of Sp ain an d
Portu gal; it is the sam e variety d escribed by Pliny an d other Rom an w riters as Fico
African o, according to Gallesio, w h o regard ed it as one of the best figs, exqu isite in
qu ality. P.I. N o. 18,889, of the Chiswick collection, lab eled N egro Lar go, bore fruit
id entical with that of Bar nissotte. In 1926, this variety (Bar nissotte) w as introd uced into
California from south ern Fran ce as P.I. N o. 69,009, but has been plan ted only in var iety
collections. The d escrip tion an d illustration of Brogiotto N ero by Baldini ap par ently
rep resent a var iety som ew hat d ifferen t from Bar nissotte.
The tree of Bar nissotte is vigorous, with brow n term inal bud s. Leav es m ed iu m to
lar ge, glossy above, m ostly 5-lobed ; middle lobe elongat ed , br oad ly spatulate,
som etim es au ricled; upp er sinuses d eep in som e, of m edium d epth in others, low er
sinuses shallow ; bas e cord ate; m argins coarsely crenate. Fruit d escrip tion is from
specim ens at Los Angeles an d Riversid e.
Brebas rare, ab ove m edium to lar ge, pyriform , pu rplish black; pulp straw berry.
Second -crop figs m edium to lar ge, but variable in size an d shap e, from 1-1/ 2 to 2-3/ 4
inches in length, an d from 1-1/ 2 to 2 inches in diam eter; shap e turbinate-pyriform ,
som etim es obliqu e, with broad apex; av erage w eight 50 gram s; neck variable, either
p rom inent an d som ew hat flatten ed , thick, and short, or indistinguishable from bod y;
stalk thick, short, loosely attached , allowing m an y figs to d rop w hen n ot qu ite ripe; ribs
elevat ed , nar row , p rom inent on account of d eeper coloration; eye m ed iu m , open, scales
erect, chaffy; su rface som ew hat glossy, with distinct, pruinose bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge
an d conspicu ou s, as show n by Condit (1941a, fig. 9, A); color purplish black on ap ex an d
bod y, lighter tow ard the stalk, som e specim ens with green color persisting in irregular
p atches on bod y an d apex; m eat w hite; pulp light straw berry; flav or fairly sw eet an d
rich. Quality good to excellent, especially in coas tal clim ates. (Plates 10; 27, A.)
Cap rified figs lar ger, subject to sp oilag e by splitting, souring, an d end osepsis; pulp
d ar k straw berry to blood red .
Bec de Perdrix. Described by H ogg (1866) an d Eisen (1888, 1901) as a good d rying fig
of Sp ain an d south ern Fran ce, of m edium size, p yriform , with purple skin an d d ar k-red
pulp.
Becuelle (syn. Bucu elle). Described by Sim onet et al. (1945) as given below . Fou nd
u nd er th e nam e Coucou relle Plascassier, bu t differing from the var iety d escribed by
Eisen (1901) und er Coucou relle Gav otte.
Tree bear s tw o cr ops. Brebas sm all, elongated -pyriform ; n eck pr om inen t; skin
red dish violet; pulp of fine texture, solid, red; flav or sw eet; qu ality very good . Secondcrop figs similar , with sizes som ew hat sm aller. Good for d rying.
Bellona (syns: Bellone, Belloune, Ficus car ica bellona Risso). See Rollan d (1914) for
syn onym y. Described by Bernard (1787), Duham el (1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824),
Risso (1826), Cou verchel (1839), H ogg (1866), Sauvaigo (1889), Colby (1894), Eisen
(1901, after Sau vaigo), Rolet (1916), Mazires (1920), Leclerc (1925), Bois (1928), Sim on et
et al. (1945), Sim on et an d Ch opinet (1947), an d Evreinoff (1947).

424
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Tree with d rooping bran ches; prod ucing tw o crop s; leav es lar ge, d eeply 3- to 5lobed . Extensively grow n in Provence, w here it is rep orted by Sau vaigo to be th e
qu een of figs; excellent both fresh an d d ried. Description of fruit is after Sim on et, fro m
specim ens secured at Antibes.
Brebas rare, or none, m ed iu m , pyriform ; neck w ell m arked , often curved ; ribs
p rom inent; color violet-gray; pulp red.
Second crop ab und an t; figs br oad ly oblique-pyriform , flattened at the ap ex; ribs
elevat ed ; eye sm all, closed , scales erect, violet; skin purplish black, checking at m atu rity;
pulp red , with nu m erou s sm all seed s; qu ality excellent.
Betada. Described by H ogg (1866) as a sm all, spherical, black fig, with rose-colored
pulp of rich flav or.
Bidh-el-Djemel. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929), an d by Minan goin
(1931); the latter as Biddin-el-Djem el, from Menzel Tem ine, Tunisia. Leav es sm all, 3lobed . Figs below m edium ; eye op en; skin very thin, violet in color; pulp hollow , of
wine-red color.
Biter Akhal. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Ras-el-Djebel, Tunisia, as
p rod ucing tw o crops in a year. Leav es below m ediu m , 5-lobed . Figs oblate, 1-1/ 4
inches in length an d 2 inches in diam eter; stalk very short; eye wid e open; skin of fine
textu re, wine red in color; pulp light red .
Blavette. Described by Bernar d (1787), Du ham el (1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824),
N oisette (1829), an d Cou verchel (1839). Eisen (1901) listed Blav ette as a synonym of
Cotignan a, bu t earlier au thors m ake no m ention of such a syn onym y.
The figs of Blav ette ar e oblon g, violet in color, with d eep-red pulp, an d ar e ver y
m u ch su bject to d rop ping. This fault app ar ently accounts for the lack of interest in th e
variety.
Bocarde. Described by Eisen (1888, 1901) as a French fig, m ediu m in size, d ar k
brow n in color, with bright-red p ulp; qu ality very good .
Bondance Prcoce. Described an d illustrat ed by Eisen (1901) as a p yriform fig, below
m ed ium , br ow n in color, with light-red pulp of fine qu ality.
Bordeaux (syns. Angliqu e Black or A. N oire, Petite Figu e Violette, Albicou gris,
according to Eisen, Figue d e Bord eau x, Violette, Violette d e Bord eau x, Figue Poire,
Petite Au biqu e, Figu o Aubiqu oun, N egronn e). In 1692, a d escription by La Quintinie
(tran slated by Evelyn) referred to th e Angliqu e fig as of a violet color an d long bu t
n ot very big, the p ulp red an d reas onably good . Both Cupan i (1696) an d Tournefor t
(1700) d escribed Angliqu e as a violet fig. Yet m ost later au thors, fr om Duham el (1768)
on, refer to this var iety as bearing yellow fruit. It seem s pr op er, therefore, to d en ote
th e for m er as Angliqu e Black, leaving th e nam e Angliqu e for th e variety d escribed
elsew here in this m onograp h. Eisen (1901) gav e a short account (after Bar ron, 1891) of
Angliqu e N oire, a dar k fig with bright-red pulp.
It is p robably this var iety with dar k fruit w hich w as d escribed as Figu e d e Bord eau x,
Violette, or Violette d e Bord eau x by Liger (1702), Merlet (1740), Duham el (1768),
Weston (1770), La Brousse (1774), Le Berryais (1789), Mirbel (1802), N oisette (1821),
Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), George Lindley (1831), Cou verchel (1839), Thom pson

Febru ary , 1955]


425

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

(1859), Forn ey (1863), H ogg (1866), Du Breuil (1876), Bar ron (1891), Eisen (1888, 1901),
Price an d Wh ite (1902), Leclerc (1925), an d E. A. Bunyar d (1925). N egron ne w as
d escribed by Gar id el (1715), Rozier (1805), Lam arck (1817), Bernar d (1787), Duham el
(1768, 1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), Eisen
(1901), an d E. A. Bunyar d (1925).
Bar ron (1891) regard ed N egronne to be the sam e as Violette d e Bord eau x. Eisen
believed that the tw o w ere not id entical, but very similar , except for the sm aller leav es
of th e latter. Bu nyar d (1925) ag reed with Eisen, an d stat ed that Violette d e Bord eau x
resem bled N egronne, but w as a distinct variety. In regar d to the stalk of N egronn e,
Eisen rep orted , stalk an d par t of neck bent over an d rising in a curve upw ar d , w here
th e fig han gs d ow n. This unique char acter is difficult to d escribe, but Eisens statem ent
confirm s th e opinion that Violette d e Bord eaux of ou r collection is the sam e as
N egronn e of early au th ors. As grow n at Riversid e, how ever, Bord eau x d oes n ot sh ow
th e green color p ersisting on the neck or base of the m ature fruit, w hich Duham el
(1768) found char acteristic of the variety in Fran ce. Variety N o.26 of Duham el (1809),
d escribed as Figu e Poire, Figu e d e Bord eau x, an d Petite Au biqu e (Figu o Aubiqu ou n in
Provence), is here consid ered to be the sam e as Anglique (Black) of Cupan i an d
Tou rnefort. Du ham el d escribed N egron ne u nd er his N o.33, an d referred to th e
p revious accou nts of Gar id el an d Bernar d . Und er Bord eau x, Eisen stat ed : A distinction
m u st be m ad e betw een the Petite Au biqu e an d the Aubiqu e, the form er being id entical
with ou r Bord eau x, the latter with Black San Ped ro, w hich is synonym ous with Grosse
Violette d e Bord eau x. (See p.467.)
In 1715, Gar id el rep orted that N egr onne w as found in near ly all the vineyard s an d
field s near Aix. Du ham el an d later au thor s, including Leclerc, assert that Figue d e
Bord eau x is gr ow n in the vicinity of Par is, w here it produces tw o crops in w ar m
seas ons. According to Eisen, Bord eau x is com m on ar ound Bord eau x an d N ag ronn e, in
sou th ern Fran ce. Lindley said it w as then cultivated throu gh ou t Fran ce. Bunyard
regard ed the tree of N egronn e as very p rolific in Englan d, an d the fruit to be of
excellent qu ality. Fruits of Bord eau x ar e illustrated by Duham el (1768), N oisette (1821,
in color), Du Breuil (1876), Rozier (1805), Wright (1894, in color), Eisen (1901), an d by
Price an d White (1902). See also: The Gar d en 41:333 (1892).
N egronne w as introd uced into California from Englan d as P.I. N o. 18,839 of th e
Chiswick collection. At Niles, Chico, an d Fresno it proved to be id entical with Violette
d e Bord eau x, w hich w as obtained in 1921 from the collection of Leroy N ickel at Menlo
Par k. Grosse Violette d e Bord eau x, introd uced as N o. 18,844 of the Chiswick collection,
p rod uced fruit indistinguishable from that of Violette d e Bord eau x, confirming th e
op inion of Bar ron (1891) that th ey w ere the sam e, but contrad icting that of Eisen,
m en tioned ab ove. N o record s hav e been fou nd of tests of this var iety at the California
Exp erim ent Stations. A tree, locat ed at San ta Bar bara in 1932, w as id entified as
Bord eau x, an d other trees ar e occasionally fou nd in d ooryard s. Price an d Wh ite found
th e tree of Bord eau x to be vigorous an d prolific in Texas, but the fruit w as insipid an d
th e qu ality poor. Cuttings of a tree gr ow ing at 597 Colum bia Road , N.W., Was hington,

426
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

D.C., have p rod uced fruit in California id entical with that of Bord eau x. At Portlan d,
Oreg on, N egr onne p rod uces tw o crop s of black figs, good in qu ality.
Bord eau x is similar to Ischia Black, but differs from it in leaf an d fruit char acters.
Leav es of Ischia Black ar e sm all, n onlobed or 3-lobed , surface dull; those of Bord eau x
ar e m ed iu m , 3- to 5-lobed , d eeply cleft, surface glossy. Duham el d escribed the leav es of
Violette as sm aller than th ose of Blan che, an d divid ed d eeply into five p ar ts or lobes,
with the bord ers m arkedly d entate. Figs of Ischia Black d o n ot have th e peculiar thick
an d crooked stalk that is char acteristic of th e Bord eau x fruit stalk. The sm all, im m atu re
fruits of b oth var ieties show a distinctive early coloration of a reddish-brow n hue, in
con trast to fruits of Fran ciscan a (Mission), w hich chan ge to a black color ju st befor e
reaching full size an d m atu rity. The following d escription is from trees w hich hav e
fruited at Riversid e since 1930, an d at Fresno in the seas on of 1953.
Tree rat her d w ar f in com p arison with trees of Fran ciscan a or Dottat o; term inal bud s
violet-p u rple to brow n in color. Leav es with upper surface glossy; bas e tru ncate to
shallowly cord ate; m iddle lobe narrow ed tow ar d its base, lateral lobes broad ; m ar gins
coarsely serrate.
Breba crop fair to g ood ; figs m edium , up to 2-1/ 2 inches long an d 1-3/ 4 inches in
diam eter, p yriform , with thick, gently tap ering n eck; average w eight 36 gram s; stalk
variable, often thick or sw ollen tow ar d bod y of the fruit, not straight, but com m only
curved or bent at an an gle, as m en tion ed ab ove, up to 3/ 4 inch lon g, som etim es
cracked or split on one sid e, the crack extending from stalk into the neck; ribs
p rom inent, w ell elevated ; eye m ed ium , scales sam e color as bod y, w hich is purplish
black; m eat w hite, tinged with violet; pulp straw berry, rich; qu ality very good . (Plate
25, D.)
Second -crop figs sm all to m ediu m , up to 1-3/ 4 inches long an d 1-1/ 2 inches in
diam eter, spherical, or p yriform to obovate, often obliqu e; av erage w eight 27 gram s;
neck m issing, or w hen p resent, short an d thick; stalk up to 5/ 8 inch long, peculiar ly
curved , as in brebas as sh ow n by Condit (1941a, fig. 4, E), purplish in color; eye
m ed ium , op en, scales purple; color pu rplish black on both bod y an d neck; bloom
com m only on basal half of fruit, but not on bod y or ap ex, char acterized by Eisen (1901)
as a distinct an d fine blue bloom confined to the neck, ending shar ply halfw ay to th e
equ at orial; w hite flecks lar ge, scattered , eventually m as ked by d ar k bod y color; skin
som ew hat glossy, p u rplish black w hen fully m ature; m eat w hite; pulp straw berry,
fairly rich in flav or. (Plates 10; 25, E.)
Cap rified sp ecim ens m uch the sam e, som ew hat lar ger in size; pulp dar k straw berry,
subacid in flav or; seed s nu m erous,
This var iety is inferior to Fran ciscan a (Mission) for com m ercial plan ting, on accou nt
of sm aller size of fruit; good for hom e plan ting, as tree is dw ar f an d prolific in fruit
p rod uction.
Bouche-barrique (syn. Tap a Cartin N egra, Ficus car ica clausa Risso). Described by
Risso (1826); listed by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901). Second -crop figs m edium ,
oblon g, grad ually nar row ed tow ard the stalk; skin glossy, black; pulp red ; flav or
ag reeable.

Febru ary , 1955]


427

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Bourdissotte Noire. Described by H ogg (1866); d escrip tion closely follow ed by Eisen
(1888, 1901). Rep orted to be a Spanish var iety, d istinct from Black Bourjassotte. Figs
m ed ium , turbinate; neck an d stalk short; color purple; pulp flesh-colored ; flav or
sw eet, but n ot rich.
Bourjassotte Gris (syn. Grizzly Bou rjassotte). Described by Audibert Frres (1854),
H ogg (1866), Bar ron (1868d , 1869a, 1891), Moore (1871), Pear son (1872), Rivers (1873),
Luckhurst (1880), Wr ight (1895), Eisen (1901), Wy thes (1902), Bunyar d an d Thom as
(1904), E. A. Bu nyar d (1925, 1934), O. T. (1905), Star nes an d Monroe (1907), Royal H ort.
Society (1916), Cook (1925), Arnold (1926), and Preston (1951). Illustrat ed in color by
Wr ight. Illustrat ed in black an d w hite by Moore, O. T., Star nes an d Monroe, T. (1907),
an d Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, K).
Pear son stat ed in 1872 that Bourjassotte Gris w as a new nam e for an old var iety,
grow n for m an y year s at Clu m ber, Englan d, u nd er the nam e Blan che. According to
Rivers, th e Bourjassotte figs w ere so nam ed becau se th ey cam e fr om Burjas ot, a villag e
in Sp ain, near Valencia. Bar ron (1891) rep orted Bourjassotte Gris as the m ost
constan tly good fig he had grow n. It has long been highly regar d ed in Englan d ,
esp ecially for forcing.
The variety w as introd uced into California as P.I. N o. 18,847, from th e Chiswick
collection. Ou tsid e of collections, tw o trees of this var iety have been locat ed in
California; one is in front of the Court H ou se Annex, San ta Ana; the other is in the
gard en of Mr. Robert Gallegos, Mission San Jose. At both of these places an d at
Riversid e, the pr od uction of brebas is very ligh t, an d d rop ping of green, im m ature figs
of th e second crop is heav y; ap par ently, this is an exam ple of p ar tial or incom plete
p ar th enocarpy.
Tree fairly d ense, vigorous; term inal bud s violet. Leav es m ed ium , m ostly 3-lobed ;
upp er su rface glossy; u pper sinuses of m edium d ep th an d wid th; bas e subcord ate;
m argins coarsely crenate. The following d escription is tak en from fruit borne by trees
at Riversid e, Los Angeles, an d Fresn o.
Brebas few , m an y not m atu ring prop erly, m ediu m , tu rbinate, with broad , flatten ed,
or som ew hat d epressed ap ex; color greenish bronze, or violet; w hite flecks
conspicuous; pulp dar k straw berry; qu ality fair.
Second -crop figs m ediu m , 1-1/ 2 to 2 inches in length, an d ab out th e sam e in
diam eter, p yriform to oblat e-turbinate, with short, thick neck; av erage w eight 38
gram s; stalk short; ribs slightly elevated, har dly prom inent; eye m edium , op en, scales
tinged with violet; w hite flecks num erous, conspicu ous; color greenish violet, d ar ker at
th e ap ex, m an y sp ecim ens sh ow ing a green zon e p ersisting ar ound the eye an d on th e
sid es; p ruinose bloom w ell m ar ked ; pulp straw berry; qu ality fair. (Plates 10; 11; 12; 25,
B.)
Cap rified specim ens with external color violet-brow n; pulp blood red ; flav or subacid ,
rat h er strong.
Briasca (syn. Bray asqu e). Described by Sau vaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), an d Sim onet et
al. (1945). Illustrat ed by th e last tw o au thors in black an d w hite. The account is after
that of Sim onet, from sp ecim ens at Villefran che.
Leav es m ed ium , 3- to 5-lobed . Brebas pyrifor m , m ed ium in size, 2-1/ 4 inches lon g
an d 1-3/ 4 inches in diam eter; av erage w eight 35 gram s; neck short, grad u ally
nar rowing to the m edium stalk; ribs n ot very prom inent; eye prom inent,

428
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

som ew hat op en, with violet scales; skin glossy, slightly pubescent, red dish violet,
lighter tow ard the stalk; pulp red , sw eet; seeds rather nu m erous; qu ality good . Second
crop not observed .
Briasca Doussa (syns. Bou ffros, Ficus car ica dulcissim a Risso). Described by Bernard
(1787), Duham el (1809, with color illustration), Risso (1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel
(1839), Sau vaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), an d Sim onet et al. (1945). Fruit rep orted to m atu re
early, an d not m uch inclined to d rop prem aturely; therefore trees are com m only
plan ted near Drag uignan . Tw o crops, Ju ne an d Septem ber. Description is after that of
Risso.
Leav es 3-lobed . Figs similar to those of Ficus car ica nigra, or N egrette, but with
longer stalk, m ore oblate shap e, an d redder pulp. Size sm all; shape oblong, with
rou nd ed apex; skin glossy, violet-black; pulp am ber in the
spring crop, red dish in figs of au tum n; qu ality m ediocre.
Brignolenque. Described by La Brousse (1774) as a variety grow n at Saint-Esp rit,
Fran ce. Figs very lar ge, black, with red pulp; qu ality good , both fresh an d d ried.
Brown Turkey (syns., according to H ogg: Ashrid ge Forcing, Blue, Com m on Blue,
Blu e Bu rgund y, Brow n Italian , Brow n N ap les, Lon g N ap les, Ear ly H owick, Italian Lar ge
Blu e, Lees Perpetual, Murrey, Sm all Blu e, Fleur Rou ge, Wal ton). Described by
num erou s au thors, beginning with Miller (1768). Others ar e as follow s: H an bu ry
(1770), Brookshaw (1812), George Lindley (1831), Rogers (1834), MIntosh (1855),
Dochnah l (1860), Thom pson (1859), H ogg (1866), Wh ite (1868), G. S. (1869), Bar ron
(1868c, 1891), H yd e (1877), Colem an (1880, 1887b), Eisen (1885, 1888, 1901, probably
confu sed ), Wy thes (1890a, 1900a), W. I. (1893), Wr ight (1895), Burnette (1894), Price an d
Wh ite (1902), Star n es (1903), Star n es an d Mon roe (1907), War d (1904), McH atton (1909),
Reim er (1910), Royal H ort. Society (1916), Potts (1917), Gould (1919), flum e (1915),
Cook (1925), Mow ry an d Weber (1925), E. A. Bunyar d (1925, 1934), Arnold (1926), FruitGrow er (1936), Ashley (1940), Wood ar d (1940), Beckett (1941), Anon. (1944), Condit
(1947), an d Preston (1951). Illustrat ed in color by Brookshaw , H yd e, an d Colem an .
Illustrat ed in black an d w hite by Wyth es (1900a), Price an d Wh ite, Anon. (The Gar d en
63: 427, 1903), Bunyar d (1934), an d Beckett.
Accord ing to a w riter in the Gar d eners Chronicle, Mar ch 25, 1843, French grow ers
hav e called this fig La Perptu elle, a nam e corrupted in Englan d to Lees Perpetu al.
Sou rces of other such nam es have not been found . It should be em p hasized also that
th e nam e Brow n Tu rkey has been com m only used for tw o distinct varieties; on e, th e
English Brow n Tu rkey, an d the oth er, California Brow n Turkey. The latter is prop erly
referred to as San Piero.
John Rogers (1834) stated : Miller in the fou rth edition of his Dictionar y ju st m en tions
th e long purple fig, th ough Wh itmill (an em inent gard ener of his d ay , an d to w hom
Miller ow ed m u ch for his ear ly knowled ge of gard ening), in his list or book, p ublished
in 1726, calls it Wh itm ills Ear ly Purple; but w hich w as neither m ore nor less than th e
long p u rple of Miller. This little bit of van ity in Wh itm illto gain a sale for his trees, or
a little celebrity to his nam ehas been too m uch practiced by m any w h o w ere by
natu re his juniors, an d professionally by far his inferiors.

Febru ary , 1955]


429

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

The Brow n Turkey that w as d escribed by Miller to be s o w ell kn ow n as to n eed n o


d escrip tion is u nd oubted ly a Eu rop ean variety, introd uced into Englan d an d given a
local nam e without reference to origin. The synon ym s, Brow n N ap les, Long N ap les,
an d Italian , indicate that it cam e from Italy, bu t it has not yet been id entified with an y
variety from that country. For m ore than tw o centuries, h ow ever, this fig has stood at
th e h ead of the list of English var ieties for general cultivation, both outd oors an d und er
glass. Colem an rep orted in 1880: For forcing w e have nothing to surpass, if w e hav e
an ything to equ al it, as it is ear ly, han d som e, very prolific, not liable to d rop, an d of
first-rat e qu ality. An an on ym ous w riter in 1852 (see Literatu re Cited ) d escribed a
tree at Worthing, trained in the form of a w heel, its bran ches form ing tw elve sp okes,
with the over-all height fourteen feet, an d the circu m ference thirty feet. In 1883, J.
Clar ke told of a single tree of Brow n Tu rkey covering a w all space of tw enty yar d s
literally crowd ed with m agnificent an d w ell-form ed fruit. W. I. (1893) referred to fine
trees growing on th e chalk cliffs of Englan d, w here th e sea sp ray d ashed over th em .
More recently, E. A. Bu nyar d w rote: This is th e variety m ost com m only grow n; m or e
ar e plan ted, I im agine, than of all the other varieties pu t together, owing to its har diness
an d p rod uctivity.
Accord ing to Eisen, the Brow n Turkey w as brou gh t to California from Boston by W.
B. West in 1853, an d from Englan d by John Rock in 1883. It has d ou btless been
introd uced m an y oth er tim es by various nurseries. Ear ly rep orts of th e California
Agricultu ral Exp erim ent Station includ e Brow n Turkey am ong the varieties being tested
at th e substations. Appar ently, it failed to com p ete successfully with other var ieties,
an d u ntil recently no trees w ere to be fou nd, even in collections. Introd uctions hav e
been m ad e from Englan d u nd er P.I. N os. 81,676, 93,275, an d 95,598. At Riversid e,
h ow ever, trees fr om these im p ortations, as w ell as those obtained from the sou th ern
United States, ar e so bad ly affected by the m osaic cau sed by Ficivir caricae Condit an d
H orn e, that n or m al fruit has seld om been p rod uced . (See plate 13, sh owing effect of
m osaic on leav es.) On the other han d , trees growing in the sou thern an d eastern states
ar e n ot at all or very little affected by m osaic. They are of a d w ar f hab it of grow th, an d
har d y, com m only bearing tw o crops. The Brow n Turkey ranks with Celeste (Malta) as
th e m ost p opular d ooryard fig from Texas east to Florid a an d north to Mar ylan d . The
Everbearing fig of Texas, d escribed by Close (1935), is very sim ilar to, if not id entical
with, Brow n Turkey, alth ou gh treated as a distinct var iety by various nurseries.
H ar rison, briefly d escribed by Close (1933), and Delta, or N ew Delta, d escribed by tw o
an onym ou s w riters in 1943 an d 1944 (see Literature Cited ), ar e also very similar to
Brow n Turkey.
Descriptions of fruit by Eisen an d som e other au th ors are not clear , as they ar e
p robably confused with similar varieties. Confu sion also exists in som e d escriptions, as
indicated by th e tw o synon ym s, Lar ge Blu e an d Sm all Blu e, with reference to size of
fruit. The following d escription is from specim ens grow n at Riversid e an d Fresno, an d
as com p iled from variou s English accou nts.
Leav es sm all, m ostly 3-lobed ; upper surface dull; upp er sinu ses shallow an d nar row ;
bas e su bcord ate; m argins crenate.

430
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Brebas few , m ed iu m , oblique-pyriform , with thick neck that is often curved ; stalk up
to 1/ 2 inch long, som etim es sw ollen tow ar d the bod y of the fruit; ribs prom inent,
p rod ucing a som ew hat corrugated su rface; eye m ed iu m , op en, scales violet-brow n;
color m ah ogan y br ow n, tinged with violet; m eat w hite, with violet tinge; p ulp
straw berry; flav or fairly rich; qu ality fair. (Plate 21, D.)
Second -crop figs m edium or below , tu rbinat e or oblate, m ostly with out neck;
av erage w eight 28 gram s; stalk up to 5/ 8 inch long, often thick an d sw ollen at the ap ex;
ribs p resent, fairly p rom inent, m ore d eeply colored than bod y; eye m ediu m , open, with
violet-brow n scales; w hite flecks lar ge, conspicuous, scattered ; color au burn to bu rn t
u m ber; p ulp am ber to light straw berry, p ractically seed less; flav or sw eet, but n ot rich;
qu ality fair. (Plate 15,E.)
Cap rified figs violet-brow n, bloom prom inent; average w eight 36 gram s p ulp
straw berry; qu ality only fair. Second crop m atu res over a long seas on.
Rogers (1834) stat ed that if Lees Perpetualbearing fig is cultivated as it should
bethat is, in p ots, und er glassit yields fruit near ly all the year round .
Brugeotte. Described by Merlet (1667) as a lar ge, violet fig with red pulp, p rod uced
ab u nd an tly in au tu m n; this d escription w as follow ed closely by Ballon (1692), Liger
(1702), Lan gley (1728), and Bradley (1757). In 1727, Bradley includ ed Brugeotte in the
list of fig var ieties he had introd uced from Italy into Englan d .
Caiana (syns. Bertolina, Ficus car ica caian a Risso, F. car ica brow ni Risso; the last
according to Sau vaigo). Described by Risso (1826), Sau vaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1901).
Figs sm all, tu rbinate; skin thin, red dish violet, with distinct bloom ; p ulp pale red,
rat h er w at ery, an d of bitter flav or. Grow n at Nice an d in Provence.
Calabresa. First crop only d escribed by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901). Brebas
lar ge, abou t 3 inches long an d 2-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, p yriform ; color bright green,
tinged with brow n; m eat violet; pulp red . Grow n n ear Nice.
Calderona (syn. Par etjal N egra). Described and figu red by Estelrich
(1910).
Tree of m edium size; leav es m ostly 3-lobed. Breba crop non e. Second -crop figs
similar to an d often confused with Bordissot an d Mar tinenca; size m ediu m ; shap e
oblate-spherical, with very sh ort, thick n eck; color black; pulp dar k red . Used for
d rying, but not extensively cultivated on Mallorca.
Caravanchina Negra (syns. Caravan qu in N egra, Ficus car ica obovata Risso).
Described by Risso (1826), Sauvaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1901).
Tree with long, spread ing bran ches; leav es m ediu m , 3- to 5-lobed . Figs sm all,
oblon g; skin thin, glossy, som ew hat ribbed; color violet-black; eye surround ed by a
red dish iris; pulp dull red ; flav or agreeable. According to Risso, it is necessar y to plunge
th e d ried fruit into boiling w ater in ord er to preserve it.
Cascitello. Described by Guglielmi (1908) an d De Rosa (1911) as Cascitello; d escribed
by Vallese (1909) an d Donno (1951a) as N ero. De Rosa states in a footnote that h e
p refers the nam e Cascitello over N er o, as the latter is a gen eral on e, com m only

Febru ary , 1955]


431

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

u sed for other varieties. De Rosa gives the following synonym s: Cascited dha, Cascella,
Cascetta, an d Ban egra. Vallese an d Donno give ad ditional syn onym s: Colu m m o,
Colom b o, San Pietro, Sam piero, Schiav one, Niuro, Can ibian co, Mar io, Mar iu, an d
N ap ulitan o. Tw o of th ese, San Pietro and San Piero (Sam piero), ar e d escribed
elsew here in this m onograp h as distinct var ieties. As pointed out by Donn o, Cascitello
(syn on ym Colu m m o) should not be confused with Colum m one or Colom bo Pazz o
(Colom br o).
Trees wid ely plan ted in Lecce Province, p rod ucing tw o crop s; leav es generally 3lobed ; term inal buds brick red , as d escribed by Donno (1951a).
Breba crop gen erally ab und an t, although scar ce in som e years; fruits tu rbinate, broad
at ap ex; stalk sh ort, often sw ollen; skin greenish violet, checking som ew hat at m atu rity;
pulp rose-colored , very sw eet; seed s few , hollow .
Second -crop figs of tw o sorts; the cap rified , d esignated as Schiav oni, an d th e
u ncaprified, d esignated as Can ibian chi. Schiav oni m edium , oblate, d epressed at th e
ap ex; stalk sh ort; eye rat her lar ge, with scales violet; skin checking rather prom inently
at m atu rity, read ily peeled; color violet-black; pulp coral red ; seed s fertile. Can ibian chi
sm aller, som etim es not even half the size of the Schiav oni, m u ch lighter in color of skin
an d pulp; flav or sw eet; seed s few . Fruit of Cascitello is m ostly consu m ed fresh,
esp ecially the Can ibian chi; the Schiav oni ar e p referred for d rying.
Castagnolo. Described an d figured by Baldini (1953) as an Italian var iety, prod ucing
on e crop only.
Bran ches with br ow n term inal buds. Leav es m ostly 5-lobed ; lobes sp atulate; sinuses
d eep an d wid e open; bas e cord ate; m argins crenate.
Figs oblate, without neck; stalk short; eye closed ; color violet-brow n; bloom
p ruinose; pulp red, sw eet; seed s num erous. Prod uction light. Crop m atures m iddle of
Sep tem ber; of little im p ortance.
Castanhal. Described an d illustrat ed by Bobone (1932) as a variety very similar in
fruit char acters to Sop a e Vinho. Breba crop none. Second -crop figs at Alenqu er
m ed ium , turbinate, green, tinged with violet; pulp car mine; qu ality good .
Catalan (syn. Ficus carica gallica, according to Sau vaigo). Described briefly by Risso
(1826), Pasqu ale (1876), Sau vaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), Pellican o (1907), an d Portale
(1910).
Figs oblate-sp herical, violet-black in color; pulp red . Grow n at N ice an d along th e
Riviera, bu t of minor im p ortan ce; consu m ed m ostly fresh.
Clestine (syns. Beau caire, Figue Gris, Grisette). Described by Lan gley (1728), H ogg
(1866), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887, 1947), Eisen (1888, 1901), Star n es an d Monroe (1907,
with figu re), Sim onet et al. (1945), Evrein off (1947), an d Delbar d (1947). (See accou nt
u nd er Cord elire of confusion regarding this an d other variety nam es.) A French fig,
n ot rep orted in California collections.
Tree sp read ing, of m od erat e vigor, very p rod uctive; fresh fruit excellent.
Brebas lar ge, p yriform , violet-gray; pulp rose, sw eet; qu ality good .
Second -crop figs sm aller, m ore elon gated ; color ashy gray; pulp red ; flav or very
ag reeable. Seas on early.

432
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Cernica. Described by Eisen (1888, 1901) as a black Dalm atian fig of m ed iu m size,
introd uced into California by G. N . Milco; resem bles Bar nissotte. Colby (1894) gave an
an alysis of the fruit grow n at Fresn o, an d described it as a m edium , spherical fig of
purple color, with blood -red pulp.
Chetoui. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Dra Tam ar, Tu nisia. Leav es lar ge, 3lobed ; petiole long. Fruit lar ge; bod y spherical, elongat ed into a distinct neck; skin thin,
black; pulp rose-colored .
Cimeirenca. Sauvaigo (1889), follow ed by Eisen (1901), d escribed this as a violetblack fig, similar in oth er char acters to Cim eirenca Blan ca.
Claveu (syns. Clou, Ficus car ica clavicular is Risso). Described by Risso (1826),
Sau vaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1901). N am e d erived from the elongat ed form of the fruit
(club-shaped ).
Tree p rod uces tw o crops. Leav es 3- to 5-lobed ; sinuses d eep ; blad e prolonged to a
p oint on th e lon g petiole.
Brebas lar ge, elongated -pyriform ; eye protruding; skin thin, uniform ly d ar k brow n
to black; pulp car mine. Second -crop figs sm aller, tu rbinate.
Col de Dame Noir (syns. Col di Sign ora N er o, or N egra, Col d e Seora N egra,
Cu ello- d e Dam a N egra, probably Fico del Giam m ico of Guglielmi, Bouan kirk.)
Described by Audibert Frres (1854), H ogg (1866), G. S. (1869), Eisen (1888, 1901),
Star n es an d Mon roe (1907), Guglielmi (1908), Estelrich (1910), Priego-y Jar am illo (1922),
Mau ri (1939b), Sim on et et al. (1945), Delbar d (1947), an d Montagnac (1952). Illustration
of fruit by Eisen; of tree, leav es, an d fruit by Man n. In Spain, this black fig is not so
com m on or so highly regar d ed as Col d e Dam e, alth ou gh the fruit is said by Estelrich to
be resistan t to sp oilag e in w et w eather. In Fran ce, it is a late variety of excellent qu ality;
Eisen rep orted it as extensively cultivated near Roussillon, an d as superior to Col d i
Sign ora Bian ca. Sim on et rep orted that the tree bears only one crop an d qu estioned the
stat em en t of Eisen regarding a first crop. Accord ing to Man n, the nam e Bou an kirk
signifies long n eck. The Kabyles also d esignate the var iety by the nam es DAbou ch
Takli, b reast of a negress, an d Abgait. It is wid ely grow n in N orth Africa, bu t on
accou nt of thickness of skin it is not d ried com m ercially.
Col d e Seora N egra w as introd uced into California from Englan d by John Rock in
1883; it w as n ot includ ed in the Chiswick collection. P.I. N o. 6,467, listed as Baalie, has
p roved to be th e sam e variety at Riversid e. The following d escription is tak en fro m
that of Sim onet.
Leav es lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed ; m ar gins undulat e. Figs m ediu m ; av erage w eight 45
gram s; bod y su bglobular to oval; neck elongated -cylind rical, thick; ribs prom inent,
elevat ed ; stalk very sh ort; eye sm all, with dark-red scales; skin fine, but fairly resistan t,
checking crisscross at full m atu rity; color d ar k violet, greenish tow ard the stalk; m eat
w hite; pulp d eep red , luscious; qu ality excellent. Seas on late
Colombo Nero (syn. Colu m m aro N ero). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909);
d escrip tion only by De Rosa (1911).
Tree bear s tw o crop s. Leav es sm all, asym m etrical, m ostly 5-lobed.
Brebas elongated -pyriform , round ed at th e ap ex; eye projecting, with rose-colored
scales; color violet.
Second -crop figs m ed iu m , ovoid, nar row ed tow ar d the bas e; stalk very sh ort;

Febru ary , 1955]


433

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

eye lar ge, scales violet; skin yellowish green near the stalk, grad ually becom ing bluish
violet on bod y and ap ex, especially on sid e exp osed to the Su n; pulp light red; seed s
few .
Constantine. Described by Colby (1894), Forrer (1894), an d Eisen (1901, with
illustration) Intr od uced into California by John Rock in 1883, an d in the Chiswick
collection of 1894 as P.I. N o. 18,874; now fou nd only in collections. Description is from a
tree fruiting at Riversid e since 1930.
Tree fairly d ense; term inal buds greenish brow n. Leaves m ediu m ; glossy above,
m ostly 3-lobed; upp er sinuses of m edium depth an d width; base cord ate to tru ncate;
m argins shallowly crenat e.
Brebas none, or very few . Second -crop figs sm all to m edium , up to 1-3/ 4 inches in
length an d diam eter, turbinate, with short, thick neck; av erage w eight 26 gram s; stalk
short an d thick; ribs slightly elevat ed , coloring earlier than bod y; surface dull, with
p rom inent bloom ; eye lar ge, op en, surrou nd ed by a m ore or less d istinct zone of
greenish color, scales violet; w hite flecks sm all, scattered ; skin firm , violet-purple,
checking slightly at m atu rity; pulp straw berry; texture d ry an d m ealy; seed s few .
Cap rified sp ecim ens with d ar k-red pulp. Quality good , bu t fruits sm all an d of
com p aratively little value, either fresh or d ried. (Plates 10; 15, F.)
Ctigo (syn. Ctio Tinto). Described an d figured by Bobon e (1932), w ho stated that
Mello Leotte (1901) regard ed this var iety as a m utation of Ctio, p rod ucing colored
rat h er than green figs. Second -crop figs green, with violet sp ots; stalk m edium ; pulp
car m ine; textu re coarse; qu ality good .
Coucourelle Brune. Described by Tournefort (1700), Bernar d (1787), Duham el
(1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), N oisette (1829), Duchar tre (1857), H ogg (1866),
Cou verchel (1839), Bar ron (1891), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). The d esignation of this var iety
by Eisen as Ficu s car ica fusca Risso, has not been fou nd. Illustration in color by
Duham el. The d escription by Tourn efort seem ed to Bernard to fit Coucourelle Brune
better than Angliqu e, as explained und er that variety. According to Cou verchel, trees
ar e com m on in Provence, w here the fruits play an im p ortan t role in supplying food for
th e country people. The d escription is after that of Eisen.
Brebas very early; size 1-1/ 2 by 1-3/ 4 inches.
Second -crop figs below m edium , spherical; stalk var iable, sh ort to m od erately long;
color brow n; bloom prom inent; pulp dar k red; flav or insipid ; qu ality fair.
Coucourelle Gavotte (syns. Coucourelle N oire, Ficu s car ica labillar diera Risso).
Described by Risso (1826), H ogg (1866), Bar ron (1891), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). Risso
d escribed this var iety as Labillar dire, an d referred to the previous accou nts of
Tou rnefort, Bernard , an d Duham el; how ever, these last three accounts seem to belong
p rop erly to Coucourelle Brune, an d not to Coucourelle Gav otte. Eisen follow s closely
th e d escrip tion of H ogg. The account by Bar ron is confusing, since th e color of
Cou courelle Bru ne is given as d ar k pu rple, an d that of Coucourelle Gav otte as d ar k
brow n. This is just the opp osite of the accounts by Risso an d the oth ers.
Accord ing to Eisen, the tree bears tw o crop s, an d his d escrip tion p robably refers t o
figs of th e second crop.

