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Distillation

DistillationColumns

DistillationColumn

DistillationColumnwithSideDraws

DistillationinRefining

ColumnInternals
Tradeoffs
Trayspacingcantbetoo
closeduetoentrainment
Columndiametersetby
needtokeepvaporratelow
toavoidcarryoverand
entrainment

Animation

http://www.virtualrefinery.com/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaBMXgV
BQKk&feature=endscreen
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ch68_F
G9z8
Firsttwodistillationcolumnviual simulation
Lastonevalvetrayaction

TrayinOperation

TrayinOperation

TrayTowerInternals

SieveTray

DistillationinChemicalIndustry

Around40,000distillationcolumnsinU.S.
4050%ofplantscapitalinvestmentisin
separations
Separationsaccountforabout70%ofaplants
annualexpense
Frequently,atradeoffbetweencapitalcost
(numberoftrays)andrefluxratio(expense)

Distillation
Benefits
Applicablefor
manyliquid
systems
Technologyiswell
developed
HighThroughput

Drawbacks

Highheatingand
coolingcosts

Azeotropes

Provingtheadagethatalloflifeislikehigh
school,plentyofemployersstillcareabouta
jobcandidate'sSATscore.Consultingfirms
suchasBain&Co.andMcKinsey&Co.and
bankslikeGoldmanSachs GroupInc.asknew
collegerecruitsfortheirscores,whileother
companiesrequestthemevenforseniorsales
andmanagementhires,elicitingscoresfrom
jobcandidatesintheir40sand50s.(Seean
interactiveofhowyourSATscorecompares.)

ColumnDesignProcess
WelluseMcCabeThiele
Process
Simulation

ColumnDesign
Calculations

Review
VendorDrawings

Detailed
MechanicalDesign

FabricateColumn
andComponents

Commissionand
Operate

PrepareProcess
Specification

PrepareP&IDs

MinimumInformationforMcCabeThiele
QlineequationstartsatxF andhasslope
dependingonthermalconditionoffeed(deterby
q)
Whereq=molesofliquid/totalmoles
Ifasaturatedfeedq=1slopevertical
Ifasaturatedvapor,q=0andslope0
Anythinginbetween0<q<1

Top line (rectifying) has intercept [1/(RD +1]xD


andstartsatXD onthe45o line
Bottomline(stripping)startsatxB andgoes
throughtheintersectionofQlineandrectifying
line.

Example

Determinethenumberofstagesrequiredto
separateabenzenetoluenefeedcontaining50
mole%Benzeneand50mole%Toluenefedas
twophasemixture(50mole%invaporand50
mole%inliquid)
Columnspecifications

Operatesat1atmospherepressure
Distillateoverhead90mole%Benzene
Bottomscontainnotmorethan10mole%Benzene
Externalrefluxratio,RD =2

Example
Rectifyinglinebecomes
y=(2/3)x+(1/3)0.9

Forhalfvaporhalfliquid,q=0.5andslopeof
qlineq/(q1)=1.0
Strippinglineintersects45o lineatXB andthe
intersectionofrectifyinglineandQline
Stepoffthenumberoftrays
DetermineDandBviaoverallmaterial
balance

Exampleonwhiteboard
BenzeneToluenexy1atm
1
0.9

y, mole fraction Bz in vapor

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

x, mole fraction Bz in liquid

0.8

xyBenzeneToluene
BenzeneToluenexy
1
0.9

y, mole fraction Bz in vapor

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

x, mole fraction Bz in liquid

0.8

ExampleCompleted
BenzeneToluenexy1atm
1

0.9

y, mole fraction Bz in vapor

0.8

0.7

0.6

5
0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

x, mole fraction Bz in liquid

0.7

0.8

0.9

MathematicalDevelopmentfor
McCabeThieleMethod

DistillationColumnSchematic

Flash
Yj+1

Yj+1
J+1

yj

J+1

xD

yj

Xj+1

Xj+1
xj

yf

ChemCAD numbersfrom
Topstage(1)downtoreboiler
(N)

