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KINETICS OF A PARTICLE
FORCE AND ACCELERATION
NEWTON`S SECOND LAW OF MOTION
The linear momentum:
If a particle of mass m is moving with a velocity v , the linear momentum is defined by :

P = mv

The linear momentum is a vector quantity of a magnitude mv and its direction is the same
as that of the velocity. If the path of the particle is a planar curve , then , the linear
momentum vector is resolved into two orthogonal components along the x and y axes if
Cartesian coordinates are used.

Py = m y&

Px = mv x = m x&
x

Py = mv y = my&

Px = m x&

y
x
O

In the case of intrinsic coordinates, the linear momentum is a vector which is being tangent
to the path at any instant , so, both its magnitude and direction are varying with the time.

s
O

## Newton`s second low of motion:

It states that the unbalanced force acting on the particle is proportional to the time rate
of change of its linear momentum

## The mathematical form of Newton`s second law is as follows:

F =

F2

F1

d
d P d ( m v ) dm
=
=v
+m v .
dt
dt
dt
dt

dm
If the particl`s mass m is constant then,
=0
dt

F3

d
= m v = ma.
dt

ma

External forces

Effective force

## The quantity m a is defined as the effective force, so , another statement of Newton`s

second law of motion may be used which is:

the effective force of a particle m a is equivalent to the resultant of the external forces

## to which it is subjected . In the case of curvilinear plane motion, Newton`s second

law is applied in the two orthogonal directions according to the used system of coordinates.

In the case of Cartesian coordinates , there will be the following two equations of motion:

FX

= ma x = m &x&

Fy

m&y&

F y = ma y = m&y&

Fx

y
O

m&x&&

y
O

x
Effective forces

External forces

where x.. is the horizontal component of acceleration and y.. is the vertical one.
For the case of intrinsic coordinates, the two equations of motion will be :

Ft

= ma t

Fn

= ma n

Fn
s

ma n

Ft

External forces

ma t

O
Effective forces

## where at is the tangential component of acceleration and an is the normal component.

Steps of solution:
To apply Newton`s second law for the solution of a problem , the following steps are
executed :

1. Assume that the particle is at its general position and indicate all the external forces
to which it is subjected.
2. Apply Newton`s second law ( the equivalence between the external forces and the
effective forces ) to determine the acceleration.

3. Integrate the acceleration with the substitution of the associated initial conditions to
determine the velocity and the position.

Example ( 1 ):
A block of 2 - kg mass starts to move down an inclined

A

## the position B with a velocity vB = 3 m/s. Determine

the coefficient of friction of the surface knowing that :

= 15 , d = 9 m , g = 10 m/s2.

Solution:

Kinematics:
considering that the point A from which the particle starts its motion is to be the origin,
then ,

x 0 = 0 , v 0 = v A = 6 m / s , x B = d = 9 m , v B = 3m / s .
Substituting in the equations of constant acceleration motion :

v 2 = v 02 + 2 a ( x x 0 )
( 3 ) 2 = ( 6 ) 2 + 2a( 9 0 )

ma

18a = 9 36 = 27
Effective forces

a = 1.5 m / s 2 .
v0 = 6 m / s
Kinetics:

mg sin

v B = 3m / s

x
External forces

mg cos

mg

Fy = 0
N mg cos = 0
N = mg cos .
ma = mg sin N = mg sin mg cos
a = g sin g cos
g sin a 10 sin 15 ( 1.5 )
=
=
= 0.42
g cos
10 cos 15

Example ( 2 ) :
A block of weight 500 N is moving down a rough
surface for which the coefficient of kinetic friction

v 0 = 3m / s

P = 200 t

30

## is in seconds, determine the velocity of the block

after 2 seconds. ( g = 10 m/s2 )

Solution:
Kinetics:
Applying the equilibrium equation in the y direction:

Fy

=0

ma

## ma = 200 t + 500 sin 30 N

500
a = 200 t + 250 0.3 * 250 3
10
a = 4 t + 2.4 m / s 2 .

v 0 = 3m / s

mg sin 30
P

N
x
Kinematics:

30

mg cos 30
mg

dv
= 4 t + 2.4
dt
dv = ( 4 t + 2.4 )dt

a=

dv = ( 4 t + 2.4 )dt
3

v 3 = 2 t 2 + 2.4 t
v = ( 2 t 2 + 2.4 t + 3 )m / s
when t = 2 sec.

v = 15.8 m/s.