434
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Figs below m ed iu m , sp herical, with dar k, longitudinal lines; neck n on e; eye op en;
color black on sunny sid e, p ale bronze on shad ed sid e; pulp blood red ; flav or rich.
Crav. Described by Sim on-Louis Frres (1895) an d by Eisen (1901) as a var iety of
Italy an d Fran ce. Figs m edium to sm all, violet-black in color; p ulp dar k red ; flav or
insipid . Accord ing to Bar ron (1891), Crave (Rivers) resem bles Violette d e Bord eau x.
Cumpini (syn. Del Cap o). Described an d illustrated by Vallese (1909).
Leav es m ostly 5-lobed . Figs m edium , ovoid; stalk short; ribs slightly raised , d eeply
colored ; skin of a chestnut-rose color tow ard the stalk, but black on bod y; bloom light,
p ruinose; pulp red .
Cuore (syns. Rubad o, Rou bau d a Blan ca, Arbau d a, Coraz n, Ficus car ica richar dia
Risso). Described by Gallesio (1817), Risso (1826), Sauvaigo (1889) Eisen (1901, with
illustration), Sim onet et al. (1945), an d Tam aro (1948) According to Gallesio, the nam e
Cu ore w as given to this var iety becau se the fruit is som ew hat h eart-shap ed . It w as
d esignated richar dia by Risso in hon or of Professor Richar d, of Par is. The var iety is
m u ch p rized as a tab le fig in Italy, esp ecially in Um bria, Sabina, an d in the vicinity of
Rom e the Genoese kn ow it as Ru bad o. Gallesio stat ed that it w as not fou nd in
Provence or in Sp ain; but Eisen rep orted its culture in Provence, as w ell as in north ern
Italy. Ru bad o has been rep orted und er trial by both th e California an d the Texas
Exp erim ent Stations; but its prop er id entity h as n ot been established . Accord ing to Van
Dem an (1890), cu ttings of Rubad o w ere distributed from Was hington, D.C.
The tree reaches m od erate size, with sm all, 3- to 5-lobed leav es; first crop very light,
or n on e.
Second -crop figs (according to Eisen) ab ove m ediu m to lar ge, 2-3/ 4 inches long by 2
inches in diam eter, oblong to turbinate, grad ually tap ering tow ard the short stalk; skin
thick, checking crisscross, ad herent to the m eat; color green, tinged brow n in the su n,
an d ashy gray in the shad e; eye reddish, with gu m exuding at m aturity; p ulp red ,
sw eet, rather shar p or cau stic to the tas te, an d not so d elicately flav ored as Pissalu tto or
Dottato. Skin is tou gh in texture w hen d ried. Seas on late.
Curigo. Described an d illustrat ed by Bobone (1932). Pata d e Cavalo, collected at
Coim bra, is similar to Curigo; the tw o differ som ew hat in intensity of color, external
an d internal.
Figs p yriform to tu rbinate, with short, thick neck; stalk m ed ium ; skin green, with
m an y violet spots; pulp car mine to chestnu t-rose; textu re coarse; qu ality good .
Dame Noire. Described an d figu red by Sim onet et al. (1945) from specim ens grow n
at Sollies-Pont.
One crop only; leav es m ediu m . Figs sm all, su bglobular , slightly nar row ed tow ard
th e stalk, w hich is up to 1-1/ 2 inches in length; av erage w eight 20 gram s; eye in a slight
d epression, with rosy scales; skin pubescent, checking at m aturity, uniform ly red dish
violet in color; pulp light red ; qu ality m ediocre.
Datte Quotidienne. In his accou nt of 1888, Eisen regard ed Quotidienne as
syn onym ou s with Datte; but in 1901, he classified these tw o as distinct varieties.

Febru ary , 1955]


435

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

One of th e com m on nam es he gives for Datte Quotidienne is Constan t Date; h e


rep orted it as a very fine fig for d rying, especially at Salon an d Eyqu ires, Fran ce. The
only oth er accou nt found is that by Audibert Frres in 1854; they d escribe it as a onecrop variety, with elongated fruit, green skin color, an d dar k-red pulp. P.I. N o. 18,860
of th e Chiswick collection, w hen fruited in California, p roduced pyriform figs, purplish
black in color. This lead s to the conclusion that the m at erial und er P.I. N o. 18,860 w as
n ot tru e to th e variety, an d that the accou nt by Eisen should be accepted as authentic,
althou gh, unfortu nat ely, he did not give the sou rce of the specim ens d escribed .
Figs m edium to lar ge, p yriform , withou t neck, or with neck very short an d thick; ey e
closed , d epressed , sm all; color green to violet-brow n on ribs an d exp osed sid e; bloom
p rom inent ar ou nd the stem end , but term inating abru ptly at the equ at orial line; pulp
rose-colored .
Dattero (syns. Donicale of Pistoia, Bezz oso of Lunigian a, Cortese of Ligu ria, Coasca
of Riviera di Pon en te, Vezz oso at Piacentin oall according to Gallesio; Rolan dine,
Rolan dine Blan che, Briasca of Grasse, Blan chette, Ficus car ica rolan dina Risso, Ficus
p olym orp ha var. elegan s Gasp ar rini). Described by Gallesio (1817), Gasp ar rini (1845),
Rod a (1881), an d Mingioli (1904), as Dattero. Described by Risso (1826), Sauvaigo (1889,
1894), Eisen (1901), Trab ut (1904), Bois (1928), Bun (1942), Sim onet et al. (1945, with
illustration of fruit), an d Evreinoff (1947), as Rolan dine or Rolan dina. Described by
Baldini (1953) as Donicale, with Verd iccio Gentile as a synonym . Illustration of leaf an d
fruit by Baldini.
Accord ing to Eisen, Datter o is the sam e as Dottato. The accounts of Dattero b y
Gallesio, an d of Rolan dine by Eisen, Risso, Sau vaigo, an d Sim on et, how ever, agree that
this is a one-crop variety, an d that the skin color of the figs is green, tinged with rose.
On the other han d , Dottat o trees bear tw o crop s, an d the figs ar e yellowish green in
color. Dattero is, therefore, treated here as a distinct var iety, an d Rolan dine as id entical
with it. Authorities also agree that it is an excellent fig, especially for d rying, alon g th e
Italian Riviera an d in southern Fran ce. It seem s not to have been tested in California, at
least und er the nam es listed . P.I. N o. 102,020, introd uced from Morocco as Rolan dine in
1933 an d fruited at Riversid e, p roved to be iden tical with Archipel (Osborns Prolific)
a d ifferent fig from th e variety und er consid eration here. The following accou nt is
bas ed on th ose of Sim on et et al. an d Baldini.
Leav es m ostly 5-lobed ; base shallowly cord ate.
Breba crop none. Second-crop figs m ediu m , up to 2 inches long an d 1-1/ 2 inches in
diam eter; av erage w eight 32 gram s; shap e obovate to pyriform ; n eck not p rom inent,
or en tirely missing; stalk sh ort; ribs n ot m uch in evid ence; eye sm all, closed , scales pink;
skin checking at m atu rity; color yellowish green, tinged with violet; pulp light rose,
som ew hat hollow ; seed s sm all, few . Quality very good , especially for d rying.
Djebali. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gafsa, Tunisia. Leav es lar ge, 3-lobed ;
p etiole lon g an d slend er. Figs with prom inent neck; eye wid e open; color violet; pulp
light red .

436
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Djerbi. Described by Minan goin (1931) from H am m am et, Tunisia. Leav es sm all, 3lobed , or som etim es alm ost nonlobed ; sinu ses har dly prom inent. Figs oblate-spherical,
sessile; eye open; color d ar k violet; pulp brow n; seed s num er ou s.
Doctor Hogg Black. According to Eisen (1901), this var iety w as found by H ogg n ear
Toulouse, Fran ce. It bore figs alm ost black, with red pulp. (See note und er
Fran ciscan a.)
D Or Bifre. Described by Bar ron (1891) an d Eisen (1901, after Bar ron) as a sm all,
ovate fig; color greenish yellow , suffused with brow n; pulp blood red, rich an d juicy.
D Or de Baume. Described by H ogg (1866) an d Eisen (1888, 1901, after H ogg). Figs
m ed ium , oblong; ribs distinct; stalk short; eye op en; color haz el-brow n; p ulp rosy to
am ber; qu ality excellent.
Early Violet. Described by Thom pson (1859), H ogg (1866), G. S. (1869), Colem an
(1887b), Massey (1893), Wy thes (1890a, 1893), Shinn (1893), Wr ight (1895), H an sen
(1894), Eisen (1897, 1901), Price an d White (1902), an d by Star nes an d Monroe (1907).
Illustrat ed by Price, Eisen, an d by Star n es an d Monroe. In his account of Ear ly Violet,
Thom p son referred to th e d escription of Thom as Rivers, w ho p robably introd uced the
variety into Englan d an d gav e it a nam e. It w as rep orted to be especially good for
forcing in pots, as th e tree ripened three crop s in a seas on. H ogg stat ed : Thou gh sm all
an d in the estim ation of som e, an insignifican t variety, this is am ong figs w hat the Red
Masculine is am on g ap ricots, an d the Red Nutm eg am ong peachesa nicely flav ou red,
very ear ly, an d rem ar kably p rolific fig.
The California Nursery Com pan y, Niles, listed an d d escribed Ear ly Violet in its
catalogue for 1889-1890. Du ring the n ext few years, it w as tested at the California
Exp erim ent Stations an d fou nd to be ear ly, but with fruit too sm all for com m ercial
plan ting. Cu ttings w ere obtained from Crisfield , Mar ylan d, in 1940, an d from th e
Cu stis estat e near Cap e Charles, Virginia, in 1943, an d grafted in the variety orchar d at
Riversid e. Very few , if an y, brebas have been pr od uced, an d second -crop figs ar e
sm aller than those of any other variety in the collection. Man y figs shrivel an d d rop
w hen sm all.
Leav es sm all, thin, d ull on upper surface lobes m ostly th ree; upp er sinu ses shallow ;
bas e su bcord ate to truncate; m argins crenat e. Badly affected by m osaic, w hich dwar fs
both leav es and fruit. Descrip tion of fruit is com piled from var ious sources; an d from
specim ens grow n at Riversid e.
Brebas n on e. Second -crop figs sm all to very sm all, 1 inch long by 1-1/ 4 inches in
diam eter; av erage w eight 9.2 gram s; shap e turbinate to oblate spherical; stalk slend er,
up to 3/ 4 inch long, som ew hat enlar ged tow ar d bod y of fruit; ribs p rom inen t, m or e
d ar kly colored than bod y; eye lar ge, op en, scales rose; bloom d elicate; color ch ocolatebrow n; pulp straw berry; seed s sm all; qu ality fair. Susceptible to sp oilag e. Rep orted by
Eisen as p referable to the Ischias an d Celeste; trees n ow very rare in the sou th ern
United Stat es, in com parison with the latter var iety. (Plate 27, E.)
Eva. N am e ap plied locally in the Union of Sou th Africa to a variety pr od ucing sm all
to m edium fruits, pu rplish brow n in color; pulp pinkish am ber, slightly hollow . It
resem bles Com m on Brow n, Kaap se Bruin (Cap e Brow n), an d Black Sugar in the

Febru ary , 1955]


437

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

subtropical orchar d of the Western Province Fruit Resear ch Station, Stellenbosch,


according to Dr. Dan iel d u Preez, in a letter d ated Februar y 23, 1953.
Ferguson. Described by Close (1929) as a variety grow n by a nursery at N ew
Brau nfels, Texas. At Riversid e, California, the Ferguson has prod uced second -crop figs
only. These ar e m edium to sm all in size, pyriform , with prom inent neck; stalk short;
color p u rplish black, with green zone often persisting at ap ex; pulp light straw berry;
qu ality only fair.
Figue Fleur. A var iety received in 1933 from Mar rakech, Morocco (but originally
from Lrid a, Spain), u nd er P.I. N o. 102,012.
Breba crop sm all; figs sm all, p yriform , p urple; pulp dar k straw berry.
Second -crop figs sm all in size, p yriform , pu rplish black in color; bloom prom inent on
bod y, absent in a circular ar ea at the ap ex, as show n in plate 12; p ulp straw berry.
Seas on ear ly.
Ford (syn. Ford Seedling). Described an d illu strat ed by Eisen (1901) as a differen t
variety from th e one listed by H ogg, w h o regar d ed it as id entical with Mar seillaise.
Figs lar ge, pyriform , greenish violet; pulp red , coarse in textu re. Sou rce of sp ecim ens
n ot given.
Franche Paillard (syns. Abond an ce, Fran qu e Pagar d e). Described by La Brou sse
(1774), Duchar tre (1857), Soc. Pom ol. d e France (1887, 1947), Eisen (1888, 1901), Colby
(1894), Forrer (1894); the last tw o as Abond an ce Prcoce.
Tree vigorou s; first crop light, but second crop very abund an t. Descrip tion is from
Socit Pom ologiqu e d e Fran ce (1947).
Brebas m ed iu m , elongated, dar k br ow n in color; pulp d eep red ; qu ality very good .
Second -crop figs m edium , pyriform ; color violet-brow n in the sun to greenish violet
in the shad e; pulp red , very juicy; qu ality good.
Franciscana (syns. Mission, California Black, N egra, Brebal, Douro Vebra, Biberaeo,
Reculver, Gourau d N oir, Gourreau d u Lan gued oc, probably N oire d Espag ne,
Gou rreau N oir). Described by Carbon (1865b), H ogg (1866), West (1882), Escriban o y
Prez (1884), Bar ron (1891), Lelong (1892), Shinn (1893), Colby (1894), Eisen (1885, 1897,
1901), Wy th es (1902), Star n es (1903), Star nes an d Monroe (1907), Bunyar d an d Thom as
(1904), Dean (1904), Roed ing (1914), Mills (1914, 1918), W S. And erson (1924), Condit
(1921a, 1921c, 1923, 1925, 1933, 1947), E. A. Bunyard (1925), an d Blin (1942).
Illustration of tree by Eisen (1901) an d Condit (1921a, 1933); fruit figu red by Cond it
(1921a). For color plates see Carbon (1865b) an d Associated Grower (Fresn o),
N ovem ber, 1922.
The Fran ciscan a (Mission) fig w as introd uced at San Diego abou t 1768 from m ission
stations in Baja California, an d u ntil the m iddle of th e past century w as practically the
only variety grow n in the early settlem ents. In 1882, West rep orted that it w as too w ell
kn ow n to need d escrip tion, an d add ed that it w as the only black fig of his acqu aintan ce
that w as of an y value for d rying. Eisen, in 1885, stat ed that this var iety w as not g ood
for d rying, bu t in later publications d escribed it as a fig w hich d ried w ell. In his bulletin
of 1901 w e read : The gen eral belief that the Mission is a distinct California fig is

438
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

erron eou s. We can no m ore lay exclusive claim to this fig than can Mexico an d Chile. It
w as u nd oubtedly brou ght fr om Spain or Portugal at a very early d ate after th e
con qu est.
Abou t 1909, Eisen id entified the Mission as Franciscan a, of Sp ain, bu t the exact
reference to his publication has n ot been locat ed . In 1925, Condit w rote, after personal
observations in Spain: The Fran ciscan a is a black fig com m only grow n at Estep ona,
over sixty m iles below Mlag a, on the coas t. Dried figs of this var iety seen at Motril
ap pear ed to be id entical to th e California Mission. It seem s to be the sam e variety that
Escriban o y Perez d escribed in 1884 as Higuera N egra, of Mu rcia Province, w here it w as
m u ch esteem ed both for fresh fruit an d for d rying. The following tw o introd uctions
from Mlag a into California hav e p roved to be id entical with the Fran ciscan a: P.I. N o.
58,664 as N egra, an d P.I. N o. 62,777 as Brebal.
Three varieties im p orted from Englan d with the Chiswick collection, P.I. N o. 18,875
as Biberaeo, N o. 18,896 as Gou rau d N oir, an d N o. 18,868 as Reculver, also prod uce fruit
like that of th e Fran ciscan a. The first tw o are d escribed by Eisen as distinct var ieties, bu t
th e char acters listed by him coincid e alm ost exactly with those of the Fran ciscan a.
Accord ing to E. A. Bunyar d (1925), the nam e Reculver com es fr om Reculver, Kent,
Englan d, w here this fig w as introd uced by the Rom an s. Dean , in 1904, d escribed
Reculver as a p rolific fig tree with sm all, pu rple fruits.
Anoth er introd uction of the Chiswick collection, P.I. N o. 18,867, lab eled Dou r o
Vebra, b ore fruit very sim ilar to th e Fran ciscan a. According to Bar ron (1891), Dou r o
Vebra is the sam e as Biberaeo. In the original n otebook of John Rock, Niles, dated
1895, there ar e ou tline d raw ings an d notes of California Black, Biberae o, an d Reculver.
Und er th e short d escription of Reculver th ere ap pear s this line in the han d w riting of
Gustav Eisen: Leaves m ottled, as on Mission . This unpublished note, w e m ight p oint
ou t h ere, is probably th e first observation m ad e on th e occurrence of a leaf m osaic on
th e fig in California.
Althou gh it ap pear s stran ge that Eisen should not have consid ered the above three
kind s to be th e sam e as Fran ciscan a, they are being treated here as id entical with that
variety.
The Fran ciscan a fig has lon g been grow n in the eas tern an d south ern United States.
Trees have been observed on the original Arlington estate of the Custis fam ily near
Cap e Char les, Virginia, an d on a n eighboring farm ; also at the Virginia Truck
Exp erim ent Station, N orfolk, an d at the H am p ton Institu te. The probable reas ons for
th e lack in popular ity of the variety in these d istricts ar e th e su sceptibility of trees to
frost d am age, an d their light p roductivity. W. S. And erson rep orted in 1924 that in
sou th Mississippi, the Black Mission w as injured m ore than an y other variety by the
cold , an d produced very few fruits. On the other hand, the fruit w as of th e highest
qu ality, stan d ing up better w hen left on the tree during the rainy seas on than an y
oth er variety in the test. Wood ard (1940) show ed that in Georgia, the Mission w as
m u ch inferior to Celeste in fruit production. Wy th es (1902) rep orted Gou rau d N oir, or
Dr. H oggs black fig, to be a fine flav ored fruit, an d excellent for p ot culture in Englan d.
Fran ciscan a trees are wid ely distributed in California, both as individual trees

Febru ary , 1955]


439

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

an d in com m ercial plan tings. Im m ense sp ecim ens are found , especially in the foothills
of th e interior valleys (plate 5). The one figu red by Cond it in 1919 near Corning, with a
tru n k circu m ference of 13-1/ 2 feet, has disap pear ed ; bu t there are others ju st as lar ge,
or lar ger. Anoth er and old er tree, still growing on the William Cu rtner place near
Mission San Jose, is rep orted to have been planted ab out 1800. Mills (1918) tells of oth er
lar ge sp ecim ens. During seas ons with unu sually low tem p eratures, trees of this var iety
ar e m ore su bject to injury than are trees of oth er com m ercial kind s, as p ointed ou t by
Shinn (1892) an d H od gson (1934). On account of th e prod uctive capacity of the trees,
resistan ce of the fruit to sp oilag e, an d excellent qu ality both fresh an d d ried, the
Fran ciscan a has long en joyed an excellent rep utation. The m ain objection to it
com m ercially is the black skin color, w hich practically prohibits use of the d ried fruit in
fig p aste.
The tree is a vigor ous grow er, with bran ches rat her slend er (plate 4), th e lar ger often
d roop ing to the grou nd an d taking root at the tip; term inal bud s ar e violet-brow n.
Leav es lar ge, averaging 7-5/ 8 inches broad an d 8 inches in length; lobes m ostly 5, bu t
som etim es 3, or on vigor ou s w ood with each basal lobe au ricled; upp er surface
som ew hat glossy. Mosaic spots com m on and conspicuou s on leav es an d fruit, bu t
seld om sufficiently serious to cau se alar m on the p ar t of grow ers.
Breba crop g ood in m ost seas ons; fruits lar ge, up to 2 inches in diam eter an d 3 inches
in length, pyriform , with prom inent, thick neck, often 1/ 2 inch long; av erage w eight 56
gram s; stalk short an d thick; ribs fairly prom inent, slightly raised , generally coloring
earlier than bod y; eye m ed iu m , scales p urple; surface glossy, with pruinose bloom ;
w hite flecks prom inen t, scattered ; skin checking lengthwise at full m aturity; color black;
m eat thin, w hite, or slightly colored ; p ulp light straw berry, solid; flav or rich, d ecid edly
char acteristic of th e fig. Qu ality excellent. Wid ely used fresh for local an d distan t
m arkets, an d frequ en tly d ried. (Plate 19, D.)
Second -crop figs variable in size an d shape, larger an d lon ger in cool coas tal clim ates
than in the interior, as rep orted by Condit (1950); av erage w eight n ear Los Angeles 41
gram s, at Riversid e 25 gram s; size m ed ium ; shap e p yriform , with thick neck, or often
withou t neck; bod y 1-1/ 2 to 1-3/ 4 inches in length; stalk sh ort, thick; ribs nar row , only
slightly elevated ; eye sm all to m edium , fairly w ell closed , scales violet; surface dull, with
conspicuous bloom ; flecks of w hite at first p rom inent, as show n by Condit (1941 a, fig.
9, F), becom ing obscured by bod y color; skin checking at com plete m aturity; color
black over entire su rface; pulp am ber to light straw berry; flav or distinctive, rich.
Quality excellent, both fresh an d d ried.
Cap rified figs som ew hat lar ger; average w eight 56 gram s; pulp dar k straw berry;
seed s lar ge, fertile. These figs ar e n ot regard ed fav orably, how ever, by d ried -fig
p ackers becau se of greater loss by sp oilag e. (Plates 10; 11; 19, C.)
Frette (syns. Rou ge d e La Frette, Violette d e La Frette). Described by Lhrau lt (1872),
Sim onLouis Frres (1895), Eisen (1888, 1901), an d Delplace (1933), as a var iety gr ow n
at La Frette, near Par is.
Tree very p rod uctive; tw o crops. Figs lar ge, pyriform , with reddish br ow n skin an d
rose-colored pulp; seas on late.

440
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Galluccio (syns. Gad dhu zzo , N occiu ola, Qu agghia, Quaglia, Russuliddu). Described
by Gu glielmi (1908) as Fico d ella Quaglia; designat ed also as Fico Galluccio an d Fico
N occiuola. Vallese (1909) d escribes an d illustrat es Fico Quag ghia an d lists Gadd hu zzo ,
bu t d oes not give an accou nt of it. De Rosa (1911) treats the variety as Galluccio, with
Gad d hu zzo as a syn on ym , an d in a footn ote refers to th e above au th ors.
Trees ar e not com m only fou nd in Italy. Leav es ar e lar ge, 3- to 5-lobed .
Breba crop sm all, with fruits elongat ed . Second -crop figs sm all, pyriform ; skin thick,
sm ooth; color violet; bloom conspicuou s, pruinose; eye m edium , with pale-violet scales;
pulp pom egran at e red in color; seed s lar ge; flav or very sw eet. Usually consu m ed fresh,
bu t also u sed d ried.
Ghzali (syns. Ghozlan i in Beisan , Zar raki in Tulkar m , Mulleisi or Ebeidi in Jeru salem ).
Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a m edium sized fig, pyriform , with sh ort
neck an d long stalk; distinctive on account of its br onze backgrou nd with purplish ribs;
eye wid e op en, scales purplish; pulp light red; flav or good ; seed s num erous.
Gouraud Rouge. Described by G. S. (1869)) Bar ron (1891), Eisen (1901), an d Wy th es
(1902). Introd uced into California as P.I. N o. 18,869 of th e Chiswick collection; fruited
first at Niles, later at Chico, Fresn o, an d Riversid e; illustrat ed in color by Cond it (1941a).
Tree slow -grow ing, rather d ensely bran ched ; term inal bud s green; blad e of leaf
broad er than long; p etiole half as long as blad e; lobes 3 to 5. Description of fruits is
from th ose prod uced at Riversid e.
Breba crop fair; fruits m edium , up to 2-3/ 4 inches long an d 1-3/ 4 inches in diam eter,
obliqu e-p yriform , with prom inent neck that is often curved an d up to 1 inch long; stalk
ab ou t 1/ 4 inch long, som etim es sw ollen tow ar d the ap ex; ribs slightly elevat ed ; eye
m ed ium , op en, scales brick red ; surface dull, with light bloom ; w hite flecks scattered ,
bu t becom ing obscured by bod y color; skin ch ocolate to burnt u m ber; m eat fairly thin,
of a d elicate violet color; pulp light straw berry, alm ost seedless; flavor fairly sw eet an d
rich; qu ality fair.
Second -crop figs m ed iu m , tu rbinate, flattened at ap ex, m ostly without a short neck;
av erage w eight 34 gram s; stalk up to 3/ 4 inch long; ribs inconspicuou s, very slightly
elevat ed ; eye m edium , open, scales violet-brow n; w hite flecks inconspicuous, concealed
by d ar k bod y color; skin tend er, d eveloping dar k, circular blotches at full m aturity, as
show n in plate 9; color an unusual rich reddish brow n, at tractive; m eat w hite; p ulp
straw berry; flav or m ild; qu ality fair. Very su bject to sp oilag e; w orthless for d rying.
(Plates 9; 24, D.)
Cap rified specim ens with d eep-straw berry pulp an d su bacid taste; qu ality p oor.
Granato. Described briefly by Gaspar rini (1845) an d Sav astan o (1885) as a littlekn ow n variety.
The first crop d rops. Second -crop figs ar e spherical, black, with red pulp of good
qu ality.
Grosse Marseilles. Described by Bar ron (1891) an d Eisen (1901, after Bar ron) as a fig
of m ed iu m size, p yriform ; skin greenish yellow , shad ed brow n; pulp dull red ; of second
qu ality.

Febru ary , 1955]


441

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Guiliana. Described by Eisen (1901) as a sm all, sp herical, violet-gray fig, with


salm on-colored pulp. Spelling of nam e in d oubt. N oted as a sw eet fig, but of very p oor
ap pear an ce.
Htive d Argenteuil. A var iety received from south ern France in 1928, u nd er P.I.
N o. 69,016. N ot id entified with an y other variety in the collection at Riversid e.
Breba crop non e. Second-crop figs sm all, oblique-spherical, with short, thick neck;
color violet; bloom com m only ab sent from circular zone at ap ex, as illustrat ed for Figu e
Fleu r in plate 12; pulp straw berry; qu ality good . Fruits com m only d ry with out
spoilag e. (Plate 10.)
Hmadi. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a sm all Palestinian fig,
spherical, with a short, cu rved neck an d m edium stalk; color yellowish green; ribs
purplish; eye op en, with bright-red or pu rple scales; pulp red ; flav or subacid. Ver y
m u ch relished by th e fellah een.
Hmari. Described an d illustrat ed by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as on e of the
earliest figs to rip en in Palestine. It is especially w ell liked as a breakfast fruit, an d is also
highly regard ed for shipping fresh.
Figs m edium , spherical to turbinate; skin thin, sm ooth, green, with purple blotches;
eye closed , surrou nd ed by a pu rple ring, scales purple; pulp light red ; flav or good ,
subacid; seed s ab u nd an t.
Horaigaki. A Japan ese variety, prod ucing one crop, from Sep tem ber to N ovem ber.
P.I. N o. 122,756, introd uced into California in 1940 an d lab eled H oraigaki, w as rep orted
to be a seedling d evelop ed by Dr. Tan ikaw a, Okitsu, Japan , from a cross of H tive
d Argen teuil by Roed ing N o.2. Fruited at Riversid e, 1945 to 1949, but w as discar d ed .
Figs ab ove m edium , p yriform , w ith thick neck; ribs p rom inent; eye above m ediu m ;
color violet-pu rple; m eat violet; pulp straw berry; qu ality fair only.
Hunt. A seedling fig d eveloped by B. W. Hu nt, Eat on ton, Georgia, before 1929, as
th e result of crossing Ischia Green (Verte) with pollen sent from a cap rifig in California.
In this seed ling there w as realized the objective of prod ucing a fig having a long stalk
w hich w ould allow th e fruit to han g d ow nw ard, so that w ater fr om rain or d ew w ould
d rain aw ay fr om th e eye. The tree bears a light breba crop an d a heavy m ain crop, an d
in Georgia the figs ar e p ar thenocarpic. In California the tree d rop s its fruit bad ly; the
variety is therefore incom pletely p ar then ocar pic. Found only in collections.
Tree vigor ous, with upright branches; term inal bud s green. Leav es m ediu m to lar ge,
m od erately glossy, 3- to 5-lobed ; upp er sinuses of m ed ium d epth an d wid th, low er
sinuses shallow ; base subcord ate; m argins coarsely crenat e. Description is from fruit
grow n at Riversid e an d Los Angeles.
Breba crop sm all; fruits sm all to m ed ium , elongated , oblique-pyriform ; neck distinct,
bu t m erging grad ually into the bod y; stalk up to 1/ 2 inch long; color green, shad ing to
brow n tow ard the ap ex; pulp straw berry, som ew hat d ry an d m ealy in texture; qu ality
p oor.
Second -crop figs sm all to below m edium , up to 1-7/ 8 inches lon g by 1-1/ 4 inches
broad , p yriform , with a distinct, short n eck; av erage w eight 20 gram s; stalk variable,
bu t gen erally slend er, u p to 3/ 4 inch long; ribs fairly prom inent; eye sm all, scales
chaffy, erect; surface dull, with distinct bloom ; w hite flecks scattered , prom inent,
becom ing

442
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

m as ked by the bronze b od y color; p ulp am ber, tinged with straw berry; seed s
p ractically non e; flav or rich an d sw eet; qu ality fair to good . Similar to Celeste (Malta),
bu t of lar ger size. (Plate 27,B.)
Cap rified specim ens m uch th e sam e, except for d ar k-straw berry p ulp an d fertile
seed s; av erage w eight 30 gram s.
Imperial (syns. Im periau; Ficus car ica im p erialis Risso; Brogiotto, according to
Gasp ar rini). Described by Porta (1592), Risso (1826), Gaspar rini (1845), Sauvaigo (1889),
an d Eisen (1901), as a rather lar ge fig, com m only grow n near Grasse, Fran ce.
Accord ing to Eisen, the tree bears tw o crops, th e brebas being m edium in size an d poor
in qu ality.
Second -crop figs m edium , obliqu etu rbinate, with elongated neck; color greenish,
tinged with red dish violet; eye scales bright red; pulp p ale red; qu ality only fair.
Invernengo Rosso. Described by Guglielm i (1908) as an Italian var iety, grow n
esp ecially at Su rb o, in Lecce Province. The figs are elon gated -oval, reddish brow n in
color of skin; pulp red , with num erou s fertile seed s, a fact w hich suggests that this m ay
be a variety of th e Sm yrna type. Consu m ed exclusively as fresh fruit. Matures fro m
m id dle of Septem ber to Decem ber.
The Ischia Figs
Rogers (1834) stated that all the Ischia figs introd uced by Miller from an Italian islan d
of that nam e w ere of first qu ality. Bar ron (1868e) rep orted that Miller probably lost or
d estroyed th e original lab els of Italian figs, an d then substituted such nam es as Ischia or
Gen oa in their places. In th e 1759 ed ition of his Gardeners Dictionary, Miller briefly
d escribed the Brow n or chestnu t-colored Ischia, the Green Ischia; the Yellow Ischia, an d
th e Sm all Brow n Ischia, bu t n ot th e Wh ite Ischia. Several later w riters treat White Ischia
an d Green Ischia as syn onym ous, bu t in this m onograp h the tw o are treated separ at ely,
th e latter as Verte. Wh ite Ischia will be d escribed simply as Ischia, others of the grou p
as Ischia Black, Ischia Brow n, an d Ischia Yellow . The last is briefly m entioned und er
skin green or yellow . The syn onym N erii, w hich som etim es ap pear s with Ischia
Wh ite, ap p ar ently refers to the Italian nero or black; if used at all, therefore, it should
ap pear with Ischia Black.
Ischia (syns. Wh ite Ischia, Singleton, Brocket H all). Described by Royal H orticultu ral
Society catalogu es of 1831 an d 1842, MIntosh (1855), H ogg (1866), Bar ron (1868c, 1891),
Wr ight (1894), Wy th es (1890a, 1893), Eisen (1885, 1888, 1897, 1901), Forrer (1894), S. H.
B. (1896), Price an d Wh ite (1902); Star nes (1903), Star nes an d Monr oe (1907), Royal H ort.
Society (1916), Gould (1919), Hum e (1915), Bu nyar d an d Thom as (1904), E. A. Bunyar d
(1925, 1934), Mow ry an d Weber (1925), Cook (1925), Arn old (1926), Condit (1921b, as
Lipar i; 1947), R. A. (1937), an d Preston (1951). Illustrat ed by Eisen, Price, Star nes, an d
Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, B).
As explained ab ove; th e exact id entity of this var iety is u ncertain, the nam e White
Ischia having been ap plied after its introd uction into Englan d , w here it proved to be
esp ecially good for p ot cultu re an d for forcing. Bar ron (1868c) thus gave his opinion of

Febru ary , 1955]


443

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

it: The little w hite Ischia is very fickle in respect to qu ality; the fruits of tod ay are
excellent, of three d ay s hence w at ery an d tasteless; the tree bears fruit as p rofusely as a
gooseberry bu sh. Accounts of the variety in the sou thern United Stat es ar e som ew hat
u ncertain, becau se of the p ossible confusion of the Wh ite an d Green Ischia. Star n es
fou nd Ischia Wh ite d ecid edly the first choice for Georgia, w here the fruit shriveled
an d d ried natu rally on th e tree in good seas ons. In 1948, a tree of this var iety w as
fou nd growing at Grosse Coate, near Easton, Mar ylan d.
Accord ing to Eisen, Ischia w as introd uced into California in 1853 by W. B. West, fro m
a nu rsery in Boston, an d in 1883 the California Nursery Com pan y, Niles, received it
from Englan d. It w as also brou gh t in as P.I. N o. 18,886 of th e Chiswick collection.
Lar ge trees are com m only fou nd in the Sierra N evad a foothills, an d before 1922 th er e
w as a sm all orchar d of at least eighty-fou r trees near McFar lan d in Kern County. One
of th e lar gest trees of this var iety is on the place of Mrs. N ettie Sullivan , Grab ner P.O.,
Fresn o Cou nty, near th e u pper end of Millerton Lak e; it is rep orted to have been
plan ted by Wilbu rn Winchell in 1851. In Merced Cou nty an Ischia tree is growing in a
d ooryard at Plainsbu rg.
Althou gh trees w ere grow n at the early California Exp erim ent Stations, the variety
failed to receive favorable at tention on account of the sm all size of the fruit. In good
w eather the figs d ry par tly on the tree an d drop w ith little spoilag e; th ey are also good
for hom em ad e preserves an d pickles.
The tree has a d ense habit of grow th, with nu m erou s sm all, short twigs; term inal
bud s ar e olive green in color. Leaves sm all, glossy above, m ostly 3-lobed; upper
sinuses shallow an d nar row ; bas e truncate, som etim es d ecurrent; m argins crenat e
(plate 13). Descrip tion of figs is from sp ecim ens gr ow n at Riversid e.
Breba crop sm all or n one; fruits below m ed ium , sp herical, with very sh ort n eck; stalk
short an d thick; eye rath er lar ge, open; color of skin green, tinged with violet; pulp light
straw berry; qu ality p oor.
Figs of second crop born e p rofusely; size sm all, av eraging 18 gram s in w eight, up to
1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter by 1-1/ 4 inches from bas e to ap ex; shape oblate to sp herical,
with or with ou t sh ort neck; stalk sh ort an d thick, or up to 1/ 2 inch long, som etim es
sw ollen tow ar d the ap ex; ribs nar row , prom inent; eye m ed iu m , open, scales pink;
surface dull, with faint bloom ; w hite flecks scattered an d inconspicu ou s, as show n b y
Cond it (1941a, fig. 9, H ); skin checking crisscross, discolored or blemished by circular
brow n sp ots at com plete m aturity; color green, flushed with violet; m eat w hite, thin;
pulp very light straw berry; flav or sw eet; qu ality fair. (Plates 9; 15, D.)
Cap rified specim ens slightly lar ger an d heavier; pulp d eep straw berry; flav or
som ew hat acid .
Ischia Black (syns. Blue Ischia, Ear ly Forcing, N ero). Described by Miller (1768),
H an bu ry (1770), Forsyth (1803), Brookshaw (1812), Green (1824), George Lindley
(1831), Rogers (1834), H olley (1854), Dochnah l (1855), MIntosh (1855), H ogg (1866),
Thom p son (1859), Eisen (1885, 1888, 1901), Colem an (1887b), Wythes (1890a, 1893),
Bar ron (1891), Massey (1893), Burnette (1894), Star nes (1903), Star nes an d Mon roe
(1907),
Bunyar d

444
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

an d Th om as (1904), E. A. Bunyar d (1925, 1934), Hum e (1915), Gould (1919), Mow ry an d


We ber (1925), Cook (1925), Cond it (1947), and Preston (1951). Illustrat ed in color by
Brookshaw (1812) an d Cond it (1941a); in black an d w hite by Eisen (1901).
Ischia Black w as app ar en tly introd uced into Englan d from the islan d of Ischia by
Philip Miller, w h o d escribed it as a black fig of high flav or, especially attractive to bird s.
Later English au thors ad d little to Millers brief d escription. Wy th es did not grow m an y
trees, as he fou nd the fruit to be of p oorer qu ality than that of Ischia. E. A. Bunyar d
(1934), h ow ever, ad d ed this note to his account: A var iety for the epicu re w hen flav or
is valued .
Ischia Black w as obtained by the California Nu rsery Com pan y from Englan d in 1893,
an d ab ou t th e sam e tim e it ar rived with the Chiswick collection as P.I. N o. 18,894. Trees
hav e fruited in collections at Niles, Chico, Fresno, an d Riversid e, an d at var iou s stat e
exp erim ent stations. Individ ual trees of this var iety are also com m only found in
orchard s of th e Fran ciscan a fig, an d occasionally in d ooryard s. As Eisen com m ented in
1901, Ischia Black is a com m on variety, but one w hich could easily be dispensed with.
The fruits ar e sm aller, bu t otherw ise com parable, fresh and d ried, to th ose of
Fran ciscan a.
The tree is vigorou s, up right in habit, with bran ches inclined to d roop; term inal bud s
ar e red dish brow n. Leav es similar to th ose of Ischia, m edium to sm all; up per surface
glossy, ru gose; m ostly 3-lobed , but often nonlobed ; upper sinuses m od erately d eep an d
broad ; base su bcord ate to tru ncate; m argins coarsely crenate (plate 13). Descrip tion of
fruit is from sp ecim ens m atu ring at Riversid e an d Fresno.
Breba crop fair; fruits m edium or above, up to 2-1/ 4 inches long an d 1-3/ 4 inches in
diam eter, oblique-pyriform , with a short, thick neck; stalk often 1/ 2 inch long or m or e
som ew hat sw ollen tow ard bod y of the fig; ribs narr ow , slightly elevated; eye m edium ,
op en, scales purple; color p urplish black; bloom conspicuous; m eat thin, w hite, with a
violet tinge; pulp straw berry; flav or fairly sweet an d rich.
Second -crop figs sm all to m ed ium , obliqu e-pyriform to tu rbinate, with or withou t a
short neck; average w eight 30 gram s; stalk up to 1/ 2 inch long; surface dull, bloom
fairly heavy; w hite flecks scattered, finally m as ked by black bod y color; p ulp
straw berry; qu ality good .
Cap rified specim ens similar in external char acters to th e uncap rified on es; pulp dar k
straw berry; seed s fertile, p rom inent. (Plate 27, C.)
Ischia Brown (syns. Brow n Ischia, Chestnu t-colored Ischia). Described by Miller
(1768), H an bury (1770), Forsyth (1803), Green (1824), George Lindley (1831), Rogers
(1834), H olley (1854), Dochnah l (1855), Thom pson (1859), H ogg (1866), Eisen (1888,
1901), Colem an (1887b), an d Wr ight (1894). In his Gar d eners Dictionar y of 1759, Miller
d escribed Sm all Brow n Ischia as a var iety bearing sm all figs, with leav es less divid ed
than an y of the other sorts. H e also d escribed the Brow n or Chestnut-colored fig as
th e lar gest yet seen. It is p ossible that the first d escrip tion prop erly referred to th e
Wh ite Ischia, the fruit of w hich has a violet flush w hen fully m ature. H ogg an d later
English au thors treat only Brow n Ischia, an d ign ore the p refix, sm all.

Febru ary , 1955]


445

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

A var iety, u nd er the nam e Brow n Ischia, w as tested at the Tular e station, w here the
fruit w as fou nd to be of excellent qu ality. A few grow ers later rep orted experience with
it, bu t in at least one case the variety w as confu sed with Brunswick. If an y trees ar e
n ow gr ow ing in California, their location is not know n to us. The following d escription
is after that of H ogg and Eisen.
The tree an excellent producer, especially in pots for forcing.
Figs m edium , tu rbinate-sp herical; eye very large; color light brow n or chestnut; pulp
violet, sw eet an d of good flav or.
Jasper (syn. A Bois Jasp ). The only d escriptions found ar e th ose of Bar ron (1891),
Eisen (1888, 1901), an d of Star n es an d Monroe (1907). P.I. N o. 18,848 of the Chiswick
collection, lab eled A Bois Jasp, p rod uced fruit pu rplish brow n in color. The variety has
p robably been lost from California collections. Description is after that of Eisen.
Figs m ediu m to lar ge, p yriform ; stalk sh ort; color greenish yellow , tinged with
bronze; p ulp pale rose in color; qu ality fair.
Jerusalem (syns. Figu e Goutte, Gerusalem ). Described by Audibert Frres (1854),
Duchar tre (1857), Ou nous (1863), H ogg (1866), G. S. (1869), La Brousse (1774), Soc.
Pom ol. d e France (1887, 1947), Eisen (1888, 1901), Star nes an d Mon roe (1907, with
illustration), an d Delbar d (1947). Audibert Frres in 1854 rep orted , les fruits av orten t
p resqu e tou s. This statem ent regarding th e Jerusalem fig in Fran ce holds also for its
behavior at Riversid e, California; for here, too, it d rops its fruit badly. H ogg also
rem ar ked that the tree is a very p oor bearer. The m ain disag reem ent in the above
d escrip tions concerns fruit color, w hich H ogg an d Eisen give as black, w hile Audibert
Frres an d La Brousse term th e color brow n. On the other han d , Socit Pom ologiqu e
d e Fran ce an d Delbar d give th e skin color as ligh t or yellowish.
Jeru salem w as introd uced into California with the Chiswick collection as P.I. N o.
18,862, an d has fruited in var ious plots. In Georgia the tree w as prod uctive, with fruit
qu ality fair to good ; color w as d escribed as yellow , with dirty, brow nish-black
blotches. The following d escription is from fruits p rod uced at Fresno an d Riversid e
since 1926.
Tree rather d ense, spread ing, with outer bran ches d rooping; term inal bud s green.
Leav es m edium , glossy above, m ostly 5-lobed ; upper sinuses of m ediu m d ep th an d
wid th; base su bcord ate to truncate; low er lobes often au ricled; m ar gins crenate.
Su scep tible to m osaic inju ry. (Plate 13.)
Breba crop none. Main crop d rops bad ly u nless cap rification is p racticed ; figs
m ed ium , up to 1-7/ 8 inches in diam eter and 1-1/ 2 inches in length, oblate spherical,
m ostly with ou t n eck; average w eight 39 gram s; stalk short and thick; ribs fairly
p rom inent; eye m edium to lar ge, op en, with violet scales; w hite flecks scattered, rather
conspicuous; surface dull, with light bloom ; color green, shad ed with brow n or violet;
m eat w hite, som etim es tinged with violet; pulp straw berry.
Cap rified sp ecim ens d ar ker-colored on ou tsid e an d of a d eeper straw berry insid e
than w hen u ncap rified; qu ality good to very good ; skin color unattractive.
A var iety of no par ticular value.