Yj+1
xD
yj

J+1

2phaseflow

Xj+1

WhereWereHeaded
Calculation of theoretical minimum number of equilibrium
stages

xD

Operating Line
xF
xB

RectifyingSectionMaterialBalance

OverallBalance
Lj+1 +D=Vj
ComponentBalanceonlightestcomponent
Lj+1xj+1 +DxB =Vjyj
Solvingforyj
yj =[Lj+1 /Vj]xj+1 +[D/Vj]xD

Assumeflowsareconstantconstantmolal overflow
(EquationusedinUniv.Coloradovideo)

UsingoverallbalancetoeliminateVj
yj =[(Lj+1 /(Lj+1 +D)/Vj]xj+1 +[D/(Lj+1 +D)]xD

RectifyingSectionMaterialBalance
DividingnumeratoranddenominatorbyD
yj =[L/D/(L/D+1)]xj+1 +[1/(L/D+1]xB
LettingRD =refluxratioL /D
yj =[RD/(RD +1]xj+1 +[1/(RD +1]xD
Thislinerepresentsthecompositionsofliquidandvaporpassingeachother
ThisisalinewithslopeRD/(RD +1)andintersects45o lineatxD
Atthe45o line:

yj =xj+1 =xD sosettingyj =xD jn theequationabove

xD =[RD/(RD +1)]xj+1 +[1/(RD +1)]xB


[1 1/(RD +1]xD =[RD/(RD +1)]]xj+1
xj+1 =xD.

StrippingSectionMaterialBalance

OverallBalance
Lj+1 =Vj +B
ComponentBalanceonlightestcomponent
Lj+1xj+1 =Vjyj +BxB
Solvingforyj
yj =[Lj+1 /Vj]xj+1 [B/Vj]xB

Assumeflowsareconstantconstantmolal overflow

UsingoverallbalancetoeliminateLj+1
yj =[(Vj +B)/Vj]xj+1 [B/Vj]xB

StrippingSectionMaterialBalance
Simplifying
yj =[1+B/Vj]xj+1 [B/Vj]xB
Lettings=strippingratioVj /B
yj =[1+1/s]xj+1 [1/s]xB
yj =[(s+1)/s]xj+1 [1/s]xB
Thislinerepresentsthecompositionsofliquidandvaporpassingeachother
Thisisalinewithslope(s+1)/sandintersects45o lineatxB
Atthe45o line:

yj =xj+1 =xB

xB =[(s+1)/s]xj+1 [1/s]xB
[1+1/s]xB =[(s+1)/s]xj+1
xj+1 =xB.

sosettingyj =xB intheequationabove

QLine

Isdeterminedbythermalconditionoffeed
Defineqbythefollowingequations
L'L qF
V V ' (1 q) F

Q=molesofliquid/totalmoles

QLine

Takeourtwoequationsfromrectifyingand
strippingsections:
Vy L x D xD
V ' y L' x B xB
Subtracting ( where operating lines cross, y and x same) :
(V V ' ) y ( L L' ) x D xD B xB
but F xF D xD B xB
so
(V V ' ) y ( L L' ) x F xF

QLine

Substitutingintheequationsforq,weget:
y

x
q
x F
q 1
q 1

Lineintersects45o lineatxF andhasslope


q/(q1)
Ifasaturatedfeedq=1andlinevertical
Ifasaturatedvapor,q=0andslope0
Anythinginbetween0<q<1

QLineGraphically

SummaryofEquations

Rectifyingsection,slope=RD/(RD +1)andy
intercept1/(RD +1);meets45o lineatXD
yj =[RD/(RD +1]xj+1 +[1/(RD +1]xD

StrippingsectionmeetsrectifyinglineatQline
intersectionandmeets45o lineatxB
yj =[(s+1)/s]xj+1 [1/s]xB

Qlinemeets45o lineatxF andhasslopeq/(q1)


y

q
x
x F
q 1
q 1

2.Binarydistillation
y n 1

R
1

xn
xD
R 1
R 1

q
zF
y
x
q 1
1 q

L
B
yn 1 xm xB
V
V

y
y1

zf

yB
1
xD
R 1
xB xN

zf

xD
x

McCabeThieleGraphsofar

XF

SteppingoffTrays

Withatotalcondenser,yj+1,D =xD
Findthecompositionofliquidleavingtrayj+1
bygoingtoequilibriumline(xj+1)
Findthecompositionofthevaporentering
trayj+1whichisyj (leavingtrayj)bymaterial
balance(thatistheoperatingline)
Thenfindtheliquidleavingtrayj(xj)via
equilibriumline
Andsoonwestepdownthecolumn

Whydoesthiswork?

