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SIMPLE, COMPOUND AND COMPLEX


(S YNTH E SIS A ND T RANSFORMATION )

Before you attempt the questions based on synthesis and transformation you need to
know certain concepts.

WHAT IS A PHRASE ?
A group of words without a subject or a verb, making no complete sense is called a phrase.
e.g. in a corner, at home, turning away.

WHAT IS A CLAUSE ?
A part of a sentence which has its own subject and a predicate is known as a clause.
e.g. : He is sad because he failed the exam.
This sentence has two parts
(a)
He is sad
(b)
because he failed the exam.
Both these are parts of a sentence and both have their own subject and predicate.
Thus they are called clauses

WHAT IS A SENTENCE ?
A sentence is a group of words that contains at least one subject and one predicate and
makes complete sense.
Note : a sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
eg. : A good businessman maintains good relations with his customer.
Sometimes the subject may be absent or implied.
eg. : Thank you. ( I thank you )
Shocking. (It is shocking )

Simple
A Simple sentence contains one subject and one finite verb.
eg. : I saw a beautiful house.

Compound
A Compound sentence is made up of two or more coordinate clauses joined with a
coordinating conjunction (coordinator).
eg. : I saw a house and it was beautiful

Complex
A Complex sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses,
which start with a subordinator.
eg. : I saw a house which was beautiful.
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Transformation
Changing a sentence from one form to another.

Synthesis
Combining two or more sentences into one single sentence.

MAKING SIMPLE SENTENCES :

One finite verb


The other finite verbs in the question can be deleted or substituted.
Substiute with participle, infinitive gerund OR noun, adjective, adverb.

TYPE OF
SENTENCES

OPTIONS

EXAMPLE
1.

ing
Ans.

I could climb onto a banana stool and peer


into the stump.
Climbing onto a banana stool , I could peer
into the stump.
Mother woke up early. She went for a walk.
On waking up early, mother went for a walk.
Rohan is my brother and he is very naughty.
Rohan, my brother, is very naughty.
Students, who work hard will surely succeed.
Hard-working students will surely succeed.
They escaped the fire. It was a amazing.
Amazingly, they escaped the fire.

adverb

2.
Ans.
3.
Ans.
4.
Ans.
5.
Ans.

Opposite /
Contrast ideas

inspite of +
ing

1. Although he is very thin, he is strong.


Ans. Inspite of being very thin, he is strong.

Condition /
Alternative
ideas

without + ing
but for + ing

1. You saved her or she would have drowned.


Ans. Without (but for) you saving her, she would
have drowned.

ing

1.
Ans.
2.
Ans.
3.

Similar / Time
related ideas

on + ing,
after + ing
noun / phrase
in apposition,

adjective

Reason /
Illative ideas

by + ing

to + verb

164

Since they were late, they missed the bus.


Being late, they missed the bus.
They played well. They won the match.
By playing well, they won the match.
He wanted to pass the examination. He
worked hard.
Ans. He worked hard to pass the examination.

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SOLVED EXAMPLES : (Making Simple Sentences)


1.
Ans.
2.
Ans.
3.
Ans.
4.
Ans.
5.
Ans.

Though I was joyous in my marriage, that was the difficult year of 1968.
Inspite of being joyous in my marriage, that was the difficult year of 1968.
As I was fixing supper, there was a knock at the door.
At the time of fixing supper, there was a knock at the door.
That night Keryn had a dream. It was more like a nightmare.
That night Keryn had a dream like a nightmare.
I turned tail and fled away.
Turning tail, I fled away.
When the mate dies she doesnt take a new one.
On the death of the mate, she doesnt take a new one.

EXERCISE : (Making Simple Sentences)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

I went to the market. I wanted to buy clothes.


He is sorrowful. He is still hopeful.
All the inmates escaped from the blazing building. This was fortunate.
I turned on all my persuasive skills and invoked the name of my father.
She was at the form two prize giving and she was walking up to the stage.
When Maggu lost her sight, her school expelled her.
Jayshree Kamble decided on vermiculture because she has extensive knowledge
on the subject.
There was a time when most diabetologists practised their anti-banana theory.
When I was returning home, I saw a snake which was dead.
We stopped briefly on Indira Bridge that connected Rameshwaram to the
mainland.
She took to swimming and in the 4th national swimming championship held
last autumn bagged gold medal in the 50 meters free style.
Dad would stand close by an endeavor to stun the mice.
The snake suddenly raised its neck and viciously struck dad's arm three or
four times.
If you want to honour Anne's memory, do what Anne want.

MAKING COMPOUND SENTENCES :

Two coordinate clauses ( 2 sentences )


A coordinator to join the clauses

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TYPES OF COORDINATORS
Type of sentences

Coordinators

Examples

Similar /Time related


ideas

and, as well as,


not onlybut also

They were tired and they were


hungry.

Opposite / Contrast
ideas

but, yet, however, still

She exercised regularly but she


lost no weight.

Condition / Alternative or , either / or, neither/ Either bring the book tomorrow or
you will have to pay a fine.
ideas
nor
Reason / Illative ideas

so, for, therefore

The boy was very hungry so he ate


too much.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Synthesis to Compound
only use a coordinator

Complex to Compound
Remove the subordinator
and use a coordinator

Simple to Compound
Add another finite verb (a
sentence) and use a
coordinator

Q. It was a stormy night. Q. Although they lost the Q. Being an expert orator, he
We ventured out.
match, they enjoyed
gave an excellent speech.
playing.
A. He was an expert oratorso
A. It was a stormy night A. They lost the match but
he gave an excellent
yet we ventured out.
speech.
they enjoyed playing.
Q. They saw a lion. They Q. Since they played well, Q. Inspite of being naughty,
saw an elephant
they won the match.
he was sincere.
A. They not only saw a A. They played well so they A.He was naughty but he was
lion but also saw an
won the match.
sincere.
elephant.