446
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Kahili. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gafsa, Tunisia. Leav es sm all, d eeply 3lobed ; p etiolar sinus very prom inen t; petiole long an d slend er. Figs sm all, oblatespherical; eye wid e op en; color violet; pulp light red .
Kharroubi. N am e signifies car ob, as the figs hav e the color an d sw eetness of car ob
p od s. Described an d illustrat ed by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as one of the sw eetest
an d best black figs of southern Palestine.
Trees are lar ge an d prolific. Figs m ed ium , spherical; neck an d stalk both short; eye
op en, scales pink; skin thin, purplish black; pulp light straw berry; seed s m an y; seas on
late. Figs susceptible to rain dam age.
Kus. Described an d figured by Ozb ek (1949) as only occasionally fou nd in gar d ens at
Od emish, near Izm ir, Tu rkey. N am e signifies bird . Figs consu m ed fresh, ripening
over a long seas on in sum m er. Variety p robably of the Com m on typ e.
Leav es m ostly 3-lobed . Figs m edium , p yriform , with prom inent neck; stalk slend er;
av erage w eight 23 gram s; eye pr otruding, par tly open; w hite flecks lar ge; color violet;
pulp light red, m od erately sw eet, som ew hat arom atic.
Lardaro (syns. Lar d aio, an d p robably Ladar o). Described an d figured by Gaspar rini
(1845) as Fico Lar d ar o, with th e botan ical nam e Ficus pachycar pa. Other d escriptions
ar e by Porta (1592), Duchar tre (1857), Pasqu ale (1876, with figure), Sav as tan o (1885),
an d Eisen (1888, 1901). Accord ing to Eisen, this is the m ost com m on fig near N ap les,
w here trees p rod uce abund an t crop s. Sav astan o rep orted that cap rification is practiced
for Lar d ar o. P.I. N o. 86,809, received from Yalta, Crim ea, as Lar d ar o, proved at
Riversid e to be a m edium -sized Sm yrna-type fig of a green, unattractive color. It is
u ncertain w hether Lar d ar o is a Com m on-type or a Sm yrna-type variety. The following
d escrip tion is after that of Eisen.
Tree m od erately vigorous, with spread ing bran ches. Leav es lar ge, 3-lobed .
Brebas n on e. Second -crop figs ab ove m edium to lar ge, up to 3 inches long an d 1-3/ 4
inches broad , pyriform , with long, tap ering neck; stalk very sh ort; ribs prom inent,
raised , rou gh an d irregular ; eye flat, sm all bu t open; color green on bod y an d neck,
with ribs dingy violet-brow n; pulp pale rose, hollow , coarse; flav or agreeable.
Levenssana. Described by Risso (1826) as Ficus car ica smithii, an d by Sau vaigo (1889)
as Levenssan a; d escription of Eisen (1901) is a literal tran slation of that of Sau vaigo.
Variety originated at Levens, near Nice.
Figs m edium , oblate-sp herical; skin har d , glossy, ad hering to th e pulp; color pistachio
green on low er half an d brow nish violet tow ard the ap ex; eye red ; pulp bright red .
Longue d Aot. Described an d illustrat ed by Sim onet et al. (1945, 1947) as a tw o-crop
variety, grow n at Sollies-Pont.
Brebas above m ed iu m , u p to 5 inches lon g and 1-3/ 4 inches in diam eter, elongat ed p yriform , very oblique; neck long an d curved ; stalk of m ediu m length; surface
corru gated by nu m er ou s, p rom inent ribs; eye slightly protruding, open, scales
brow nish; color of skin gold en yellow , with brow n tinge on the sunny sid e; p ulp light
red ; flav or insipid.
Second -crop figs m edium , 2-1/ 4 inches long, pyriform , som ew hat ribbed ; neck short,
or n on e; stalk up to 3/ 4 inch in length; eye closed; skin green, flushed with violetbrow n; pulp rose-colored ; qu ality m ediocre.

Febru ary , 1955]


447

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

McFadden. A seedling fig, d escribed by Rixford (1918b) an d Close (1929) as one of


th e p rogeny of a cross, Agen by Meyer Cap ri N o.2. First fruited on the place of A. J.
McFad d en, San ta Ana. At Riversid e, the tree has prod uced sm all figs, without n eck,
violet to purplish black, with straw berry pulp.
Madeline. Var iety received in 1923 from a grow er at San Jose, California. Prod uced
m ed ium -sized figs, dar k violet in color, with straw berry p ulp. The Mad eline d escribed
by Ear le (1900) is probably Blan che (Mad eleine). Id entity of Mad eline not d eterm ined .
(Plates 9, 11, 12.)
Madre (syns. Figu e d e Mad re, Figue N oire). Described by Merlet (1667), Ballon
(1692), Liger (1702), an d Lan gley (1728), as a lar ge French fig, elongated , reddish brow n
to black, with light-red pulp. Mad re is probably id entical with som e other variety,
such as San Piero.
Malmaison (syn. Bifre d e la Malm aison). Described by Audibert Frres (1854),
H ogg (1866), Bar ron (1891), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). H ogg rep orted for Bifre d e la
Malm aison: Skin of a pale haze l-brow n covered with a thin, grey bloom . Flesh...
ag reeably flav ou red bu t n ot rich.
Eisen follow ed closely the account of Bar ron, w hich stated that th e fruit is below
m ed ium ; skin pale brow n, streaked with purple, with light bloom ; pulp red, very rich.
Audibert Frres regard ed the variety highly, especially for its p rod uction of a first
crop , an d predicted a good futu re for it w hen tran sp ortation facilities im proved. Their
d escrip tion sh ow ed a fig of lar ge size, brow n to reddish black, with a light-rose pulp.
Malta (syns. Sm all Brow n, Celeste, Celestial, Sugar , Blue Celeste, Celeste Violette).
Described as Malta by Miller (1768), H an bury (1770), Forsyth (1803), Brookshaw (1812,
with color plate), Green (1824), George Lindley (1831), H olley (1854), MIntosh (1855),
Dochnah l (1855), an d by Bunyar d an d Th om as (1904). Described as Celeste by Affleck
(1850, 1852, 1854), Wh ite (1868), Massey (1893), Burnette (1894), Eisen (1885, 1897,
1901*),8 Ear le (1900), Price an d Wh ite (1902*), Star nes (1903*), Star nes an d Mon roe
(1907), Anon. (1908), Van Velzer (1909*), Reim er (1910*), Potts (1917), Gould (1919*),
H u m e (1915*), W. S. And erson (1924-1928), Mow ry and Weber (1925), Wo od roof an d
Bailey (1931*), Stan sel an d Wy che (1932), Wood ar d (1938, 1940), Ashley (1940), an d
Cond it (1941a*, 1947*).
The id entity of the Celeste fig, so wid ely grow n in the sou thern United States, has
long been in d ou bt. Wh ite (1868) su ggested that it m ight prove to be the Malta
d escribed by p revious au thors. Others seem to have overlooked this su ggestion, bu t a
close com parison of d escriptions of Malta an d Celeste leav es no d ou bt of th eir id entity.
English w riters reiterat e th e statem ent of Miller, that Malta shrivels on the tree an d
becom es a fine sw eetm eat. Stan sel an d Wy che rep ort that in Texas, Celeste will d ry on
th e tree to som e exten t without souring. Bunyard an d Thom as state that Malta is in all
resp ects like Brow n Turkey except in the shap e of the fruits, w hich ar e shorter an d of
p eg-top shap e. Figue dAutom ne or Celeste, listed by Ballon (1692), an d Liger (1702),
_________________
8 Wh ere asterisks appear in citations, illu str ations of the tree or fru it of this variety are given by authors.

448
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

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as bearing fruit w hich m ay rem ain on the tree during the w inter an d m ature in th e
spring, is ap p ar ently a different variety.
As ear ly as 1850, Th om as Affleck rep orted that of the tw enty-od d sorts of figs in his
orchard at Was hington, Mississippi, the Celeste or Celestial w as the general fav orite.
Sou rce of th e first im portation of Celeste and the significan ce of the nam e have n ot
been lear ned. In its catalogu e of 1828, Bar tram s Botan ic Gar d en, Philad elphia, offered
Coelestial fig trees at fifty cents each. For a centu ry or m ore it has been the lead ing
variety in Louisian a an d Mississippi; Ear le (1897) rep orted that nine-tenths of all figs
grow n in these tw o states w ere Celeste. In Georgia, Wo od ar d show ed that this var iety
ran ked with Brunswick an d Brow n Turkey in high prod uction an d resistan ce to winter
injury.
Althou gh Malta is a com m on fig, trees d o drop a consid erable p ercentage of th eir
crop und er som e circu m stan ces. W. S. And erson found in Mississippi in 1924, that
m an y fruits set, bu t w hen n ot m ore than , one-half inch in diam eter they u su ally
shriveled an d fell off; the trees bore better crop s in d ooryard s than und er orchar d
cond itions, either with clean culture or in perm an ent sod . Canning com panies at St.
Mar tinsville, Elizab eth, an d Jean erette, Louisian a, har vest Malta (Celeste) figs from
d ooryard trees, an d han dle consid erable qu an tities as p reserves u nd er var ious bran d s.
In th e gard en of the restored governors m ansion at William sbu rg, Virginia, there is a
plan ting of fig trees consisting m ostly of this variety.
Malta (Celeste) w as introd uced into California from eastern nu rseries betw een 1860
an d 1870, but on accou nt of the sm all size of th e fruit (has never at tracted atten tion
com m ercially. Individ ual trees are occasionally found in yar d s, but m ost hom eow n ers
p refer varieties w hich either prod uce tw o crop s, or a single crop of lar ger fruit. Trees
ar e hard y, p ar tly on accou nt of prolon ged spring d orm an cy. According to Stan sel an d
Wy che, they w ere n ot injured in Texas by a tem p erature of 11F. in 1930.
In th e southern United States it is generally consid ered to be a vigorou s grow er, bu t
in California trees are slow -growing an d d w arf in hab it as com pared with trees of m ost
com m ercial var ieties. Term inal bud s ar e green. Leav es below m edium , glossy, 3- to 5lobed ; upp er sinu ses m od erately d eep and broad , low er sinu ses shallow ; bas e
subcord ate; m ar gins crenat e.
Breba crop sm all, or m ostly none; in Texas a few brebas occasionally m atu re in May ,
th e individ ual figs being lar ger than those of the m ain crop.
Second -crop figs at Riversid e, California, sm all, up to 1-3/ 4 inches long an d 1-1/ 4
inches in diam eter, pyriform , with neck tap ering grad ually from bod y to stalk; av erage
w eight 14 gram s; stalk slend er, up to 3/ 4 inch long; ribs broad , slightly elevated ; eye
m ed ium , par tly op en, bu t not read ily ad mitting d ried-fruit beetles; scales chaffy, erect at
m atu rity; surface dull, with conspicu ous bloom often absen t from a sharply d efined
ap ical zone; w hite flecks scattered , fairly conspicuous, but becom ing m as ked by m atu re
bod y color; skin checking crisscross at m aturity; color violet-bronze to chocolate
brow n; p ulp straw berry; flav or sw eet an d rich; seed s sm all, har dly noticeable; qu ality
good . Figs d rop an d d ry with out sp oiling. (Plates 9; 25, C.)
Cap rified figs ar e lar ger, sp herical-turbinate; p ronounced violet tint ou tsid e an d d ar k
straw berry insid e flav or subacid ; seed s num erous.

Febru ary , 1955]


449

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Mappafero (syn. Fico Potentino). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909);


d escrip tion in d etail by Don no (1951b). Wid ely plan ted in Lecce Province.
Terminal bud s brick red , as d escribed by Donn o (1951a) leav es m ostly 3-lobed.
Brebas lar ge, 3-1/ 4 inches lon g by 2-1/ 2 inches broad , pyriform ; ribs present; skin
checking irregular ly; color green, tinged with red dish violet; pulp light red .
Second -crop figs m edium , oblate-spherical, broad or flattened at the ap ex, rou nd ed
tow ard the sh ort stalk; color yellowish green, tinged with violet on th e sunny sid e;
w hite flecks elongated ; pulp light red; flav or sw eet, ag reeable. Consu m ed both fresh
an d d ried .
Marseillaise Black (syns. Black Mar seilles, Mar seillaise N egra, Black Provence, Ficu s
car ica p hocean a Risso, according to Sau vaigo). Described by Saw yer (1824), H ogg
(1866), G. S. (1869), Sau vaigo (1889), Bar ron (1891), Eisen (1901), Star nes (1903), an d
Star n es an d Monroe (1907, with illustration). The following accou nt is after that of
Eisen, w hich differs som ew hat from the short one given by H ogg.
Figs m edium , p yriform , with distinct neck; stalk long, abou t on e-third the length of
th e fig; ribs distinct, esp ecially on n eck an d bod y; eye m edium , closed ; scales lar ge, red ;
skin w axy, with thin bloom ; color black; pulp red. Quality good in Provence an d at
Nice.
Marseillaise Long (syns. Grosse Blan che Longu e, Blan che Longue). Described by
Cu p an i (1696), Tournefort (1700), Liger (1702), Gar id el (1715), Bernar d (1787), Rozier
(1805), Duham el (1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel
(1839), Duchar tre (1857), Forney (1863), Eisen (1901), Trab ut (1904), an d Blin (1942).
Accord ing to Rozier, Grosse Blan che Longue is similar to Blan che Rond e (Blan che); the
m ain difference is in the shap e an d color, th e for m er having oblong rather than
globular fruits an d brow n, n ot green, color of skin. Cou verchel an d later au thors list it
as Lon gu e Mar seillaise. It is grow n m ostly in sou thern France. Trab ut stat ed that it w as
introd uced into Algeria previous to 1904, an d grow n both for fresh an d d ried fruit. So
far as know n, it has not been tested in California. Both Gar id el an d Cou verchel
regard ed the brebas as m u ch inferior in qu ality to figs of the second crop . The form er
stat ed that the figs ar e som etim es sp oiled by foggy w eather, h ence are called Figu es
N eblad os. The following d escrip tion is after that of Trab ut.
Figs p yriform , 2-1/ 4 inches long by 1-3/ 4 inches in diam eter; stalk rath er long; ribs
elevat ed ; eye w ith p rojecting scales, surround ed by a br ow n zone; skin d elicate,
ad hering to m eat, checking crisscross at m aturity; w hite flecks present; color dull gray,
tinged with violet-brow n; pulp red, sw eet; seeds sm all, num erou s.
Martinique (syn. Black Mar tiniqu e). Described by Ounou s (1863), an d by Eisen (1888,
1901, after H ogg, 1866). Introd uced into California with the Chiswick collection as P.I.
N o. 18,884, an d fruited at Niles, Chico, Fresn o, an d Riversid e.
The tree is rather d ensely bran ched ; term inal buds ar e br ow n. Leaves m ediu m ,
som ew hat glossy above, 3- to 5-lobed ; upper sinu ses m od erately d eep , rather narr ow ,

450
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

low er sinuses shallow ; base su bcord ate. Description is from figs produced at Riversid e
since 1931.
Brebas very few , or n one. Second -crop figs below m ediu m to sm all, up to 1-1/ 2
inches in length an d the sam e in diam eter; shap e turbinate-spherical to pyriform ,
som etim es obliqu e; av erage w eight 23 gram s; neck distinct, generally som ew hat
flatten ed ; stalk short; ribs prom inent, conspicuou s on account of d eeper coloration than
bod y; eye m edium , op en, surrou nd ed by a zone of lighter color, scales tinged with
violet; su rface d ull, with fairly heavy bloom ; w hite flecks scattered , of m edium size an d
p rom inence; color pu rplish black, with neck rem aining green; p ulp light straw berry,
solid ; flav or rich an d sw eet. Quality good as a fresh fruit; external color p oor w hen
d ried . See Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, G).
Cap rified sp ecim ens, w hen m ature, show checked skin an d dar k-straw berry pulp;
flav or su bacid. (Plate 28, D.)
Martinique White. Described by Eisen (1901) as a sm all fig, p yriform , with short
neck an d prom inent, sw ollen cheeks; ribs distinct, few ; eye op en, lar ge; color yellowish
green, with ribs flushed violet; p ulp red, w ell flav ored . A m ost excellent fig for
can ning.
Maure. Described by Risso (1826) as Ficus car ica caffra. Figs near ly sp herical; Skin
thick, glossy; color black; bloom pruinose; ribs nar row ; pulp light red; seed s num erous.
Meirana (syn. Ficus car ica m eiran a Risso, according to Sau vaigo). Description b y
Eisen (1901), after that of Sau vaigo (1889), as a var iety grow n at Levens, Fran ce,
p rod ucing tw o crop s. Brebas very lar ge, brow nish black; pulp red . Second-crop figs
black; pulp rose-colored .
Melagrano (syns. Franciscan a, San Fran ce, Fico Unico, Fico di Sp ag na, Fico Robad o,
Ficus car ica fran ciscan a Risso, F. p olym orp ha var. haem atocarpa Gaspar rini). Described
by Gallesio (1817), Risso (1826), Gaspar rini (1845), Duchar tre (1857), Pasqu ale (1876),
Rod a (1881), Sauvaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), Trab ut (1904), Sim on et et al. (1945), an d
Tam aro (1948, as Gran ad o). Gallesio rep orted that Melag ran o w as not being grow n in
central Italy, but that trees w ere com m on near Genoa an d in certain other localities. In
sou th ern Fran ce it w as kn ow n as Fico di San Fran cesco. The nam e Fico di Sp ag na is
d u e to th e fact that a variety of Valencia, Spain, w as ap par ently id entical. Trab u t
rep orted that Fran ciscan a, or Figu e dEsp agne, com m on in Oran , w as som etim es
confu sed with Verd ale.
Accord ing to Gallesio, th e tree has spread ing bran ches an d 3-lobed leav es. Breba
crop n one. Second -crop figs m ediu m , 2 to 2-1/ 2 inches in diam eter, tu rbinate; skin
checking crisscross at m aturity; color greenish violet; pulp blood red , like that of a
p om egran ate; good both fresh an d d ried. In w et w eat her, figs split wid e open an d
spoil.
Melinga (syn. Figue Melingu e). Described by Merlet (1667); his accou nt alm ost
exactly follow ed by Ballon (1692), Liger (1702), Lan gley (1728), an d Bradley (1757).
Figs rep orted to be rath er sm all, elongated ; violet outsid e an d red insid e; qu ality
excellent. Fruits tend to d rop w hen nearly m ature.
Melouba. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gafsa, Tunisia. Leav es m ediu m , 3lobed ; sinuses d eep; p etiolar sinu s none. Figs m edium ; eye op en; color violet,

Febru ary , 1955]


451

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

with ribs d ar ker; pulp hollow , light rose in color; qu ality very g ood .
Mentonasca (syn. Menton e). Described by Sauvaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as a
variety gr ow n near Mentone an d Nice, prod ucing figs ab ove m ed iu m in size, pyriform ;
skin thin, dar k violet in color pulp red .
Merengiana (syns. Mar an gian o, Melan cian o, Melan zan a, Par migian o, Dottato N er o
or Rosso, Ficus car ica m elitensis Risso). Described by Risso (1826), Sauvaigo (1889),
Eisen (1901), Guglielmi (1908), Vallese (1909, with illustrations of leav es an d fruit), an d
De Rosa (1911). F. car ica m elitensis, or Figue d e Malta, d escribed by Risso, w as
record ed by Sau vaigo as Meren gian o. The nam e Melan cian o im plies black, w hile
Melan zan a suggests resem blan ce of the color of this fig to that of an eggplan t.
Accord ing to Vallese, this var iety is kn ow n in som e districts as Dottato Rosso.
Meren gian a is grow n to a limited exten t on ly in sou thern Italy, w hile in Fran ce it is
fou nd along the Riviera. A var iety gr ow n by Italian resid ents of Was hington, D.C., an d
called by them Eggplan t or Melan zan a, has fruited at Riversid e, California, an d proved
to be th e sam e as Fran ciscan a.
Leav es of the tree ar e generally 3-lobed . Description of fruit is after that of Vallese.
Breba crop born e only in fav orable year s; fruit lar ge, obconical, with rou nd ed apex;
color green, tinged with purple on exp osed sid e; pulp pale rose, sw eet.
Second -crop figs oblate-sp herical (as show n in fig. 75 of Vallese); stalk short; color
violet; bloom pruinose; skin read ily p eeled from m eat; pulp light red ; flav or sw eet,
pleasing. Consu m ed fresh; not m u ch ad apted to d rying, as it is subject to sp oilag e in
som e seas ons.
Merioun (syns. Fico Fetifero, Fico d allOsso, Ficus car ica nucleata Risso). Described
by Gallesio (1817), Risso (1826), Sauvaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), an d Sim onet et al. (1945).
This var iety w as d escribed by Gallesio as Fico Fetifero, or fetu s-bearing fig, becau se
th e bod y of m an y of the fruits bore at th e apex a crum pled an d irregular second fruit,
with scales at the bas e. In Pied m ont it w as know n as Fico d allOsso, b ony fig, on
accou nt of the hard ness of th e second ar y fig, an alogous to nut fruits, com m only called
fruit ston es. This m onstrosity is similar to the fruit of Cap rificus gigan tea (Gran d e),
illustrat ed by Gaspar rini in 1845, an d to som e of the teratological form s of figs discussed
by Penzig (1922). Accord ing to Eisen, Tap a Cartin (Grosse Jau ne) d evelops a similar
m onstr osity at the ap ex of the fruit. Gallesio rep orted that in spite of its m alform ed
fruit, Meriou n vied with other varieties in Pied m ont, an d w as found along the slop es of
th e coastal Alps, esp ecially at Saluzzo . Eisen, on th e other hand, stated that it is a
curiou s but not a valu able fig, an d is rar e in Provence.
The tree bears tw o crops. Description of fruit follow s that of Eisen.
Brebas up to 3 inches in diam eter, bell-shaped , flatten ed at the ap ex, som e fruits
con tracted at the m id dle; upper p ar t violet, low er par t greenish yellow ; pulp red, sw eet,
ag reeable, but d ry an d har d ar ou nd the eye.
Second -crop figs sm aller, bu t similar in m ost char acters.
Merlinga. Described briefly by Sau vaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), an d Sim on et et al.
(1945), as gr ow n n ear Nice. Figs generally borne in pairs, below m edium , turbinate,

452
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

with long, slend er n eck; color d ar k brow n to violet on the neck; pulp red .
Messina. Described by Portale (1910) as Fico Messinese. A violet-colored fig, with
sh ort stalk; pulp red.
Mignonne (syn. Minion). Described by Merlet (1667), Ballon (1692), Liger (1702),
Lan gley (1728), H an bu ry (1770), an d George Lindley (1831). The accou nt of Mignonn e
by Merlet is m ore or less closely follow ed by th e other au th ors. Figs sm all, violetbrow n; pulp red , highly flav ored ; qu ality excellent.
Minuto Nero. Described by Ferrari (1912) as similar to Minuto Bian co, but black in
Color. Figs sm all, tu rbinate; pulp red ; qu ality good .
Monaie. Described by Socit Pom ologiqu e d e France (1887, 1947) an d Eisen (1888,
1901). Tree is of lar ge size, producing one crop in Sep tem ber. Figs ab ove m edium ,
oblon g-spherical; skin thick, bronze in color, prom inently strip ed with violet; pulp red ;
qu ality good .
Moscatel Preto (syn. Bbera). Described an d illustrat ed by Bobon e (1932). Kn ow n as
Moscatel Preto at Coim bra, an d Bbera at Cacela an d on the islan d of Mad eira.
The tree prod uces tw o crops. Mello Leotte (1901), on th e oth er han d , d escribed
Bbera as a variety w hich d oes not pr od uce a first crop , an d the second crop as
requ iring cap rification.
Brebas obliqu e-pyriform , som etim es m u ch elongated ; neck thick; stalk short; color
violet-black; pulp dar k car mine, streaked with violet; flav or sw eet an d ag reeable.
Second -crop figs pyriform , elongated specim ens unu su al in having th e internal cavity
nar row ed at the bas e rath er than round ed ; stalk short; color green tow ard the stalk,
violet on the bod y; su rface sm ooth, pu berulent; pulp car mine; textu re fine; qu ality
good .
Mouissonne (syns. Mouissonne N oire, Bouissonne, Moissoa, Figue Violette, Ficus
car ica m ovissona Risso). Described by Gar id el (1715), La Brousse (1774), Bernar d (1787),
Rozier (1805), Lam ar ck (1817), Duham el (1755, 1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), Risso
(1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), Audibert Frres (1854), Duchar tre (1857),
H ogg (1866), Du Breuil (1876), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887, 1947), Sau vaigo (1889; 1894),
Eisen (1888, 1901), Colby (1894), Star n es an d Mon roe (1907), Rolet (1916), Mazires
(1920), Leclerc (1925), Bois (1928), Sim onet et al. (1945, 1947), Evreinoff (1947), an d
Delbar d (1947). See Rollan d (1914) for syn onym y. Illustrat ed in color by Du ham el; in
black an d w hite by Eisen, Star nes an d Monroe, an d by Sim onet.
Mouissonne is a French variety, grow n in the Depar tm ent of the Var, esp ecially at
H yres, Nice, an d Grasse. The only d escrip tion by an au thor in Englan d is that of
H ogg, an d the account by Eisen ap pear s to hav e been com piled. Colby gives a brief
d escrip tion an d an an alysis of Missonn e, from fruits grow n at Fresn o, California.
Accord ing to Eisen, Bouissonne w as once intr od uced from France by Felix Gillet, of
N evad a City; no trees ar e now know n to occur in California collections.
The following d escrip tion is from that of Sim on et et al. (1945). Leav es are of m ediu m
size, d eeply 3- to 5-lobed .

Febru ary , 1955]


453

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Brebas few , m ed iu m , pyriform ; n eck short; av erage w eight 50 gram s; ribs n ot


p rom inent; stalk short; eye sm all, with violet scales; color violet, m erging into green
tow ard the stalk; skin checking lengthwise at m atu rity; pulp red, of sw eet flav or an d
fine textu re; seed s nu m er ous, sm all; qu ality good .
Second crop ab u nd an t; figs m ediu m , pyriform to turbinate; neck short, or n one;
av erage w eight 40 gram s; ribs not m uch in evid ence; stalk short; eye in a slight
d epression, sm all, with violet scales; skin d elicate, checking crisscross at m aturity; color
d ar k violet; bloom pr om inen t, p ruinose; pulp dar k red ; seed s sm all. Quality good for
fresh-fruit shipm en ts.
Mourenao (syns. Bag assa, Ficus car ica m ourenao Risso). Described by Bernard
(1787), Duham el (1809), Risso (1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), Sau vaig o
(1889), an d Eisen (1901). See Rollan d (1914) for synon ym y. Illustrat ed in color by
Duham el. According to Risso, Mourenao is know n as Bag assa in the vicinity of
Villefran che. Most d escrip tions follow closely that of Risso.
The figs ar e sm all, globular ; skin thick, checking crisscross, violet-black in color; th e
pulp is w hite, according to Bernard an d Duham el, red, accord ing to Risso an d Eisen;
qu ality m ediocre.
Museau de Livre. Described an d illustrat ed by Starnes an d Mon roe (1907) as a
French fig of m ed ium size, obliqu e-tu rbinate, with prom inent ribs, violet-brow n skin,
an d light-rose p ulp; a shy prod ucer. The ap plication of th e nam e, rabbits nose, is not
clear .
Nain. Briefly d escribed by Merlet (1667) as a violet fig with red pulp; sam e accou nt
given by Ballon (1692), Lan gley (1728), an d Bradley (1757). Knoop (1771), how ever,
rep orted that Dod onaeus, Lobel, Dalecham p, an d other an cient au thors m entioned
Figuier N ain; bu t later w riters w ere of the opinion that this dw ar f fig w as sim ply a tree,
p oorly n ou rished , as if gr ow n in a pot.
Napolitaine (syns. N ap olitan o, N eap olitan ). Described by Audibert Frres (1854),
Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), Soc. Pom ol. d e France (1887, 1947), Eisen (1888,
1901), Trab u t (1904), Mazires (1920), San chez (1922), an d Blin (1942). This is probably
th e sam e as N ap olitan o, d escribed an d figured by Pasqu ale (1876), an d distribu ted in
Fran ce u nd er the nam e N ap olitaine. Eisen (1888) ventured the opinion that it w as
id entical with Troian o, so wid ely gr ow n and highly regar d ed at N ap les. Troian o,
h ow ever, prod uces no first crop, or only a scan ty on e, w hile N ap olitaine is d escribed as
p rod uctive of tw o crop s in southern France.
The tree is said to be vigorous, an d very prod uctive. The following d escription is
after that of Socit Pom ologiqu e d e Fran ce.
Brebas lar ge; elongat ed -oval; color green, suffused with violet-bronze; pulp red;
qu ality fair.
Second -crop figs m edium , turbinate; skin color sam e as brebas; pulp red , sw eet;
qu ality very good .
Negrette (syns. N egretta, Rock Fig, Ficu s car ica nigra Risso). Described by Risso
(1826, p robably), Sauvaigo (1889), Eisen (1888, 1901), an d Sim on et et al. (1945); the last
with an ou tline d raw ing of th e fruit. N egrette is confused with N egr onne. Risso
d escribed a variety as F. car ica nigra, or b lack fig, an d referred to previou s

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d escrip tions by Gar id el, Bernar d , an d Duham el, all three of w hom called it N egronne.
Sau vaigo, Eisen, an d Sim on et d escribe N egrette as the variety treated by Risso.
N egronn e is regard ed here as syn onym ous w ith Bord eau x. The nam e Rock Fig is listed
by Eisen on accou nt of the ability of N egrette to th rive in rocky places. The following
d escrip tion is after that of Sim on et.
Leav es sm all to m edium , entire, or 3-lobed.
Brebas few , sm all; av erage w eight 25 gram s; shap e tu rbinate to p yriform ; neck n one,
or very sh ort; stalk sh ort; eye sm all, closed , som ew hat d epressed , scales violet; ribs w ell
m arked; color d ar k violet, with pruinose bloom ; pulp red ; seed s num erous; qu ality
m ed iocre.
Second -crop figs m u ch the sam e in fruit char acters as th e brebas. Sau vaigo an d Eisen
give th e p ulp as p ale yellow .
Nerolello. Described by Pasqu ale (1876) an d Sav astan o (1885) as an Italian fig,
m ed ium , with long stalk; color reddish violet; pulp red . Fruit som etim es proliferat ed .
Good for d rying.
Noir Moutier. Briefly d escribed by Eisen (1888, 1901) as a very rich tab le fig of the
Loire, Fran ce, introd uced into California by Felix Gillet, of N evad a City. It w as fou nd at
th e Pom ona Experim ent Station in 1897, that N oir Moutier w as a lar ge, brow n fig, not
yet affected by fig souring. Eisen gave the color as yellow , with red stripes. A var iety
lab eled N oir Moutier w as secu red in 1927 from a grow er near Pom ona, w ho regard ed
it as d esirable for brebas bu t inferior for the second crop. Trees have fruited at Fresn o
an d Riversid e. The following d escription is from sp ecim ens studied at Riversid e since
1933.
Tree vigorous, with ou ter bran ches d rooping; term inal bud s green.
Breba crop fair; fruits below m edium to sm all, turbinate to pyriform with short, thick
neck; stalk sh ort; eye m edium ; ribs fairly prom inent, narrow w hite flecks scattered ,
inconspicu ou s; bloom d elicate; color bronze, tinged with violet; m eat thin, violet; p ulp
straw berry; texture rath er d ry; flav or m od erately rich; qu ality fair.
Second -crop figs d rop bad ly w hen sm all, but som e m ature withou t cap rification; size
m ed ium ; av erage w eight 28 gram s; shap e spherical, without neck, or on vigorou s
w ood with neck prom inent and flattened ; eye lar ge, op en, scales tinged with violet;
surface som ew hat glossy, with p rom inent bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge, scattered ,
conspicuous; color greenish violet to m ah ogany; p ulp straw berry; qu ality poor.
Cap rified figs som ew hat lar ger, greenish violet in color; p ulp d ar k straw berry;
av erage w eight 36 gram s. Flav or rich an d sweet, but figs ar e sm all, an d of no p ar ticular
valu e. (Plate 17, E.)
Noral. Described by Escriban o y Perez (1884) as a Sp an ish var iety, prod ucing tw o
crop s.
Brebas lar ge, of m ediocre qu ality. Second -crop figs turbinate, 1-1/ 2 inches long; stalk
thick, sh ort; color light green in the shad e, tinged with reddish br ow n on th e sunny
sid e; skin checking crisscross at m aturity; pulp light red . Quality good fresh; very good
for d rying.
Nourchi (syns. Mat m ata, El H am m a). Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gab s,
Tunisia. Leaves m edium , variable in shape and lobing, som e n onlobed . Figs pyriform ;
stalk short; eye op en; color greenish violet; pulp red ; seed s few .

Febru ary , 1955]


455

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Observantine (syns. Cotignan a, Observan tire Gris, Ficu s car ica cotignan a Risso).
Described by Bernar d (1787), Risso (1826), Sauvaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), Blin (1942), an d
Sim on et et al. (1945, 1947); the last with illustration of first an d second -crop figs. See
Rollan d (1914) for synonym y; also, th e discussion und er Cord elire elsew here in this
m on ograp h of th e confu sion regard ing that an d other variety nam es. A French fig,
cultivated at Sollies-Pont for shipping, notwithstan d ing d elicacy of the fruit for
transp ort; rep orted by Sauvaigo to withstan d the winters near Par is. N ot found in
California.
Tree lar ge, u p right, prod ucing tw o crop s; leav es 3- to 5-lobed ; with long, pubescent
p etiole. Description after that of Sauvaigo.
Brebas lar ge, u p to 3-1/ 4 inches in length, elongated-pyriform , broad at the ap ex,
ab ru ptly constricted tow ar d the bas e; stalk lon g; skin thick, tend er, checking at
m atu rity; color green, tinged with pale lilac; pulp light red , very sw eet. Much in
d em an d as fresh fruit.
Second -crop figs sm aller, lighter in color, oblong; eye surr ound ed by a rose-colored
au reole; pulp red ; qu ality fair. Sup erior for d rying.
il de Perdrix (Eye of the Par trid ge, Pheasan t Eye). Described by La Brousse (1774),
H ogg (1866), G. S. (1869), Bar ron (1868c, 1891), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). Before 1866, this
French variety w as introd uced into England , w here it fruited an d received the
com m ents of various h orticultu rists. Bar ron rep orted it to be similar to Ischia Wh ite in
that the tree fruited as profusely as a gooseberry bush; the fruit had a lar ge,
p rom inent eye, an d w as of second qu ality. G. S. found the figs to be w ithout an y
p eculiar beau ty, such as on e w ould exp ect from the nam e.
P.I. N o. 18,842 of the Chiswick collection w as lab eled il d e Perd rix. Scions of this
variety, obtained from the Angleton, Texas, station, prod uced fruit in 1944 at Riversid e.
The following short d escrip tion is from notes taken at Chico an d Riversid e in
com p arison with the accou nt of H ogg.
Second -crop figs below m edium to sm all, short-tu rbinate to oblate; neck short an d
thick, or n on e; stalk sh ort; ribs only slightly elevated; eye m ed iu m to lar ge, op en, scales
violet; su rface dull; color chestnu t brow n to m ah ogan y; pulp light straw berry; flav or
insipid ; qu ality fair to p oor.
Cap rified figs lar ger, with d eep-straw berry pulp, rich in flav or; qu ality good , but figs
of n o p ar ticular value.
Ome (syns. Figo dOm e; Ficus car ica richeta Risso, according to Eisen). Described b y
Sau vaigo (1889), w hose brief account is tran slat ed by Eisen (1901). Figs m edium , up to
2 inches in diam eter; eye red , with green iris; skin black; pulp bright red . Grow n at Nice
an d alon g th e Riviera.
Paradiso. Described by Cupan i (1696), Gallesio (1817), Gaspar rini (1845), Duchar tr e
(1857), Pasqu ale (1876), Sav astan o (1885), Vallese (1909), Ferrar i (1912), an d by Tam ar o
(1948) as Par aso (probably). Illustrations of leaves an d fruit by Vallese. The short Latin
d escrip tion of this var iety by Gallesio is und er the h ead ing Ficus car ica bifera; he
regard ed the first-crop figs as better than th e second. Gaspar rini used the term Ficu s
d eliciosa, with the com m on nam e Fico Par adiso; he stat ed that it w as the belief of
grow ers that second -crop figs requ ired caprification.
Par ad iso is a N eap olitan var iety, disseminat ed near Genoa as Albero dOro.