KnowxD (specified)andsinceyD =xD foratotalcondenseralsoknowyD


FindxN1 leavingstageN1sinceyD andxN1 areinequilibrium
Findyj fromrectifyingline(massbalance)

CommonEngineeringApproach
Notethatthismethodassumesequilibrium
betweenvaporandliquidleavingtray(idealcase)
Inactuality,thisdoesnthappensowefindthe#
ofstagesthendivide#stagesbyanefficiency
factor,say0.8toaccountforfactthatnotreallyat
equilibrium(Murphree trayeffeciency)
Commonapproachinengineeringcalculate
ideal,thenusefactorstoapproachreality

Applyingtheequationsandsteppingoffthetrays
yj =[RD/(RD +1]xj+1 +[1/(RD +1]xD

(Xj+1,yj+1)
(XD=yj+1)
(Xi,yi)

1
xD
RD 1

(xJ+1,yj)

DistillationColumnPicture
OverallmassbalanceF=D+B
BenzenebalanceFxF =DxD +BxB
OrFxF =DxD +(FD)xB
D

F ( xF xB )
( xD xB )

100 (0.5 0.06)


51.8 kmole / hr
(0.90 0.05)
B 48.2 kmole / hr
D

ExampleCompleted
Summary
Need8traysand1reboiler (9total)

Theoptimalfeedstagelocationisatthe
intersectionofthetwooperatinglinesinthe
McCabeThielediagram(tray4)
Assumingequalmolal overflow(straightoperating
lines)suchacolumnwillseparatea50:50mixture
into:
Overhead95mole%Benzeneand5mole%toluene
Bottoms5mole%Tolueneand95mole%benzene

ExamplePicture
0.90

100kmole/hr
XF =0.50

100kmole/hr

0.78

0.82

0.63

0.72

0.50

0.63

0.40
0.32
0.24

51.8kmole/hr
xD =0.90

0.56
0.42
0.31

0.17
0.20
0.1

0.12

0.05

48.2kmole/hr
xB =0.06

DistillationcanbesimulatedbyFlashes
SeeChemCAD distillationsimulationwith
flashesin20132014simulation

HomeworkProblem
SameasaboveexceptRD =1.5
Recalculateenrichingsectionoperatingline
RD
1
yi
x j 1
xD
RD 1
RD 1
with RD 1.5 we have
yi 0.6 x j 1 0.4 xD
yi 0.6 x j 1 0.36

HomeworkProblemRD =1.5
1

13

McCabeThieleLimitingCases
Reflux ratio vs number of trays: RDmin = 1.31 N =
1

BenzeneToluenexy1atm

0.9

y, mole fraction Bz in vapor

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

1
0.90 0.39
RD 1

0.2

0.39

0.1

RD 1.31

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

x, mole fraction Bz in liquid

0.7

0.8

0.9

2.Limitingcases:minimumreflux

y n 1

R
1

xn
xD
R 1
R 1

y
y1

At this point: xn=x* and yn+1=y*

y*

R min
1
y*
x*
xD
R min 1
R min 1
x y*
R min D
y*x*

zf

yB
xB xN

zf
x*

xD
x

MaximumRefluxMinimumTrays

Bydefinition:RD =L/D
FromoverallbalanceD+L=VorD=VL
Substituting:
RD =L/(VL)or= L / V
1 L /V

SoL/V1, RD

McCabeThieleLimitingCases
Reflux ratio vs number of trays Nmin = 6 (5 trays + reboiler)
BenzeneToluenexy1atm
1