Example ( 3 ) :
The elevator E has a mass of 500 kg and the counterweight
A has a mass of 150 kg. If the motor applies a constant force
of

E

B
A

Solution:
Kinetics:

Fy

= ma

1500 T1 = 150 a

T1

T1

TB

T1

TB

(1)

T1 = 1500 150 a

TB=5000N
B

## For the elevator :

ma = F y
500 a = T1 + 5000 5000

TB

(2)

T1 = 500 a
From the two equations (1 ) and ( 2 ) , we obtain:

T1
5000N

1500N

a = 2.31 m/s2
500a

Kinematics:
a = constant = 2.31 m/s2,

5000N

T1

T1

v0 = 0

v = v 0 + at

v = 0 + 2.31 * 3 = 6.93m / s

150a

5000N

1500N

Example ( 4 ) :

## During the first 3 seconds of motion from rest , the

tension T in the hoisting cable is 8300 N. Find the
reading R of the scale in Newtons during this interval
and the upward velocity of the elevator at the end of
the interval. The total mass of the elevator, man and
scale is 750 kg. ( g = 10 m/s2 ).

Solution:
T=8300N

## For the group ( elevator, man and scale :

750a

ma = F y
750 a = 8300 7500
a = 1.067 m / s 2 .

7500N

## For the man only:

mg = 750N
75a

ma = F y
75 a = R 750
R = 750 + 75 a

R = 750 + 75 * 1.067
R = 830 N .

Example ( 5 ) :
If block B is raised up a distance of 0.4 m in 2 seconds from rest,
determine the magnitude of the horizontal force P. All surfaces are

15

## smooth. The masses of blocks A and B are 40 kg and 20 kg ,

respectively . ( g = 10 m/s2 ).

P
A

Solution :
There is a relation between the horizontal motion of block A and the vertical motion of
block B , this relation is derived as follows:
If block A is displaced horizontally to be at a position x , the corresponding position of
block B will be y where

y
= tan 15
x

y = 0.268 x

15

## Differentiating this relation twice w.r.t. the time t

y = 0.268 x
y = a B = 0.268 x = 0.268a A . ( 1 )

200aB

200N

a B = 0.268a A

RB

For block B :
Kinematics:
Nsin15
N

Ncos15

15

v0 = 0 , y0 = 0 ,

40aA

t = 2 sec ., y = 0.4 m
y y0 = v 0 t +

1 2
at
2

Nsin15
P

a B = 0.2 m / s 2 .
From equation ( 1 ),

a A = 0.75 m / s 2 .

Kinetics:

Fy

=0

Ncos15

1
0.4 = 0 + a B ( 2 ) 2
2

RA

400N

20 a B = N cos 15 200

## N cos 15 = 200 + 20 * 0.2

N = 211.2 Newtons .

For block A:

Fx

= ma A

40 a A = P N sin 15.

Example ( 6 ):
A v0 = 20m/s

## A particle of 1 kg mass is thrown from

A with a horizontal velocity of 20 m/s , if

20m

## the air resistance is neglected , determine

the velocity and the position of the particle

## when it reaches B .( g = 10 m/s2)

Solution:
Considering that point A is an origin

motion are :

m &x& = 0
m&y& = mg

mg

y
External forces

10

m x&&

&x& = 0 ,

&y& = g

m&y&

## The initial conditions of the motion are :

Effective forces

x& o = v 0 = 20 m / s , y& o = 0 , x o = 0 , yo = 0.
&& and &y& , we obtain :
Integrating each of x

## x& = const . = x& o = 20 m / s

y& = g t
Integrating the two velocity components ,we get :

x = 20 t
y=

1 2
gt
2

## when the particle reaches point B , y B = 20 m

1
* 10 * t 2
2
t = 2 sec .
20 =

x B = 20 * 2 = 40 m , x B = 20 m / s , y B = 10 * 2 = 20 m / s
v B = 20 2 m / s , = 45.
y

Example ( 7 ) :

6m

The 10kg particle slides down the curved ramp for which the

x2
y=
8

## coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.2 . If at the instant it reaches

point A , it has a velocity of 5 m/s, determine the normal reaction

## on the particle and the rate of increase of its velocity.

Solution :
The Cartesian equation of the path is given

y=

x2
8

From the Cartesian equation, the slope of the curve ( dy/dx = tan ) and
the radius of curvature at point A ( x = 6 m ) are determined as follows:

A
x

11

tan =

dy
)x = 6 = 1.5
dx

dy 2

1 + ( dx )

=
d2y

= 56.3

3/ 2

= 23.44 m

dx 2

mg sin

A
mg cos

x
mg

## Newton`s second law in the normal direction:

ma N = N mg cos
N = 10 *

N =m

v2

+ mg cos

25
+ 100 cos 56.3 = 66.14 Newtons
23.44

## Newton`s law in the tangential direction:

ma t = mg sin N
10 a t = 100 sin 56.3 0.2 * 66.14
at = 7 m / s 2 .
where at is the rate of increase of the velocity at point A.