SOLVED EXAMPLES : (Making Compound Sentences)


1.
Ans.
2.
Ans.
3.
Ans.
4.
Ans.
5.
Ans.
166

I received your kind letter. I thank you for it.


I received your kind letter and I thank you for it.
Mother was tired. She announced her intention of going to bed.
Mother was tired so she announced her intention of going to bed.
Theyll keep coming if you keep fingering them.
Do not keep fingering them or theyll keep coming.
Breathing exercises must be prescribed. They must be carried out under a
doctors guidance.
Breathing exercises must be prescribed and carried out under a doctors
guidance.
The journey was very long. I was afraid to take it.
The journey was very long so I was afraid to take it.
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EXERCISE : (Making Compound Sentences)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

The cowboy had made millions of dollars. He had also lost them all.
One day he walked into my office. He had a contract in his hand.
The spot was bigger. She could see it from far.
India sheltered Dalai Lama. His life would have been in danger.
Kantabai Wali laughs heartily as she declares she is an angutha chhap.
He was so focused on success that I decided to give him a chance.
Because you are the son of an old and valued customer of ours, I will not accept
your order.
A banana offers the best value for money, as its much cheaper than other fruits.
We walked through the hallways before paying our respects at the little lingam.
I was surprised at the Indian English he spoke.
Suddenly a little shy, he put his arm in mine.
Although the birds are active all the day long, their activities greatest during
the early morning.
After returning to our resort, we checked into the Ayurvedic centre.
Exercise wasn't something you took. It was something you got.

MAKING COMPLEX SENTENCES :

Subordinate Clause starts with a subordinator

Subordinate Clause starts with a subordinator

LIST OF SUBORDINATORS
Type of sentences Subordinators

Examples

Similar /Time
related ideas

when, which, where,


that, how

When she reached home, she went to


sleep.
She went to France ,where she learnt
French.
Fiona knows that she can sing.
Nobody knows how they managed.

Opposite /
Contrast ideas

though, although,
even though, even if

Though they were tired, they continued


to work.

Condition /
Alternative ideas

If, unless

If you know the answer, do not reveal it.

Reason / Illative
ideas

as, since, because, so As she was hungry, she ate her meal.
He walked quickly so that he could
that, so.that
reach in time.

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TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Synthesis to Complex
only use a subordinator

Compound to Complex
Remove the coordinator and
use a subordinator

Simple to Complex
Add another finite verb ( a
sentence ) and use a
subordinator

Q. You have cheated


me. I shall never
forget that.
A. I shall never forget
that you have
cheated me.
Q. She saw a man. His
face was lopsided.

Q. It was very cold outside


yet the old lady came out
of the house.
A. Though it was cold
outside, the old lady came
out of the house.
Q. You must start your
studies now or you may
not score well.
A. If you do not start your
studies now, you may not
score well.

Q. Seeing the child drowning,


he rushed towards it.

A. She saw a man,


whose face was
lopsided.

Time

Reason

Compound

ing, on + ing, after +


ing, while + ing

and

all wh, words, that

Seeing his wife, he ran

He saw his wife and


ran.

When he saw his wife,


he ran.

ing, by + ing, to + verb

so

Being hungry he ate


lunch.

He was hungry so he
ate lunch.

Inspite of playing well, he


lost the match.
without + ing

Condition Without working hard,


you will fail.
NOTE :
168

Q. Encouraged by Meenakshi
Pahuja, she took to
swimming.
A. Since she was encouraged
by Meenakshi Pahuja, she
took to swimming.

Simple

Inspite of + ing

Contrast

A. When he saw the child


drowning, he rushed
towards it.

but
He played well but
he lost the match.
or
Work hard or you
will fail

Complex

as, since, because


so that, so .... that
He ate lunch because
he was hungry
though, although ,
even though
Though he played well,
he lost the match.
if ,unless
Unless you work hard,
you will fail.

Simple (1 FV), Compound (2 sentence + Cr), Complex (2 sentence + Sr)


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SOLVED EXAMPLES : (Making Complex Sentences)


1.
Ans.
2.
Ans.
3.
Ans.
4.
Ans.
5.
Ans.

I finished the dishes. I went out.


When I finished the dishes, I went out.
A man did this. He must have been very strong.
The man, who did this, must have been strong.
I breathe all right. At least I think so.
I think that I breathe all right.
I won , managing to shock everybody.
When I won, I managed to shock everybody.
That night Keryn had a dream and it was more like a nightmare.
That night Keryn had a dream which was more like a nightmare.

EXERCISE : (Make Complex)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

School was over. It was a celebration.


She read Annes diary and was moved to write to Otto.
We were both watching the tape for the first time so I didnt anticipate the
commentators story.
We all respect him but cannot express that in public.
You can make friends in two months by becoming interested in other people.
I stared at the stooped, shrivelled body.
Kantabai is the president of the Nalanda Bachatghar Gat, a self help group.
Not surprisingly, she won laurels in inter-school sporting events.
We watched the setting sun paint the sky with a flourish of gold and red.
We have an incredible number of stories woven around birds.
At fifteen, I wrote to him about my wish to become actress.
It was the time for them to make new beginning.
The 74th amendment brought about a resolution for women in Panchayats but
the political climate has remained unchanged.
We have no control over our heart beat but we do have over our lungs.
His face, lopsided from swelling was red and row.
Grown-ups are bothered by my face, but children don't seem to mind.
Jyoti Maggu is visually challenged student enrolled Bachelor of Arts program
of the college.
She was going with stick , her only support.
We are from different races and religions but in one way we are the same.

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