0.9

y, mole fraction Bz in vapor

0.8

0.7
0.6

0.5
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

x, mole fraction Bz in liquid

0.7

0.8

0.9

Summary
Wevefoundourlimitingcases:
trays

RD

L/V =RD/(RD +1)

1(45o line)

1.31

0.567

Sowecandesignourcolumnwitheitherarefluxratiospecificationi.e.RD=2
OrwithL/V=0.66or1.175(L/V)min
Economictradeoff
Atminimumreflux,energycostslowbutcapitalcostshigh
Atmaximumreflux,energycostshighbutcapitalcostslow

SummaryVideo

UsesL/V=factor*min(L/V)insteadof
specifyingRD fortheslopeoftherectifying
operatingline
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3oserXnm
FtU (15min)

RefluxRatio/StageTradeoff

1.31

EstimatingColumns FUG
Columnsaredifficulttoconvergewithoutgood
estimatesofRD andN
OnewaytogettheseestimatesisusingFUG
(FenskeUnderwoodGilliland)
ThecorrelationduetoGillilandisgivennextslide;
touseneedNmin andRDmin
UsedinChemCAD asShortcutdistillation
UsingFUG,estimatenumberoftraysfora
columnoperatingasinourexamplebutwith
RD=2

GillilandCorrelation

2.Gillilandcorrelation:Numberofideal
platesattheoperatingreflux
R RDm
N N min

f D
N 1
RD 1

Gillilandcorrelation:Numberofideal
platesattheoperatingreflux linearscale

RelativeVolatility
Relativevolatility,,isgivenby =PoBz/PoTol
Alwaysmorevolatile(orhighervaporpressure
ontop)
AtcolumntopT=80oC(bp Benzene)
=745.8/288.2=2.59

AtcolumnbottomT=110o C(bp Toluene)


=1740.6/743.1=2.34
D B 2.59 * 2.34 2.46

Forcolumnusegeometricmean

FUGEquations
Fenske equations
log [( xLK

) (x / x )
xHK D HK LK B
N min
log
applying to our problem :
log[(0.9 ) (0.9 )
0.1
0.1
N min
log 2.46
N min 4.9

UnderwoodEquationsforMinimumReflux
Tosolveonemustfirstsolvethe
followingequationtofind.
Exampleforbenzene/toluenewtih a50:50
molarfeedandoverheadof90:10
Benzene:Toluene;saturatedliquidfeedq=1
Benzeneat1atm,B =2.46,T =1.0
xFB =0.50;xFT =0.50/H
2.46 * 0.5 1.0 * 0.5
0

2.46
1

UnderwoodEquationsforMinimumReflux
Solvingforvalueof thatsatisfiesthis
equation
Guess =1.45

Guess =1.4219

(2.46)0.5/(2.46)

1.2178

1.1848

1.0(0.5)/(1)

1.111

1.185

q1=0

0.106

0.0002

UnderwoodEquationsforMinimumReflux
With=1.43solvethefirstequation
forRm
2.46 * 0.9
1.0 * 0.1
Rm 1

2.46 1.4219 1.0 1.4219


Rm 1 2.133 0.237
Rm 0.896

UsingGraphtoSolveUnderwood
Equations

FUGEquations
OnGillilandplot
(RD RDmin)/(RD +1)=(2 0.92)/3=0.36
FromGillilandplot,ordinateis0.36so(N
4.9)/(N+1)=0.36
SolvingN=8.2trays

ChemCADShortcutDistillation
Feedrateandcompositiongiveninflowsheet
Lightkey/heavykeysplitsetinChemCAD
ThesetwospecsgivexD andD
WithxD andDknown,wecansolvebinarycolumn
equations:
FxF =DxD +BxB
F=D+B

SpecifyRd orRd/Rdmin
ResultsareNmin (Fenske),Rdmin (Underwood),
trays(Gilliand)andfeedlocation

SettingColumnDiameter:
OperatingRangesVaporvs.LiquidFlowRates

Commontoallengineering:useofcorrelationsinplaceoffirstprinciplesmodeling
Justbecausephenomenaishopelesslycomplex(inthiscasecfd)