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Trees w ere rar e alon g the Riviera, accord ing to Gallesio, but som e w ere grow n in
Provence. Sav as tan o n oted that trees of Par adiso w ere grow n prim arily for prod uction
of th e first crop. In his account, Vallese rep orted that it w as w ell distribu ted in Lecce
Province, but he d id not give d escriptive notes of the first crop.
The leav es are of m ed iu m size, generally 5-lobed .
Brebas (accord ing to Gallesio) m ediu m , elongated ; skin green, with w hite flecks;
m eat violet, like that of Dottato; pulp light rose, d elicate; flav or exqu isite.
Second -crop figs (according to Vallese) tu rbinate, slightly oblique; ribs p resent on
low er half of th e bod y; stalk rather sh ort; skin greenish yellow , shad ed with violet on
th e ribs, especially on th e sunny sid e; pulp wine red , very sw eet. Fruit p roduced over a
long seas on, from August an d Septem ber to Decem ber an d Jan uar y. Mar keted only
fresh.
Pardo. Described an d illustrat ed by Bobon e (1932) from specim ens collected at Loul.
Second -crop figs oblate-sp herical; skin green , streaked with violet, sm ooth, d ull; pulp
car m ine, coarse, soft; flav or fairly ag reeable; qu ality m ediocre.
Partridge Eye. A var iety lab eled Par tridge Eye w as introd uced in 1925 from
Gran ad a, Spain, und er P.I. N o. 62,780. Trees, fruiting at Riversid e since 1926, hav e
p rod uced figs different from the varieties d escribed as il d e Perd rix an d Ojo d e Perdiz.
There is n o breba crop, an d the second crop is late in m atu ring.
The tree is vigor ou s, with sp read ing top ; term inal bud s ar e green.
Figs m ediu m , obovate, with or without a sh ort neck; average w eight 36 gram s; stalk
up to 1/ 2 inch lon g; eye sm all, bu t sufficiently op en to ad m it d ried-fruit beetles; surface
som ew hat glossy, with d elicate bloom ; color greenish violet; pulp light straw berry;
textu re d ry, som ew hat m u shy; qu ality fair. At Los Angeles, m ost of the fruits shrivel
an d d rop without reaching perfect m atu rity.
Cap rifled figs lar ger, with dar k-straw berry pulp; not im proved by cap rification. A
w orthless fig in California. (Plate 28, A.)
Pastilire (syns. Pastidire, Pastellire, Hirta, Hirta du Japon, d el Giap p on e, Jap an ese,
Ficus hirta). Pastilire is d escribed by G. S. (1869), Colby (1894), Forrer (1894), Trab u t
(1904), Eisen (1897, 1901), Cond it (1921b, 1947), an d Braunton (1936). Hirta is d escribed
by Bar ron (1891), Eisen (1888, 1901), Shinn (1893, 1903,1915), Colby (1894), Forrer
(1894), Sim on-Louis Frres (1895), Price an d Wh ite (1902), Star nes (1903), Star nes and
Mon roe (1907, with figure), an d Blin (1942).
The origin an d id entity of th e variety Pastilire are som ew hat in d oubt. Eisen (1888)
listed it as com ing from Italy, but in his later publication h e om itted an y reference to its
origin. It is illustrat ed an d d escribed in Eisens bulletin of 1901, with the following
com m ent: If the w riter could plan t only on e blu e variety, it w ould certainly be this fig.
The fine form of the tree, its ab u nd an t crop ping, an d the su perior qu ality of the fruit
should m ak e this fig a fav orite all over the Pacific Coas t.
Pastilire w as grow n an d tested at the California Experim en t Stations from 1891 to
1903, with rep orts su ch as the following: At Jackson, the best black fig;

Febru ary , 1955]


457

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

at Pas o Robles, a very d esirable variety; at Tular e, ran ked first with Hirta du Japon so
far as bearing w as concerned ; at Pom ona, Hirta du Japon w as a heav y prod ucer in 1892,
bu t in 1895 w as utterly w orthless, as the figs soured an d rotted on the tree. In 1894,
H an sen rep orted Pastilire as the best black fig at the Foothill station. P.I. N o. 18,888 of
th e Chiswick collection w as lab eled Pastilire. According to notes taken at Chico in
Sep tem ber, 1921, fruits of this introd uction w ere sm all, purplish black, an d of no
p ar ticular valu e, either fresh or d ried. A com m ercial plan ting of Pastilire, consisting of
ab ou t eighty trees, w as m aintained for several years at th e Point Lom a h om estead , San
Diego. The crops of fresh figs d uring the five-year p eriod, 1921 to 1925, varied from
3,909 to 8,580 p ound s, obtained from the single crop ripening in Au gust. Another sm all
plan ting w as m ad e at Vacaville, but th ere the variety w as fou nd to be inferior to
Mission (Fran ciscan a).
Accord ing to Sim on-Louis Frres (1895), Hirta is a Japan ese variety, introd uced into
Fran ce by M. d e Siebold . Bar ron d escribed it in 1891 as one of Rivers Brothers
introd uctions. Trab u t (1904) stat ed that it had been brou ght only recently into Algeria.
In California, it w as d escribed by Eisen in 1888 as a fruit covered with a d ow ny fu zz.
In 1901, he d escribed it as a pu rple fig, with skin sm ooth, but n ot w axy; not d ow n y,
even w h en m agnified , an d ad d ed that there w as rep orted to be an other Hirta with
d ow ny fruit, also from Jap an . Colby (1894) gave an alyses of th e fruit from Tular e
Cou n ty. Shinn (1903, 1915) stated that Hirta du Japon is a d ar k-purple fig, of high
qu ality for hom e gard ens. Hirta du Japon, obtained in 1920 from J. C. Shinn, Niles, has
p roved to be id entical with Pastilire in var iety tests. It w as includ ed in the Chiswick
collection from Englan d as P.I. N o. 18,857.
Variou s accounts rep ort that the tree of Pastilire is of slow , com pact grow th, so that
it might be called a d w ar f tree. G. S. (1869) stated that both tree an d leav es w ere
ill-shaped , an d that m ost of the fruit d ropped off, im perfect. At Riversid e, tw o trees of
Pastilire an d on e of Hirta, all plan ted in 1928, hav e been d ecid edly dw ar f in habit of
grow th. Furtherm ore, b oth tru nk an d bran ches show prom inent nod al sw ellings
char acteristic of this an d of certain oth er varieties. (Plate 5.)
Terminal bud s ar e plu m p, short, an d green in color, tinged with br ow n. Leav es
below m edium to sm all, m ostly 3-lobed , but m an y nonlobed; upp er sinu ses shallow ,
basal sinu ses shallow an d broad ; base som etim es truncate; surface slightly glossy;
m argins coarsely serrate. The following d escription is based m ainly on fruit p roduced
by Pastilire trees obtained in 1920 from the California Nu rsery Com pan y, Niles.
Brebas none, or rare. Second crop abu nd an t. Figs m ed ium , 1-1/ 2 to 2-1/ 2 inches in
length an d ab ou t the sam e in diam eter, tu rbinat e or oblate; w eight of individual fruits
from 27 to 55 gram s; neck absent, or w hen present, sh ort an d thick; stalk purple, thick,
som etim es p rom inently enlar ged tow ard the ap ex, up to 1 inch in length, loosely
attached to the twig, so that figs seld om d ry on the tree, but d rop w hen m ature; ribs
nar row , slightly raised , conspicu ou s on the im m atu re fruit becau se of earlier coloration
than bod y; eye lar ge, op en, scales purple, with scar ious m argins; surface d ull, with very
conspicuous, pruinose bloom , thickly studd ed with prom inen t, har sh hairs

458
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

(hence th e variety nam e Hirta); w hite flecks lar ge, conspicuou s at first, but finally
obscu red by bod y coloration; skin fairly ten d er, checking crisscross at m aturity; color
purplish black; m eat w hite; pulp gelatinou s in textu re, light straw berry in color, hollow
at th e center; flav or insipid , w atery. Seed coats not at all d evelop ed, or only par tially so;
pulp is therefore alm ost seedless. Qu ality at Riversid e fair to p oor. See Condit (1941a,
fig. 2, C). (Plates 10; 28, E.)
Cap rified figs som ew hat lar ger, with dar k-straw berry pulp an d lar ge, fertile seed s.
A fig of no value for d rying an d of little value for fresh fruit, on accou nt of variable
sizes, loose stalk, p rom inent spicules on the skin, an d insipid flav or.
Peau Dure (syns. Dure Peau , Peld ure, Peau dne). Described by La Brousse (1774),
Audibert Frres (1854), H ogg (1866), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887, 1947), Bar ron (1891),
Eisen (1901), Star nes and Mon roe (1907, with illustration), an d B. A. Bunyar d (1925).
The syn on ym Verte Bru ne is ascribed to this variety by som e au th ors, but is treat ed in
this m on ograp h as a distinct kind . According to La Brousse, the nam e Peau Du re
referred to the close ad herence of the firm skin to th e m eat; he ad d ed that the fresh figs
sold in French m arkets at prices som etim es dou ble those of other var ieties.
The id entity of Peau Du re in California collections is in d oubt. P.I. N o. 18,838 of th e
Chiswick collection proved to be the sam e as Drap dOr an d Royal Vineyard , w hich
belon g to th e San Ped ro class, as d escribed elsew here. The Peau Dure of French
au th ors ap p ar ently bears tw o crops. The latest account, that of Socit Pom ologiqu e
d e France (1947), is follow ed here. The tree is d escribed as m ediu m in size, vigorous,
an d very p rod uctive.
Brebas m edium , p yriform ; skin glossy, firm ; color brow n, flushed with olive green;
pulp reddish, slightly acid in flav or; qu ality very good .
Second -crop figs sm aller, round ed at the ap ex, the bod y abrup tly nar row ed into a
long n eck; skin firm ; color olive, tinged with violet in the sun. Resistan t to rain d am age;
excellent for d rying.
Pecciolo Nero. Described an d figured by Baldini (1953) from Firenze, Italy;
p rod ucing one crop only.
Tree with spread ing branches; term inal buds light rose in color. Leav es m ostly 5lobed ; m iddle lobe sp atulate, obtu se, basal lobes often fused with the middle ones; bas e
shallowly cord ate; upper sinu ses d eep an d open.
Figs pyriform , with short, slend er neck; stalk slend er, recurved ; eye sm all, closed ,
obscu rely violet; skin checking at m aturity, alm ost black; pulp solid (p robably red ).
Con su m ed fresh, an d som etim es d ried. More highly regar d ed than Pecciolo Bian co.
Peconjudo (syns. Pd oncule; Peconjud e Gris; Peconjano; Pecoulian o; Ficus car ica
longicaud ata Risso, accord ing to Eisen). Described by Risso (1826), Duchar tre (1857), Du
Breuil (1876), Eisen (1888, 1901), Sauvaigo (1889), an d Sim on et et al. (1945). This var iety
is not rep resen ted in California collections, an d app ar en tly has n ot been grow n in
Englan d. The following d escrip tion is ad apted from that of Sim onet, w ho gives
Fayence as the locality in France w here it is grow n.

Febru ary , 1955]


459

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

The tree prod uces n o brebas. Leav es ar e sm all, an d d eeply 3-lobed.


Second -crop figs m ed ium to sm all, up to 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter an d 1-3/ 4 inches in
length; shap e pyriform , with neck ab sen t, or n ot prom inent; av erage w eight 25 gram s;
stalk lon g; ribs not m uch in evid ence; eye sm all, closed , scales rose-colored ; skin firm ;
color yellowish green, slightly tinged with blue or burnt u m ber; pulp red; qu ality good ;
seed s sm all, nu m erous.
Pedral. Described an d figured by Bobon e (1932) as a Portuguese variety, bearing
tw o crops. Brebas turbinate to oblon g, yellowish green, with violet sp ots. Second -crop
figs oblate-sp herical; stalk short; pulp car mine, coarse; qu ality fair.
Penna (syn. Fico Rescio at Mesag ne). Described an d illustrat ed by Vallese (1909);
collected at Torre Penna on th e Ad riatic coast, n orth of Brindisi.
Leav es 3- to 5-lobed . Crops tw o, but brebas n ot available for d escription. Figs
globular , without n eck; ribs slightly elevated ; skin tend er, with scattered w hite flecks,
checking at m aturity; color green tow ard the stalk, violet on the bod y, especially on
exp osed sid e an d on ribs; pulp rose-colored ; flav or sw eet, subacid .
Pentolello. Described by Sav astan o (1885) as a var iety grow n at Sorrento, Italy,
p rod ucing ab und an t crops. Figs m edium , turbinate; skin black, checking at m atu rity;
pulp rose-colored . Good for table use.
Perouas (syns. Velu e, Pelou a, Ficus car ica pilosa Risso). Described by Bernard (1787),
Duham el (1809), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), Risso (1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel
(1839), Dochnah l (1855), Sauvaigo (1889), Eisen (1901), an d by Starn es an d Mon roe
(1907). Eisen listed the nam es Cortice Crasso; Setosa, an d Velvet as synon ym s, but did
n ot give their origin or m ean ing; he stated that the sp elling, Perouas, w as p robably an
error for Pelou as. H ow ever, the earliest reference found to this var iety, that of
Bernar d (1787), gave it as Per ou as, signifying h airy, on account of the p rom inent
pubescence. N o record has been found of an y introd uction of Per ou as into the United
States, an d the d escrip tion by Eisen is evid ently tak en from French au thors. In fact, the
accou nt by Duham el (1809) is alm ost id entical with that of Bernard.
The tree is rep orted to be p rod uctive, an d not p ar ticular as to soil conditions. Leav es
ar e 5-lobed.
Figs ar e above m ed iu m , p yriform ; skin tend er, pu bescent; color violet brow n; p ulp
p ale rose. Consu m ed fresh.
Perroquine (syns. Perru qu ire, Violette Perruqu ine, Argusela, Dou qu eira, Dou qu eira
N egra, Peroquina, Monginenco ["in the vicinity of Grasse], Ficus carica nicaeensis
Risso). Described by Bernard (1787), Du ham el (1809), Risso (1826), N oisette (1829),
Cou verchel (1839), Duchar tre (1857), H ogg (1866), Sauvaigo (1889), Eisen (1888, 1901),
Trab ut (1904), an d Sim on et et al. (1945). Illustrated by Duham el in color; by Eisen an d
Sim on et in black an d w hite. Douqu eira N egra an d Perroqu ine ar e treated as distinct
varieties by Eisen, bu t ar e regard ed as synon ym ous by Sim on et. According to
Sau vaigo and Risso, Dou qu eira originated near Nice (hence the nam e F. carica
nicaeensis), w here it w as regar d ed as one of the old est an d best-kn ow n figs of th e
district.
The tree prod uces tw o crop s, of w hich the first is the m ost im p ortant.

460
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Leav es are of m ed iu m size, 3- to 5-lobed . Descrip tion is after that of Sim on et, fro m
specim ens grow n at Villefran che-sur-Mer.
Brebas m ed iu m , 2-1/ 2 inches long by 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter; average w eight 35
gram s; shap e elongated -pyriform ; neck gradually tap ering fr om bod y of fig to th e
stalk; ribs p resent, extending from stalk to ap ex; eye in a slight d epression, closed , with
violet scales; surface finely pubescent, with pruinose bloom ; color reddish violet, with
lighter shad e tow ar d the stalk an d on sid e not exp osed to the sun; skin ad hering to th e
violet m eat; p ulp red , solid , not very Juicy; seed s sm all, rather nu m erous; qu ality fair to
good .
Second -crop figs m uch sm aller than brebas, pyriform ; color u niform ly violet-black,
p ruinose; skin not checking at m aturity; pulp red. Qu ality only fair fresh, but g ood
w hen d ried.
Pissalutto Nero (syns. Pissalutto N egr o, Pittalusse N oire, Sar nese N er o, Su ffren,
Ficus car ica suffrenia Risso). Described by Gallesio (1817), Risso (1826), Sem m ola (1845),
Eisen (1901), an d Sim onet at al. (1945). According to Gallesio, this variety is grow n n ear
Gen oa, bu t is inferior to Pissalutto Bian co. The following d escription is from that of
Sim on et, taken from trees grow ing near Antibes, Fran ce, yielding one crop only in late
Sep tem ber.
Second -crop figs m edium , pyriform , with p rom inent, slend er neck; stalk long, read ily
d etached from th e twig; eye sm all, open, scales pink; ribs slightly elevated ; color d ar k
violet, shad ing to green tow ard the stalk; pulp red ; seed s sm all, num er ous; qu ality
good .
Poona. Described briefly an d illustrat ed in color by N aik (1949), as the m ost prolific
variety on the plains of India. Figs m edium , obliqu e-pyriform , light p urple; pulp rosy,
sw eet an d w ell-flav ored .
Poulette. Described by Audibert Frres (1854), Duchar tre (1857), H ogg (1866), Du
Breuil (1876), Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887,4947), Eisen (1888, 1901), Bar ron (1891), an d
Wr ight (1894). Poulette is a French fig, rep orted by Du Breuil to be cultivated at
Tar ascon an d Salon, producing tw o crops. British au thors d escribe second -crop figs as
hand som e, an d of excellent qu ality. It w as introd uced into California in the Chiswick
collection as P.I. N o. 18,841; at Chico, both in tree and fruit, it w as similar to N o. 18,842;
il d e Perd rix. In 1940, trees in the variety collection at Angleton, Texas, prod uced
bronze figs, with lar ge, open eyes. Poulette has been fruiting at Riversid e since 1931,
an d the following accou nt is based on its behavior th ere.
The tree is upright, an d rath er op en in habit of grow th; term inal bud s ar e green in
color. Leaves m edium , som ew hat glossy above, m ostly 5-lobed; upper sinu ses rath er
d eep an d nar row , low er sinu ses of m ediu m d epth; m iddle lobe broad , spatulate, often
au ricled , especially on leav es of sucker w ood ; basal lobes som etim es au ricled; bas e
subcord ate; m ar gins coar sely crenate.
Breba crop n on e. Second crop fair to good ; figs variable in size, from sm all to above
m ed ium , up to 2 inches in diam eter an d 1-3/ 4 inches in length; shap e m ostly oblate to
short-tu rbinate, with neck generally ab sent, or som etim es short an d thick; stalk short,
or in som e sp ecim ens 1/ 2 inch long; ribs p resent, but not prom inent; eye m edium to
lar ge, op en, scales violet; surface d ull, with d elicate bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge, scattered ;
color bronze to greenish violet; m eat w hite; pulp light straw berry; seed s sm all, only
p ar tially sclerified ; qu ality fair to p oor. (Plates 9; 27, F.)
Cap rified figs ar e lar ger; color purplish black, tinged with green; pulp dar k

Febru ary , 1955]


461

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

straw berry; qu ality fair to good . Mature fruits tend to split bad ly at the ap ex.
A var iety of no im p ortan ce in California, either fresh or d ried, on accou nt of sm all
size, p oor color, an d m ediocre qu ality.
Praecox (Ficus carica praecox Risso). Und er this nam e Risso (1826) d escribed a var iety
bearing tw o crop s. Second -crop figs w ere sm all, sp herical to oblon g, black in color,
with red pulp; brebas w ere lar ger, long-stalked , with lar ge eye. Som e specim ens
show ed m alform ations.
Prcoce de Barcelona. Described by Starnes an d Mon roe (1907, with figu re), Reboul
(1908), an d by Gras ovsky and Weitz (1932). The origin an d id entity of this variety hav e
n ot been revealed . The Georgia m at erial tested by Star n es an d Monroe w as obtained
from N abonnan d an d Co., Alpes Mar itim es, Fran ce. In 1928, rooted cuttings of Prcoce
d e Bar celona w ere introd uced by the United States Depar tm ent of Agriculture from th e
sam e nu rsery, u nd er P.I. N o. 69,019. It has been fruiting at Riversid e since 1931; notes
taken d uring th e intervening years show th e char acters given below .
Tree fairly vigor ou s; term inal buds violet-brow n. Leav es m edium , som ew hat glossy,
m ostly 5-lobed ; upper sinu ses of m edium d epth an d wid th, low er sinuses shallow ; basal
lobes com m only auricled; basal sinus cord ate, often narr ow ; m argins coarsely crenat e.
Breba crop sm all to fair; figs m ediu m , turbinat e, with sh ort, thick neck; stalk u p to
1/ 4 inch long, sw ollen tow ar d the bod y of fruit; eye lar ge, op en; color purplish black;
pulp light straw berry. Seas on early, figs com m only beginning to ripen tw o w eeks
ah ead of Fran ciscan a.
Second -crop figs sm all, 1-1/ 2 inches in length an d diam eter; av erage w eight 25
gram s; shap e spherical, with neck m ostly ab sent; stalk up to 1/ 2 inch long, often
showing a p eculiar split or crack, extend ing into the bas e of the fruit; su rface glossy,
black, with conspicuous pruinose bloom ; skin checking at m aturity; p ulp light
straw berry; flav or rich, distinct, m uch like that of Fran ciscan a; qu ality fair to good . See
Cond it (1941 a, fig. 2, A).
Cap rified figs ar e m u ch the sam e, except for the d ar ker straw berry p ulp an d fertile
seed s. The stat em en t of Starn es an d Monroe; bu t for its sm all size w ould be
p rom ising, m ay w ell be rep eated here.
Pregussata (syn. Pergussata). Described by George Lindley (1831), H olley (1854),
MIntosh (1855), Thom pson (1859), H ogg (1866), White (1868), Eisen (1888; 1901, with
illustration), Wat ts (1890), Star nes (1903), an d by Star nes an d Monroe (1907). Accord ing
to Lindley, this m ost beau tiful an d excellent fig w as sent to Englan d from the Ionian
Islan ds, an d w as listed as N o.57 in the catalogu e of the Royal H orticultu ral Society.
Althou gh d escribed by H ogg as p rod ucing luscious figs, it w as not includ ed in th e
Chiswick collection that w as sent to the United States. Eisen, in 1888, used the spelling
Pregu ssata for the variety nam e, but in his bulletin of 1901 he gave it as Pergussata. All
oth er au th ors list it as Pregussata. The d escription by H ogg w as copied by Eisen, w ho
stat ed that this is probably the true Pergu ssata, received from Englan d u nd er that
nam e. N o later accou nt of th e variety in California has been found . Star n es rep orted
that Pregu ssata w as w orthless in Georgia, becau se trees n ever m atured a crop in that
stat e.
Second -crop figs ar e d escribed as m edium , oblate, d ar k brow n, tinged with purple;
pulp dar k red ; flav or sw eet an d rich.

462
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Preston (syn. Preston Prolific). Described by An on. (1949) as a prom ising seedling
fig, first fruited in 1943 at Preston, Victoria, Australia, by R. N . Jones. Figs ar e m edium
to lar ge, oblate, withou t neck; stalk very short; color bronze; p ulp am ber, tinged with
red . Satisfactory for jam .
Qeisi (syn. Mrar i). Described by Gras ovsky and Weitz (1932) as a Palestinian var iety,
bearing p oor crops of sm all, d ar k-purple figs, with lon g, thick stalk, short neck, an d
light-red pulp; qu ality inferior.
Ramsey. Described by Gould (1923) an d Close (1929) as a seedling fig, grow n in 1908
by th e nu rsery of F. T. Ram sey an d Son, Austin, Texas, an d introd uced to the trad e in
1915. The 1925 catalogu e of the Austin Nursery stated that Ram sey is a seedling w hich
r esem bles Mag nolia, bu t d oes not crack op en. California tests of Ram sey, obtained
from var ious sou rces, lead to the conclusion that it is very sim ilar to, if not id entical
with, Brow n Turkey of Englan d an d the sou theas tern United States. The Pacific Rural
Press, Sep tem ber 19, 1925, rep orted it as a n ew seedless fig of fine flav or, at Burban k,
California.
Recousse Noire. Described by Audibert Frres (1854), H ogg (1866), Du Breuil (1876),
an d Eisen (1888, 1901, after H ogg). This var iety w as includ ed in the Chiswick collection
as P.I. N o. 18,881, an d w as grow n at N iles an d Chico; at the latter place, on
Sep tem ber 14, 1921, the crop w as practically all on th e ground , and the d ried figs w ere
of a d irty-brow n color. At Menlo Par k, Recousse N oire p roved to be a lar ge, black fig,
disap p ointing in qu ality.
Fruits prod uced at Riversid e, California since 1937 hav e furnished the d ata that
follow .
The tree has slend er, som ew hat d rooping branches. The term inal buds ar e br ow n.
Breba crop none. Second -crop figs m edium , p yriform , with short, thick neck; stalk
m ed ium ; ribs nar row , n ot p rom inent; eye m ed ium , open; color pu rplish black, shad ing
to green on the n eck; p ulp straw berry; flav or rich. Quality good fresh, bu t d ried figs
ar e n ot black in color. Var iety d iscar d ed as not equ al to Fran ciscan a in qu ality.
Accord ing to Eisen, Recousse Violette is similar to Recousse N oire, bu t with d eep-red
pulp.
Regina (syn. Reina). Described by Gallesio (1817), Gaspar rini (1845, as Ficus
p achycar p a var . n obilis), Pasqu ale (1876), Roda (1881), an d Tam aro (1948, with figu re),
bu t ap p ar ently ign ored by oth er au thors. It w as highly praised by Gallesio, w h o stated
that th e m arkets in Rom e w ere w ell supplied with its fruits in Septem ber.
Breba crop none. Second-crop figs lar ge, pyriform ; skin color light violet, with
d elicate bloom ; p ulp pom egran at e red; qu ality good .
Rei. Described by Bobone (1932) from sp ecim ens obtained in var iou s districts of
Portu gal. It is also kn ow n as Figo d e Torres.
Brebas oblon g-turbinate, 3-1/ 2 inches long by 2-1/ 2 inches in diam eter; skin sm ooth,
glossy, checking; color green, sp otted with violet; pulp car m ine; flav or agreeable.
Second -crop figs m edium , turbinate; skin rugose, checking at m aturity; color
greenish violet; pulp light red , of fine texture; qu ality very g ood .

Febru ary , 1955]


463

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Rocarde. Described by La Brou sse (1774), Shinn (1893), Forrer (1894 an d Eisen (1901,
spelled Rocar di). This var iety w as grow n at the California Experim ent Stations fro m
1890 to 1903. Shinn rep orted as follow s: Tw o figs, as grow n at the Stations, ap p ear
m u ch alike; they are th e De Constan tine an d Rocar d e. The skin is black an d green
strip ed ; the flesh is coarse, th ou gh rich; the seed s ar e lar ge; an d the typ e ap pear s to b e
like th e old Mission fig. The green color form s a blotch at the calyx, an d then runs
nar rowing ban d s tow ar d the stem . The trees ap pear to grow som ew hat d ifferently.
At Tular e the tree bore excellent crops, but the qu ality of fruit w as distinctly second rat e. The following d escription is after that of Eisen.
Figs sm all, pyriform , with very short stalk; eye sm all, sunken; skin sm ooth, with
indistinct ribs; color violet-pu rple; bloom d elicat e; pulp light red , solid.
Rondeletta. Described briefly by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as globular fig,
with skin green, shad ed brow n; pulp red . Grow n n ear Nice, Fran ce.
Rondella Negra. Described briefly by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as a fig
below m edium in size, tu rbinate, with a long neck; eye reddish violet skin pu rplish
black; pulp red . Grow n in the vicinity of Mentone, Fran ce.
Ronde Rouge. Described by Bar ron (1891) an d Eisen (1901, after Bar ron) as a
m ed ium fig, with dull, taw ny-red skin an d red pulp.
Rosa. Described by Guglielmi (1908) as a var iety from Su rbo, Italy, m atu ring one
crop in Au gust. It is obviously different from the Sm yrna-type fig d escribed by Vallese.
Figs ar e lar ge, oblate, violet in color; pulp red . Consu m ed fresh.
Rose Blanche (syn. La Rou sse). Described by Garid el (1715), Bernar d (1787), Rozier
(1805), Duham el (1809), Cou verchel (1839), Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), Colby
(1894), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). In his account, Bernard qu oted the original Latin
d escrip tion by Gar id el, an d d esignated the var iety as Rose Blan che rather than Figuo
Roso. Rozier also qu oted Gar id el, but u sed the com m on nam e La Rou sse with out
specifying its significan ce. Like Rose N oire, this var iety is com m only grow n in
sou th ern Fran ce. In 1893, Colby received for an alysis figs lab eled Rose Blan che fro m
Fred Roeding, Fresno, California; they w ere of a d ar k-purple color, w hich leav es d ou bt
as to their id entity.
Variou s accounts give second -crop figs as very lar ge, spherical, flattened at the ap ex;
stalk lon g; color greenish brow n; pulp red . Good for d rying.
Rose Noire (syns. Cu ou d e Muelo, Rolan dine N oire, Ficus car ica rosa nigra Risso).
Described by Gar id el (1715), La Brou sse (1774), Bernar d (1787), Lam arck (1817), Risso
(1826), Du ham el (1809), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), Eisen (1901), an d Sim onet et
al. (1945). See Rollan d (1914) for syn onym y of Cu ou d e Muelo. Illustrat ed in color b y
Duham el; black an d w hite by Eisen an d by Sim onet. The original d escrip tion by Gar id el
stat ed that grow ers knew this variety as Cu ou d e Mu elo, a Provenal nam e, ap par ently
referring to the distinctive neck of the fruit. Bernar d an d all later w riters refer to it as
Rose N oire. It is ran ked as one of the better figs of Provence. The following accou nt is
after that of Sim on et.

464
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Leav es m edium , d eeply 5-lobed . Breba crop n one. Second -crop figs pyriform ,
m ed ium in size, up to 2-1/ 4 inches long an d 1-3/ 4 inches in diam eter; av erage w eight
40 gram s; neck not especially prom inen t; stalk sh ort; ribs n ot m uch in evid ence; eye
slightly p rotruding, sm all, closed , scales violet; skin thin, checking lengthwise at
m atu rity; color bronze, tinged with violet; bloom pruinose; pulp am ber to light rose;
seed s sm all, not nu m er ous; qu ality very good .
Rose Peyronne. Described by H ogg (1866) an d Eisen (1888, 1901). Accord ing t o
H ogg, this var iety is distinct from Brunswick, with w hich it is m ad e synonym ous in
th e H orticultural Societys catalogu e an d in the first edition of this w ork. (The Fruit
Manual.)
Figs m edium , obovate; stalk u p to 1/ 4 inch lon g; color p ale brow n; bloom d elicate;
skin checks crisscross at m aturity; pulp pale salm on in color; flav or rich an d sw eet.
Roussale. Briefly d escribed by La Brou sse (1774) as a spherical fig, red outsid e an d
p ale red insid e.
Roussana. Described briefly by Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as cultivated near
Nice, Fran ce. Second-crop figs m edium , reddish violet in color, with red pulp.
Roxo de Valinhos. Described briefly by Clem en te et al. (1953) Rep orted to have
been obtained from Italy several years ago, an d now it constitutes 98 per cent of th e
p rod uction of fresh figs in the vicinity of Sao Pau lo, Brazil. Similar to, an d possibly
id entical with, San Piero.
Second -crop figs lar ge, pyriform ; stalk short; eye lar ge, op en; color p urplish black;
pulp rosy, with hollow center; qu ality good .
Royal (syns. Obisp o, Trojan o di N ap oli, Tassa Brow n, Geraci Black). In 1932, fig
scions lab eled Obisp o w ere received from Millard Shar p e, Vacav ille, California, an d
grafted into a Dottato tree. Fruit prod uced since 1933 has proved to be very similar to
that of Dau p hine, but both crops of Obisp o set an d m atu re withou t cap rification, w hile
th e second crop of the form er requ ires it. This sam e variety w as im p orted from Italy in
1933 by Pasqu ale Caloia, Los Angeles, u nd er the d esignation Trojan o di N ap oli. It has
been p rop agat ed an d distribu ted by Arm strong N urseries, Ontar io, und er the nam e
Trojan o, as a black fig with am ber pulp.
This var iety has ap p ar ently also been introd uced by variou s Italian resid ents of th e
District of Colum bia. Throu gh the courtesy of H . R. Fulton, recently retired from th e
United States Dep ar tm ent of Agriculture, Beltsville, Mar ylan d, cuttings hav e been
received from six different sou rces in the District. In 1947, Fulton w rote as follow s
ab ou t th e tree on the p rop erty of Mr. Gerald Tassa, 631 Mar ylan d Avenue, S.W.,
Was hington: The three varieties from Mr. Tassa w ere said by him to have been
brou ght fr om Italy in 1894 by his eld er brother. We have on file here a color p ainting
m ad e in 1910 of the Tassa Brow n, fu rnished by Am ato Tassa from the original hom e
ad d ress in Was hington. This bear s the nam e Royal Black, an d it is the nam e that th e
first m em bers of the fam ily applied to the variety. The true id entity of the variety has
n ot been lear n ed, bu t at Mr. Fultons suggestion, it is here d esignat ed as Royal.
Breba crop fair; figs ab ove m ediu m , tu rbinat e, with or with out short, thick neck;

Febru ary , 1955]


465

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

stalk often p rom inen tly sw ollen; su rface glossy, with conspicuous w hite flecks; eye
ab ove m edium ; upper half of bod y pu rplish black, low er half green, with violet ribs;
pulp straw berry, coarse.
Second -crop figs ab ove m ed iu m , oblate-spherical to turbinate; n eck m ostly absent;
av erage w eight 56 gram s; ribs p rom inent, on account of earlier coloration than bod y;
eye ab ove m ed iu m ; color Dusky Slate Violet (Rid gw ay , 1912); pulp light straw berry to
alm ost am ber; textu re gelatinou s; flav or sw eet, fairly rich; qu ality fair. (Plate 26, B.)
Cap rified figs with d ar k-straw berry pulp; otherwise, m u ch the sam e as u ncap rified
fruit.
Rubado Negro (syns. Rou bau d a N egra, Ficus car ica serotina Risso). The d escription
by Risso (1826) did not list an y com m on nam e for this var iety. Sau vaigo (1889) gave
th e nam e as Rou bau d a N egra, an d Eisen (1901) as Rubad o N egro. It m ay be the sam e
on e w hich Porta (1583) referred to as serotina, a late fig with har d skin. N o later
accou nts can be fou nd . The term serotina signifies late; th e three au thors agree that
this variety prod u ces a crop late in the seas onOctober an d N ovem berin southern
France an d northern Italy.
Second -crop figs ar e above m ediu m , 2-1/ 4 inches in diam eter, turbinate; eye with
red dish-brow n iris; skin firm or har d , dar k brow n to black in color; pulp red .
Saint-Esprit. Described by Gar id el (1715), Rozier (1805), Du ham el (1809), Lam arck
(1817), Risso (1826, as Ficus carica spiritus-sancti), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839),
Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), an d Eisen (1888, 1901). This var iety is rep orted as
com m only grow n in the vicinity of Pont Saint-Esprit, Fran ce, hence th e nam e.
The tree bears tw o crops of figs that are inferior in qu ality. Second-crop figs lar ge,
p yriform ; stalk lon g; skin checking, ad herent to the m eat, d ar k violet in color; pulp light
red ; flav or insipid.
Saint Jean (syns. Gris d e Saint Jean , Saint Jean Gris, Gris, Gris Sav an tine Bifre,
Gris Mad eleine, Grosse Gris Bifre, Ficus carica grisea Risso). Described by Liger
(1702), Kn oop (1771), La Brousse (1774), Risso (1826), Bar ron (1891), Colby (1894), Eisen
(1888, 1901), Stubenrau ch (1903), Star nes an d Monroe (1907), an d Cond it (1947).
Figu red in black an d w hite by Eisen an d Star nes; show n in color by Condit (1941a). See
com m ents (next p ag e) on the nam e Gris. According to La Brousse, Figue Gris
m atu res the first crop in June at Saint-Jean , althou gh he did not specify the exact
location of this French tow n. The fruits of Saint Jean , as grow n in California, ar e of
m ed ium size or above in the first crop, an d sm all to below m edium in the second crop .
The variety d escribed u nd er the sam e nam e by Eisen as having very lar ge figs m ay be a
different one. Saint Jean is listed by Sim onet et al. (1945) as a syn on ym of Cotignan a,
w hich is d escribed in this m on ograp h und er Observantine.
The following accessions to California plots of fig var ieties hav e pr oved to be
id entical in tree gr ow th and fruit prod uction: P.I. N o. 18,865, Gris Sav an tine Bifre, in
th e Chiswick collection from Englan d ; N o. 69,015, Gris d e Saint Jean , from a French
nursery in 1926; N o. 86,806, Gris Mad eleine, from Yalta, Crim ea, in 1931; also
N o. 102,011, Saint Jean , an d N o. 102,014, Grosse Gris Bifre, both from Mar rakech

466
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Morocco, but rep orted to be originally in a collection of figs from Lrid a. In 1895, n otes
m ad e by John Rock at Niles on Grosse Gris and Gris Sav an tine, show ed that th ese
tw o w ere the sam e. The variety w as grow n an d tested by th e California Experim en t
Stations, an d found to be especially good at Pom ona, becau se the figs did not sou r
w hile on the tree. One d istinctive char acteristic of second -crop fruit, as m entioned by
Eisen, is the very sharp d em arcation w hich separ ates the bod y surface, with its heav y
bloom , from th e ap ex, w hich is d evoid of bloom . This peculiar ity is illustrat ed in plate
12, sh owing Figue Fleur. The variety is fou nd in California only in collections, alth ough
it is w ell w orth y of culture in d ooryard s for its excellent fruit.
The tree of Saint Jean is only m od erat ely vigorou s, p ar tly becau se of its extrem e
suscep tibility to leaf m osaic (plate 13); it prod uces tw o crop s. The leav es are m edium to
sm all, light green, 3- to 5-lobed ; upper surface d ull to som ew hat glossy; up per sinuses
shallow , of m edium wid th, low er sinu ses shallow ; base d eeply subcord ate, often
au ricled ; m ar gins coarsely crenat e. Descrip tion is from figs prod uced at Riversid e since
1932, an d at Fresno in the seas on of 1953.
Breba crop fair; fruits m ediu m , up to 2-3/ 8 inches long an d 2 inches in d iam eter,
obliqu e-tu rbinate to p yriform ; average w eigh t 42 gram s; neck variable, som etim es
p rom inent an d flattened to thick an d sh ort, or absent; stalk thick, up to 1/ 4 inch long;
ribs p resent, bu t inconspicuous; eye rat her large, op en, scales violet, erect at m aturity;
w hite flecks sm all, m as ked by bod y color; color d elicate grayish bronze; bloom fairly
p rom inent; skin checking irregular ly at m at u rity; m eat w hite; p ulp light straw berry;
flav or rich an d sw eet; qu ality excellent; seed s m ediu m , tend er. (Plate 23, B.)
Second -crop figs sm aller than brebas, bu t m uch the sam e in other char acters; av erage
w eight 31 gram s; n eck, if present, very sh or t an d thick; bloom conspicuous on bod y,
bu t absent fr om ap ex in m an y specim ens; color a d elicate violet-gray, at tractive; p ulp
straw berry; flav or excellent.
Cap rified figs som ew hat d ar ker in skin color; pulp d eep er straw berry; seed s
num erou s, fertile. An excellent fig for fresh-fruit consu m p tion, an d usually d ries
withou t m uch spoilag e. Too sm all for com m ercial use. (Plates 9, 23, E.)
A var iety with the com m on nam e Gris w as d escribed by Risso (1826) as Ficu s car ica
grisea, bu t later au thors ap p ar ently ignored the d escription, or at least failed to refer to
it. Eisen (1901) rep orted that the nam e Figu e Gris is a synonym for th ree d ifferen t
varieties Beau caire, Cotignan a, an d Matar assa. (For synonym y, see list at end of
d escrip tion section.) The fruit of Gris d e Saint Jean as gr ow n in California com p ares so
fav orably with the d escription of Gris by Risso that in this m onograp h these tw o ar e
regard ed as syn on ym ou s, an d ar e d escribed und er the nam e Saint Jean . Figue Gris,
d escribed by Merlet (1667), La Quintinie (1692), an d a few other ear ly au thors, m ight
p rop erly be referred to as Saint Jean rather than Angliqu e.
Saint Ursule d Avignon. Described by H ogg (1866), an d Eisen (1888, 1901, after
H ogg), as a fig below m ed iu m , oblon g, withou t neck; color bronze; pulp pale red ;
flav or
rich.

Febru ary , 1955]


467

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Salada (syn. Ficu s car ica pu rpureo-violacea Risso, according to Eisen Described by
Sau vaigo (1889) an d Eisen (1901) as a French variety, bearing tw o crops at N ice an d
alon g th e Riviera.
Second -crop figs p yriform , with the bod y abruptly nar row ed into a neck; size ab ove
m ed ium ; skin color light purplish black; pulp red .
Sang de Livre. Described by Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887, 1947), Eisen (1888, 1901),
an d by Starn es an d Monroe (1907, with figure of fruit). The nam e m ean s, literally,
b lood of th e hare, ap p ar ently referring to th e d eep red color of the pulp. The
following account is tak en from that of Socit Pom ologiqu e d e Fran ce.
Tree p rod uces tw o crops.
Brebas obliqu e-turbinate; color bright green; pulp blood red , sw eet, of good qu ality.
Second -crop figs ab ove m ed iu m , pyriform ; color green, flushed with bronze; w hite
or taw n y flecks scattered; pulp dar k red ; qu ality very good Seas on Septem ber to
October.
San Piero. Described as San Piero by Gallesio (1817), with the following synonym s:
Cor b o at Pescia, Piom binese at Pisa, N ero at Massa an d Sar d egna Ru bicone in
Lunigian a, Arbicon e at Gen oa, Minna di Schiav o in Sicily Fallugian a at Abruzz es,
Aubiqu e N oire in Provence, an d Breva N egra in Spain. See also Rollan d (1914) for
syn onym y.
This var iety is d escribed as Corbo by Porta (1592); as Grosse Violette Lon gu e by La
Quintinie (1692), Ballon (1692), Gar id el (1715), Tournefort (1719), Merlet (1740), Knoop
(1771), La Brou sse (1774), Mirbel (1802) Rozier (1805), Lam arck (1817), an d Bory d e Saint
Vincent (1824); as Genoa Black by Lan gley (1728), Miller (1768), H an bury (1770),
Forsyth (1803), Green (1824), George Lindley (1831), Rogers (1834), H ogg (1866), Wh ite
(1868), Massey (1893), an d Wr ight (1894); as San Piero or Sam piero by Tan ar a (1651),
Gasp ar rini (1845, u nd er Ficu s polym orpha var. bifera), Sem m ola (1845), Pasqu ale
(1876), Rod a (1881), Sav astan o (1885), Cond it (1944, 1947), an d Baldini (1953); as
Aubiqu e, Aubiqu e N oire, Auliqu e, Abicou or Abicou N oir by Bernar d (1787), Du ham el
(1809), N oisette (1821), Cou verchel (1839), Audibert Frres (1854), Sauvaigo (1889),
Trab ut (1904), Star nes and Monroe (1907), Blin (1942), an d Sim onet et al. (1945); as
Albacor or Aubaco by Estelrich (1910); as Ficu Minni di Scav a by Cupan i (1696); as
N egro Lar go by H ogg (1869), Moore (1872), H yd e (1877), Bar ron (1869a, 1891),
Colem an (1887b), Wr ight (1894), Forrer (1894), Wy th es (1890a, 1902), Thom as (1902),
Stu ben rau ch (1903), Bu nyar d an d Thom as (1904), Star nes an d Monr oe (1907), Royal
H ort. Society (1916), E. A. Bunyar d (1925, 1934), Arnold (1926), Davis (1928), an d FruitGrow er (1936); as Grosse Rou ge d e Bord eau x by Delbar d (1947); as N egro dEsp ag n e
by H ogg (1866) an d Bar ron (1891); as San Ped ro Black by Eisen (1888, 1901) an d
Kirkm an (1922); as Portugal Black by Eisen (1901); as Brow n Turkey by West (1882) an d
Cond it (1921b, 1922b, 1933); as Dou ro Black by Wright (1894) an d Eisen (1901); as Fico
N er o by Vallese (1909); as Ficus car ica violacea by Risso (1826); an d as Breva N egra by
Tam aro (1948). Eisen regard ed Grosse Violette d e Bord eau x as a synonym .
Illustrations in color by Duham el, N oisette, H yd e, Moore, Wr ight, Cond it (1941a),

468
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

an d Delbar d . Illustrations in black an d w hite by Gallesio, Sem m ola, H ogg (1869), Eisen
(1901), Star n es an d Mon roe, Vallese, Con dit (1921b, 1933), E. A. Bu nyar d (1934),
Tam aro, an d Baldini.
The history an d id entity of San Piero have been review ed by Cond it (1944); from this
accou nt w e glean th e following notes. According to Gallesio, this var iety has been
com m only grow n in Italy, south ern Fran ce, and in Spain. It ap pear ed in Englan d ab ou t
1866 u nd er th e nam e N egro Lar go; Mr. Flem ing at Clived en received it from Fran ce,
an d it w as later distribu ted by the firm of Veitch an d Sons, Chelsea. The id entity of
N egro Lar go with San Piero w as confirm ed by E. A. Bunyar d (1934), w h o agreed with
H ogg that it w as kn ow n in Fran ce as N oire d e Lan gued oc. The d escription of San
Pietro or Mecklingea by Glad y (1883) conform s m ore with San Piero than with San
Pietro. In Jap an , San Piero is grow n u nd er the nam e Masui Dauphine. San Piero trees
hav e been fou nd in the eastern United States at the following places: Saxis, H am p ton
Institute, an d Diam ond Sp rings, Virginia; an d Accom ac an d Crisfield, Mar ylan d. At
Crisfield, San Piero is being grow n com m ercially.
The d ate of first introd uction of San Piero into California is not know n with certainty.
John Rock of Niles received N egro Lar go from Englan d in 1883; he obtained Aubiqu e
Leroy from Fran ce in 1889the last par t of the nam e w as probably a
m isinterpretation of N oire. San Piero cu ttings w ere distributed by th e United States
Depar tm ent of Agriculture, according to Van Dem an (1890), althou gh no localities w ere
listed as recipients. The Chiswick collection from England includ ed the following: P.I.
N o. 18,872, as Lar ge Black Douro; N o. 18,882, as Black Dou ro; N o. 18,889, as N egr o
Lar go; an d N o. 18,905 as War rens Brow n Turkey. All of th ese w ere probably id entical
with San Piero. Cu ttings received in 1924 from Mlag a, Spain, as P.I. N o. 58,665, lab eled
Pacu ecas, proved to be the sam e as San Piero. P.I. N o. 93,277, introd uced in 1931 from
Englan d as N egro Lar go, is differen t from San Piero, an d its true id entity has not been
established . In its catalogue for 1890-1891, the California Nursery Com pan y, Niles,
listed N egro Lar go as a new var iety. The California Experim ent Stations tested this
variety betw een 1891 an d 1903 u nd er the nam es N egro Lar go an d Black Gen oa. For
reas ons n ot n ow ap p ar ent, the nam e N egro Lar go w as d ropped , an d Black San Ped r o
w as su bstituted for it.
A var iety know n as Black Douro or Black Portu gal has long been grow n in
California, an d it has proved to be id entical with San Piero. The nam e indicates that it
m ight have been secured from their hom elan d by som e Portuguese resid ents of th e
San Fran cisco Bay region, as suggested by Eisen (1901, p.264). To ad d still further to th e
confu sion, this var iety is d esignated by som e as Brunswick! Com m ission m erchan ts in
Los Angeles m ar ket th e lar ge, fresh figs of San Piero as Brunswick, althou gh m ost
grow ers call them Brow n Tu rkey or Black San Ped ro. The Thom pson, or Thom p son
Im p r oved Brow n Tu rkey, is id entical with San Piero. The sam e is true of Gran ata,
grow n by B. R. Am end , Portlan d, Oregon. The following account is based on trees in
p rod uction at Riversid e since 1930.
Trees are vigor ou s, precocious, very p rod uctive, often som ew hat d w ar fed by h eavy
crop s; term inal bud s violet-br ow n. Leav es m ed ium to lar ge, som e- w hat glossy ab ove,