Lecture19

69

TrayEfficiency

Liquid
ActualActual
ThermalSurface
Averagevol ratedensity viscosityconduct.tension
Stg
kg/hmol wt m3/hkg/m3Ns/m2W/mKN/m
18865979.47109.12 812.480.00030.1250.021
28882381.14109.77 809.160.00030.1230.021
38929483.09110.92 805.030.00030.1210.020
419229984.90240.10 800.920.00030.1190.020
519397286.35243.26 797.390.00030.1180.020
619648988.03247.78 792.980.00030.1160.019
719945389.58252.94 788.530.00030.1140.019
84546890.7657.93 784.870.00030.1130.019

Vapor
ActualActual
Thermal
Averagevol ratedensity viscosityconduct. Compr.
Stg
kg/hmol wt
m3/hkg/m3Ns/m2W/mKfactor
10
0.00
0 0.00000.00000.000 0.000
212831879.47 46070 2.78530.00000.016 0.972
312848280.62 45901 2.79910.00000.016 0.972
412895381.94 45754 2.81840.00000.016 0.971
514683183.24 51706 2.83970.00000.017 0.971
614850385.09 51682 2.87340.00000.017 0.970
715102087.24 517882.91610.00000.018 0.970
815398589.24 520512.95840.00000.018 0.969

DeterminationoftheColumn
Diameter:
FlowParameter:
F

LV

n
n

v
L

FromtraypropertiesinChemCAD
L =790kg/m3
v =2.9kg/m3
FromcolumnprofilesinChemCAD
L=118550kg/hr
V=108181kg/hr
FLV =LiquidVaporFactor=0.066

0.5

CapacityFactor

Lecture19

73

CapacityParameter:
Assumedtrayspacing=18inch(0.5m)
Csb =0.25 ft/sec
V nf C sb

20

0 .2

l v

0 .5

SurfacetensionofMixture= =0.018N/m=18.0dynes/cm
Vnf=4.0ft/sec=1.23m/sec
Assume90%offloodingthen
Vn=0.9Vnf
So,actualvaporvelocity,
Vn=1.1m/sec

ColumnDiameter
Maximumvapormassflowrate(fromChemCAD)of108181kg/hr
anddensity2.9kg/m3
Givesvolumetricflowrateof37304m3/hr or10.36m3/sec
Wewanttomakecolumnarealargeenoughsothatthisvolumetric
flowdoesnotexceedVn =0.675m/sec
Findnetcolumnarea

10.4 m 3 / s
An
9.45 m 2
1.1 m / s

Ac =An +Ad
Where,Ad=downcomer areatypically15%ofcolumncrosssectional
area

ColumnDiameter
Ac =An +0.15(Ac)
Ac =An /0.85
Ac=11.1m2
SoDiameterofColumnIs
Ac =(/4)D2
D=(4Ac/)
D=3.75meter=12.3ft
(baseduponcriticalconditions)

ColumnSizinginChemCAD
Floodcorrelation:Glitsch
TrayVaporLiquidSpaceNPassDiameter%floodPresDrop
kg/hkg/hmmatm
250019.5333887.180.6112.1372.870.0087
350066.0833933.740.6112.1372.930.0087
450190.9334058.590.6112.1373.100.0087
550385.5234253.180.6112.1373.360.0088
650601.2134468.870.6112.1373.650.0088
750788.0034655.640.6112.1373.900.0089
850919.8034787.460.6112.1374.080.0089
951009.8934877.550.6112.1374.210.0089
Totalcolumnpressuredrop=0.070atm

OtherDesignConsiderations Pressure
Pressureconsideration:
whatifyouwerenotgivenP=1atm,howwouldyouchooseit?
howdoyouvalidatethatP=1atmisappropriate?

condenser

condenserusescoolingwater
(20C).Letsaytheexitwater
temperatureis30C.
Tomaintainthetemperaturedelta
at10C,thedewpointcannotbe
lowerthan40C.

F,zf

boiler

Thus,thedewpointofthedistillate
hastobeatleast40C.
Ifnot,willneedhigherpressure

DegreesofFreedom
Degreesoffreedom(Nd)
(Nd)=#variables(Nv) #equations(Nc)
IfNd >0infinitesolutions
Nv =2andNc =1;example:y=2x
Nd =1andinfinitenumberofsolutions

IfNd =0uniquesolution
Nv =2andNc =2;
Exampley=2xandx=2,thenhaveonesolution
Anotherexampley=2x+6
Nd =2 2=0
Soln x=4
y=x+2
y=2

DegreesofFreedom
IfNd <0nosolutionpossible
Nv =1andNc =2
Examplex=2andx=4linesareparallel

Nd =1 2=1

DegreesofFreedom Stream
StreamhasC+2degreesoffreedom

ConcentrationsC1
Pressure1
Temperature1
Flowrate1

TotalNv =C+2
Soabinary streamhas4degreesoffreedom,
thatisspecificationof:onemolefraction,
pressure,temperatureandflowratedefinethe
stream

RefluxDividerNv
Fromtotalcondenser

Reflux

distillate

Havethreestreamsandheatflowsototal
variablesisNv =3(C+2)+1=3C+7
SoforabinarysystemNv =13

RefluxDivider Nc
Totalconstraints
TempandPressureidentitiesLn+1 andD2
C1
ConcentrationidentitiesLn+1 andD
MassbalancesC
Energybalance1
TotalNc =2C+2

RefluxDivider Nd
Thereforeinordertosolvethedividerproblem
weneedtospecifythefollowingdesignvariables
Nd =Nv Nc =3C+7 2C+2=C+5
Typicallyforadividerwedspecify:
Feedstream,Lc,C+2
heatleak
1(canbeq=0)
ratioLn+1/D1(addanequation)
pressure1
TotalNd =C+5

Lookata
Distillation
Columnas
SumofUnits
TotalforcolumnisNd =10C+2N+27

C+4

C+5
2C+2(NM1)+5

3C+8

Nc =9(C+2);9interconnectingstreams
TotalforcolumnNd =C+2N+9

2C+2(M1)+5

C+4

DesignVariablesCommonlySpecified
Specifications

General

Pressureofstreamleavingeachstage
(incl reboiler)

N+3

Heatleakoneachstage excluding
reboiler (weassumezero)

N1

Heatleak onrefluxdivider(weassume
zero)
Feedstreamcomp C1,thermal2,flow
1

Specifications

Nd ChemCAD

1
C

+2

Totalnumberofstages,N

Numberofstagesbelowfeed(location
offeedplate)

Condenserspecification

Reboiler specification

Total

C+2N+9

ChemCAD Specifications

SoHowDoYouSpecifyaColumn?
Nd =Nv Nc
SinceNv isfixedbyd.o.f analysiscanonlyadd
equations:
CanspecvaluesQr =20MJ/hr,B=50kmole/hr
Oraddequationsthatexpressarelationship
betweenthevariables:
RecoveryFtol,B=0.90*Ftol,F
RefluxratioL/D=3

DesignVariablesCommonlySpecified
Sometimesspecsarecontradictory.Example:
Condenserspec95%BenzenemolefractioninD
Reboilerspec90%toluenerecoveryinB

ChemCAD CantConverge,Why?

Bz 50
Tol 5

xD = 90.91 %
(wanted 95%)

Bz 50
Tol 50

Bz 0
Tol 45
% recov 95

ChemCAD Result
Error:Cantconvergewithoriginalspecs.Alternateoptimalsolutionisfound

ConsistentSpecifications
Bz 199.9997
Tol 10.6
xD =0.95
Bz 200
Tol 200
Bz 0.0003
Tol 189.4
%recov = 94.7

Result:33trayswitharefluxratioof1.268

RecommendedSpecifications
CondenserSpecification Refluxratio
GetfromMcCabeThielePlot
Startwith1.2xRDmin

ReboilerSpecification
Reboiler duty(fromShortcut)
Showhowtocalculateinnextsection