Febru ary , 1955]


469

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

variable as to lobing; som e are 3-lobed , with upper sinuses shallow , oth ers 5-lobed,
with upp er sinuses of m edium d epth, low er sinuses shallow ; basal lobes com m only
au ricled (especially on leav es of sucker gr ow th), with the bord ers overlapping; m argins
coarsely crenat e.
Breba crop fair, stim ulated by term inal-bud pruning of d orm an t tw igs, as d escribed
by H od gson (1925); figs lar ge, up to 3-3/ 4 inches lon g an d 2-1/ 2 inches in diam eter,
obliqu e-p yriform , som etim es elongat ed ; av erage w eight 105 gram s; neck thick an d
short, m erging grad u ally into bod y; stalk thick an d sh ort; ribs prom inent, gen erally
coloring earlier an d d eep er than bod y; eye lar ge, op en, scales tinted pink, even on
im m ature fruit; w hite flecks num erous, variab le in size; color greenish purple, d ar ker
on sid e exp osed to sun an d on the ap ex; bloom d elicate, pruinose; m eat violet; p ulp
straw berry; flav or rich; qu ality good . (Plate 24, A.)
Second -crop figs m edium to lar ge, or com m only very lar ge on sucker w ood of
heavily p runed trees, ob ovate to oblique-pyriform ; average w eight 70 gram s; n eck
variable, thick an d short, or som etim es up to 1/ 2 inch long an d cu rved; ribs prom inent;
eye lar ge, op en, scales p urple; surface som ew hat glossy, with prom inent bloom ; w hite
flecks lar ge, scattered , som e elongated, violet at m aturity; color p urplish black, with
lighter shad es on n eck; pulp straw berry, center hollow , as show n in plate 11 an d by
Cond it (1941a, fig. 11, A); flav or fairly rich. Quality fair to good w hen m atured on th e
tree. Consu m ed fresh; w orthless for d rying, on account of p oor color an d susceptibility
to sp oilag e, therefore seld om gr ow n in the San Joaqu in Valley. (Plates 10; 11; 12; 24, B.)
Cap rified figs hav e d ar ker color of skin, a d eeper straw berry in the p ulp, lar ger,
fertile seed s, an d better flav or, than u ncaprified ones.
Santagatese. Described by Ferrari (1912) as a variety of limited cultu re in Sicily,
p rod ucing lar ge, turbinate figs, reddish purple in color, with light straw berry pulp.
So Luiz. Described an d illustrat ed by Mello Leotte (1901) an d Bobon e (1932) from
specim ens grow n at Loul. Second -crop figs turbinate, with short, thick neck an d short
stalk; skin thin, of fine texture; color violet-black; pulp light red ; qu ality very g ood .
Sarana (syns. Sar asina, Ficus car ica sar acenica Risso). Described by Risso (1826),
Sau vaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1901), as a variety of southern Fran ce, m uch subject t o
couler, or d ropping of fruit of th e first crop .
Second -crop figs m ediu m or ab ove, oblon g-tu rbinate; skin thick, firm , checking,
ad hering to th e m eat; color black; pulp red.
Sarreigne (syns. Petite Bourjassotte, Verdalo, Pichotte Bar nissotte, Ficus car ica
garid eli Risso). Described by La Quintinie (1692), Cupan i (1696), Tournefort (1719),
Gar id el (1715), Bernar d (1787), Rozier (1805), Duham el (1809, with color illustration),
Risso (1826), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839), Sauvaigo (1889), an d Eisen (1901).
Careful com p ar ison of the variou s d escriptions of Sar reigne an d Bar nissenca show s that
th ese tw o varieties ar e confused as to id entity.
Tournefort d escribed Petite
Bou rjassotte, an d qu oted th e previou s d escription of Cupan i. Bernar d qu oted verbatim
th e Latin d escrip tions of both of th e above authors, an d stated that the variety is called
Verd alos near Drag uignan an d Sar reign os at Cu ers an d H yres. Duham el listed the
variety

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

as N o.18, an d also gave cred it to for m er accounts. N u m ber 62 of Risso, given as Ficu s
car ica gar id eli, is app ar ently th e sam e variety as Sar reigne. Sau vaigo, an d later b oth
Eisen an d Sim on et, ap p ear to be in err or in linking F. car ica gar id eli with the variety
nam e Bernissenqu e, w hich is N o.28 of Duham el an d F. car ica bernardi of Risso. (See
accou nt of Bar nissenca.) The nam e Verd alo, according to Duham el, w as applied to th e
variety becau se of the green color, w hich p ersists near the stalk.
Trees ar e rep orted to be com m on th rou gh out Provence. Eisen recom m end ed the
variety for th e w arm valleys of California, but no rep orts of plan tings hav e been fou nd .
The following d escription of fruit is com piled from various accou nts.
Figs m edium , ab ou t 2 inches in diam eter, spherical to p yriform , abrup tly nar row ed
tow ard the sh ort stalk, w hich adheres tenaciously to the twig; skin thick, not m uch
subject to checking; color d ar k violet, shad ing to green tow ard the stalk; pulp brigh t
red ; qu ality good in hot clim ates.
Sbayi. Described an d illustrat ed by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a Palestinian fig,
d istinguished by its purple ribs, ru nning from stalk to eye. Figs m ed ium , oblate,
withou t neck; stalk short; eye op en, scales pink; color greenish brow n; pulp light red ,
sw eet. Good for fresh consu m p tion.
Schiavo (syns. Prigisotto, Melag nan o). Described by Pasqu ale (1876, with figu re),
Pellican o (1907), an d Ferrari (1912), as an Italian fig, grow n at Cosenza, an d
recom m end ed for th e coastal district on accou nt of the excellent qu ality of th e d ried
p rod uct.
Leav es ar e coriaceou s, d eeply 5-lobed .
Brebas lar ge; oblong; red dish violet.
Second -crop figs m ed iu m , black; p ulp violet.
Selteni. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Gab s, Tunisia. Leav es m edium ,
3-lobed ; upper sinu ses d eep. Figs with long, slend er n eck; eye wid e op en; color brow n
to violet; p ulp red .
Seora (syns. Forastera, Ivern enca, Orihuela, Am purd an , Verguna). Described an d
illustrat ed by Estelrich (1910) as a var iety from the Balear ic Islan ds, consid ered to be on e
of the best-qu ality figs of Spain. It is m arketed fresh in lar ge qu an tities in Palm a, bu t
d oes n ot car ry w ell to distan t m arkets on account of su sceptibility to sp oilag e.
Second -crop figs ar e obliqu e-turbinate to spherical, with short, thick neck an d short
stalk; skin checking crisscross at m aturity; color greenish, tinged with violet; p ulp d eep
red ; seed s very m uch in evid ence; flav or d elicate; qu ality excellent. Seas on generally
too late to p erm it proper d rying of the crop.
Shunnari. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932), with illustration of a fig of each
crop . The tree is not p rolific, an d is therefore not com m only plan ted in Palestine.
Brebas above m ed iu m to lar ge, p yriform , char acterized by a bright-red ring ar ou nd
th e eye; color p urplish black.
Second -crop figs m edium , oblate-spherical, with short, thick neck; stalk short; bod y
color light green, with brow n ribs; skin thin; pulp light red; seed s few . Quality good for
d rying.

Febru ary , 1955]


471

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Shunnari Asmar. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a black, m ediu m sized fig, rend ered distinctive by a bright-red circle ar ound the op en eye; pulp light
red ; textu re rather d ry; seed s few .
Sidi-ben-Agous. Listed by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929), an d d escribed by
Minan goin (1931), as Zidi-el-Agouch. Leav es lar ge, variable in size an d shap e, m ostly 3lobed . Figs with p rom inent neck; eye wid e op en; skin sm ooth, violet in color; pulp light
red .
Signora (syn. Monaca at Brindisi). Described an d figured by Vallese (1909) as a
variety confused with Dottat o Rosso in som e localities; d escribed in d etail by Donno
(1952).
Tree m od erately lar ge; leav es 3- to 5-lobed ; bud s an d bran ches d escribed by Donn o
(1951a).
Breba crop n on e. Second-crop figs tu rbinate to obovat e, with short, thick n eck; stalk
short; ribs fairly p rom inent; eye op en, scales violet; skin checking at m aturity; color
obscu re violet or alm ost black on the bod y, to yellowish rose tow ard the stalk; p ulp
p ale red , very sw eet; seed s few ; qu ality excellent, both fresh an d d ried.
Smari (syns. Sw adi, Khussu m , Shalati el Abed). Described an d figured by Gras ovsky
an d Weitz (1932) as a very inferior fig, grow n thr ou ghou t Palestine. In the Gaza
subd istrict, the tree is said to be used as a stock for better varieties.
Figs sm all, p yriform ; neck p rom inent; stalk short; eye op en, scales sp read ing,
su rrou nd ed by a distinct, grey star; color black; pulp pale red; flav or bitter.
Sofno. Described an d illustrat ed by Mello Leotte (1901) an d Bobone (1932). Tree
p rod uctive of tw o crop s. Brebas pyriform , chestnu t brow n. Second -crop figs obliquetu rbinate, practically without n eck; stalk sh ort; color green, flushed with violet; pulp
car m ine; textu re coarse; qu ality good .
Sopa e Vinho. Described an d illustrat ed by Bob one (1932) as a Portuguese variety,
p rod ucing on e crop only at Cacela in late August an d ear ly Septem ber. Figs m edium ,
tu rbinate, with short, thick neck; stalk short; color green, tinged with violet; p ulp
car m ine; textu re fine; qu ality good .
Souaba-el-Adjia Rose. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929), an d by
Minan goin (1931); the latter fr om Menzel Tem ine, Tunisia.
Leav es m edium , 5-lobed ; upper sinuses d eep , p etiolar sinu ses open. Term inal bud
attenu at e, green. Figs lar ge, 3 inches long by 1-7/ 8 inches in diam eter; shap e ov oid ,
trian gular in cross section; eye op en; skin color violet-pu rple; pulp light red .
Sprengel. Described by Risso (1826) as Ficus car ica sprengellia. Figs ab ove m ediu m ,
p yriform ; stalk long; skin thin, checking irregular ly, black in color; pulp red, hollow at
th e center.
St. Domingo. A variety im p orted from Chile into the Union of Sou th Africa,
p rod ucing pyriform figs, ab ove m edium in size, with short, slightly curved stalk an d
thick n eck; eye sm all, closed , with red scales; color brow n to p urplish brow n; p ulp
h ollow , pinkish am ber; seed s sm all. Tree prolific, m atu ring fruit over a long seas on. In
a letter d ated Februar y 23, 1953, Dr. Dan iel du Preez, Stellenbosch, rep orts that this
variety is id eal for hom e gar d ens. It is also kn ow n locally as N ew Brunswick an d
Greefs Black.

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[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Sukkari. Described by Gras ovsky an d Weitz (1932) as a special var iety of th e Acre
subd istrict of Palestine. Figs very sm all, subpyriform ; eye closed , scales purple; color
brow n, with purple ribs; pulp pale red.
Sultane (syn. Grosse d e Juillet). Described by Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876),
Mazires (1920), Bois (1928), an d Sim onet et al. (1945); the last with illustration of both
first- an d second -crop figs. Sim onet an d Chop inet (1947) d escribed an d illustrat ed this
variety as N oire d e Juillet. The following account is after that of Sim on et et al. (1945)
from fruits p rod uced at Sollies-Pont, in southern France.
Tree very prod uctive.
Brebas m edium to lar ge, pyriform to turbinate, with short n eck; average w eight 85
gram s; stalk up to 1/ 2 inch long; ribs prom inen t; eye sm all, closed , som etim es slightly
d epressed, scales violet; skin firm , black on apex an d bod y, shad ing to reddish brow n
tow ard the stalk; m eat violet; pulp red; qu ality fair. Seas on late July.
Second -crop figs m edium , turbinate; average w eight 57 gram s; stalk 1/ 4 inch long;
skin unu sually firm , resistan t to inju ry du ring tran sp ort; color black, with prom inent,
p ruinose bloom ; m eat w hite; pulp d ar k red , of fine texture; qu ality good , Seas on
Sep tem ber.
Sultani (syns. Fayou m i, Ram ad i, Bar shou m i, Sidi Gab er, H ejazi ). Described an d
figu red by Badie an d Gham raw i (1931) as the m ost com m on an d wid ely distribu ted
variety of Egypt. The following all p roved to be id entical in the variety plot at
Riversid e: P.I. N o. 80,299, introd uced into California in 1929 from Palestine as Sultan e;
N o. 81,678, from th e Tar ring Fig Gar d en, Englan d, in 1929 as Mad ag ascar ; an d
N o. 80,152, from Arian a, Tunisia, in 1929 as Bidh-el-Atrous. The fruits show char acters
very sim ilar to those d escribed for th e Sultani of Egypt. Therefore, all of the above will
be treat ed here as one an d the sam e variety. Bidh-el-Atrous is treat ed by Guillochon
(1913, 1927, 1929) as a sm all, violet fig, with green ribs. Madag ascar is briefly d escribed
by Sp ence (1846) as a sm all, globular , green sort, with nar row ly lobed leav es, found in a
West Tar ring orchar d . J. L. (1890) stated that the nam e Mad ag ascar , e vid ently a
m isnom er, w as attached to a very lar ge fig, frequ ently m et with at Lan sing, Englan d.
Trees in Egypt an d in California ar e vigorou s, p roducing tw o crop s. Leav es lar ge,
com m only nonlobed . The following d escription is from fruits prod uced at Riversid e
since 1940, in com parison with the account by Badie an d Gham raw i.
Breba crop fair; figs ab ove m ed ium , pyriform ; ribs p rom inen t; eye lar ge, scales pink;
color green, flushed with chocolate brow n; pulp coar se, straw berry in color; qu ality
p oor.
Second -crop figs ab ove m ed iu m to lar ge, pyriform ; stalk var iable, sh ort an d thick, or
som etim es slend er an d up to 1 inch long; color attractive, brow nish violet; m eat
u nu su ally thin; pulp light straw berry, textu re gelatinous; seed s sm all an d inconspicuou s.
Quality p oor in Riversid e, m u ch inclined to split at m aturity. Seas on late.
Temri. Briefly d escribed by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) as a m edium , elongat ed ,
violet fig, fruiting over a long seas on, an d good for d rying in Tunisia. Reported by

Febru ary , 1955]


473

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

H od gson (1931), an d by Vald eyron an d Crossa-Ray nau d (1950), as a second -crop fig, of
fair qu ality w hen d ried bu t not fit for exp ort.
Probably the sam e as Tem eri, d escribed by Minan goin (1931) as a sm all, rose-colored
fig, with red pulp; tree prod uctive of tw o crop s, the second im proved by cap rification.
Toulousienne. Described by Eisen (1888, 1901), an d by Star nes an d Monroe (1907),
th e latter with figure of fruit. Illustrat ed in color, but not d escribed, by Wright (1894).
See also Cond it (1941a, fig. 2, F). The id entity of Toulousienne is in d oubt. Bar ron
(1891) an d Eisen (1901) rep orted it to be the sam e as Gris Sav an tine Bifre, w hich, in
this m on ograp h, is referred to as Saint Jean . It w as introd uced into California in th e
Chiswick collection u nd er P.I. N o. 18,895, an d has fruited in var iety collections at Niles,
Chico, Fresno, Menlo Par k, an d Riversid e. In non e of these trials has Toulousienne
show n p rom ising char acters, an d the variety m ay as w ell be discar d ed in fav or of m uch
better on es. Eisen stated , qu ality of fig good , but ap pear an ce is insignifican t. The
following account is of tree an d fruit, grow n at Riversid e since 1931.
The tree is of m od erat e vigor an d size, with violet-brow n term inal buds. Leav es
below m edium , dull on up per su rface, m ostly 3-lobed ; upper sinuses shallow , broad ;
bas e su bcord ate; m argins crenate. (Plate 13.)
Breba crop none. Second -crop figs below m ediu m , up to 1-3/ 4 inches in length an d
diam eter, tu rbinate, with short, thick neck that is som etim es slightly flattened ; av erag e
w eight 18 gram s; stalk m ostly sh ort; ribs very slightly elevated an d inconspicu ous; eye
m ed ium , open, scales rosy violet; w hite flecks lar ge, scattered , conspicuous, as show n
by Cond it (1941a, fig. 9, C); surface d ull, with thick, pruinose bloom ; color of bod y
violet-brow n to p urplish black, th e neck often rem aining light green until full m atu rity;
m eat thin, w hite; pulp straw berry, som ew hat hollow at th e center; flav or m od erately
rich an d sw eet. Dried figs of sm all size an d poor in color. (Plate 26, F.)
Cap rified figs d eep p u rplish black in color, with d ar k-straw berry p ulp; flav or acid.
Much subject to splitting an d subsequ en t sp oilag e.
Tributaria. Described by Ferrar i (1912) as an Italian var iety that resem bles Par ad iso,
bu t figs ar e a little m ore oblate, with a short stalk. The tree is vigor ous, an d productive
of tw o crops. Consu m ed fresh.
Trois Rcoltes (syn. Prcoce dEspag ne, probably). Described by Audibert Frres
(1854), Bar ron (1891), Eisen (1901, after Barron), an d Schneid er (1902). The nam e
signifies three crop s, as d oes th e nam e Trifero, a greenish-yellow fig, regard ed in this
m on ograp h as synonym ou s with Dottato. Audibert Frres treated Prcoce dEspag n e
as a var iety very similar to Trois Rcoltes. H ogg (1866) d escribed Prcoce d Espag ne,
an d stated :
This is a very early variety, an d in Sp ain it is called Tres fer, or thrice bearing.
Accord ing to H ogg, th e figs ar e sm all, spherical; stalk 1/ 4 inch long; color d ar k green,
tinged with brow n: pulp light straw berry, richly flav ored .
P.I. N o. 18,852 of the Chiswick collection w as lab eled Trois Rcoltes, but no record is
av ailable of its behavior at Chico, California.

474
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Verdal (syns. Verd ala, Grosse Verd ale, Verdal Longue, Agen DAgen, Grosse d u
Drag uignan , Ficus carica virescens Risso). Described by Risso (1826) u nd er th e
ap pellation figue a fruit vert (fig with green fruit). Sauvaigo (1889) d escribed the
sam e variety as Verd ale or Gr osse Verd ale. H ogg (1866) treat ed DAgen an d Gros d e
Drag uignan as distinct varieties. Eisen (1888) gave Gros du Drag nignan , with Agen
as a syn onym ; in 1901 he reversed the n om enclature, listing Grosse du Drag uignan as
th e syn on ym , with the last nam e correctly spelled. Other accounts are by Audibert
Frres (1854), Escriban o y Perez (1884, probably), Bar ron (1891), Shinn (1893),
Stu ben rau ch (1903), San chez (1922), Cond it (1921b, 1947), Blin (1942); Sim onet et al.
(1945, as Verd ale), an d Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1947). The spelling Verd al is used here to
d esignate this var iety, bearing green fruits tinged with violet, as distinct from Verte
(syn. Verd ale), bear ing fruits of an over-all green color.
Risso stated that the fruits com m enced to ripen in late Ju ne, bu t later w riters regard it
as a one-crop variety. H ogg rep orted it as one of the finest figs I know . Eisen also
d escribed it as on e of th e best figs, ripening very late, an d r equiring cap rification at
Niles. It w as introd uced into Algeria (Trab ut, 1904), an d according to Plant Immigrants
(N o. 146, p. 1334), prod uced one crop of excellent figs from Sep tem ber to Decem ber. It
m ay be this var iety w hich Estelrich (1910) d escribed and figu red und er the nam e Verd al
d e Oriola.
Accord ing to Eisen (1901, p.66), Agen w as one of th e varieties im p orted by John Rock
from Englan d in 1883. P.I. N o. 18,870 of th e Chiswick collection w as listed as DAgen.
N otes taken on this introd uction in Septem ber, 1921, at the United States Plan t
Introd u ction Gar d en, Chico, California, show ed a m edium -sized , greenish-violet fig,
excellent in qu ality an d w ell w orthy of fu rther trial. The sam e variety w as grow n by
th e California Experim en t Stations as Verd al Lon gue an d distributed for trial, esp ecially
in sou thern California. Dooryard trees hav e been found at Oroville, Monrovia,
Riversid e, San Diego, an d Carlsbad . Abou t 1930, a grow er at Carlsbad had a sm all
com m ercial plan ting from w hich excellent figs w ere m ar keted up to Ch ristm as, or even
later. Cu ttings w ere introd uced into Georgia from California, but no record of
p rod uction has been fou nd. Fruiting trees w ere seen in a var iety collection at Angleton,
Texas, in August, 1940. The following accou nt is of trees an d fruit gr ow n at Riversid e
since 1931, an d at Los Angeles d uring eight fruiting seas ons.
Tree som ew hat sp read ing, with outer branches d roop ing; term inal bud s green.
Leav es m edium , som ew hat glossy above, m ostly 5-lobed ; both u pper an d low er
sinuses of m edium d ep th an d wid th; base su bcord ate to tru ncate; m argins very slightly
crenat e.
Brebas rare, m edium , turbinate; stalk up to 3/ 4 inch long, cu rved ; eye m ediu m ; w hite
flecks lar ge, conspicuous; color greenish violet; pulp straw berry; flav or rich.
Second -crop figs m ed iu m , up to 1-3/ 4 inches long an d 1-7/ 8 inches in diam eter,
tu rbinate to ob ovat e; with sh ort, thick neck; average w eight 43 gram s; stalk thick, up to
1/ 2 inch lon g; ribs nar row , slightly elevated ; eye m edium , op en, scales chaffy, tinged
with violet; su rface som ew hat glossy, with p rom inent bloom ; w hite flecks lar ge,

Febru ary , 1955]


475

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

conspicuous; skin checking crisscross at m aturity; color green, tinged with violet or light
brow n; m eat thin, w hite; pulp straw berry; flavor rich; qu ality good . (Plate 26, C.)
Cap rified figs m ed iu m to lar ge, oblate-spherical; color at tractive, greenish violet;
bloom esp ecially p rom inent; pulp solid , dar k straw berry, rich in flav or. Consid erably
better in size, appear an ce, an d qu ality than u ncaprified fruit. Seas on late.
Verdal de Valence. Eisen (1901) qu otes the d escription of this var iety by Bar ron
(1891) an d add s that th e nam e is very d ou btful. It is given as a fig below m ediu m ,
tu rbinate; color taw n y red ; pulp red; qu ality m ediocre.
Verdal Round (syns. Verd al Rond e, Petite Verd ale). Described an d figu red by Eisen
(1901). Sim onet et al. (1945) had not seen this variety, but referred to Eisens d escription
an d qu oted briefly from it. According to Eisen, it is one of the earliest figs, rip ening in
Ju ne an d July; it is not clear w heth er his accou nt is of the first or second crop . Figs
below m ediu m , sh ort p yriform , uniform ly bluish green at ap ex, lighter tow ar d the
stalk; pulp blood red , sw eet, highly flav ored .
Eisen stat ed that it w as extensively distributed in south ern Fran ce, an d w as highly
regard ed in par ts of California. The id entity of this var iety an d the present location of
trees are not know n.
Vernino (syns. N atalino N ero, Pas qu ale, Cam ald olese, Della Cava, Tre Volte lAnno,
Verneo N ero, Arneo N ero, Allison). Described by Gasp ar rini (1845), Sav astan o (1885),
Eisen (1888, 1901), Vallese (1909), De Rosa (1911), an d Condit (1947). Leav es an d fruit
figu red by Vallese, w ho treat ed Arneo N ero an d Verneo N ero as distinct kind s; De
Rosa d escribed the tw o as synon ym ous. In his account of 1845, Gaspar rini listed this
variety as Vernino, bu t ad d ed that som e called it N atalino, or Christm as fig; others
called it Pasqu ale, since the fruits som etim es rem ained on the tree during the winter
an d m atu red near Pasqu a, or Easter. The nam e Tre Volte lAnno refers to the tend ency
of Vernino to prod uce fruit at variou s tim es of the year . Trees usually prod uce a
second crop only, late in the seas on.
Few trees of Vernino have been found in California. The late G. P. Rixford m ailed
cuttings to th e University of California in 1926 from a tree at Loom is, an d rep orted the
location of an oth er specim en on the Bidw ell place at Chico. Another tree has recently
been fou nd grow ing on th e J.J. Mashio ran ch in Hunters Valley, near H ornitos; this an d
several other varieties w ere p robably im p orted by Italian settlers long before 1900. P.I.
N o. 130,464, obtained as Allison in 1931 from Angleton, Texas, as N o. 8,379 of that
station, proved to be id entical with Vernino. See accou nts of Allison by Stan sel an d
Wy che (1932), an d by Close (1933). A var iety grow n com m ercially near Bish op ,
Georgia, kn ow n locally as Breedlove, has recently p roved to be id entical with
Vernino in the collection at Riversid e, California. The following d escription is from a
single tree, fruiting at Riversid e since 1933.
Leav es m edium , 3- to 5-lobed ; upp er sinu ses shallow an d nar row , low er sinu ses very
shallow , basal sinuses broad ; base com m only tru ncate or subcord ate; m argins coarsely
serrate; su rface d ull. Terminal buds of branches taw ny.
Breba crop n on e. Second -crop figs sm all to m ed ium , up to 1-1/ 2 inches in length an d

476
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

1-5/ 8 inches in diam eter, oblat e-spherical to pyriform , with sh ort, thick n eck; average
w eight 28 gram s; stalk short; ribs very slightly elevated , nar row ; eye m edium , slightly
p rotruding, com m only su rround ed by a zon e of color lighter than that of the bod y; eye
scales of green figs prom inently pink, becom ing violet at m aturity; w hite flecks lar g e
an d conspicuous; surface glossy, with p ruinose bloom ; skin tou gh or rubbery in
textu re; color p urplish black on bod y, greenish tow ard the bas e; m eat thin, w hite; pulp
solid , straw berry in color (d ar ker w h en cap rified); flav or fairly rich; quality only fair.
Seas on late. A sm all fig, of n o par ticular value. (Plate 28, C.)
Verte Brune. Described by Gar id el (1715), Bernar d (1787), Rozier (1805), Duham el
(1809), Lam arck (1817), Bory d e Saint Vincent (1824), N oisette (1829), Cou verchel (1839),
H ogg (1866), Eisen (1901), an d Leclerc (1925). Verte Bru ne is an other variety of
d ou btful id entity. Duham el qu oted the Latin d escrip tion of Gar id el, an d referred also to
th e accou nts by Bernard, Rozier, an d Lam ar ck. H e stat ed , und er both Verte an d Verte
Bru ne, that in Provence th ese figs ar e som etim es d esignated as Trom pe-Chasseur or
Trom p e-Cassaire, literally, h unters d ecep tion, becau se of th e persistent green color
of th e m aturing fruit. H ogg an d Eisen treated Verte Brune as a syn onym of Beau Dure.
The latter gives a second Verte Brune as syn onym ou s to Cu ers, an d a third as a distinct
variety. In ou r d escription of Verte, it is pointed out that the green skin of that variety
is often stained by the pulp to a brow nish cast. It m ay be, therefore, that Verte Brune is
th e sam e as Verte, with the brow nish or violet skin flush d ecid edly pronounced . The
following brief d escription is after that of Eisen.
Tw o crops; brebas not d escribed . Second -crop figs m edium to sm all, obliqu espherical, com p ressed at the stalk; eye reddish; skin checking; color green, with a
violet flush in the su n; pulp blood red ; qu ality good .
Victoria. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) from trees grow n near Porreras
an d Inca, Mallorca. Figs sm all, black; stalk reddish; pulp bright red .
Violet Sepor. Described by Wythes (1900b), Bu nyar d an d Thom as (1904), Star nes
an d Mon roe (1907, with illustration of fruit), an d Arnold (1926). A valu able freebearing sort, suitable for p ot culture an d forcing, according to George Bunyar d . Figs
red dish brow n, with light-red pulp; flav or d elicate.
Violeta Negra (syns. Violeta Florentina, African o). Described by Tam aro (1948) as a
variety introd uced from Africa, bu t cultivated in all par ts of Italy.
Tree vigor ous; leav es m edium -sized ; one crop only. Figs m ed ium , short pyriform ,
with thick neck; ribs elevat ed ; skin checking at m atu rity, violet in color; p ulp red. Used
p rim ar ily fresh, bu t also d ried.
Zaiti. Described by Minan goin (1931) from H am m am et, Tunisia. Leav es m edium ,
thin, 3-lobed, with d eep upper sinu ses. Figs sp herical, with short, thick neck; eye op en;
skin glossy, thick; color black; pulp red ; seed s num erou s.
Ziza Kheden. Briefly d escribed by Eisen (1901) as an Algerian var iety. Figs lar ge,
oblon g, with black skin color an d red pulp.

Febru ary , 1955]


477

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Common-type Figs with Skin Dark (Various Shades of Red,


Brown, or Violet to Black); Pulp Color not Designated
Adsi Ahma. A purple fig of Egypt, d escribed by Badie an d Gham raw i (1931) as of the
sam e shap e as Bay oudi.
Andreva. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910). Leav es, w hen expan d ed,
som ew hat convex. Tree p rod uces tw o crop s, of w hich brebas ar e pyriform an d black in
color. Fruit of both crops u sed for cattle feed an d for d rying.
Balafi (syn. Fu ente d e Balafi). Described an d figu red by Estelrich (1910). Tree
p rod uctive; leav es 3-lobed . Figs turbinate-spherical, slightly oblique at the bas e; stalk
short; skin thick, greenish, with cinnam on tinge; pulp of ag reeable flav or.
Banyols. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910); see also short accou nt by
Priego y Jaram illo (1922). Tree lar ge, with d roop ing bran ches that suggest a torren t.
Leav es lar ge, 3-lobed . Figs m edium , oblique-tu rbinate; skin yellowish brow n, checking
at m atu rity; qu ality good . Used both fresh an d d ried; cattle feed on them .
Blava. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910). Variety w as nam ed for the bluishgreen color of th e fruit, w hich is of m edium size, ag reeable flav or, an d is used both for
d rying an d for cattle feed . It m atu res ear ly.
Capoll Llarch. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910). Figs m ed iu m , obliqu ep yriform , with sh ort, thick neck; average w eight 33 gram s; skin checking at m atu rity;
color green at th e base, greenish violet on the bod y; pulp not highly flav ored . Seas on
early. Used m ostly for cattle feed .
Colombo Selvatico. Described by De Rosa (1911). Trees with sm all, 3-lobed leav es.
Brebas w ith bod y sp herical, but nar rowing tow ard bas e, ap ex som etim es d epressed ;
color green, tinted with violet. Second -crop figs p yriform , 2-1/ 4 by 1-3/ 4 inches; stalk
short; skin violet; flav or stron g, not especially ag reeable.
Dominique (syn. Saint Dom inique). Listed by Eisen (1888, 1901) as a violet-colored
French fig.
Foundling. According to H ow ar d (1945), Fou ndling w as so nam ed by Lu ther
Bu rban k, w h o found it in 1885 in a ship m ent of Wh ite Sm yrna (Blan che) trees im p orted
from th e eastern Med iterran ean. The single tree bore tw o crops of lar ge, yellowishbrow n figs, of fine flav or.
Franche. Described by Audibert Frres (1854) as a var iety highly regard ed by French
grow ers for its brebas, w hich m ature about th e first of August, w hen th ere are few if
an y oth er figs in the m arket. The only fru it char acters given are size good ; color
taw n y or d ar k gray.
Gallipolino. Described by Gu glielmi (1908) as a var iety grow n near Presicce, Lecce
Province, for its fresh fruit. Figs m edium , oval; stalk short; skin thin, violet in color.
Gazir. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) as a m edium -sized fig, violet in
color. On the oth er han d , Minan goin (1931) d escribed Gazir as a yellow fig with rosecolored pulp w hen caprified.

478
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Gombaya. Described by Eisen (1901) as a m edium fig, spherical, bright rose in color.
Grow n an d m uch esteem ed near Valencia, Spain.
Gr. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as De Gr, a var iety com m only
grow n at Alcudia, Mallorca, for cattle feed . The figs ar e of m edium size, conical,
m ulberry in color, with green sp ots.
Grosse Sultane. Described by Soc. Pom ol. d e Fran ce (1887, 1947); app ar en tly
different from the Sultan e d escribed by Sim onet et al. (1945). One crop only. Figs lar ge,
tu rbinate, olive green to violet in color; prom inently striated; qu ality good .
Hamri. Described by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) as a Tunisian var iety, lar ge to
very lar ge in size, violet in color; m atures in August; used both fresh an d d ried .
H am eri, d escribed by Minan goin (1931) as a fig from El Oudian e that is yellow , with
violet ribs an d red pulp, m ay be the sam e variety.
Mahounaise. Described by Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), an d Eisen (1888, 1901),
as a red fig, grow n at Salon an d Saint-Rm y, Fran ce.
Mare de Du. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as a var iety resem bling
Albacor, an d often confu sed with Mar tinenca an d Cald erona. Second -crop figs oblate,
withou t neck; stalk sh ort; color black. Seas on m id Septem ber to late October in
Mallorca.
Miraya. Described an d figu red by Estelrich (1910) as a var iety similar to Par ejal, bu t
distinct in fruit char acters. Figs lar ge, 2-1/ 4 inches lon g by 1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter,
tu rbinate, with short, thick neck; stalk short; color purplish black. Consu m ed fresh; also
very good for d rying.
Monica. Described by Gu glielmi (1908). Cultivated in the district of San Vito
d Otran to. Leav es 3-lobed , with cord ate base. Figs elongated -oval, m ediu m in size;
skin checked , violet in color. Consu m ed fresh. Matures in Septem ber.
Piemontese. Described by Gasp ar rini (1845) as an Italian variety, bearing tw o light
crop s of black figs. Brebas elon gated , lar ge; flav or fair. Second -crop figs m ediu m ,
m ed iocre in qu ality.
Plata. Described an d figu red by Estelrich (1910). Fruit is short-stalked , sp herical; skin
p rom inently checked at m aturity; color taw ny or cinnam on.
Porquena (syn. Porqu ena N egra). Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as a
variety grow n alm ost exclusively on th e islan d of Mallorca for cattle feed .
The figs ar e below m ediu m to sm all, spherical, black in color.
Porto (syn. De Porto). Described by Du Breuil (1876) an d Eisen (1888, 1901) as a black
fig, grow n in sou thern France for fresh fruit and for d rying.
Quasbi. Described by Minan goin (1931) from Ras-el-Djebel, Tu nisia. Leav es lar ge, 5lobed ; upper sinu ses d eep , nearly closed , low er sinuses op en. Figs lar ge, oblong; ribs
indistinct; eye wid e op en; skin color d ar k violet; pulp solid.
Quasse Blanche. Described by Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), an d Eisen (1901),
as a red dish-gray fig, grow n at Baud ol, in south ern Fran ce, for d rying.
Redona de Gr. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as a late m aturing fig, u sed
fresh for fat tening h ogs on the islan d of Mallorca. Figs sm all, sp herical, black in color.

Febru ary , 1955]


479

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Renyach. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as a lar ge, black fig, used for hog
feed an d for d rying; not wid ely plan ted.
Roca. Described an d illustrated by Estelrich (1910) as a sm all, sp herical fig, rudd y
blu e in color, m aturing from Sep tem ber to m id-October. Consu m ed fresh by farm ers;
also fed to h ogs.
Rojisca (syn. Cuiro d e Bou). Described an d figured by Estelrich (1919) as a prolific
variety, p rod ucing sm all, spherical figs, reddish brow n in color; skin checking crisscross
at m atu rity.
Safrane. Described by Du Breuil (1876) an d Eisen (1888, 1901) as a reddish-gray fig,
good fresh or d ried . Grow n at Nice an d Salon, Fran ce.
Sidi-ben-Aied. Listed by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) as a m ediu m -sized Tunisian
fig, d ar k violet in color.
Sitsel (syn. Pelud a). Described by Estelrich (1910) as a var iety fou nd at various places
on th e islan d of Mallorca; som e trees ar e a century old, an d of lar ge size. Figs sm all,
conical, light br ow n in color; flav or p oor. N ot consum ed fresh, but d ried for cattle feed .
Tebessi. Briefly d escribed by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) as a very lar ge, d ar kviolet fig, good for d rying in Tunisia. Minan goin (1931), on the other han d , d escribed
Tebessi as a fig with long neck, thick, green skin, wid e open eye, an d hollow , light-red
pulp.
Tia Penya. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as a var iety som etim es
confu sed with Cu ello d e Dam a Blan ca (Col d e Dam e) on Mallorca.
Brebas n ot d escribed . Second -crop figs p yrifor m , m edium , up to 2 inches lon g an d
1-1/ 2 inches in diam eter; skin thick; color green, shad ed with brow n. Consu m ed fresh;
also u sed as cattle feed.
Tounsi. Briefly d escribed by Guillochon (1913, 1927, 1929) as a sm all, cop per-colored
fig, streaked with violet; m atures in late Augu st in Tunisia.
Verdal Negra. Described an d figured by Estelrich (1910) as a sm all, black fig; plan ted
rarely in Mallorcan orchar d s.
Vernile. Described by Ferrar i (1912) as an Italian fig, d epressed at the ap ex; color
yellowish, tinted with violet; seas on late.
Violette Plate. Described by Merlet (1667), Ballon (1692), Liger (1702), an d Lan gley
(1728). Tree p rod uces a light breba crop an d a good second crop. Figs m edium , violet,
of excellent qu ality.
Zarniza. Introd uced into th e United States in 1901 as P.I. N o. 5,920, from Lesina
(H var ) Islan d, Dalm atia. In Inventory N o.10, Bureau of Plan t Ind ustry, United States
Depar tm ent of Agricultu re, D. G. Fairchild reported it as a var iety prod ucing tw o crop s
of d ar k-colored figs, som etim es d ried an d p acked in sm all bar rels for exp ort. N o
fu rther m ention of it has been found .
Common-type Varieties not Classified as to Color
Bifero (?). Pasqu ale (1876) d escribed Bifero und er Ficus polymorpha var . bifera of
Gasp ar rini (1845), with Sam piero (San Piero), as a syn onym . Pellican o (1907) cited the
accou nt of Pasqu ale, but stat ed that Bifero figs w ere light green in color, an d requ ired
cap rification. Portale (1910) d escribed Bifaro as a var iety prod ucing tw o crops of
spherical figs without caprification.

480
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

Boutiltete. Listed by Du Breuil (1876) an d Eisen (1901) as a very good d rying fig,
grow n at Brignoles, Fran ce.
Doucette. Listed by Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), an d Eisen (1888, 1901), as a
good fig, fresh an d d ried, at Salon, Fran ce.
Fabre. Listed only by Eisen (1901) as a lar ge French fig, prod ucing tw o crops.
Koutsina. Listed by Sym eonid es (1930) as a variety gr ow n all over Tylliria district
of Cyp ru s.
Malaktiana. Listed by Sym eonid es (1930) as a variety esp ecially p opular near
Lefkar a, Cypru s.
Messongue (syn. Moelle). Listed by Duchar tre (1857), Du Breuil (1876), an d Eisen
(1901, ap par ently qu oted from Du Breuil), as a very lar ge fig, grow n at Salerno, Italy.
Good both fresh an d d ried.
Papathoumika. Described by Sym eonid es (1930) as one of th e best varieties of
Cyp ru s for prod uction of d ried figs, having a very thin skin an d sm all seed s.
Porcine. Listed by Tan ar a (1651) as p rod ucing tw o crops; good for the fresh-fruit
m arket.
Seirola Negra. Sau vaigo (1889) noted that h e had fou nd this variety in the vicinity of
Nice. As a synonym , he gave Ficus car ica tu rneria Risso.
Vardina (syn. Vardica). Listed by Sym eon id es (1930) as producing som e of th e
lar gest figs of Cyp rus, an d m ost p opular for fresh consu m ption.
Vazanata. Listed by Sym eonid es (1930) as a var iety grow n everyw here on the islan d
of Cyp rus. Mostly consu m ed fresh, bu t in the Pap hos district it produces th e d ried figs
kn ow n locally as m axiles.

INDEXED ALPHABETICAL LIST OF FIG VARIETIES


N am es in bold face type are those und er w h ich the varieties are d escribed .
All synonym s appear in lightface.
Sym bols: C Com m on; Cp = Caprifig; S = Sm yrn a; Sp = San Ped ro

Abachlaou See A gou arzgu ilef, 355


Abakor (C), 381
Abakou r A m ellal = A bakor, 381
Abate (S), 345
Ab ban ega = Panettaro, 350
Abboudi (C), 414
Aberakm ou ch = A veran e, 355
Aberdin (C), 382
Abetroune (Cp ), 332
Ab gait = Col d e Dam e N oir, 432
Abiad Assu an = Assou ani, 383
Abiarous (S), 345
Abicou or A bicou N oir = San Piero, 467
A Bois Jasp = Jasp er, 445
Abond ance = Franche Paillard e, 437
Abond ance Prcoce = Franche Paillard e, 437
Aboucherchaou (S), 345
Abou h archaou = A bou cherchaou , 345
Abougandjour (S), 354
Abouzouggar (S) Listed on ly , 359
Abru zzes = Dottato, 376
Acriesto = Verd escone, 353
Adam (C), 420
Ad am = Dau p hin e, 365
Adjaffar (5), 354
Ad ottato = Dottato, 376
Adras Blanc (Cp), 339
Adras Violet (Cp), 332
Ad riatic = Verd one, 325, 406
Ad si A biad = Bayou d i, 384
Adsi Ahma (C), 477
Afghan (5), 354
Africano = Violeta N egra, 476
AfricanoSee Barn issotte, 323, 423
Agen = Verd al, 474
Ag giu nto = Scionto, 344
Agouarzguilef (5), 355
Agouat (Cp), 328
Agoussim (S), 355
Agrad able Blanco = Datil, 419
Agresto (C), 382
Agulla (C), 411
Aid in = Sari Lop , 343
Ain-el-H adjel = Tit-en-Tsekou rt, 332
Ajenjar = Azend jar, 355
Ajlouni (C), 382
Akca (5), 345
Ak-kaba (Cp), 335
Akoran (Cp ), 328
Albachiara = A bate, 345
Albacor = San Piero, 467

Albacor Blanca = Grosse Jau n e, 394


Albacor Comun (C), 421

Albacor de Gr (C), 421


Albanega = Pan ettaro, 350
Albanera (C), 414
Albero d Oro = Parad iso, 455
Albicello = Albo, 372
Albicou gris = Bord eau x, 424
Albin illo = Albo, 372
Albo (C), 372
See also Troiano, 405
Alekake (5), 345
Algiers No.1 and No.2 (Cp ), 349
Algiers N o.3 = Sw in gle, 342
Alicantina (C), 411
Allam od a = Mota, 350
Allison = Vernino, 475
Am able = Datil, 419
Amarouna (C), 421
Amellal (Cp ), 328
Am erzagou See Arzagan e, 328
Amesas (5), 346
Am ezaSee Ad ras Blanc, 339
Am p u rd an = Seora, 470
Amudi (C), 382
Andreva (C), 477
Angelina (C), 372
Anglique (C), 382
See also N ew French , 413
An gliqu e Black (or A . N oire) = Bord eau x, 424
Anglique Jaune (C), 383
Aoriv = Illou l, 337
Ap p le = San Ped ro, 363
Arabaly = Genoa, 392
Aranim-Aberkane (S), 355
Aranim-Amellal (S), 346
Arba = A bate, 345
Arbal (C), 414
Arbau d a = Cu ore, 434
Arbicone = San Piero, 467
Archipel (C), 414
Argelina = An gelina, 372
Argenteu ilSee Blanch e, 372
Argentin e = Blanche, 372
Argu sela = Perroqu in e, 459
Arneo Bianco (C), 383
See also Zim itza, 411

Arn eo N ero = Vern ino, 475


Arzagane (Cp ), 328
Aseltani= Marabou t, 357
Ash rid ge Forcin g = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Asqalawi-Asmar (C), 421
Assel = Techich , 358
Assel bou Tchiche (C), 383

482
[Vol. 23, N o. 11
Assouani (C), 383
Ath nes = Marseillaise, 396
Au baco = San Piero, 467
Aubane (C), 421
Au ber gin eSee Bru nsw ick , 418
Au bico Blanco = Grosse Jau n e, 394
Au bicon = Gen n es, 391
Au biqu e = San Piero, 467
Au biqu e Blanch e = Grosse Jau n e, 394
Au biqu e LeroySee San Piero, 468
Au biqu e N oire = San Piero, 467
Au biqu ou n = Bord eau x, 424
Au liqu e = San Piero, 467
Au tom n eSee Malta, 447
Averane (Cp ), 339
Averane (S), 355
Averen go = Datte, 389
Avouzegar (5), 355
Ayers (Cp), 332
Azaich (C), 421
Azaim (Cp ), 335
Azaim See Ad ras Blanc, 339
Azegou sh = Ad jaffar, 354
Azendjar (5), 355
Azenjar = Azend jar, 355
Azerou = Thaaranim t Eat ad H ad jar, 359
Azigzaou (Cp ), 328
See also Takou rchit, 352
Baalie = Col d e Dam e N oir , 432
Bacalar Preto See Lam p eira, 368
Bacorinho (C), 421
Badalhouce (C), 383
Bagassa = Mou renao, 453
Baid i (P.I. N o. 80,294) Bru nsw ick, 417
Baiou d iSee Bayou d i, 384
Balafi (C), 477
Ban egra = Cascitello, 431
Banyols (C), 477
Barban era = Petronciano, 368
Barbillone (C), 415
Bardajic (5), 346
Bard ajik = Bard ajic, 346
Bardakji (Cp), 340
Bard akjik = Bard ajic, 346
Bardakjik Black (5), 356
Bargemon (C), 421
Barli (5), 356
Barnissenca (C), 421
See also Sarreign e, 469
Barn issen qu o = Barn issenca, 421
Barnissotte (C), 369, 422
Barnissotte Blanche (C), 383
Barn issotte Wh ite = Barn issotte Blanche, 383
Barshou m i Su ltan i (of Eg yp t), 472
Bayoudi (C), 384
Baysw ater = Bru nsw ick , 416

Hilgardia
Beall (C), 416

Beau caire = Clestin e, 431


Bbera = Moscatel Preto, 452
Bec de Perdrix (C), 423
Becuelle (C), 423
Belamie (Cp) Listed on ly , 341
Belle Dam e (P.I. N o. 69,010) = Bru nsw ick, 417
Belle Dam e Blanch e (P.I. N o. 86,790) =
Bru nsw ick, 417
Bellegard e = Barn issotte, 422
Bellona (C), 423
Bellone = Bellona, 423
Bellou ne = Bellona, 423
Belmandil (5), 356
Berdauda (C), 384
Bernard = Barn issenca, 421
Bern issenca = Barn issenca, 421
Bern issen qu e = Barn issenca, 421
Bern issou Blanc = Barn issotte Blanch e, 383
Bern issou N egra = Barnissotte, 422
Bertolina = Caiana, 430
Besoul-el-Khadem (5), 356
Betada (C), 424
Beurzel (Cp), 328
Bezou l-el-Khad em = Besou l-el-Khad em , 356
Bezou lt Rh ad em = Besou l-el-Khad em , 356
Bezzoso = Dattero, 435
Bianch etta = Albo, 372
Blanco (Cp ), 335
Biancolella = Dottato, 376
Biancoletta = Albo, 372
Biancolini = Albo, 372
Biberaeo = Franciscana, 437
Biddin-el-Brel (5), 356
Bid d in-el-Djem el = Bid h-el-Djem el, 424
Bid h-el-Atrou s = Su ltan i (of Eg yp t), 472
Bidh-el-Djemel (C), 424
BifaroSee Bifero, 479
Bifre d e in Malm aison = Malm aison , 447
Bifero (C), 479
Bin elli = Dottato, 376
Bin ellino = Dottato, 376
Bin ello = Dottato, 376
Bin ello = Pissalu tto, 401
Biou d iSee Bayou d i, 384
Biskra = Choer , 347
Bisp oSee Lam p eira, 368
Biter Abiod (C), 411
Biter Akhal (C), 424
Black Dou ro = San Piero, 468
Black Genoa = San Piero, 468
Black Marseilles = Marseillaise Black , 449

Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black
Black

Martin iqu e = Martiniqu e, 449


Mission = Franciscana, 438
N ap les = Bru nsw ick , 416
Portu gal = San Piero, 468
Provence = Marseillaise Black, 449
San Ped ro = San Piero, 468
Su garSee Eva , 436

Febru ary , 1955]


483
Blanca=Albo, 372
Blanca Clara = Alicantina, 411
Blancassa (C), 384
Blancassa = Alicantina, 411
Blanche (C), 372
Blanch eSee Bou rjassotte Gris, 427
Blanch e Peau VerteSee Blanche, 372
Blanch e d Ar genteu il = Blanch e, 372
Blanch e d Ar genteu il (P.I. N o. 92,304) =
Bru nsw ick, 417
Blanch e Fleu r = Blanche, 372
Blanch e H tive = Blanche, 372
Blanch e Lon gu e Marseillaise Lon g , 449
Blanch e N avelloSee Du Jap on , 412
Blanch e Rond e = Blanch e, 372
Blanch ette = Dattero, 435
Blan qu eta = Alicantina , 411
Blan qu ette = Blanch e, 372
Blan qu etteSee Pietri, 362
Blan qu etto = Lip ari, 395
Blan qu illa = Pajajero, 399
Blan qu ita = Albo, 372
Blan qu o = Blanch e, 372
Blan qu o Com m u noSee Blanch e, 372
Blati = Ed eisi, 378
Blava (C), 477
Blavette (C), 424
Bleasdale (Cp), 338 341
Blowers (S), 346
Blu e = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Blu e Bu rgu nd y = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Blu e Celeste = Malta, 447
Blu e Ischia = Ischia Black, 443
Bocarde (C), 424
Bondance Prcoce (C), 424
Bontalette (C), 411
Bontard (C), 385
Booung (Cp ), 341
Bordeaux (C), 424
See also N egrette, 453, 454
Bord issot Blanca = Barn issotte Blanche, 383
Bord issotte Blanca = Barnissotte Blanch e, 383
Borghino (C), 385
Borsamele (S), 343
Bou-Ang (S), 356
Bou An kir = Med lou b , 338
Bou an kirk = Col d e Dam e N oir , 432
Bouche-barrique (C), 426
Bou DefiSee Besou l-el-Khad em , 356
Bouffros = Briasca Dou ssa, 428
Bou ghton = Bru nsw ick, 416
Bou giotte = Tam eriou t, 352
Bou-Harrak (S), 356
Bou-Harraq = H arraki, 395
Bou hiou aSee Ad ras Blanc, 339
Bouin (C), 385

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Bou issonne = Mou issonn e, 452


Boukrati (C), 385

Bou le d OrSee Dau p hin e, 365


Bourdissotte Blanche (C), 385
Bourdissotte Noire (C), 427
Bou rgassotte = Barnissotte Blanch e, 383
Bou rgeassotte = Barnissotte Blanche, 383
Bou riageotte = Barnissotte, 422
Bou rjassotte Blanch e = Barn issotte Blanche, 383
Bourjassotte Gris (C), 427
Bou rjassotte N oire = Barnissotte, 422
Bou rjassotte Panache = Panache, 400
Bourlier (Cp), 341
Bou rtaw i = Yaffaw i, 381
Boutana (C), 385
Boutiltete (C), 480
Bouton d OrSee Dau p hin e, 365
Bouton d u Gu tre = Lip ari, 395
Bovin = Bou in , 385
Brackett (Cp), 341
Bracoted esco = Panache, 400
Branco = Urjal, 381
Brawley (Cp ), 339
Brayasqu e = Briasca, 427
Brebal = Franciscana, 437
Breed love = Vern ino, 475
Breva N egra = San Piero, 467
Brianzola (C), 385
Briasca (C), 427
Briasca Doussa (C), 428
Briasca of Grasse = Dattero, 435
Brignolenque (C), 428
Brindisino (C), 375
Brocket H all = Ischia, 442
BrogiottoSee Im p erial, 442
Brogiotto Bianco = Barn issotte Blanche, 383
Brogiotto Fiorentino = Barn issotte, 422
Brogiotto N ero = Barn issotte, 422
Brow n H am bu rgh = Bru nsw ick , 416
Brow n Ischia = Ischia Brow n , 444
Brow n Italian = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Brow n N ap les = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Brown Turkey (C), 325, 428
See also Ram sey , 462
Brow n Tu rkey = San Piero, 467
Brugeotte (C), 430
Brunswick (C), 325, 370, 416
Bru nsw ickSee San Piero, 468
Bsikri (Cp), 340
Bu cu elle = Becu elle, 423
Buino (Sp), 364

Bulletin (Cp ), 341


Bu rjassotte Branco = Barnissotte Blanch e, 383
Bu rjassotte Preto = Barnissotte, 422
Bu rroSee Lam p eira, 368
Buttafarro (C), 386
Byadi (C), 386

484
[Vol. 23, N o. 11
Cabroliana (C), 386
Cachpeiro Branco (Sp), 360
Cachp eiro PretoSee Lam p eira , 368
CachopoSee Cachp eiro Branco, 360
Caiana (C), 480
Caiana Blanca (C), 386
Calabresa (C), 430
Calabria = Dottato, 876
Calderona (C), 430
California Black Franciscana, 437
Calim yrn a = Sari Lop , 325, 343
Calvert = Verte, 410
Cam ald olese = Vern ino, 475
Cam p an ella = Trojano, 405
CanibianchiSee Cascitello, 431
Canibianco = Cascitello, 431
Cantina = Alicantina, 411
Cap a Rota = Urjal, 381
Cap e Brow nSee Eva , 436
Cap e Wh iteSee Blanche, 374
Cap o = Cu m p ini, 434
Capoll Llarch (C), 477
Gasp arrin i (1845) gives th e follow in g term inology ,
all u nd er th e gen u s Caprificus:
gigantea = Grand e, 341, 451
leucocarpa = Bianco, 335
oblongata = Ch iajese, 341
pedunculata = Ped u ncu lato, 341
rugosa = Ricciu to, 334
sphaerocarpa = Rotond o, 331
Caprifigs, Neapolitan (and oth ers,
m iscellan eou s), 342
Cap ri N o.1 = Stanford , 338
Cap ri N o.5 = Sam son , 331, 338
Cap ri Sm yrna N o.4 = Sw in gle, 342
Carabaseta (C), 386
CarabessetaSee Carabaseta, 356
Cara Lisa = Belm and il, 356
Caravanchina (C), 386
Caravanchina Bianca = Caravanchina, 386
Caravanchina Negra (C), 430
Caravan qu in N egra = Caravanchina
N egra, 430
Carlina (C), 386
Carvalhal (Sp), 364
Cascella = Cascitello, 431
Cascetta = Cascitello, 431
Cascited d ha = Cascitello, 431
Cascitello, (C), 430
Caseta (C), 412
Castagnola (C), 412
Castagnolo (C), 431
Castanhal (C), 431
Castelhano Branco (S), 346
Castelhano d a Rocha = Castelhano Preto, 356
Castelhano Preto (S), 356

Hilgardia

Castellana (C), 375


CastexSee Grasse, 394

Castle Kennedy (Sp), 864


Catalan (C), 431
Cava = Vern ino, 475
Celeste = Malta, 447
Celeste Violette = Malta, 447
Celestial = Malta, 447
Clestine (C), 431
Cernica (C), 432
Cerva = Signorella, 404
Cervone (C), 412
Cesario = Cu eritesto, 347
Changelge (S), 347
Chefaki (S), 347
Cheihk-Ali (C), 386
Cheker Injir (S), 347
Ch estnu t-colored Ischia = Ischia Brow n , 444
Chetoui (C), 432
Chiajese (Cp), 341
Chiajese (Sp), 365
Chiattarella (C), 419
Choer (S), 347
Cimeirenca (C), 432
Cimeirenca Blanca (C), 386
Cistallino (C), 412
Citrato (C), 375
Clare =Bru nsw ick , 416
Clarkad ota = Dottato, 376
Clauet (C), 387
Claveu (C), 432
Clm entin e = Bru nsw ick , 416
Clou = Claveu , 432
Coasca = Dattero, 435
C u r = Verte, 408
Col de Dame (C), 387
Col d e Dam e Blanc = Col d e Dam e, 387
Col de Dame Noir (C), 432
Col d es Dam es = Col d e Dam e, 387
Col d e Seora Blanca = Col d e Dam e, 387
Col d e Seora N egra = Col d e Dam e N oir , 432
Col d i Signora = Col d e Dam e, 387
Col d i Signora (P.I. N o. 102,099) = Bru nsw ick, 417
Col d i Signora Bianca = Col d e Dam e, 387
Col d i Signora N ero, or N egra = Col d e
Dam e N oir , 432
Cal d i Signora Panache = Panache, 400
Colombaro (Cp ), 335
Colom bo = Colom bro, 360
Colom bo = Cascitello, 431
Colombo Bianco (C), 375

Colombo Nero (C), 432


Colom bo PazzoSee Colom bro, 360
Colombo Selvatico (C), 477
Colom bone = Colom bro, 360
Colom bra = Colom bro, 360
Colombro (Sp), 360
Colu m baro = Colom bro, 360

Febru ary , 1955]


485
Colu m bo = Colom bro, 360
Colu m bro Colom bro, 360
Colu m m aro N ero = Colom bo N ero, 432
Colu m m o = Cascitello, 431
Colu m m o Bianco = Colom bo Bianco, 375
Colu m m on e = Colom bro, 360
Comadre (C),412 (See Eisen reference for
description.)
Com m on Blu e = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Com m on Brow n = See Eva, 436
Confiseu rs = Lam p eira, 368
Constant Date Datte Qu otid ien n e, 434
Constantine (C), 433
Constantin eSee Rocard e, 463
Cop p a= Pop p a, 380
Corazn = Cu ore, 434
Corbeau = Rh erabi, 358
Corbo = San Piero, 467
Cord elia = Croisic, 336
Cordelire (C), 388
Cortese = Dattero, 435
Cortice Crasso = Perou as, 459
Coscialu n ga = Gam balu n ga, 391
Cotignac = Cotignacen qu e, 388
Cotignacenque (C), 388
Cotignana = O bservantin e, 455
CotignanaSee Saint Jean , 465
Ctigo (C), 433
Ctio (C), 388
Ctio Tinto = Ctigo, 433
Coucou rela = Cord elire, 388
Coucou relle = Cord elire, 388
Coucou relle Plascassier = Becu elle, 423
Coucou relle Blanche = An gliqu e, 382
Coucourelle Brune (C), 433
Coucourelle Gavotte (C), 433
Coucou relle Gris = Cord elire, 388
Coucou relle N oire = Cou cou relle Gavotte, 433
Cou gou rd ana = Mu ssega, 399
Cou r = Verte, 408
Cou rgette Raye = Panach e, 400
Crave (C), 434
Croisic (Cp), 336
Cu ello d e Dam n Blanca = Col d e Dam e, 387
Cu ello d e Dam n N egra = Col d e Dam e N oir , 432
Cueritesto (S), 347
Cu ers = Verte, 408
See also Verte Bru n e, 476
Cu iro d e Bou = Rojisca, 479
Cumpini (C), 434
Cuore (C), 434
Cu ou d e Mu elo = Rose N oire, 463
Curigo (C), 434
Cyp ru s = Ischia Yellow , 395
DA bou ch Takli = Col d e Dam e N oir, 432

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

DA gen = Verd al, 474

DallOsso = Meriou n , 451


Dalm atia (P.I. N o. 102,010) = Bru nsw ick, 417
Dalm atiaSee Du Jap on , 412
Dalm atian = Bru nsw ick, 416
Dalm atianSee Ragu sa, 413
Damascene (C), 388
Dame Blanche (C), 389
Dame Noire (C), 434
Darji (C), 389
Datil (C), 419
Dattaresi = Dottato, 376
Datte (C), 389
Datte Quotidienne (C), 434
Datteresi = Dottato, 376
Dattero (C), 435
DatteroSee Dottato, 376
Datto = Datte, 389
Dauphine (Sp), 365, 418
Dau p h ine Violette = Dau p hin e, 365
Daurada (C), 390
Dat-el-Arab = Tbani, 405
De ConstantineSee Rocard e, 463
De Cou r = Verte, 408
De Cu ers = Verte, 408
De lArch ip el = Archip el, 414
Del Cap o = Cu m p in i, 434
Del Giam m icoSee Col d e Dam e N oir, 432
Del Giap p one = Pastilire, 456
Della Cava = Vernino, 475
Della Lu n igiana = Monaco, 397
Della Mad on naSee Datte, 389
Della Qu aglia = Gallu ccio, 440
Della Villa = Scancaniso, 354
DeltaSee Brow n Tu rkey , 429
Des Confiseu rs = Lam p eira , 368
Des Dam es = Col d e Dam e, 387
Des Dam es = Verte, 408
DEsp agn e = Esp agnole, 412
DEsp agn eSee Melagrano, 450
DEsp agn e = Verte, 408
DH iver = Verte, 408
Djaferi (S), 347
Djebali (S), 348
Djebali (of Gafsa) (C), 435
Djerbi (C), 436
Doctor Hogg Black (C), 436
See also Franciscana, 438
Dois Flha (C), 412
Domestica (C), 390

Dominique (C), 477


Don icale = Dattero, 435
Dor (P.I. N o. 101,715) = Bru nsw ick, 417
DOr = An gliqu e, 382
DOr = Dore, 390
DOr = Gentile, 360
D Or Bifre (C), 436
D Or de Baume (C), 436
D Or de Laura (C), 390

486
[Vol. 23, N o. 11
Dorato Albo, 372
Dore (C), 390
Dore Nobis (C), 376
DOro Albo, 372
DOro = Gentile, 360
Dottati Dottato, 376
Dottato (C), 369, 376
See also Gentile, 361; Lim oncello, .395
Dottato Bianco Dottato, 376
Dottato N ero Meren giana, 451
Dottato Rosso = Meren giana, 451
Doucette (C), 480
Dou qu eira = Perroqu in e, 459
Douqueira Blanca (C), 390
Dou qu eira N egra = Perroqu ine, 459
Dou qu eiretta = Cabroliana, 386
Dou ro Black = San Piero, 467
Dou ro Vebra = Franciscana, 437
Drap d'Or (Sp), 360, 366
Dr. H ogg s Clare = Monstru eu se, 398
Drou bi = H d eid arm al, 379
Du Japon (C), 412
D lek gazi = Karayap rak , 349
Du re Peau = Peau Du re, 458
Du Roi (C), 390
Early Forcin g = Ischia Black, 443
Early H ow ick = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Early Lem on = An gliqu e, 382
Early Violet (C), 436
Early White (C), 378
Ebeid i = Gh zali, 440
Edeisi (C), 378
Eggp lantSee Meren giana , 451
Eisen (S); 343
El-Baiou d iSee Bayou d i, 384
El Bitri (C), 391
El Hadj (S) Listed on ly , 359
El H am m a = N ou rchi, 454
El Khadri (C), 391
Elma (Cp ), 336
El Nouchi (C), 412
End rich = Dottato, 376
End rich = Milco, 330
Erbeyli = Sari Lop , 343
Eseli = Mw azi, 419
Esm irnaSee Sari Lop , 343
Esp agn eSee Verte, 408; Esp agnole, 412;
Melagrano, 450
Espagnole (C), 412
Esqu illarello = Lip ari, 395
Eu chrio Branco = Castelhano Branco, 346
Eu chrio Preto = Castelhano Preto, 356
See also Castelhano Branco, 346
Euscaire (S), 354
Eu scaire Preto = Eu scaire, 354

Hilgardia

Eva (C), 436


Everbearin g (of Texas) See Brow n Tu rkey , 429

Excelsior (Cp ), 329


Eye of the Partrid ge = il d e Perd rix, 455
Eyrogue (C), 391
Fabre (C), 480
Fallahi = Byad i, 386
Fallu giana = San Piero, 467
FaraSee Sesso, 350
Fayou m i=Su ltani (of Eg yp t), 472
Ferguson (C), 437
Fetifero = Meriou n , 451
Fettouai (C), 412
Ficazzano = Fracazzano Rosso, 367
Ficazzin i Vera = Cord elire, 388
Risso (1826) gives th e follow in g term inology , all
varieties of Ficus carica:
aberdina = A berd in , 382
acuta = Pou nchu d a, 402
albida = Blancassa, 384
amara = A m arou na, 421
aubana = Au ban e, 421
aulica = Verte, 408
barnissota = Barn issotte, 422
bellona = Bellona, 423
bernardi = Barn issenca, 421, 470
binella = Dottato, 376
bovina = Bou in , 385
browniSee Caiana, 430
caffra = Mau re, 450
caiana = Caiana , 430
candoleana = Caiana Blanca, 386
cemenelea = Cim eirenca Blanca, 386
clausa = Bou che-barriqu e, 426
clavicularis = Claveu , 432
collina = Caravanchina, 386
cotignana = O bservantin e, 388 (u nd er
Cord elire); 455
domina = Col d e Dam e, 387
dulcissima = Briasca Dou ssa, 428
falaciosaSee Verte, 409
franciscana = Melagrano, 450
fuscaSee Cou cou relle Bru n e, 433
gallica = Catalan , 431
garideli = Sarreign e, 469
gorgonea = Gorgone, 393
grassensis = Grasse, 394
grisea = Saint Jean , 465
helena = Rond ella Blanca, 403
imperialis = Im p erial, 442

labillardiera = Cou cou relle Ga votte, 433


linneana = Mu ssega ., 399
longicaudataSee Peconju do, 458
lutea = Dau rad a, 390
massiliensis = Marseillaise, 396
meirana = Meirana, 450
melitensis = Meren giana, 451
mellifera = Meou , 397
meridionalis = Barnissotte Blanch e, 383

Febru ary , 1955]


487
monstrosa = Grosse Jau ne, 394
mourenao = Mou renao, 453
movissona = Mou issonn e, 452
nicaeensis = Perroqu in e, 459
nigra = N egrette, 453
nucleata = Meriou n , 451
obovata = Caravanchina N egra , 430
phoceana = Marseillaise Black , 449
pilosa = Perou as, 459
praecox = Praecox, 461
pulchella = Gen tile, 360
punctulata = Dau p h in e, 365
purpureo-violaceaSee Salad a, 467
radiata = Panach e, 400
richardia = Cu ore, 434
richetaSee O m e, 455
rolandina = Dattero, 435
rosa nigra = Rose N oire, 463
saccharata = Su crad a, 404
salernitana = Salerno, 403
saracenica = Sarana , 469
seirola = Seirolles, 380
serotina = Ru bad o N egro, 465
siciliana = Sid le, 404
smithii = Levenssana, 446
spiritus-sancti = Saint-Esp rit, 465
sprengellia = Sp ren gel, 471
suffrenia = Pissalu tto N ero, 460
tournefortiana = Cord elire, 388
turneriaSee Seirola N egra , 480
variabilis = Verd ale Blanche, 406
violacea = San Piero, 467
virescens = Verd al, 474
Gasp arrin i (1845) gives th e follow in g
term inology , all u nd er th e gen u s Ficus:
deliciosa = Parad iso, 455
deliciosa var. castanea = Datte, 389
deliciosa var. latifolia = Monaco, 397
deliciosa var. maxima = Cervon e, 412
dottata = Dottato, 376
hypoleuca = Verd eccio, 381
leucocarpa = Trojano, 405
pachycarpa = Lard aro, 446
pachycarpa var . fasciata = Panache, 400
pachycarpa var . lusitanica = Lam p eira , 368
pachycarpa var . nobilis = Regina , 462
polymorpha = Chiajese, 365
polymorpha var. bifera = San Piero, 467, 479
See also Bifero, 479
polymorpha var. depressa = Barnissotte, 422
polymorpha var. elegans = Dattero, 435
polymorpha var. haematocarpa =
Melagrano, 450
polymorpha var. juliana = Lu gliatico, 357

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

polymorpha var. melanocarpa = Petronciano, 368


Ficus carica bifera = Parad iso, 455
Ficus carica kennedyensis = Castle Ken n ed y , 364
Ficus carica relictaSee Croisic, 336
Ficus hirta = Pastilire, 456
Ficus liparensis = Lip ari, 396
Ficu s livianaSee Pissalu tto, 401
Ficus palmata (Cp), 340
Ficus pseudo-carica (Cp), 340
Fietta (S), 348
Fivre = Gen n es, 391
Figue Fleur (C), 437
Figu es N eblad os = Marseillaise Lon g , 449
Figu o Au biqu ou n = Bord eau x, 424
Figu o Roso = Rose Blanche, 463
Filera = Tira , 413
Fleu r Rou ge = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Florentina = Toscana, 405
Florentine (C), 378
Forastera = Seora, 470
Forbes (Cp), 329
Ford (C), 437
Ford Seed lin g = Ford , 437
Ford s Seed lin g = Blanche, 372
Foundling (C), 477
Fourrassa (C), 391
Fqeisi (C), 391
Fracatsani = Dottato, 376
Fracazzano (C), 378
Fracazzano Bianco=Fracazzano, 378
Fracazzano Rigato = Panach e, 400
Fracazzano Rosso (Sp), 367
Fraga = Col d e Dam e, 387
Fragola = Verd on e, 406
Franche (C), 477
Franche Paillard (C), 437
Franciscana (C), 369, 437
See also Dr. H ogg Black , 436; Meren giana, 451
Franciscana = Melagrano, 450
Fran qu e Pagard e = Franch e Paillard , 437
Frette (C), 439
Fu ente d e Balafi = Balafi, 477
Gad d hu zzo = Gallu ccio, 440
Gagliano d el Cap o = Tard ivo, 332
Gajico (C), 412
Gallipolino (C), 477
Galluccio (C), 440
Gambalunga (C), 391
Gazir (C), 477
Gemini I (Cp ), 337

Gemini II (Cp ), 333


Gennes (C), 391
Genoa (C), 391
GenoaSee Gen n es, 391

488
[Vol. 23, N o. 11
Genoa Black = San Piero, 467
Genoa Wh ite = Genoa, 391
Genovese = Datte, 389
Gen tile = Dottato, 376
See also Gentile, 360
Gen tile (of Bologna) = Albo, 372
Gentile (Sp); 360
Gen tiliu m = Gentile, 360
Gen tilla = Gen tile, 360
Gen tilla Rou ssa = Moresca, 399
Gen tioSee Lam p eira, 368
Geraci Black = Royal, 464
Geru salem = Jeru salem , 445
Gh en gelje = Chan gelge, 347
Ghorabi = A b bou d i, 414
Ghozi = A b bou d i, 414
Ghozlan i = Gh zali, 440
Ghzali (C), 440
Giam m icoSee Col d e Dam e N oir, 432
Giap p one = Pastilire, 456
Gillette = Croisic, 336
Glati (C), 393
Gk Lop (S), 348
Gold en N arbu s = Dore N obis, 376
Gombaya (C), 478
Gorgone (C), 393
Gota d e Gom a = Gota d e Mel, 393
Gota de Mel (C), 393
Gounti (C), 393
Gou rau d N oir = Franciscana, 437
Gouraud Rouge (C), 440
Goureau (C), 419
Gou rreau d u Lan gu ed oc = Franciscana, 437
Gou rreau N oirSee Franciscana, 437
Gou tte = Jeru salem , 445
Gou tte d Or = Dore, 390
Gr (C), 478
Graissan e (C), 412
Granad oSee Melagrano, 450
Granata = San Piero, 468
Granato (C), 440
Grande (Cp), 341, 451
Grascello = Dottato, 376
Grassale (C), 393
Grasse (C), 394
See also Grassale, 393
Grassen qu e = Grasse, 394
Greefs Black = St. Dom in go, 471
Gris = Archip el, 414
Gris = Clestin e, 431
Gris = Grasse, 394
Gris = Saint Jean , 465
Gris d e Saint Jean = Saint Jean , 465
Gris Mad elein e = Saint Jean , 465
Gris Savantin e = Saint Jean 466
Gris Savantin e Bifre = Saint Jean , 465

Hilgardia

Grisette = Clestin e, 431


Grizzly Bou rjassotte = Bou rjassotte Gris, 427

Grosse Berd ou a = Berd au d a, 384


Grosse Blanche d e Gn esSee Grosse Jau n e, 394
Grosse Blanche Lon gu e = Marseillaise Lon g , 449
Grosse Blanche Rond e = Blanche, 372
See also Salern e, 403
Grosse Bou rjassotte = Barnissotte, 422
Grosse d e Ju illet = Su ltan e, 472
Grosse d e Ju illetSee Dau p hin e, 365
Grosse d u Dragu ign an = Verd al, 474
Grosse Gris = Saint Jean , 466
Grosse Gris Bifre = Saint Jean , 465
Grosse Jaune (C), 394, 451
Grosse Marseilles (C), 440
Grosse Monstru eu se d e Lip ari = Monstru eu se, 398
Grosse Rou ge d e Bord eau x = San Piero, 467
Grosse Sultane (C), 478
Grosse Superfine (C), 419
Grosse Verd ale = Verd al, 474
Grosse Verte = Verd on e, 406
Grosse Violette = Dau p h in e, 365
Grosse Violette d e Bord eau x = San Piero, 467
Grosse Violette d e Bord eau xSee Bord eau x, 425
Grosse Violette Lon gu e = San Piero, 467
Grosso (Cp ), 333
Grosso Figo = Barn issotte, 422
Gu ers = Verte, 409
Guiliana (C), 441
Habtir (S), 356
Hajji Mestan (Cp), 337
H am eriSee H am ri, 478
Hamma (Cp ), 333
Hammani (S), 359
Hamri (C), 478
Hamriti (5), 354
H anover = Bru nsw ick , 416
H ard y Prolific = Arch ip el, 414
Harraki (C), 395
H arrisonSee Brow n Tu rkey ; 429
Htive d Argenteuil (C), 441
Hdadi (C), 379
Hdeidarmal (C), 379
Heiny No.1 (Cp ), 329
H ejazi = Su ltan i (of. Eg yp t), 472
H ln e = Rond ella Blanca, 403
H igu era N egraSee Franciscana, 438
Hilgard (S), 348
H irta = Pastilire, 456
H irta d u Jap on = Pastilire, 456

H iver = Verte, 408


Hmadi (C), 441
Hmari (C), 441
Horaigaki (C), 441

Febru ary , 1955]


489
Hortella = Tira, 413
Hospitalire (C), 412
Howard (Cp ), 333
Hunt (C), 441
Iad i = Jad i, 348
Illoul (Cp), 337
Im llou iSee Tad efou it and Tam eriou t, 352
Imperial (C), 442
Im p eriau = Im p erial, 442
Incarnad in eSee An gliqu e Jau n e, 383
Ingan nam iele = Borsam ele, 343
Invernale = Arn eo Bianco, 383
Invern en go = Arn eo Bianco, 383
Invernengo Rosso (C), 442
Invern eo = Arn eo Bianco, 383
Invernizzo = Arn eo Bianco, 383
Ischia (C), 442
Ischia Black (C), 443
Ischia Brown (C), 444
Ischia Figs, Th e, 442
See also Verte, 409
Ischia Green = Verte, 408
See also Th e Ischia Figs, 442
Ischia Wh ite = Ischia, 443
Ischia Yellow (C), 395
Isly (S), 348
Italian Large Blu e = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Italian N o. 1 = Taylor, 342
Italian N o.2 = Rivers, 341
Ivern enca = Seora, 470
Jadi (S), 348
Jalbou shi = Tbani, 405
Jap anese = Pastilire, 456
Jasp e = Panach e, 400
Jasper (C), 445
Jaune de Toulouse (C), 379
Jau ne H tive = Early Wh ite, 378
Jerusalem (C), 445
Jetta = Fietta, 348
Jorba (C), 412
Jorest (C), 419
Ju lia = Parejal, 413
Kaab el Ghazal (S), 343
Kaapse Bru in See Eva , 436
Kadota=Dottato, 325,376
Kaffi (C), 395
Kahili (C), 446
Kahramani (C), 379
Kalamata (S), 348
Kara IlekSee Stanford cap rifig, 338
Kara Injir (S), 356
Kara Mor (Cp ), 333
Karayaprak (S), 349

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

Kargigna (C), 379


Kassaba (S), 349

Kearney (Cp ), 329


Ken n ed y = Castle Ken n ed y , 364
Ken n ed ySee Bru nsw ick , 417
Khadir (S), 349
Khalouli (S), 357
Kharroubi (C), 446
Khazouri (S), 343
Khdari (Sp), 361
Khed ri = El Khad ri, 391
Khlouth (S), 359
Khu rtm ani (P.I. N o. 80,297) = Bru nsw ick
417, 419
Khu rtm ani = Mw azi, 419
Khu ssu m = Sm ari, 471
King (Sp), 360, 361
Kommathri (C), 395
Kongouz (Cp ), 341
Kongur (Cp ), 337
Kouffi Rouge (S), 357
Kouffi Vert (S), 349
Koutsina (C), 480
Krati = Kraw i, 395
Krawi (C), 395
Kus (C), 446
Kuyucak (Cp), 337
Labillard ire = Coucou relle Gavotte, 433
Lad aroSee Lard aro, 446
Lam p as = Lam p eira, 368
Lam p as Portogh ese = Lam p eira, 368
Lampeira (Sp), 368
Lam p o BrancoSee Cachp eiro Branco, 360
Lam p o PretoSee Lam p eira , 368
La Perp tu elle = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Lard aio = Lard aro, 446
Lardaro (C?), 446
Lard e = bu tte, 389
Large Black Dou ro = San Piero, 468
Large Blu e = Brow n Tu rkey , 429
Large Wh ite Tu rkey = Bru nsw ick , 416
La Rou sse = Rose Blanche, 463
Lattarola (C), 395
Lattaru la = Blanche, 374
Lebi (S), 349
Lees Perp etu al = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Leker Injir = Ch eker Injir, 347
Lem on = Blanch e, 374
Leon (C), 419
Levant (C), 412

Levenssana (C), 446


Limoncello (C), 395
Lim on e = Panach e a , 400
Lip arensis = Lip ari, 395
Lipari (C), 395
Lip ariSee Ischia, 442
LiviaSee Troiano, 405
Llimonenca (C), 412
Lob Injir (or In gir) = Sari Lop , 343

490
[Vol. 23, N o. 11
Lon g N ap les = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Lon gu e d Ao t (C), 446
Lon gu e Marseillaise = Marseillaise Lon g , 449
Loomis (Cp), 337
Lucano (C), 396
Lu crezia = Col d e Dam e, 387
Lu gliarolo = Lu gliatico, 357
Lugliatico (S), 357
Lu m incella = Dottato, 376
Lu n go Bianco = Sesso, 350
Lu nigiana = Monaco, 397
Mad agascar = Su ltan i (of Eg yp t), 472
Mad am a Rosso = Datte, 389
Madel (Cp), 337
Mad elein e = An gliqu e, 382
Mad elein e = Blanch e, 372
Madeline (C), 447
Madre (C), 447
Madonna = Bru nsw ick, 416
MadonnaSee Datte, 389
Madoui (S), 349
Magdalen (C), 379
Magnissalis (Cp), 333
Magnolia = Bru nsw ick, 416, 417
Mahounaise (C), 478
Malagu en ho Branco and M. Bravo = Ctio; 388
Malaki (S), 343
Malaki Blanc (8), 349
Malaktiana (C), 480
Malmaison (C), 447
Malta (C), 447
Malta = Meren giana , 451
Mamari (8), 349
Maple-Leaved (8), 350
Mappafero (C), 449
Marabout (8), 357
Maran giano = Meren giana, 451
Maravilla = Panache, 400
Mare de Den (C), 478
Marinera (C), 419
Mario or Mariu = Cascitello, 431
Markarian (Cp ), 337
Markarian N o.1 = Sam son , 331, 338
Markarian N o.2 = Markarian , 337
Marques (C), 396
Marsaoui (C), 419
Marseillaise (C), 396
Marseillaise Black (C), 449
Marseillaise Long (C), 449
Marseillaise N egra = Marseillaise Black , 449
Marseillaise Wh ite = Blanch e, 372
Marseilles = Blanche, 372
Marseilles = Marseillaise, 396
Martigiano (C), 397
Martin enca = Barnissenca, 421

Hilgardia

Martin enca Blanca = Ojo d e Perd iz, 379

Martinique (C), 449


Martinique White (C), 450
Marzelli (C), 419
Maslin (Cp), 341
Maslin N o.14 = West, 353
Maslin N o.52 = Eisen , 343
Maslin N o.70 = Bleasd ale, 338, 341
Maslin No.91 (Cp ), 340
Maslin N o.114 = Rixford , 350
Maslin N o.144 = Mason , 338
Maslin N o.147 = Loom is, 337, 338
Maslin N o.148 = N ew castle, 338
Maslin No.150 (Cp ), 338
Maslin N o.153 = H ilgard , 348
Mason (Cp ), 338
Mastroleone (C), 397
Mastru glion e = Mastroleone, 397
Masu i Dau p h ine = San Piero, 468
Matarassa = Grasse, 394
See also Grassale, 393
Matelassa (C), 419
Matelassiera = Matelassa, 419
Matm ata = N ou rchi, 454
Mattano=Albo, 372
Maure (C), 450
McFadden (C), 447
Mecklin geaSee San Piero, 468
Medloub (Cp ), 338
Medot = Dottato, 376
Meirana (C), 450
Melagnano = Schiavo, 470
Melagrano (C), 450
Melanciano = Meren giana 451
Melanzana = Meren giana , 451
Melette = An gliqu e, 382
Melinga (C), 450
Melin gu e = Melin ga , 450
Melonced d ha = Meloncella, 397
Meloncella (C), 397
Melouba (C), 450
Mendolaro (Cp ), 330
Mentonasca (C), 451
Mentone = Mentonasca, 451
Meou (C), 397
Merchini (S), 350
Merengiana (C), 451
Meren giano = Meren giana, 451
Merioun (C), 451
Merlinga (C), 451

Messenia Kalam ata, 348


Messina (C), 452
Messinese = Messina, 452
Messongue (C), 480
Meyer (Cp ), 341
Meyer, Pau l, N o.1 = Meyer , 341
Meyer, Pau l, N o.2 = Brackett, 341
Mezzith (S) Listed only , 359
Mielleu se = Meou , 397
Migliarolo = Lu gliatico, 357

Febru ary , 1955]


491
Mignonne (C), 452
Milco (Cp ), 330
Minion = Mignon n e, 452
Minna d i Schiavo or Min n i d i Scava = San
Piero, 467
Minuto Bianco (C), 379
Minuto Nero (C), 452
Miraya (C), 478
Mission = Franciscana, 325, 437
Missonn eSee Mou issonn e, 452
Mitchell (Cp), 341
Mod a = Mota, 350
Moelle = Messon gu e, 480
Moissoa = Mou issonn e, 452
Molignano = Petronciano, 368
Monaca = Signora , 471
Monacello = Barnissotte, 422
Monaco (C), 397
Monaco Bianco = Monaco, 397
Monaie (C), 452
Mongin enco = Perroqu ine, 459
Monica (C), 478
Monstrueuse (C), 398
Montesino (Cp ), 333
Mor (Cp ) Listed on ly , 341
Mor (S), 357
Mor Gz (S), 357
Moresca (C), 399
Moscad ello = Albo, 372
Moscatel Branco (C), 399
Moscatel Preto (C), 452
Mota (S), 350
Mouissonne (C), 452
Mou issonn e N oire = Mou issonn e, 452
Mourenao (C), 453
Mouzai (S), 350
Mrari = Qeisi, 462
Mshaki (C), 379
Mu lleisi = Gh zali, 440
Mu rrey Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Museau de Livre (C), 453
Mussega (C), 399
Mu ssega N egra = Dau p hin e, 365
Mwazi (C), 419
Mwazi (Northern) (C), 399
Nain (C), 453
Napoletana (S), 358
N apoletani = Dottato, 376
N apoletano = Dottato, 376
N apoli Dottato, 376
Napolitaine (C), 453
N apolitano = N ap olitain e, 453
N ap u litano = Cascitello, 431
N ard eleo = Dottato, 376
N atalino = Arn eo Bianco, 383

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

N atalino or N . N ero = Vern ino, 475


N eap olitan = Genoa, 392
N eap olitan = N ap olitain e, 453

Neapolitan caprifigs (and oth ers,


m iscellan eou s), 342
N ebian = Verd on e, 406
N egra = Franciscana, 437
N egretta = N egrette, 453
Negrette (C), 453
N egro d Esp agn e = San Piero, 467
N egro Largo (P.I. N o. 18,889) = Barn issotte, 423
N egro Largo = San Piero, 467
N egron ne = Bord eau x, 424
Neimi (C), 399
N eriiSee Th e Ischia Figs, 442
N ero = Ischia Black , 443
N ero = San Piero, 467
N ero = Scavello 420
N eroSee Cascitello, 430
Nerolello (C), 454
N everalla = Archip el, 414
N ew Bru nsw ick = St. Dom in go, 471
Newcastle (Cp), 338
N ew DeltaSee Brow n Tu rkey , 429
New French (C), 413
See also An gliqu e, 382
N iu ro = Cascitello, 431
Nocciuola = Gallu ccio, 440
Noce (Sp), 362
Noire = Mad re, 447
Noire d e Ju illet = Su ltan e, 472
Noire d e Lan gu ed oc = San Piero, 468
Noire d Esp agn eSee Franciscana, 437
Noir Moutier (C), 454
Noral (C), 454
Nourchi (C), 454
Noursi (C), 399
Obisp o = Royal, 464
Observantire Gris = O bservantin e, 455
Observantine (C), 455
See also Cord elire, 388
il de Perdrix (C), 455
See also Pou lette, 460
Ojo de Perdiz (C), 379
Olho d e Passarin ho = Barnissotte Blanch e, 383
Ome (C), 455
Orihu ela = Seora, 470
Orzid an e = Azaim , 335
Osborn = Arch ip el, 414
Osborn Prolific (Ru st) (C), 420
Osborn s Prolific = Archip el, 414

Osso = Meriou n , 451


Ottato = Dottato, 376
Ottato Rosso (Sp), 368
Ou m ad el = Mad el, 337
Paccio = Pazzo, 350
Pacu ecas = San Piero, 468
Pagau d ire = Dau p hin e, 365

492
[Vol. 23, N o. 11
Pajajero (C), 399
Pallaro (C), 380
Panache (C), 400
See also Carabaseta, 386
Panettaro (S), 350
Pan ettiero = Pan ettaro, 350
Pan etto = A bate, 345
Papathoumika (C), 480
Paradiso (C), 455
Parad iso (of Cavolini) = A bate, 345
ParasoSee Parad iso, 455
Pardo (C), 456
Parechal = Parejal, 413
Parejal (C), 413
Paretjal N egra = Cald erona, 430
Parm igiano = Meren giana, 451
Partridge Eye (C), 456
Pasqu ale = Vern ino, 475
Passacanne (S), 358
Passanudo (C), 401
Passet = Brianzola, 385
Passin = Brianzola, 385
Pastellire = Pastilire, 456
Pastid ire = Pastilire, 456
Pastilire (C), 456
Pasu ella = Pasu lito, 350
Pasulito (S), 350
Pata d e CavaloSee Cu rigo, 434
Pau l Meyer N o.1 = Meyer , 341
Pau l Meyer N o.2 = Brackett, 341
Pazzo (S), 350
Peau d n e = Peau Du re, 458
Peau Dure (C), 458
See also Verte Bru n e, 476
Peau Du reSee Drap d Or , 366
Pecciolo Bianco (C), 401
Pecciolo Nero (C), 458
Peconjano = Peconju do, 458
Peconju d e Gris = Peconju do, 458
Peconjudo (C), 458
Pecou liano = Peconju do, 458
Pd oncu le = Peconju do, 458
Pedral (C), 459
Pedunculato (Cp ), 341
Peld u re = Peau Du re, 458
Pelo de Buey (C), 380
Pelosa (C), 413
Peloso = Sesso, 350
Pelou a = Perou as, 459
Pelu d a = Sitsel, 479
Penna (C), 459
Pennese (C), 401
Pentolello (C), 459
Pera = Co] d e Dam e; 387
Pre H ilarion = Panache, 400
Pergu ssata = Pregu ssata, 461

Hilgardia

Pero (C), 401


Peroqu ina = Perroqu in e, 459
Perouas (C), 459

Perroquine (C), 459


Perru qu ire = Perroqu in e, 459
Perticone (C), 401
Peters White (C), 401
Petite Au biqu e = Bord eau x, 424
Petite Blanche = Prcoce, 413
Petite Blanche Rond e = Lip ari, 395
Petite Bou rjassotte = Sarreign e, 469
Petite Figu e Gris = An gliqu e, 382
Petite Figu e Violette = Bord eau x, 424
Petite Marseillaise = Marseillaise, 396
Petite Verd ale = Verd al Bou nd , 475
Petronciano (Sp), 368
Ph easant Eye = il d e Perd rix, 455
Pichotte Barnissotte = Sarreign e, 469
Pied de Buf (Sp), 368
Piemontese (C), 478
Pietri (Sp), 362
Pilosa = Sesso, 350
Pilosella (C), 413
Piloso = Sesso, 350
Pin go d e Mel = Croisic, 336
Pin go d e Mel = Moscatel Branco, 399
Piom bin ese = San Piero, 467
Pissalutto (C), 401
Pissalu tto Bianco = Pissalu tto, 401
Pissalu tto N egro = Pissalu tto N ero, 460
Pissalutto Nero (C), 460
Pitalou seSee Pissalu tto, 402
Pitalu sse = Pissalu tto, 401
Pittalu sse Blanche = Pissalu tto, 401
Pittalu sse N oire = Pissalu tto N ero, 460
Plata (C), 478
Pocock = Blanch e, 372
Poire = Bord eau x, 424
Ponte d a Qu arteria = Marqu es, 396
Poona (C), 460
Poppa (C), 380
Porcino (C), 480
Porquena (C), 478
Porqu ena N egra = Porqu ena, 478
Porto (C), 478
Portogh ese = Lam p eira , 368
Portogh eseSee Colom bo Bianco, 375
Portu gal Black = San Piero, 467
Potentino = Map p afero, 449
Potignacen qu e = Cotignacen qu e, 388
Poulette (C), 460
Pounchuda (C), 402

Poussou lu d a = Pissalu tto, 401


Praecox (C), 461
Prcoce (C), 413
Prcoce de Barcelona (C), 461
Prcoce d Esp agn eSee Trois Rcoltes, 473
Prcoce N oire = Barnissotte, 422
Pregussata (C), 461
Preston (C), 462
Preston Prolific = Preston , 462
Prigisotto = Schiavo, 470

Febru ary , 1955]


493
Primaticcio (Cp ), 338
Princessa = Panache, 400
Processotto (C), 402
Purple Bulletin Smyrna (S), 358
Purple Smyrna (5), 358
Qeisi (C), 462
Qu ag gh ia = Gallu ccio, 440
Qu aglia = Gallu ccio, 440
Quarai (C), 402
Qu arteria = Blanch e, 372
Quasbi (C), 478
Quasse Blanche (C), 478
Qu otid ien n e = Datte Qu otid ien n e, 434
Raby Castle (C), 380
Rab y Castle = Blanch e, 372
Ragusa (C), 413
Ragu sain e = Ragu sa, 413
Rain ha = Barnissotte Blanch e, 383
Ram ad i = Su ltan i (of Eg yp t), 472
Ramsey (C), 462
Rargign a = Kargign a, 379
Ravignon (C), 402
Rayon n e = Panach e, 400
Rebanquio (C), 402
Recousse Noire (C), 462
Recou sse VioletteSee Recou sse N oire, 462
Recu lver = Franciscana, 437
Redd-el-Gouch (C), 402
Redona de Gr (C), 478
Regalo = Barnissotte Blanche, 383
Reggitana (C), 420
Regina (C), 462
Reginella (C), 413
Rei (C), 462
Reina = Regin a, 462
Reine (C), 380
Rein e = Mu ssega, 399
Renyach (C), 479
Rescio = Pen na , 459
Rherabi (S), 358
Ricciuto (Cp ), 334
Rivers (Cp), 341
RiversSee Crav, 434
Rixford (S), 350
Rizzed d hu = Rizzello, 402
Rizzello (C), 402
Robad o = Melagrano, 450
Roca (C), 479
Rocarde (C), 463
Rocard i = Rocard e, 463
Rock (Cp), 334
Rock Fig = N egrette, 453
Roeding No.1 (Cp ), 330
Roeding No.2 (Cp ), 334

Condit:

Fig

Roeding No.3 (Cp ), 334, 338


Roeding No.4 (Cp ), 331
Roja (C), 420

Rojal = Roja, 420


Rojisca (C), 479
Roland in e or Roland ina = Dattero, 435
Roland in e = Arch ip el, 414
Roland in e Blanch e = Dattero, 435
Roland in e N oire = Rose N oire, 463
Rom a BrancoSee Cachp eiro Branco, 36
Rom a PretoSee Lam p eira , 368
Rond e N oireSee Archip el, 414
Ronde Rouge (C), 463
Rond e Violette H tive = Dau p hin e, 365
Rondeletta (C), 463
Rondella Blanca (C), 403
Rondella Negra (C), 463
Rosa (S), 343
Rosa (C), 463
Rose Blanche (C), 463
Rose Noire (C), 463
Rose Peyronne (C), 464
Rossetto = Datte, 389
Rosso (Cp ), 335
Rotondo (Cp ), 331
Rou bau d a Blanca = Cu ore, 434
Rou bau d a N egra = Ru bad o N egro, 465
Rou ge d e Ar genteu il = Dau p hin e, 365
Rou ge d e La Frette = Frette, 439
Rougette (C), 403
Round White Smyrna (S), 350
Roussale (C), 464
Roussana (C), 464
Roxo de Valinhos (C), 464
Royal (C), 464
Royal Black = Royal, 464
Royale = Blanch e, 372
Royal Vin eyard = Drap d Or , 366
Ru b ad o = Cu ore, 434
Rubado Negro (C), 465
Ru bicone = San Piero, 467
Russello (C), 420
Ru ssu lid d u = Gallu ccio, 440
Ru st = Osborn Prolific, 420
Safrane (C), 479
Saint Dom in iqu e = Dom iniqu e, 477
Saint-Esprit (C), 465
Saint Jean (C), 465
See also Tou lou sien n e, 473
Saint Jean = Bru nsw ick , 416
Saint Jean Blanc = Croisic, 336

Varieties

Saint Jean Gris = Saint Jean , 465


Saint John = Croisic, 336
Saint Peter = San Ped ro, 363
Saint Ursule d Avignon (C), 466
Salada (C), 467
Salated d hu = Salatello, 358
Salatello (S), 358
Salerno (C), 403
Sam p iero = San Piero, 467

494
[Vol. 23, N o. 11
Sam p ieroSee Cascitello, 431; Mad re, 447;
Bifero, 479
Samson (Cp ), 331
San Antonio (Cp ), 332
San France = Melagrano, 450
San Francesco = Melagrano, 450
San Giovanni (Sp), 363
San Pedro (Sp), 363
San Ped ro Black = San Piero, 467
San Ped ro White = San Ped ro, 363
San Piero (C), 467
See also Roxo d e Valin hos, 464
San PieroSee Cascitello, 431; Mad re, 447;
Bifero, 479
San Pietro (C), 403
San PietroSee Cascitello, 431
San PietroSee San Piero, 468
Sang de Livre (C), 467
Santa CatarinaSee Cachp eiro Branco, 360
Santagatese (C), 469
Santa Sciann i = San Giovan n i, 363
Santu Vitu = San Vito, 364
San Vito (Sp), 364
So Luiz (C), 469
Sarana (C), 469
Sarasina = Sarana, 469
Sari Lop (S), 343
See also Kalam ata, 348
SarneseSee Pissalu tto, 401
Sarnese Bianco = Pissalu tto, 401
Sarnese N ero = Pissalu tto N ero, 460
Sarreigne (C), 469
See also Barn issenca, 421
Sarreignos = Sarreign e, 469
Sbayi (C), 470
Scancaniso (S), 354
ScansanisoSee Scancaniso, 354
Scaranzone (C), 404
Scavello (C), 420
Schiavo (C), 470
Schiavone = Cascitello, 431
Schifo (C), 380
Schwarz (Cp), 335
Scionto (S), 344
Seirola = Seirolles, 380
Seirola Negra (C), 480
Seirolles (C), 380
Seker = Ch eker Injir, 347
Selteni (C), 470
Sonora (C), 470
Serra (C), 413
Servantin e = Cord elire, 388
Sesso (S), 350
Sessu ne = Sesso, 350
Setosa = Perou as, 459
Sextius (C), 413

Hilgardia

Seyroles = Seirolles, 380


Sfari (C), 404
See also H d ad i, 379

Shalati el A bed = Sm ari, 471


Sharrawi (C), 404
Sheker Injir = Ch eker Injir, 347
Shh eim i = Yaffaw i, 381
Shou rtaw i = Yaffaw i, 381
Shtawi (C), 404
Shu h m an i = N eim i, 399
Shunnari (C), 470
Shunnari Asmar (C), 471
Sicile (C), 404
Sidi-ben-Agous (C), 471
Sidi-ben-Aied (C), 479
Sid i Gaber = Su ltani (of Eg yp t), 472
Sigilli (S), 351
Signora (C), 471
Signorella (C), 404
Silver Leaf = Bru nsw ick, 418
Sin gleton = Ischia, 442
Sirore = Seirolles, 380
Sitsel (C), 479
Slati (C), 404
S. Lu iz = So Lu iz, 469
Sm all Blu e = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Sm all Brow n = Malta, 447
Sm all Brow n IschiaSee Ischia Brow n , 444
Smari (C), 471
Sm ith Island Lem on = Troiano, 405
Sm yrna N o.2 = Roed in g N o.2, 334
Sm yrna N o.3 = Roed in g N o.3, 334
Sm yrna N o.4 = Bu lletin , 341
Snowden (S), 344
Sofno (C), 471
Solms-Laubach (Cp), 335
Solm s-Lau bach N o.1= Solm s-Lau bach , 335
Solm s-Lau bach N o.2 = Rock, 334
Solm s-Lau bach N o.3 = H ow ard , 333
Solm s-Lau bach N o.4 = Schw arz, 335
SoltaniSee Soltanin e, 358
Soltanine (S), 358
Sopa e Vinho (C), 471
Souaba-el-Adjia Blanche (S), 351
Souaba-el-Adjia Rose (C), 471
Sp agna = Melagrano, 450
Sprengel (C), 471
Stanford (Cp ), 338
Stanford (S), 351
Stanford N onsp littin g = Stanford
(Sm yrna typ e), 351
St. Domingo (C), 471

Straw berry = Verd on e, 406


Strip ed = Panache, 400
Sucrada (C), 404
Suffren = Pissalu tto N ero, 460
Su gar Fig = Malta, 447
Su gar Fig = Su crad a, 404
Sukkari (C), 472
Sulomo (C), 405
Sultane (C), 472
Su ltaneSee Marabou t, 357
Su ltane = Su ltan i (of Eg yp t), 472

Febru ary , 1955]


495
Sultane Bi-longue (S), 351
Su ltane d u Marabou t = Marabou t, 357
Sultani (of Eg yp t) (C), 472
Sultani (of Palestin e) (C), 413
Sultani (of Syria) (S), 351
Sultanie (S), 344
Su p erba = Dau p h in e, 365
Sw ad i = Sm ari, 471
Swingle (Cp), 342
Sydawi (C), 405
Taam rou th = Tam eriou t, 352
Tabelout (S), 352
Tabelout (large-fru ited ) (S), 352
Tabou kalSee Marabou t, 357
Tabou yah bou lt = Alekake, 345
See also Abou cherchaou , 345
Tadefouit (S), 352
Tagou aou t = Taran im t, 352
Taharit (S), 352
Taid eltSee Taharit, 352
Taklit (S), 358
Takourchit (S), 352
Tameriout (S), 352
Tap a Cartin = Grosse Jau ne, 394, 451
Tap a Cartin N egra = Bouche-barriqu e, 426
Taranimt (Cp ), 339
Taranimt (S), 352
Tardivo (Cp ), 332
Tard o = Arn eo Bianco, 383
TarlitSee Taharit, 352
Taroumant (S), 358
Tassa Brow n = Royal, 464
Tassiret (C), 413
Taurisano (S), 353
Taylor (Cp ), 342
Taylor = Excelsior, 329
Tazarift (S), 353
Tbani (C), 405
Tebessi (C), 479
Techich (S), 358
Teen Kazzi (S), 359
Tem eriSee Tem ri, 472
Temri (C), 472
Texas Everbearin gSee Brow n Tu rkey , 429
Thaam riou t = Tam eriou t, 352
Thaaoust (S) Listed only , 359
Thaaran im t = Taranim t, 352
Thaaranimt Entael Hadjar (S), 359
Thaarlit (S) Listed only , 359
Thabelou t = Tabelou t, 352
Thaberkant (Cp) Listed only , 342
Thabou hiabou lt = A bou cherchaou , 345
Thabou kalSee Marabou t, 357
Thad h efou ithSee Tad efou it, 352
Thaharchou (S) Listed only , 359

Condit:

Fig

Thaiad elst = Alekake, 345


Tham cin gou lt = A bou cherchaou , 345
Thamkarkor Rose (S), 359

Thar animt (S) Listed on ly , 359


Tharanim t = Taranim t, 352
Thazaicht (S) Listed only , 359
Thazgouart (S) Listed on ly , 359
Thom p son = San Piero, 468
Thom p son Im p roved Brow n Tu rkey =
San Piero, 468
Tia Penya (C), 479
Tiboulenque (C), 413
Tibou ren qu e = Tibou len qu e, 413
Tibu rtina = Gen tile, 360
Tifouzal (Cp) Listed on ly , 342
Tiger = Panache, 400
Timlouit (S) Listed on ly , 359
Tin Baitri = Croisic, 336
Tina ta Sp anja = Panach e, 400
Tira (C), 413
Tit-en-Tsekourt (Cp), 332
Tlabi = Tbani, 405
Tordo (C), 405
Torres = Rei, 462
Toscana (C), 405
Tossico (C), 381
Toulousienne (C), 473
Tounsi (C), 479
Treccia = Fietta, 348
Tres PerSee Trois Rcoltes, 473
Trs um Prato (S), 353
Tre Volte lAn no = Vern ino, 475
Tributaria (C), 473
Trifero = Dottato, 376
TroanoSee Taylor, 342
Troiano (C), 405
See also N ap olitain e, 453
Trois Rcoltes (C), 473
Trojano = Royal, 464
Trojano = Troiano, 405
TrojanoSee Albo, 372
Trojano d i N ap oli = Royal, 464
Trom p e-Cassaire = Verte, 408
See also Verte Bru n e, 476
Trom p e-Chasseu r = Verte, 408
Tu rca = Panache, 400
Turco (S), 359
Tu rqu e = Levant, 412
Ull d e Perd iu = Ojo d o Perd iz , 379
Um m -et-Tabat = Tbani, 405
Un ico = Melagrano, 450

Varieties

Unnequi (C), 406


Urjal (C), 381
Uttato = Dottato, 376
Vacal (C), 413
Van Lennep (Cp ), 340
Vard ica = Vard ina, 480
Vardina (C), 480
Variegato = Panache, 400
Vazanata (C), 480

496
[Vol. 23, N o. 11
Velu e = Perou as, 459
Velvet = Perou as, 459
Vend m e = An gliqu e Jau n e, 383
Verdal (C), 369,474
Verd al d e OriolaSee Verd al, 474
Verdal de Valence (C), 475
Verd al Lon gu e = Verd al, 474
Verdal Negra (C), 479
Verd al Rond e = Verd al Rou nd , 475
Verdal Round (C), 475
Verd al Wh ite = Verd ale Blanche, 406
Verd ala = Verd al, 474
Verd ala Blanca = Verd ale Blanche, 406
Verd ale = Rein e, 380
Verd ale = Verd al, 474
Verd ale = Verte, 408
Verdale Blanche (C), 406
Verd alle = Verte, 408
Verd alo = Sarreign e, 469
Verd alos = Sarreign e, 469
Verd aou = Berd au d a, 384
Verdeal (C), 406
Verd ecchio = Verd eccio, 381
Verdeccio (C), 381
Verd e Gen tilSee Verd one, 407
Verd esco = Verd escone, 353
Verdescone (S), 353
Verd iccio Gentile = Dattero, 435
Verd ichio = Verd eccio, 381
Verd illoSee Verd eccio, 381
Verdino (C), 406
Verd ino d i BrianzaSee Verd eccio, 381
Verd olinoSee Verd eccio, 381
Verdone (C), 406
See also Verte, 409
Verd one (of Taranto) = Verd escone, 353
Verd oniSee Milco, 330
Verd oniSee Troiano, 406
Verd osoSee Verd eccio, 381
Vergu na = Seora, 470
Verneo Bianco = Arn eo Bianco, 383
Verneo N ero = Vern ino, 475
Vernile (C), 479
Vernino (C), 475
Vernisin gu eSee Barn issenca, 421
Vernissan gu eSee Barn issenca, 422
Vernissen qu eSee Barn issenca, 421
Versailles = Blanch e, 372
Verte (C), 408
See also Esp agnole, 412; Th e Ischia Figs, 442;
Verte Bru n e, 476
Verte Brune (C), 476
See also Peau Du re, .458
Verte d es Dam es = Verte, 409
Verte Petite = Lip ari, 395
Vescovo (C), 410

Hilgardia

Vezzoso = Dattero, 435

Victoria (C), 476


Vigasotte Bianco = Blanch e, 372
Villa = Scancaniso, 354
Vind im o BrancoSee Cachp eiro Branco, 360
Vind im o PretoSee Lam p eira, 368
Violada Blanca (C), 410
Violet Delicate = Pietri, 362
Violet Sepor (C), 476
Violeta Florentina = Violeta N egra, 476
Violeta Negra (C), 476
Violeta of Genoa = Violad a Blanca, 410
Violette = Bord eau x, 424
Violette = Mou issonne, 452
Violette d e Bord eau x = Bord eau x, 424
Violette d e La Frette = Frette, 439
Violette Perru qu in e = Perroqu in e, 459
Violette Plate (C), 479
Vottato = Dottato, 376
Wa lton = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Wa rren s Brow n Tu rkey = San Piero, 468
West (S), 353
White Ad riatic = Verd one, 406
White Ad riaticSee Milco, 330
White End ich = Dottato, 376
White Genoa = Genoa, 391
White Ischia = Ischia, 442
White Marseilles = Blanche, 372
White MarseillesSee Genoa, 392
White N ap les = Blanch e, 372
White Pacific = Dottato, 376
White San Ped ro = San Ped ro, 363
See also Gentile, 360, 361
White Sm yrn a=Blanch e, 372
White Stand ard = Blanche, 372
Whitm ills Early Pu rp le = Brow n Tu rkey , 428
Wilson (S), 353
Yaffawi (C), 381
Yediver (S), 353
Yel Inju rSee Sari Lop , 344
Yellow Neches (C), 410
Zafrani (S), 359
Zaiti (C), 476
Zamozujica (C), 411
Zarniza (C), 479
Zarraki = Gh zali, 440
Zentil = Albo, 372

Zidi (S), 359


Zid i-el-Agou ch = Sid i-ben-Agou s, 471
Zigarella = Panache, 400
Zim itza (C), 411
Ziza Kheden (C), 476
Zonto (C), 381

LITERATURE CITED
AN ON YMOUS
1828. Th e Bru nsw ick fig . Pom . Mag . of Lond on 1:48. Color p late.
1852. Brow n Tu rkey fig . Gard . Ch ron . 12:325, 357.
1878. Fig Col d i Signora Bianca. Florist and Pom ologist 11:121. Color p late p .473.
1882. Osborn Prolific. Rev . H ort. 54:110, 202. (Introdu ced into France.)
1908. Th e Celeste fig . A m er . Fru it and N u t Jou r. 5(87) :8. (Probably b y H . H . H u m e.)
1943. N ew variety of fig , th e Delta. Texas Farm in g and Citricu ltu re 19(7):17. Janu ary .
1944. Fig for Florid a show s p rom ise. Florid a Grow er 52 (12):10. Decem ber . 1 figu re of N ew Delta
fig.
1949. Prom isin g n ew fig . Fru it World [Melbou rn e] 50 (6):16; 50 (7) :7. See also:
Hort. A bs. 19 (2731). (Preston Prolific.)
A ., R.
1937. Fig Wh ite Ischia. Gard . Ch ron . (ser. 3) 102:437.
AFFLECK, TH OMAS
1850. Fru its and fru it cu ltu re. Farm er and Planter [Pend leton , S.C.] 1:182.
1851. Sou thern ru ral alm anac and p lantation and gard en calend ar [Wa shin gton , Mississip p i].
(Fig , p . 67.)
1852. Sam e. (Fig , p p . 83, 99-100.)
1854. Th e N ew Orleans alm anac for the year 1854; w ith Afflecks p lantation and gard en calend ar
[N ew Orleans] 1(2). (Figs, p .64.)
ALD ROVAN DI, ULISSE
1668. Dend rologiae natu ralis: scilicet arboru m h istoriae. 2 vols. 660 p p . Typ . Ferroni, Bologna.
(De
ficu , p p .427-80.)
AN AGN OSTOPOULOS, P. TH .
1937. N ew fru its. H ort. Research [Ath ens] 4: 376-79. 2 figu res. (In Greek , w ith En glish su m m ary .)
AN DERSON , JAMES
1874. Th e new p ractical gard en er and m od ern horticu ltu rist. 988 p p . Wm . Mackenzie, Lond on .
Color
p late of Bru nsw ick . Variety d escrip tions b y A . F. Barron . (Figs, p p . 304, 342-44,
506.)
AN DERSON , W . S.
1924-1928. Horticu ltu ral w ork . Miss. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu ls. 225, 232, 246.
ARN OLD , RALPH E.
1926. Select varieties of figs. Gard . Ch ron . (ser . 3) 80:335.
ASH LEY, T. E.
1940. H om e orchard s in Mississip p i. Miss. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 350:1-37. (Fig , p p . 8, 33.)
1943. Miss. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 393:33.
AUDIBERT FRRES
1854. Qu elqu es varits d e figu es les p lu s estim es. Rev . H ort. (ser. 4) 3:229-35.
B., S. H .
1896. Wh ite Ischia. Th e Gard en 49:312. Ap ril 25.
BADIE, M. A ., an d A . K. GH AMRAWI
1931. Th e grow in g of figs. Eg yp t. Min . A gr . H ort. Sect. Giza Booklet 2:1-29. 13 figu res.
BALDINI, EN RICO
1953. Alcu ni asp etti d ella coltu ra d el fico nella Provincia d i Firenze. Ortoflorofru tticoltu ra Italiana
Riv . an no 78:185-203. Figu res 1-18. Fifteen varieties d escribed and illu strated .
BALLON
1692. N ou velle instru ction facile p ou r la cu ltu re d es figu iers. 111 p p . C. d e Sercy , Paris.
BARRON , A . F.
1867. N ew or little-know n fru its. Gard . Ch ron . 27:1192. N ovem ber 23.
1868a. Grosse Verte fig . Florist and Pom ologist (ser. 3) 1:56.1 figu re.
1868b . Do la Mad elein e fig . Florist and Pom ologist (ser . 3) 1:179-81.1 figu re.
1868c. A selection of choice figs. Florist and Pom ologist (ser. 3) 1:211-13.
[497]

498
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

1868d . Bou rjassotte Gris. Gard . Ch ron . 28:1260. Decem ber 5. 1 figu re.
1868e. Fig cu ltu re. Gard . Ch ron . 28:6. Janu ary 4.
1869a. On som e n ew fru its and vegetables of 1868. Florist and Pom ologist (ser . 3) 2:49-51.
1869b . Col d i Signora Bianca Panache. Florist and Pom ologist (ser . 3) 2:145. Color p late.
1870. Fig Grosse Monstru eu se d e Lip ari. Florist and Pom ologist (ser. 3) 3:128-29. 1 figu re. See also:
Gard . Ch ron . 30:765.
1871. Royal Vin eyard fig. Florist and Pom ologist (ser. 3) 4:49. Color p late. See also: Jou r. of Hort.
and Cottage Gard en er 20:200.
1891. Figs and th eir cu ltu re at Ch isw ick . Royal H ort. Soc. Jou r. 13:122. Also in: Th e Gard en
39:575-78.
BAXTER, WM .
1820. An accou nt of the fig tree, p lanted in 1648 and now grow in g in gard en of Christ Chu rch ,
Oxford .
Royal H ort. Soc. Trans. 3:433-35.
BECKETT, EDWIN
1941. Fru its for the hom e gard en . N ew York Bot. Gard en Jou r. 42:133-40. 1 figu re.
BERN ARD , BON S J.
1787-1788. Mm oire su r lh istoire natu relle d u figu ier . In : Mm oires p ou r servir lh istoire
natu relle d e la Provence 1:17-218. Did ot Fils, Paris.
BLAN CH A RD , J.
1878. Le figu ier d e Roscoff. Jou r. d A gr . Prat. 1878:447.
1879. Le figu ier d e Roscoff. Rev . H ort. 1879:372-76. Figu re 79.
BLIN , H EN RI
1942. Le figu ier en Algrie. Rev . H ort. 114:128-31, 164-68, 207-10. Illu strated .
BOBON E, LVARO L. A .
1932. Contribu io p ara o estu d o taxonm ico d a esp cie Ficus carica L. 127 p p .
BOIS, DSIR
1928. Les p lantes alim entaires ch ez tou s les p eu p les et travers les ges. 2 vols. Pau l Lech evalier,
Paris. (Ficus carica, 2:469-85. Figu res 227-30.
BORG, J.
1922. Cu ltivation and d iseases of fru it trees in th e Maltese Island s. 622 p p . Govern m ent Printin g
Office, Malta. (Fig , p p . 126-48.)
BORY DE SAIN T VIN CEN T, JEAN B. G.
1824. Dictionnaire classiqu e. 17 vols. Rey et Gravier, Paris. (Figu ier , 6:498-503.)
BRADLEY, RICH A RD
1727. Ten p ractical d iscou rses concern in g earth and w ater as they relate to th e grow th of p lants. 195
p p . Printed b y J. Clu er and A . Cam p bell, Westm inster. (Fig , p p . 117, 151-53.)
1757. A gen eral treatise of agricu ltu re. 503 p p . Prin ted for W. Johnston , Lond on . (Fig , p p . 270-73,
281-86.)
BRAUN TON , ERN EST
1936. Wh at of Pastilire figs? Pac. Ru ral Press 132:59, 272.
BROOKS, REID M., an d H . P . OLMO
1946. Register of n ew fru it and n u t varieties. A m er . Soc. H ort. Sci. Proc. 47:544-69. (Fig , p . 551.)
1949. A m er . Soc. H ort. Sci. Proc. 53:577.
BROOKSH AW , GEO RGE
1812. Pom ona Britan nica. 60 p p . Typ . Bensley , Lond on . Color p lates 74, 75.
BROTH ERSTON , R. P .
1920. Castle Ken n ed y fig . Gard . Ch ron . (ser. 3) 68:124.
BUN YA RD , E. A .
1920-1925. A h and book of hard y fru its. 2 vols. Joh n Mu rray , Lond on . (Fig , 2:162-65.)
1934. Cu ltivation of th e fig . Royal H ort. Soc. Jou r. 59:61-67. Figu res 30-33.
BUN YA RD , GEO RGE, an d OWEN TH OMAS
1904. Th e fru it gard en . 507 p p . Pu blish ed at offices of Cou ntry Life, Lond on . Illu strated .
(The fig , p p .51-58.)
BURGER, I. J., an d A . F. DE WET
1931. Cu ltu re of th e fig tree. Farm in g in So. Africa 6:169-70, 207, 251-52.

Febru ary , 1955]


499

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

BURN ETTE, F. H .
1894. Figs at Baton Rou ge. Lou isiana A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 27:927-28. See also: 36:1274.
CA RBOU , J B.
1865a. Figu e Blanche Peau Verte. Rev . H ort. 36:31. Color p late.
1865b . La figu e Gou rreau N oir . Rev . H ort. 36:131. Color p late.
CA RRIRE, E. A .
1881. Figu ier Osborn Prolific. Rev . H ort. 53:68. Figu re 21.
1884. Influ ence d u m ilieu p rop os d u figu ier Osborn Prolific. Rev . H ort. 56:61, 387.
CASELLA D OMENICO
1952. La voce Dottato. LItalia A gricola 89:601-4. 2 figu res.
CH AN DLER, W . H .
1934. Th e d ry-m atter resid u es of trees and th eir p rod u cts in p rop ortion to leaf area. A m er . Soc. H ort.
Sci. Proc. 31:39-56.
CH EFFIN S, A .
1905. Pin go d e Mel fig tree. Th e Gard en 67:274. Illu strated .
CH RIST, J. L.
18091812. Vollstnd ige Pom ologie. 2 vols. Fran kfort. (Feigen , 2:397-408. 3 color p lates.) See
also: Pom ologisch es th eoretisch-p raktisches H and w rterbu ch . 431 p p . Leip zig . 1802.
(Feigen bau m , p p . 241-44.)
CLA RK, W . SAM
1920. Th e Kad ota fig. 44 p p . Fig an d Olive Jou rnal, Los An geles. Illu strated .
CLA RKE, J.
1883. Brow n Tu rkey fig at Pen rh yn Castle. Gard . Ch ron . (n .s.) 20:405.
CLEMEN TE, A RMAN DO M., et al.
1953. Recom end aes gerais sbre fru ticu ltu ra. 42 p p . So Pau lo, Brazil. Brief d escrip tions of six
varieties. (Figu eira, p p . 20-21.)
CLOSE, C. P .
1929. A m er . Pom ol. Soc. Proc. 1923-1929:l03, 114, 132, 162, 169.
1933. Sam e. 49:171, 188.
1935. Sam e. 51:260.
COLBY, GEO RGE E.
1894. An alyses of figs. Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Rp t. 1892-1893: 226-35.
COLEMAN , W .
1880. Brow n Tu rkey fig . Florist and Pom ologist 1880:145. Color p late.
1887a. Fig Pin go d e Mel. Th e Gard en 31:232.
1887b . Figs for forcin g . Th e Gard en 32:37.
CON DIT, IRA J.
1919. Bits of fig h istory in California . Calif. State Com m . H ort. Mo. Bu l. 8:260-65.
1920a. Cap rifigs and cap rification . Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 319:341-75. Figu res 1-23.
1920b . Sm yrn a figs. Assoc. Grow er 1 (6):1112. Au gu st. Illu strated .
1920c. Th e Kad ota fig . Assoc. Grow er 1 (8):18, 35. October. Illu strated .
1920d . Wh ite Ad riatic fig . Assoc. Grow er 1 (7):10. Sep tem ber . 1 figu re.
1921a. Th e Mission fig . Assoc. Grow er 2 (1):27, 35. Janu ary . 2 figu res.
1921b . Miscellan eou s fig varieties. Assoc. Grow er 2 (4): 13: 2 (5): 26. Ap ril, May .
1921c. California fig varieties. Calif. Dep t. A gr . Mo. Bu l. 10:359-66. 2 figu res.
1922a. Th e Stanford Sm yrna fig . Assoc. Grow er 4 (3):6, 20. October. Illu strated .
1922b . Th e Bru nsw ick vs. Brow n Tu rkey . Calif. Cu lt. 59:307. Frontisp iece.
1923. Com m ercial fig varieties. Calif. Fru it N ew s 70(1881) :1, 17; 70 (1882) :4-5.
1924. Th e fig ind u stry of the Old World : Greece. Assoc. Grow er 6 (9-10): 14-15, 22. 2 figu res. Also
in:
Calif. Fru it N ew s 73 (1980):16-18. Ju n e 19, 1926.
1925. Fig in d u stry of Sp ain . Calif. Fru it N ew s 71 (1911):5, 15; 71 (1912) :13.
1927. Th e Kad ota fig. Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 436:1-42: Figu res 1-12.
1928a. Gu lian P. Rixford-an ap p reciation . Calif. Cou ntry m an 14 (5):10-11. Descrip tions of Forbes,
Excelsior, and Kearn ey cap rifigs. Illu strated .
1928b . Other fig chim eras. Jou r. H ered ity 19:49-53. 3 figu res.
1928c. Fig breed in g . Jou r. H ered ity 19:417-23. Figu res 9-11.

1933.

Fig cu ltu re in

California.

Calif. Agr . Ext. Serv . Circ. 77:1-67.

Figu res 1-26.

500
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

1941a. Fig characteristics u sefu l in th e id entification of varieties. H ilgard ia 14 (1): 1-68.


Figu res 1-25. Plate 1 in color.
1941b . Th e Bru nsw ick (Magnolia) fig. A m er . Soc. H ort. Sci. Proc. 39:143-46.
1942. Th e Croisic (Cord elia) fig . A m er . Soc. H ort. Sci. Proc. 40:255-58.
1944. San Piero, th e Brow n Tu rkey fig of California. Am er . Soc. H ort. Sci. Proc. 44:211-14.
1947. Th e fig . 222 p p . Ch ronica Botanica Co., Waltham .
1950. Fig characters as affected b y clim ate. A m er . Soc. H ort. Sci. Proc. 55:114-18.
CON DIT, IRA J., an d MESUT BASKAYA
1948. Figs in Tu rkey . Calif. Farm er 189:218-19.
CON DIT, IRA J., an d W . T. H O RN E
1933. A m osaic of th e fig in California. Ph ytop ath . 23:887-96. 4 figu res.
1943. Mosaic sp ots of fig fru its. Ph ytop ath . 33:719-23. 2 figu res.
COOK, L. J.
1925. Th e fig . Th e Gard en 89:36.
COUVERCH EL, JEAN F.
1839. Trait d es fru its. 717 p p . Im p rim erie d e Bouchard -H u zard , Paris. (Figu e, p p . 210-18.)
CUPAN I, FRAN CESCO
1696. H ortu s Catholicu s. 237 p p . Fr . Benzi, N ap les. (Ficu s, p p . 130-41.)
CUSIN , L.
1900. Qu elqu es fru its ap p rcis p ar la com m ission p erm an ente en 1900. Soc. Pom ol. d e France Bu l.
Mens. 1900:301-16. (Figu e Panache, p p .302, 331.)
DAVIS, R. A .
1928. Fru it-grow in g in Sou th Africa. 532 p p . Central N ew s Agency, Johan n esbu rg . (Fig , p p . 25061.)
DEAN , R. W .
1904. A p rolific fig tree. Gard . Ch ron . (ser . 3) 35:102. (Recu lver variety .)
DELBA RD , GEO RGES
1947. Les beau x fru its d e France. 166 p p . G. Delbard , Paris. (Figu ier , p .70.)
DELPLACE, E.
1933. Manu el d arboricu ltu re fru itire. 450 p p . J. Lam arre, ed ., Paris. (Figu ier, p p .
168, 187, 387-91. Figu res 415, 416.)
DE ROSA FRAN CESCO
1911. Di alcu n i fichi Salentini. 36 p p . R. Istit. d Incorrag . d i N ap oli Atti (ser. 6) 9.
DOCH N AH L, FR. J
1855-1860. Der sich ere F hrer in d er O bstku nd eod er system atische Beschreibu n g aller O bstsorten .
4 vols. W . Sch m id t, N u rem berg . (Feigen , 4:65-71.)
DON N O, GIACIN TO
1951a. La d eterm inazion e d i alcu n e variet d i fico d ella Provincia d i Lecce n el p eriodo in vernale.
Facolt d i A graria Un iv . An n ali [N ap oli] (ser. 3) 19. (Abstract.) 8 p p . Plates 1-4.
1951b . Alcu n e variet bifere d i fico coltivate in Provin cia d i Lecce. Facolt d i A graria Un iv .
An nali [N apoli] (ser. 3) 19. (A bstract.) 20 p p . Six varieties d escribed .
1952. Alcu n e variet u n ifere d i fico coltivate in Provin cia d i Lecce. Facolt d i A graria Un iv .
An nali [N apoli] (ser. 3) 19. (A bstract.) 31 p p . Ten varieties d escribed .
DU BREUIL, ALPH ON SE
1876. Cu ltu re d es arbres et arbrisseau x, fru its d e table. 693 p p . G. Masson , Paris. (Figu ier, p p .
602-29. Figu res 488-510.)
DUCH A RTRE, PIERRE E. S.
1857. Flore d es jard ins d e lEu rop e. Manu el gen eral d es p lantes, arbres, et arbu stes. Vol. 4. Maison
Agr ., Paris. (Figu ier, p p . 155-61.)
DUH AMEL DU MON CEAU , H . L.
1755. Trait d es arbres et arbu stes qu i se cu ltivent en France en p lein e terre. 2 vols. E. Michel,
Paris.
(Figu ier, 1:235-44.)
1768. Sam e. Later ed ition . (Figu ier , 1:207-17.)
1809. Sam e. N ew ed ition . E. Michel, Paris. (Figu ier , 4: 197-232. Color p lates 53-59.)

Febru ary , 1955]


501

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

EARLE, F.S.
1897. Fig cu ltu re in th e Gu lf states. U . S. Dep t. A gr . Div . Pom . Bu l. 5: 23-32.
1900. Orchard notes. Ala . A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 112:157-90. (Figs, p p .167-68.)
EISEN , GUSTAV
1885. Fig cu ltu re. Pac. Ru ral Press 30:126, 138-39.
1887. Wh ite Ad riatic fig . Florid a A gr . 9:399. Also in: Fresno We ekly Rep u bl. 11 (37): 1. May 20.
1888. Th e fig of com m erce. Ru ral Californ ian 11:149-56, 177-81.
1896. Biological stu d ies on figs, cap rifigs, and cap rification . Calif. Acad . Sci. Proc. (ser . 2)
5:897-1001.
1897. Ed ible figs: th eir cu ltu re and cu rin g . U . S. Dep t. A gr . Div . Pom . Bu l. 5:5-22
1901. Th e fig . U .S. Dep t. A gr . Div . Pom . Bu l. 9:1-317. Illu strated .
ESCRIBAN O Y PREZ, JOS M.
1884. Pom ona d e la Provincia d e Mu rcia. 224 p p . Im p renta H ijo d e A gu ad o, Mad rid . (H igu era,
p p .133-47.)
ESTELRICH , PEDRO
1910. La h igu era y su cu ltivo en Esp aa . 228 p p . Lib r. Escolar, Palm a . Illu strated .
EVREIN OFF, V. A .
1947. Les arbrisseau x fru its. 133 p p . Flam m arion , ed ., Paris. (Le figu ier , p p . 11-64. Figu res 139.)
FERRA RI, E.
1912. La coltivazion e d el fico n el circond ario d i Paola (Cosenza). R. Staz. Sp er. A gru m . e Fru ttic.
Acireale an n . 1:141-77.
FO RN EY, EU GN E
1863. Le jard in ier fru itier . 2 vols. Arn h eiter, Paris. (Le figu ier , 2:270-80. Figu res 315-25.)
FO RRER, JULIUS
1894. Figs at th e Tu lare station . Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Rp t. 1892-1893, and p art of 1894:411-14.
FO RSYTH , WILLIAM
1803. A treatise on the cu ltu re and m anagem ent of fru it trees. 523 p p . Lon gm ans, Lond on . (Fig ,
p p .97-102.)
FOWLER, A .
1865. Castle Ken ned y fig . Jou r. of Hort. and Cottage Gard en er (n .s.) 8:449. Quoted in: Florist and
Pom ologist, Ju ly , 1865, p p .141-42. See also: Gard . Ch ron . 1864 : 1228; 1866: 613.
FRAN CESCHI, F.
1912. Trop ical and sem itrop ical fru it-bearin g trees, sh ru bs, and p lants grow n at Santa Barbara ,
California , in th e year 1912. 4 p p . Santa Barbara.
FRUIT-GROWER
1936. Ou td oor figs. Gard . Ch ron . (ser. 3) 100:133, 147.
GALLESIO, GIO RGIO
1817. Pom ona Italiana. Vol. I. (See specifically: 92 u n nu m bered p ages on th e fig .) N . Cap u rro,
Pisa.
GA RIDEL, PIERRE J.
1715. H istoire d es p lantes. 522 p p . Jos. David , Aix. (Figu ier , p p . 174-79.)
GASPARRINI, GU GLIELMO
1845. Ricerche su lla natu ra d el cap rifico e d el fico, e su lla cap rificazione. Accad . Sci. N ap oli, rend .
4:321-412. Plates 1-8.
GA YN ER, F. C. H .
1949. Th e am ateu r fru it-grow er in Sou th Africa. In : Th e Fru it Yearbook, Royal H ort. Soc.,
p p . 79-85. (Fig , p . 81.)
GLAD Y, E.
1883. Figu e San Pietro ou Mecklin gea. Rev . H ort. 55:458.
GOULD , H .P .
1919. Fig-grow in g in th e sou th Atlantic and Gu lf states. U . S. Dep t. A gr . Farm Bu l. 1031: 1-45.
1923. Sam e. Revised ed ition .
1935. Sam e. Revised ed ition .

502
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Hilgardia

GRASOVSKY, A ., an d J. WEITZ
1932. Fig-grow in g in Palestin e. Palestine Dep t. A gr . and Fish .: A gr . Leaflets (ser. 4) H ort.
No. 28:1-36. Figu res 1-21.
GREEN , TH OMAS
1824. Th e u n iversal h erbal. Second ed . 790 p p . Caxton Press, Lond on . (Fig , p p . 562-66.)
GU GLIELMI, G.
1908. Coltivazion e ind u striale d el fico n el Leccese. (A bstract.) 32 p p . Boll. Ar bor . Italiana an . 4.
Tip . F. Gian n ini & Figli, N ap les.
GUILLOCH ON , L.
1913. Trait p ratiqu e d horticu ltu re. Second ed . 522 p p . A . Fortin , Tu n is. (Figu ier, p p . 263-70.)
1927. La cu ltu re d u figu ier en Tu n isie. Rev . d e Bot. Ap p l. (7 an n .) Bu l. 65:18-28.
1929. Le figu ier en Tu nisie. Tu nisie A gr . Rev . Mens. Illu s. 30:196-99.
H AGAN , H . R.
1929. Fig cu ltu re in th e Sm yrna fig d istrict. Calif. Dep t. A gr . Mo. Bu l. 18:491-512. Illu strated .
H AN BURY, WILLIAM
1770. A com p lete bod y of p lantin g and gard enin g . 2 vols. Printed for the au thor, Lond on . (Ficus
carica, 2:774-76.)
H AN OTEAU , LO UIS A ., an d A . LETOU RN EU X
1872-1873. La Kab ylie et ses cou tu m es. 3 vols. LIm p rim erie N ationale, Paris. (Figu ier ,
1:433-41, 501-502.)
H AN SEN , GEO RGE
1894. Figs at th e Foothill station . Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Rp t. 1892-1893, and p art of 1894:375-78.
H ENSLOW , GEO RGE
1902. Stam en iferou s figs. Gard . Ch ron . (ser . 3) 32:44. Ju ly 19.
H ERIN CQ, F.
1850. Figu e Grosse Su p erfin e d e La Sau ssaye. Rev . Hort., 1850:421-24. Figu re 22 in color.
H ODGSON , R. W .
1925. Coachella Valley fig-grow ers em p loy ancient p ractice. Los An geles Tim es Farm and Orchard
Magazin e. Ap ril 19. Also in: A m er . Fru it-Grow er 46:5, 20-21. May , 1926.
1931. La cu ltu re fru itire en Tu n isie. 193 p p . Soc. Anon . Im p rim . Rap id e, Tu nis. (Le figu ier , p p .
96-100.)
1934. Resistance to low w inter tem p eratu res of su btrop ical fru it p lants. Am er . Soc. H ort. Sci. Proc.
30:349-54. (Fig , p . 352.)
H OGG, ROBERT
1860-1874. Gard en ers yearbook , alm anack , and d irectory . 15 v ols. Office of Cottage Gard en er ,
Lond on . See: 1865:32; 1866:31-33; 1868:55-56; 1869:63-65; 1871:59-60.
1866. Th e fru it m anu al. Th ird ed . 414 p p . Jou rnal of H orticu ltu re, Lond on . (Fig , p p . 102-17.)
First ed . 1860.
1869. N egro Largo fig . Florist and Pom ologist (ser . 3) 2:5-6. 1 figu re.
H OLLEY, WILLIAM DEFO REST
1854. Th e fig . Am er . Cotton Planter 2(3) :155-56.
H OWA RD , W . L.
1945. Lu th er Bu rban ks p lant contribu tions. Calif. A g r. Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 691:1-110. (Fig , p .16.)
H UME, H . H .
1915. Figs in th e sou theastern and Gu lf states. In : Th e Stand ard Cyclop ed ia of Horticu ltu re [Bailey]
3:1234-35. Plate 42.
H YDE, H .
1877. Th e best figs. Th e Gard en 12:304.
I., W .
1893. Brow n Tu rkey fig . Th e Gard en 44:353.

Febru ary , 1955]


503

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

JUIGN ET, E.
1909. Cu ltu re d u figu ier Argen teu il. 24 p p . Pu blish ed b y th e au thor, Argen teu il.
K.
1873. Castle Ken n ed y fig . Card . Ch ron . 33:1369. October 11.
KIRKMAN , W . T.
1922. Th e Black San Ped ro fig in sou thern Californ ia. Fig and Olive Jou r. 6(7) :7. Janu ary . 1 figu re.
KN OOP , JEAN H .
1771. Fru ctologie. 206 p p . M. Mageru s, A m sterd am . (Figu ier, p p . 94-104.)
L., J.
1890. Mad agascar fig . Th e Gard en 37:427.
LA BRO USSE
1774. Trait d e la cu ltu re d u figu ier. 83 p p . Valad e, Am sterd am .
LAMARCK, J. B. DE
1783-1817. Dictionnaire-encyclop d ie m thod iqu e. 13 vols. Pan choucke, Paris. (Figu ier ,
2:489-92.) See also: Su p p lem ent b y J. L. M . Poiret. 1783-1808. 5 vols. Paris. (Figu ier ,
2:648-57.)
LAMBERTYE, LEON CE
1874. Le figu ier d e Roscoff. Rev . H ort. 1874:437-38.
LAN GLEY, BATTY
1728. N ew p rincip les of gard enin g . 207 + 191 p p . Printed for A . Bettesw orth and J. Batley , Lond on .
(Fig , p p .40, 55, 72-76.)
LA QUIN TINIE, JEAN DE
1692. Instru ctions p ou r les jard ins fru itiers et p otagers. 344 p p . A m sterd am . Translated b y Joh n
Evelyn , Th e com p leat gard n er (2 vols., 1693). Printed for M. Gillyflow er, Lond on . (Figs,
1:136-37; 2:57-66, 92-93.)
LE BERRYAIS, L. R.
1789. Trait d es jard ins. Th ird ed . Belia, Paris. First p art: Jard in fru itier . (Figu ier, p p .265-72.)
LECLERC D U SABLON , MATH IEU
1908. O bservations su r les d iverses form es d u figu ier . Rev . Gen . Bot. 20:129-50, 207-16.
LECLERC, H EN RI
1925. Les fru its d e France. 274 p p . Masson et Cie., P aris. (La figu e, p p . 205-13.)
LELON G, B. M .
1890. Th e fig . Calif. State Bd . H ort. An n . Rp t. 1889:115-36. Color p late of Wh ite Ad riatic.
1892. California fig in d u stry . Calif. State A gr . Soc. Trans. 1891:130-82.
LH RAULT, LOUIS
1872. Cu ltu re d u figu ier Blanc d Ar genteu il. 24 p p . Im p rim erie Pau l Bou srez , Tou rs.
LIGER, LO UIS
1702. Trait facile p ou r ap p rend re lever d es figu iers. 81 p p . D . Beu gn ie, Paris. In: La cu ltu re
p arfaite d es jard ins fru itiers et p otagers. (Ap p end ix.)
LIN DLEY, GEO RGE
1831. A gu id e to th e orchard and fru it gard en . 601 p p . Lon g m ans, Lond on . (Fig , p p . 162-73.)
LIN DLEY, JOH N
1841. Pom ologia Britan nica. 3 vols. H . C. Boh n , Lon d on . (Fig , 1:48. Color p late of Bru nsw ick .)
LUCKH URST, EDWA RD
1880. Grizzly Bou rjassotte. Jou r. of H ort. 1880:328. See also: Florist and Pom ologist 1880:176.
McH ATTON , T. H .
1909. Rem arks on fig varieties. Georgia State H ort. Soc. Proc. 33. In: Georgia State Bd . Entom .
Bu l. 30:63.
MIN TOSH , CH ARLES
1855. Th e book of the gard en . 2 vols. W m . Blackw ood and Sons, Ed in bu rgh . (Fig . 2:551-58.)

504
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

MARTIN ET, H ., and F. LESOU RD


1924. Un e visite au figu ier d e Roscoff. Rev . H ort. 96:229.
MASLIN , E. W .
1890. Fig cu ltu re and seed lin g Sm yrna figs. Calif. State Bd . H ort. An n . Rp t. 1889:401-5. Discu ssion ,
p p . 405-11.
MASSEY, W . F.
1893. Th e cu ltu re of orchard and gard en fru its. N orth Carolina Agr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 92:5-73. (Figs,
p p . 48-49.)
MAURI, N .
1939a. Les cap rifigu iers u tiliss en Kabylie p ou r la cap rification . Algrie Serv . d e lAr bor . Bu l.
(n .s.) 6:1-39. Illu strated .
1939b . Les figu iers cu ltivs en Kabylie. Algrie Serv . d e lAr bor . Bu l. (n .s.) 5:1-66. Illu strated .
1942. Les figu iers cu itivs en Algrie. Algrie Serv . d e lArbor. Bu l. 93:1-56.
1944. Sam e. Second ed . 150:1-56. N otice sp ciale d e gravu res. 103 p p . 98 figu res.
MAZIRES, E. DE
1920. Le figu ier , labricotier , le p ru nier. 89 p p . J. B. Ballire et Fils, Paris. (Figu ier, p p . 5-54.)
MELLO LEOTTE, F. C. DE
1901. Ar boricu ltu ra algarvia. 221 p p . Tip . A . d e Mend ona, Lisbon . (Figu eira, p p . 9-90.)
MERLET, JEAN
1740. LA brg d es bons fru its. Fou rth ed . 171 p p . Clau d e Pru d hom m e, Paris. (Des figu iers,
chap . 8,
p p . 53-60) First ed . 1667.
MILCO, G. N .
1884. Rep ort of Com m ission er Milco for the San Joaqu in d istrict. Calif. State Bd . H ort. Bien n . Rp t.
1884:56-59. Discu ssion , p p . 82-89.
1885. Figs and fig cu ltu re. Pac. Ru ral Press 30:211.
1887. Discu ssion on fig g row in g . Calif. State Bd . H ort. Bien n . Rp t. 1885, 1886:139-46.
MILLER, PH ILIP
1768. Gard en ers d ictionary . Un nu m bered p ages. Printed for th e au thor, Lond on . First ed . 1731.
Seventh ed . 1759.
MILLS, J. W .
1914. Figs. Calif. Cu lt. 42:71,
1918. Th e Mission fig . Calif. Cu lt. 50:39, 43.
MIN AN GOIN , N .
1931. Monograp h ie d es varits d e figu es tu nisien n es. Con grs d Agron . d u Cin qu antenaire
Tu nis.
Com p te Ren d u 1:338-64. Descrip tions of sixty-five varieties.
MIN OGIOLI, E.
1904. LInd u stria d ei fichi secchi. Soc. A gr . Italiana Bol. 9: 624-32, 656-63.
MIRBEL, C. F. B.
1802-1806. H istoire n atu relle. 18 vols. Im p rim erie d e F. Du fart, Paris. (Figu ier , 10: 66-72.)
MON TAGN AC, P .R.
1952. Le figu ier d ans le su d -ou est d e Mad agascar. Fr u its d Ou tre-Mer 7:513-23. Illu strated .
MOORE, TH OMAS
1871. Bou rjassotte Gris fig . Florist and Pom ologist (ser . 3) 4:31-32. 1 figu re.
1872. N egro Largo fig . Florist and Pom ologist (ser . 3) 5:145. Color p late.
1879. Som e of the novelties of 1878. Florist and Pom ologist (im p . ser.) 13:19-22. (Fig , p . 22.
Osborn s
Prolific.)
MORREN , CH .
1852. Le figu ier d e Bru nsw ick ou La Mad one. Belg . Hort. 2:35. Color p late.
MOWRY, H A ROLD , and G. F. WEBER
1925. H ints for th e Florid a fig-grow er . Florid a Grow er 32 (7):6, 12. Au gu st 15.
N ADIR, A ., an d M. H ALIT
1929. Fig in d u stry in Tu rkey . Calif. Fig Inst. An n . Pr oc. 13:33-36.

Febru ary , 1955]


505

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

N AIK, K. C.
1949. Sou th Ind ian fru its and th eir cu ltu re. 477 p p . P . Varad achary and Co., Mad ras. (Fig ,
p p . 384-89. Color p late 9 of th e Poona fig .)
N OISETTE, LOUIS
1821. Le jard in fru itier. 95 + 176 p p . Au d ot, Paris. (Figu ier, p p . 35-41. Plates 10 and 11 show
Figu e
Blanch e and Figu e d e Bord eau x in color.)
1829. Manu el com p let d u jard inier. 604 p p . Au g . W ahlen , Bru ssels. (Figu ier, p p . 453-57.)
N OMBLOT, ALFRED
1913. Cu ltu re et d escrip tion d es esp ces et varits d arbres fru itiers. In : Le bon jard inier. (Und er
the
d irection of D . Bois and G. T. Grignon .) Libr . A gricole, Paris. (Figu ier, p p . 298-300.)
N ORWICH
1898. Fig Castle Ken n ed y . Th e Gard en 54 :458-59. D ecem ber 3.
OUN OUS, LO D
1863. Les figu iers d u su d -ou est. Rev . H ort. 34:59, 456-57.
OZBEK, SABAH ATTIN
1949. Varieties of figs in th e Aegean region . Calism alar: Sayi 98, Ziraat Der gisin in . 15 p p .
11 figu res. (In Tu rkish .)
PASQUALE, G. A .
1876. Manu ale d i arboricoltu ra. 536 p p . V. Pasqu ale, N ap les. (Del fico, p p . 485-503. Figu res
177-85.)
PEARSON , J. R.
1872. Fig cu ltu re. Jou r. H ort. (n .s.) 23:71.
PELLICAN O, A .
1907. Il fico n el circond ario d e Gerace. Boll. Ar bor . Italiana 3:122-50.
PEN ZIG, O .
1922. Pflanzen-teratologie. 3 vols. Borntraeger , Berlin . (Ficus carica, 3:217-18.)
PLINIUS SECUN DUS, GAIUS (A.D . 23-79).
1855-1890. Th e natu ral history of Plin y . En glish translation by John Bostock and H . T. Riley . 6 vols.
H . G. Boh n , Lond on . (Fig , 3:307-13.)
POITEAU , AN TOIN E
1838-1846. Pom ologie franaise. 4 vols. Lan glois et Leclercq , Paris. (Ficus, 4: 9.)
PORTA , GIOVAN N I B.
1583. Su ae villae p om ariu m . 323 p p . H . Salu ianu m , N ap les. (Fico, p .130.)
1592. Villae Io. Bap tistae Portae. 12 vols. 914 p p . A . Wechel, Fran kfort. (De ficu , p p . 300-27.)
PORTALE, F.
1910. La coltivazion e d el fico n el circond ario d i Mistretta. Boll. Ar bor. Italiana 6:1-53.
POTTS, A . T.
1917. Th e fig in Texas. Texas A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 208:5-41. Illu strated .
PRESTON , F. G.
1951. Th e green hou se. 640 p p . Ward , Lock Co., Ltd ., Lond on . (The fig , p p . 197-201.)
PRICE, R. H ., an d E. A . WH ITE
1902. Th e fig . Texas A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 62:1-29.
PRIEGO Y JARAMILLO, J. M ., and S. SN CH EZ
1922. La h igu era: su cu ltivo en Esp aa . 31 p p . Calp e, Mad rid .
REBOUL, M .
1908. Figu iers. Soc. Pom ol. d e France Bu l. Mens. 1908:241, 383.
REIMER, F. C.
1910. Fig cu ltu re in N orth Carolina. N orth Carolina Agr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 208:187-206.
RIDGWA Y, ROBERT
1912. Color stand ard s and color nom enclatu re. Pu blish ed h y th e au thor, Wa shin gton , D .C. 53 color
p lates.
RISSO, AN TOIN E
1826. H istoire n atu relle d es p rincip ales p rod uctions d e lEu rop e m rid ionale. 5 vols. Levrau lt,
Paris. (Du figu ier , 2:130-71. 1 p late.)

506
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

RIVERS, TH OMAS
1873. Fig varieties. Card . Ch ron . 33:1432. Also in: Florist and Pom ologist 6:285.
RIVIRE, AU GUSTE
1928. Trait d arboricu ltu re fru itire. Consid rablem ent au gm ent p ar G. Rivire. 621 p p .
Villefranch e. (Figu ier , p p . 532-41.)
RIVIRE, BEN OIT
1907. Figu e Osborn Prolific. Soc. Pom ol. d e France Bu l. Mens. 1907:38.
RIVIRE, GUSTAVE
1930. Cu ltu re d u figu ier . Soc. N at. d H ort. d e France Jou r. (ser. 5) 3:394-96, 529-31. Figu res 17, 18,
22.
RIXFO RD , G. P .
1912. Resu lts of recent in vestigations in fig cu ltu re and cap rification . Calif. State Com m . H ort. Mo.
Bu l. 1:623-33.
1918a. Sm yrna fig cu ltu re. U .S. Dep t. A gr . Bu l. 732:1-43. Illu strated .
1918b . Influ ence on th e fig ind u stry of the Maslin seed lin g fig orchard at Loom is. Fig and Olive
Jou r.
3(3) :14. Au gu st.
1920a. Fig rip enin g in San Francisco. Pac. Ru ral Press 100:475.
1920b . A nonsp littin g Sm yrn a fig an d its h istory. Fig and Olive Jou r. 4 (8):9. Janu ary .
RIXFO RD , G. P ., an d F. H EIN Y
1911. Interestin g event in fig cu ltu re. Calif. Cu lt. 36:390.
ROBERTS, R. M .
1917. Th e Ad riatic fig. Calif. First Fig Inst. Proc. p p . 17-19. Fresno.
RO DA , MARCELLIN O and GIUSEPPE
1881. Manu ale d el fru tticoltore Italiano. 324 p p . C. P . Paravia , Rom e. (Del fico, p p . 237-49. Figu res
158-62.)
ROEDIN G, G . C.
1903. Th e Sm yrn a fig at hom e and abroad . 87 p p . P u blished b y th e au thor, Fresno. Illu strated .
1914. Th e fig . In: Roed in g s Pract. H ort. 1 (2):1-4. Fr esno. Illu strated .
RO GERS, JOH N
1834. Th e fru it cu ltivator. 384 p p . J. Rid gw ay and Sons, Lond on . (Fig , p p . 173-82.)
ROLET, AN TON IN
1916. Le figu ier en Provence. La Vie A gricole et Ru rale 6:170-72.
ROLLAN D , EU GEN E
1900-1914 Flore p op u laire; ou , H istoire natu relle d es p lantes d an s leu rs rap p orts avec la
lin gu istiqu e et le folklore. 11 vols. Libr . Com m ission naires, Paris. (Ficus carica, 10:61-78.)
RO YAL H ORTICULTU RAL SOCIETY
1916. A list of the m ost d esirable varieties of m ost kin d s of fru it, d raw n u p b y th e Royal
Horticu ltu ral Societys Fru it Com m ittee. 190 p p . Spottiswood , Ballantyn e and Co.,
Lond on .
(Fig , p p . 8, 14, 25.)
RO ZIER, FRAN OIS
1781-1805. Cou rs com p let; ou , Dictionnaire d agricu ltu re. 12 vols. A . Lu cqu es, Paris. (Figu ier ,
8:418-45.)
S.
1878. Osborn s Prolific fig. Th e Gard en 14:167.
S., G.
1867. Wh ite Marseilles and De la Mad eleine figs. Jour. of H ort. (n .s.) 13:212.
1869. Som e varieties of figs. Jou r. of H ort. and Cottage Gard en er (n .s.) 17:394-95.
SAMSON , W . H .
1906. H istory of th e Lob Injir Sm yrna fig . 4 p p . May wood Colon y N u rsery , Corn in g , California.
SN CH EZ, D . M.
1922. Fru ticu ltu ra; o, Cu ltivo d e rboles fru tales. 204 p p . Bibl. A gr . Solariana, Seville. Illu strated .
(H igu era, p p . l54-74.)
SAUN DERS, WILLIAM
1889. Division of Gard ens and Grou nd s. In : U . S. Secr. A gr . Rp t. 1:111-34. (Figs, p p . 127-28.)

Febru ary , 1955]


507

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

SAUVAIGO , MILE
1889. N ote su r les figu iers introd u its et cu ltivs d ans les en virons d e N ice. Soc. Centr. d A gr .,
d H ort., et d Acclim . d e N ice et d es Alp es-Maritim es Bu l. Mens. 29:144-67.
1894. Les cu ltu res su r le littoral d e la Md iterrane. 318 p p . Libr . J. B. Baillire et Fils, Paris.
(Figu ier, p p . 225-30. Figu re 96.)
1899. Enu m ration d es p lantes cu ltivs d ans les jard ins d e la Provence et d e la Ligu rie. 414 p p .
N ice.
(Figu ier, p p . 172-78.)
SAVASTAN O , L.
1885. Di alcu n e coltu re arboree d ella Provincia d i N ap oli. 135 p p . Tip . Ferrante, N ap les. (Il fico,
p p . 27-40.)
SAWYER, SAMUEL
1824. On th e m anagem ent of fig trees in op en air . Royal H ort. Soc. Trans. 5:346-48.
SCH N EIDER, N UMA
1902. Plantation d u figu ier . Rev . H ort. 74:143-45.
SEMMOLA, VIN CEN ZO
1845. Della cap rificazione; esp erienze e rag gionam enti. Accad . Sci. N ap oli, ren d . 4:417-55.
SHINN , C. H .
1892. Fig trees at th e exp erim ent stations. Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 96:3-6.
1893. Th e fig in California. Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Rp t. 1891-1892:147-57.
1903. Cu ltu re w ork at the su bstations, 1899-1901. Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 147:7-120. (Th e fig ,
p p .15, 54.)
1915. Th e fig in California. In: Th e Stand ard Cyclop ed ia of H orticu ltu re [Bailey] 3:1235-38.
SIMON ET, M., R. CH OPIN ET, and J. BACCIALON E
1945. Contribu tion ltu d e d e qu elqu es varits d e figu iers d es Alp es-Maritim es et d u Var. Rev .
de
Bot. Ap p l. 25:44-72. Illu strated .
SIMON ET, M., an d R. CH OPIN ET
1947. Le figu ier Sollies-Pont. Rev . H ort. 118:66-69. Illu strated . 2 color p lates.
SIMON-LOUIS FRRES
1895. Gu id e p ratiqu e d e lam ateu r d e fru its. 385 p p . Berger-Levrau lt, Paris. (Figu es, p p .19-20.)
SINISCALCHI, A .
1911. La coltivazion e d el fico n el Cilento. Boll. Ar bor . Italiana 7:25-54;
SOCIT N ATION ALE D H O RTICULTURE DE FRA N CE
1928. Les m eilleu rs fru its. N ew ed ition . Sect. Pom ologiqu e, Paris. (Figu es, p . 139. 3 figu res.)
SOCIT POMOLO GIQUE DE FRAN CE
1887. Catalogu e d escrip tif d es fru its ad op ts. Lyons. (Figu es, p p . 27-33.)
1947. Sam e. 561 p p . Arn au d Lyons. (Figu ier , p p . 89-92.)
SOLMS-LAUBACH , H . GRA F
1882. Die H erku nft, Dom estication , u nd Verbreitu n g d es gew h nlichen Feigen bau m s. A bhand l. K.
Ges. Wiss. Gttin gen 28:1-106.
1885. Die Geschlechterd ifferenzieru n g bei d en Feigen bu m en . Bot. Zeitu n g 43:514- 22, 530-39,
546-51, 562-71.
SPEN CE, W .
1846. Su ssex fig orchard . Gard . Ch ron . 6:598.
STANSEL R. H ., an d R. H . W YCH E
1932. Fig cu ltu re in th e Gu lf coast region of Texas. Texas. Agr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l 466: 1-28. Figu res 114.
STARN ES, H . N .
1903. Th e fig in Georgia. Georgia A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 61:49-74. Plates 1-15.
STARN ES, H . N ., and J. F. MON ROE
1907. Th e fig in Georgia. (Second rep ort.) Georgia A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 77:42-101. Illu strated .
STUBEN RAUCH , A . V.
1903. Th e cu ltu re su bstations. Calif. A gr . Exp t. Sta. Rp t. 1901-1903:161-93. (Figs, p p .171, 192.)
See also: 1903-1904:139.

508
[Vol. 23, N o. 11

Hilgardia

SWIN GLE, W . T.
1905. Figs from Italy . Key to seven p rincip al varieties of N eapolitan cap rifigs. In: In v . N o.10, U . S.
Dep t. A gr .Bu r. Pl. Ind . Bu l. 68:230-33.
1909. Th e Rixford , a n ew typ e of Sm yrna fig . Pac. Ru ral Press 77:161, 170. Illu strated .
1928. N ew crop s for Arizona, and th e im p rovem ent of old on es. Assoc. Ariz. Prod u cer 7(6):3;
5; 10-11; 13. Ju n e 1.
SYMEON IDES, P. M .
1930. Th e p rod uction of figs in Cyp ru s. Cyp ru s A gr . Jou r. 24:106-9.
T.
1907. H ow to grow figs u nd er glass. Th e Gard en 71:332. Illu stration of Bou rjassotte Gris.
T., O .
1905. Figs in p ots. Gard . Ch ron . (ser . 3) 38:257-58. Figu re 96.
TABAIN , F.
1949. A contribu tion to the stu d y of the m orp hological and biological p rop erties of ou r figs. Rad ovi
Poljop tivred . N au cno-Istrazivack. Ustanova [Belgrad e] 1:124-56. See: Pl. Breed in g A bs.
21(1327): Figs in Yu goslavia. (Article not seen , and varieties not inclu d ed in th is m onograp h .)
TAMARO , D .
1948. Tratad o d e fru ticu ltu ra. Fou rth ed . (Italian v ersion , b y Artu ro Caballero.) 939 p p . S. Gili,
Cochabam ba, Bu enos Aires. (H igu era, p p . 800-824. Figu res 631-45.)
TAN ARA , VIN CEN ZO
1651. LEconom ia d el cittad ino in villa d el Sig . V. Tan ara. 7 vols. 624 p p . Ered i d el Dozza,
Bologna. (Fico; p p . 376-80.)
TAYLO R, W . A .
1898. The fru it ind u stry . In : U . S. Dep t. Agr . Yearb ook 1897:305-44. (Fig , p p . 316-18. Color p late
5.) TH EOPH RASTUS, ERESIOS (372-287 B.C.)
1916. En qu iry into p lants. Translated b y Sir Arthu r H ort. 2 vols. G. Pu tnam s Sons, N ew York .
(Fig ,
see ind ex.)
TH OMAS, OWEN
1902. Fig cu ltu re ou t of d oors and u nd er glass. Th e G ard en 61:4l4-15, 432. 2 figu res.
TH OMPSON , ROBERT
1859. Th e gard en ers assistant. 774 p p . Lond on . (Fig , p p . 642-49.)
1925. Sam e. 6 vols. William Wa tson , ed ., Lond on . (Fig , 3:34-44. Figu res 33-41.)
TOU RN EFO RT, J. P . DE
1719. Institu tiones rei h erbairae. 3 vols. Typ . Regia, Paris. (Figu ier , 1:662-63; 3: p late 420.)
First ed . 1700.
TRABUT, L.
1901. La cap rification en Algrie. Algrie Dir. d e lA gr . Serv . Bot. Bu l. 32:115-38.
1904. Le figu ier en Algrie. Algrie Dir. d e lA gr . Serv . Bot. Bu l. 38:1-37. Illu strated .
1922. Su r les origin es d u figu ier . Rev . d e Bot. Ap p l. 2:393-96.
1923-1924. Le figu ier. Algrie-Tu nisie-Maroc Bu l. Agr . 29 (2):17-21; (3):33-39; (4):49-60 (figs. 1-18);
(5):73-75 (fig . 19); (6):97-101; (7):117-24 (figs. 20-32); (8):137-49 (figs. 33-39); (10):173-77;
(11):189-92; (12):213-17; 30 (2):25-26.
TRAUB, H .P., an d G. S. FRAPS
1928. Rip en in g and com p osition of th e Texas Magnolia fig . A m er . Soc. H ort. Sci. Proc. 25 :306-10.
TSCH AEN , E.
1908. Le figu ier Sollies-Pont. Jou r. d A gr . Prat. 72 (2) :186-87. (Bou rjassotte or Barnissotte
exclu sively cu ltivated .)
VALDEYRON , G ., and P. CROSSA-RA YN AUD
1950. Les fru its d e Tu n isie. An n . Serv . Bot. et Agron . d e Tu n isie 23 :1-124. (Figu es, p p . 83, 101.
Color
p late 47.)
VALLESE, F.
1904. La cap rificazione in Terra d Otranto. 68 p p . Tip . Soc. Coop ., Lecce. 18 figu res.
1909. Il fico. 381 p p . F. Battiato, Catania. Figu res 1-123.

Febru ary , 1955]


509

Condit:

Fig

Varieties

VAN DEMAN , H . E.
1890. Rep ort of the Pom ologist. In: U . S. Secr. A gr . Rp t. 1890:409-24. (Fig , p . 414.)
VAN VELZER, A . C.
1909. Fig cu ltu re. 218 p p . H ou ston .
W., J. S.
1873. Castle Ken n ed y . Th e Gard en 3:338. May 3.
WARD , H . W .
1904. Fig trees on w alls ou t of d oors. Gard . Ch ron . (ser . 3) 35 :49-50.
WATTS, R. L.
1890. Fru it trees at th e exp erim ent station . Ten n . A gr . Exp t. Sta. Bu l. 3 (5):75-92. (Figs, p . 90.)
WEST, W . B.
1882. Fig-grow in g in California. Pac. Ru ral Press 24 :82-83.
WESTON , RICH ARD
1770-1777. Th e u n iversal botanist and nu rsery m an . 4 vols. Prin ted for J. Bell, Lond on . (Fig . 1:109;
4:151.)
WH ITE, W . N .
1868. Gard en in g for th e Sou th . Revised ed . 444 p p . Oran ge, Ju d d & Co., N ew York .
(Fig , p p . 363-69.)
WOODA RD , OTIS
1938. Fig variety test. Georgia Coastal Plain Exp t. Sta. Bu l. (18th An n . Rp t.) 29:112.
1940. Sam e (20th An n . Rp t.) 31:113.
WOOD ROO F, J. G ., an d J. E. BAILEY
1931. Fig varieties and cu ltu re. Georgia A gr . Exp t. Sta. Circ. 97:1-4. 2 figu res.
WRIGH T, JOH N
1891-1895. Th e fru it-grow ers gu id e. 6 vols. Virtu e and Co., Lond on . (Fig , 2:170-200. Figu res
55-62. 1 color p late.)
WYTH ES, G.
1890a. Figs in p ots for early fru itin g . Th e Gard en 38:430.
1890b . N ew fig . St. Joh n . Gard . Ch ron . (ser . 3) 7:719.
1893. Figs for forcin g . Th e Gard en 44:168, 319.
1900a. Th e Brow n Tu rkey fig . Th e Gard en 58:130. 1 figu re.
1900b . Early figs at Gu n n ersbu ry H ou se. Gard . Ch ron . (ser. 3) 27:132.
1902. Som e valu able late figs. Gard . Ch ron . (ser. 3) 32:205.

4m -2, 55 (5572) GVW

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 1

Plate 1. Above: Typical tree of Sar i Lop near Mod esto, California, show ing tend ency
of bran ches to becom e top -heavy an d to droop . Below: Typical tree of Dottato at
Mesag ne, Italy.
[511]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23. NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 2

Plate 2. Above: Typical tree of Verd one near Fresn o, California. Below: Tree of
Bru nswick, south sid e of N av al Observat ory, Was hington, D.C., in 1940. At left, the late
Dr. W. T. Swingle; at right, Cap t. Fred erick Hollw eg.

[512]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 3

Plate 3. Above: Typical tree of Stan ford cap rifig. Below: Tree of Roeding N o.3 caprifig.
Both ar e n ear Fresn o, California.
[513]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23 NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 4

Plate 4. Above: Typical orchar d tree of Sar i Lop, with nod al sw ellings prom inent on
lar ge bran ches. Below: Typical orchar d tree of Fran ciscan a. Both are near Fresn o,
California.

[514]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 5

Plate 5. Above: Lar ge Franciscan a trees that once grew in the Kelsey orchard at
Merced Falls, California. Below: San Ped ro fig tree, form erly in p ar k at Par lier,
California. The fram ew ork branches show n od al sw ellings that are u nusually
p ron ou nced .

[515]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23. NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 6

Plate 6. Cap rifigs, p rofichi crop. Above: Stan ford ; Ficus pseudo-carica. Center: Roed ing
N o. 3; Roeding N o. 1. Below: Sam son; Milco.
[516]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 7

Plate 7. Brebas. Above: Dottato. Below: Verd on e


[517]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 8

Plate 8. Color green to yellow . Above: Dottato (cap rified); Blanche; Castellan a. Center:
Verd on e; Seedling N o. 91-12; Sar i Lop. Below: Anglique; Troian o; Pan ache
[518]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 9

Figu re 9. Color m edium d ar k. Above: Malta; Saint Jean ; Ischia. Center: Poulette;
Archip el; Mad eline. Below: Drap dOr; Pied de Buf; Gourau d Rouge.
[519]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 10

Plate 10. Color d ar k to black. Above: Beall; Bou rjassotte Gris; Bar nissotte. Center: San
Piero; Pastilire; H tive d Argenteuil. Below: Bord eau x; Constan tine; Fran ciscan a.
[520]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 11

Plate 11. Pulp color. Above: Dottato (uncaprified an d caprified ); Franciscan a. Center:
Verd on e (u ncaprified an d caprified); Sar i Lop . Below: Mad eline; Bourjassotte Gris
(cap rified); San Piero.
[521]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 12

Plate 12. Eyes an d eye scales. Above: King; Dottato; Troian o. Center: Sar i Lop ; San
Piero; Mad eline. Below: Bou rjassotte Gris; Col d e Dam e; Figue Fleur, showing lack of
bloom at ap ex.
[522]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 13

Plate 13. Leaf typ es, read ing left to right. Top row: Ficus palmata; Choer; laciniate leaf
of a seedling; Ischia. Second row: Ficus pseudo-carica; Ischia Black; Excelsior; Stan ford
cap rifig. Third row: Toulousienne; Sar i Lop; Blan che; Jerusalem . Bottom row; Euscaire;
San Pietro; th ree leav es m alform ed by m osaic; Brunswick.
[523]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 14

Plate 14. A, Mar ab ou t; B, Ch oer; C, Pied d e Buf; D, Anglique. All ar e of second crop .
[524]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 15

Plate 15. A, Kassaba; B, Euscaire; C, Sar i Lop; D, Ischia; E, Brow n Turkey;


F, Constantine. All ar e of second crop .

[525]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 16

Plate 16. A, B, King, breba an d second crop; D, C, Verd one, breba an d second crop .
[526]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 17

Plate 17. A, B, San Ped ro, breba an d second crop ; C, Verte; D, Grassale;
E, N oir Mou tier. The last three are of second crop.
[527]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 18

Plate 18. A, B, Dau phine, breba an d second crop; C, D, Beall, breba an d second crop.
[528]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 19

Plate 19. A, B, Monstru eu se, breba an d second crop; D, C, Franciscan a,


breba an d second crop.

[529]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 20

Plate 20. A, B, Dottato, breba an d second crop; C, Bontar d ; D, Col d e Dam e.


The last tw o ar e of second crop.
[530]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 21

Plate 21. A, B, Bru nswick, breba an d second crop ; C, Angeliqu e, breba;


D, Brow n Turkey, breba.

[531]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 22

Plate 22. A, B, Gen oa, breba an d second crop ; C, Gota d e Mel; D, Datte.
The last tw o ar e of second crop.
[532]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 23

Plate 23. A, Pied d e Buf, breba; B, E, Saint Jean , breba an d second crop;
C, D, Yellow N eches, breba an d second crop.
[533]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 24

Plate 24. A, B, San Piero, breba an d second crop; C, Drap dOr; D, Gourau d Rouge.
The last tw o ar e of second crop.

[534]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 25

Plate 25. A, San Pietro; B, Bourjassotte Gris; C, Malta; all three of second crop ;
D, E, Bord eau x, breba an d second crop.

[535]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 26

Plate 26. A, Blan che; B, Royal; C, Verd al; D, Pan ache; E, Troian o; F, Toulou sienne.
All ar e of second crop.

[536]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 27

Plate 27. A, Bar nissotte; B, H unt; C, Ischia Black; D, Archipel; E, Ear ly Violet;
F, Poulette. All ar e of second crop.

[537]

H ILGARDIA, VOL. 23, NO. 11

[CONDIT] PLATE 28

Plate 28. A, Par trid ge Eye; B, Osborn Prolific (Ru st); C, Vernino; D, Mar tinique; E,
Pastilire. All ar e of second crop .

[538]

The jou rnal Hilgardia is published at irregular intervals, in volum es of abou t 600
p ag es. The num ber of issues p er volu m e varies.
Su bscrip tions ar e n ot sold . The p eriodical is sent as published only to librar ies, or to
institu tions in foreign countries having pu blications to offer in exchan ge.
You m ay obtain a single cop y of an y issue free, as long as th e su pply lasts; please
requ est by volum e an d issue nu m ber from :
Agricultural Pu blications
Room 22, Gian nini H all
College of Agriculture
Berkeley 4, California
The limit to non resid ents of California is 10 separ at e issu es on a single ord er. A list of
th e issues still av ailable will be sent on requ est.

[539]
(insid e back cover)