Abovespecsareusedinsimpledistillation
control

DistillationColumnControl

CHEMCAD DISTILLATION

ShortcutColumn
Needlightkeysplitandheavykeysplitfor
N min

log [( xLK

) (x / x )
xHK D HK LK B
log

Fromoverallmaterialbalance:F=B+D
Fromlightkeymaterialbal:FxF =DxD +BxB
Fromtheseget
F( xF xB )
D

( xD xB )

Note:allmolefractionsrefertolightkey(Bz)

LightKeyandHeavyKeySplit
Forabinarysystem
Lightkeysplit= xx DF
(1 x )D
Heavykeysplit=
(1 x )F
Example:have100kmole/hr 50:50Bz:tol and
wantcolumntooperatewithxD =0.95and
xB =0.10
100 (0.5 0.1)
D

47 kmole / hr ; B 53 kmole / hr
Then
(0.95 0.1)
Lightkeysplit=0.95*47/0.5*100=0.893
Heavykeysplit=0.05*47/0.5*100=0.047

D
F

D
F

ShortcutColumn
(FUGMethod)

DistillationColumn General

Specifications

EstimatingReboilerDuty
allflowskmole/hr,allHi kJ/kmole
L/D=0.908
Qc =(L+D)Hv = 89.7 x 30732 = 2.76 x 106 kJ/hr
1

Feed
100kmole/hr
Satd liquid92oC
50:50Bz:Tol
ReferenceState

HD =1797
D=47
84,459kJ/hr

HB =3353
B=53
177,709kJ/hr

H=Q(inkJ/hr)
HoutHin =Q
84,459+177,709 0=QR 2.76x106
QR =2.85x106 (or2.850MJ/hr)
Adding reboiler heat is the only way to get vapors to reach the condenser

AddCondenserandReboiler

Condenser StreamReference

Condenser

MESHEquations
Mass

Fj zij +Lj1 xi,j1+Vj+1 yi,j+1 (PLj +Lj)xij (Vj +PVj)yij =0


i=1,...NC,j=1,...NT

Equilibrium
Summation
Heat

yij =Kij xij


Kij =K(Tj,Pj,xij)

i xij =1i yij=1j=1,...NT

Fj HFj +Lj1 Hl,j1 +Vj+1 Hv,j+1 (PLj +Lj)Hlj (Vj +PVj)Hvj +Q j=0,j=1NT
Hlj =h(Tj,Pj,xj),Hvj =H(Tj,Pj,yj),HFj =HF(Tf,Pf,zj)

EquilibriumEquations Moderate
Pressures(<10atm)NonIdeal
i Po

Ki = x
Verynonlinear;Belowforabinarysystem
modeledbyNRTL
i

InsideOutAlgorithm
BostonandSullivan(1976)
MESHequations:Mass,Equilibrium,Summation,
andHeat
Innerloopsimplifiedequations

Ki =i Kb
ln(Kb)=A+B(1/T 1/T*)
H'v =C+D(T T*)
H'l =E+F(T T*)

Oldermethodsspentalotofcomputational
poweronrigorousevaluationofequilbrium
constants

InsideOutAlgorithm

L=(1R) pi
V=F L
Kb=( pi / ipi)
xi =pi /(VKb +L)
yi =aiKb xi
T=((ln Kb A)/B+1/T*)1

InsideOutAlgorithm
1)InitializeA,B,C,D,E,F,i
2)GuessR
3)Solveforpi,Kb,T,L,V,xiandyi usingtheaboveequations
4)Convertflowratestoamassbasisandevaluatesimplifiedmass
enthalpiesforthebalanceequation:
y(R)=H'f +Q/F'+(L'/F')(H'l(x,T,P) H'v (y,T,P)) H'v (y,T,P).
5)Ify(R)iswithinazerotolerance,goto6).Else,updatetheguess
forRandgotostep3).
6)Atfirstpass,obtainnewvaluesofA,B,C,D,E,F,ai bycomparing
withnonideal expressions.Thereafter,updateonlyA,C,E,andai by
usingBroyden's methodtomatchtheseparameterswiththe
nonideal expressions.

WhatHappensIfOverheadsor
BottomstoopureforMcCabeThiele?
Forrectifyingsections,useequationgiven
below:

ForStrippingsection,useequationgiven
below: