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Wave Optics

CHAPTER OUTLINE

27.1

27.2

27.3

27.4

27.5

27.6

OQ37.1

(i)

interference stays the same.

(ii) Answer (c). The light waves destructively interfere so they are

initially out of phase by 180. Moving the mirror by /2 changes

the path difference by 2(/2) = , so the waves go in phase then

back out of phase to their original phase relation.

OQ37.2

(i)

pattern are small, so we can make a good approximation of their

values: d sin = m m d. Thus for m = 1, d , which

we estimate in each case: (a) 0.450 m/400 m 1.1 103 rad

(b) 0.7 m/400 m 1.8 103 rad (c) and (d) 0.7 m/800 m

0.9 103 rad.

y = L tan L sin = L ( m d ) y mL d

744

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Chapter 37

745

7 mm; (c) (4 m)(0.7 m/800 m) 3.5 mm;

(d) (8 m)(0.7 m/800 m) 7 mm.

OQ37.3

according to water = air nwater . Since the angles between positions of

light and dark bands, being small, are approximately proportional to

, the underwater fringe separations decrease.

OQ37.4

(i)

(ii) Answer (d). The reflected light travels through the same path

twice because it reflects, so moving the mirror one-quarter

wavelength, 125 nm, results in a path change of one-half

wavelength, 250 nm, which results in destructive interference.

(iii) Answer (e). The wavelength of the light in the film is 500 nm/2

= 250 nm. If the film is made 62.5 nm thicker (one-quarter

wavelength in the film), the light reflecting inside the film has a

path length 125 nm greater. This is half a wavelength, which

reverses constructive into destructive interference.

OQ37.5

Answer (d). There are 180 phase changes occurring in the reflections

at both the air-oil boundary and the oil-water boundary; thus the

relative phase change from reflection is zero. The condition for

constructive interference in the reflected light is

2t = m

t=m

n

2n

which will strongly reflect 530-nm light is m = 1:

t=m

O37.6

530 nm

= ( 1)

= 212 nm

2n

2 ( 1.25 )

d sin = 2

500 109 m

sin = 2

2.00 105 m

= 0.050 0 rad

OQ37.7

(i)

nair < noil < nflint glass. With this condition, light reflecting from both

the top and the bottom surface of the oil film will undergo 180

phase changes. Then these two beams will be in phase with each

other where the film is very thin. This is the condition for

constructive interference as the thickness of the oil film

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

746

Wave Optics

decreases toward zero. If the oil film is dark where it is thinnest,

then nair < noil > ncrown glass. In this case, reflecting light undergoes

a 180 phase change upon reflection from the top surface but no

180 phase change upon reflection from the bottom surface of

the oil. The two reflected beams are 180 out of phase and

interfere destructively as the oil film thickness goes to zero.

(ii) Yes. It should have a lower refractive index than both kinds of

glass.

(iii) Yes. It should have a higher refractive index than both kinds of

glass.

(iv) No. Its refractive index cannot be both greater than 1.66 and less

than 1.52.

OQ37.8

Answer (b). With two fine slits separated by a distance d slightly less

than , the equation d sin = 0 has the usual solution = 0, but

d sin = has no solution: there is no first-order maximum.

1

However, d sin = has a solution: first-order minima flank the

2

central maximum on each side.

OQ37.9

(i)

in a double-slit interference pattern is given by d sin m = m.

The distance ym of the mth-order bright fringe from the center of

the pattern is given by y m = L tan m , where L is the distance to

the screen. The spacing between successive bright fringes is

L ( sin m+1 sin m )

=L

[( m + 1) m] = L

d

because the angles are small, and for small angles (in radians)

sin tan . As L increases, the spacing y increases.

(ii) Answer (b). From our result above, we see that as d increases,

the spacing y decreases.

OQ37.10

Answer (b). If the thickness of the oil film were smaller than half of

the wavelengths of visible light, no colors would appear. If the

thickness of the oil film were much larger, the colors would overlap

to mix to white or gray.

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Chapter 37

747

CQ37.1

A camera lens will have more than one element, to correct (at least)

for chromatic aberration. It will have several surfaces, each of which

would reflect some fraction of the incident light. To maximize light

throughout, the surfaces need antireflective coatings. The coating

thickness is chosen to produce destructive interference for reflected

light of a particular wavelength.

CQ37.2

Due to gravity, the soap film tends to sag in its holder, being quite

thin at the top and becoming thicker as one moves toward the

bottom of the holding ring. Because light reflecting from the front

surface of the film experiences a 180 phase change, and light

reflecting from the back surface of the film does not (see Figure 37.10

in the textbook), the film must be a minimum of a half wavelength

thick before it can produce constructive interference in the reflected

light. Thus, the light must be striking the film at some distance from

the top of the ring before the thickness is sufficient to produce

constructive interference for any wavelength in the visible portion of

the spectrum.

CQ37.3

(thats why its white) with random time differences between the

light waves. There is no coherence between the two sources. The light

from the two flashlights does not maintain a constant phase

relationship over time. These three equivalent statements mean no

possibility of an interference pattern.

CQ37.4

Typically, a thin air film forms between the lens and the glass plate.

Light reflecting from the upper surface of the air film (lower surface

of the lens) can interfere with light reflecting from the lower surface

of the air film (upper surface of the flat glass plate). The light

reflecting from the lower surface of the air film undergoes a 180

phase change on reflection while the light reflecting from the upper

surface of the air film does not. (a) Where there is negligible distance

between the surfaces, at the center of the pattern you will see a dark

spot because of the destructive interference associated with the 180

phase shift. (b) Colored rings surround the dark spot. If the lens is a

perfect sphere and the plate is perfectly flat, the rings are perfect

circles. On the fine scale of the wavelength of visible light, distorted

rings reveal bumps and hollows that cause variation in the air film

between the glass surfaces.

CQ37.5

constructively at others. The total energy is not lost, it is just

rearranged. The energy that does not go into the dark fringes is

shifted into the bright fringes.

748

Wave Optics

CQ37.6

white light is used, the central maximum is white and the first-order

maxima are full spectra running from violet to red. Each higherorder maximum is in principle a full spectrum, but it can partially

overlap with the next order maximum, so the pattern for a specific

color is hard to distinguish. Using monochromatic light eliminates

this problem.

CQ37.7

(a)

zero, or an integral multiple of the wavelength, according to

= m , with m = 0, 1, 2, 3,.

(b)

2

= m + , with m = 0, 1, 2, 3,.

2

CQ37.8

off the top and bottom surfaces of the film. Since the liquids would

have an index greater than that of air, light reflected off the top

surface of each film would undergo a 180 phase change. When the

films become sufficiently thin, the type of interference that occurs,

constructive or destructive, depends on whether the reflected wave

does or does not undergo a 180 phase change. If the index of one

liquid is less than that of water, light reflected off the bottom surface

of the film (off the water surface) will be shifted by 180, so the

overall interference will be constructive, and the film will appear

bright. If the index of the other liquid is greater than that of water,

light reflected off the bottom surface of the film will not be shifted, so

the overall interference will be destructive, and the film will appear

dark.

CQ37.9

Yes. A single beam of laser light going into the slits divides up into

several fuzzy-edged beams diverging from the point halfway

between the slits.

Chapter 37

749

Section 27.1

Section 27.2

*P37.1

Equation 37.2:

d sin = m

4

d sin ( 3.20 10 m ) sin 30.0

m=

=

= 320

500 109 m

There are 320 maxima to the right, 320 to the left, and one for m = 0

straight ahead at = 0. There are therefore 641 maxima .

P37.2

The location of the dark fringe of order m (measured from the position

of the central maximum) is given by

1 L

(ydark )m = m +

2 d

where m = 0, 1, 2, Thus, the spacing between the first and second

dark fringes will be

y = ( ydark )m=1 ( ydark )m=0

1 L

1 L L

= 1+ 0 + =

2 d

2 d

d

or

P37.3

( 5.30 10

y =

m ) ( 2.00 m )

0.300 103 m

position of the central maximum) is

d sin = m

m = 0, 1, 2, .

For first bright fringe to the side, m = 1. Thus, the wavelength of the

laser light must be

= 6.32 107 m = 632 nm

P37.4

The location of the bright fringes for small angles is given by Equation

37.7:

y bright =

L

m

d

750

Wave Optics

For m = 1,

=

P37.5

y bright

L

( 3.40 10

=

m ) ( 0.500 103 m )

3.30 m

2

is described by m = 0 and the tenth by m = 9:

sin =

Also, tan =

9 + = 9.5

d

2

d

y

. But, for small , sin tan .

L

9.5 9.5 L

=

:

Thus, d =

sin

y

d=

P37.6

= 515 nm

7.26 10

We use Equation 37.2, d sin bright =m , to find the angle for the m = 1

fringe:

sin bright =

2

m ( 1)( 1.0010 m )

=

=1.25

d

8.00103 m

there is no m = 1 fringe on the screen whose position can be measured.

In fact, there is no interference pattern at all, just a bright area of

microwaves directly behind the double slit.

P37.7

because the angle is greater than 10. For the first bright fringe, m = 1,

and we have

d sin = m =

and

P37.8

(a)

d=

620 109 m

=

= 2.40 106 m = 240 m

sin

sin 15.0

where m = 0, 1, 2, At the location of the third order bright

fringe,

Chapter 37

(b)

751

2

m = 0, 1, 2, At the third dark fringe, m = 2 and

1

5

2

2

P37.9

(a)

y bright =

y=

m L

, where m = 1

d

( 546.1 10

m ) ( 1.20 m )

0.250 10

= 2.62 103 m

= 2.62 mm

(b)

the equation with m or the equation with

1

2

you can remember that a zero-order bright

band is in the center, and dark bands are

halfway between bright bands. Thus, the

made-up equation d sin = ( count )

describes them all, with count = 0, 1, 2,

for bright bands, and with count = 0.5,

1.5, 2.5, for dark bands.

Then, for the dark bands,

L

1

ydark =

m + ; m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

d

2

y = y 2 y1 =

L

1

1 L

1 + 0 + =

d

2

2 d

( 546.1 10

=

m )( 1.20 m )

0.250 103 m

y = 2.62 mm

P37.10

3

3

2dy 2 ( 0.400 10 m ) ( 0.200 10 m )

L

=

= 0.362 m

442 109 m

L 36.2 cm

752

Wave Optics

Geometric optics or a particle theory of light would incorrectly predict

bright regions opposite the slits and darkness in between. But, as this

example shows, interference can produce just the opposite.

*P37.11

340 m s

= 0.170 m

2000 Hz

m = 0 gives

= 0

m = 1 gives

0.170 m

= sin 1 = sin 1

= 29.1

d

0.350 m

m = 2 gives

2

2 ( 0.170 m )

= sin 1 = sin 1

= 76.3

0.350 m

d

( )

1

:

2

m = 0 gives

0.170 m

= sin 1 = sin 1

= 14.1

2d

2 ( 0.350 m )

m = 1 gives

3

3 ( 0.170 m )

= sin 1 = sin 1

= 46.8

2d

2 ( 0.350 m )

P37.12

v 343 m/s

=

= 0.1715 m is on the same order of

f 2000 s 1

size as the slit separation d = 0.300 m, so we may treat this as a doubleslit diffraction problem.

The wavelength =

(a)

d sin = m

so

(b)

d sin = m

so

and = 34.9 .

Chapter 37

(c)

(1.00 10

m ) sin 34.9 = ( 1)

so

753

= 572 nm.

14

f = =

= 5.24 10 Hz

7

5.72 10 m

P37.13

approximation does not work well. That is,

sin , tan , and are significantly different. We

treat the interference as a Fraunhofer pattern.

(a)

At the m = 2 maximum,

400 m

tan =

= 0.400 = 21.8

1000 m

So

(b)

=

= 55.7 m .

m

2

that point,

d sin = m +

2

which becomes d sin =

5

,

2

5 5 55.7 m

=

= 0.464 = 27.7,

2 d 2 300 m

or

sin =

so

524 m 400 m = 124 m

If we considered Fresnel interference, we would more precisely

find

1

5502 + 10002 m 2502 + 10002 m = 55.2 m and

2

(b) 123 m.

(a) =

P37.14

So,

y = [ y min y max ] =

Thus,

d=

L

1

1 L

= 20.0 m.

0 + 0 =

d

2

2 d

L

( 3.00 m ) (150 m ) = 11.3 m .

=

2 ( 20.0 m )

40.0 m

754

P37.15

Wave Optics

The angle of the 50th-order fringe is given by

50

d sin = m = sin 1

d

The distance x from the slit to the screen and the distance y of the mthorder fringe from the center of the central maximum are related by

y

tan = . As the student approaches the screen at speed v, the

x

distances x and y decrease but their ratio stays the same. Therefore,

y

y = x tan

x

dy dx

=

tan = v tan

dt dt

where dy/dt is negative because the distance y shrinks. The speed of the

fringe is

tan =

v50th-order =

dy

m

= v tan = v tan sin 1

d

dt

v50th-order

1 50 ( 632.8 109 m )

= ( 3.00 m/s ) tan sin

3

0.300 10 m

= 0.318 m/s

P37.16

m

d sin = m = sin 1

d

The distance x from the slit to the screen and the distance y of the mthorder fringe from the center of the central maximum are related by

y

tan = . As the student approaches the screen at speed v, the

x

distances x and y decrease but their ratio stays the same. Therefore,

tan =

y

x

y = x tan

dy dx

=

tan = v tan

dt dt

where dy/dt is negative because the distance y shrinks. Thus, the speed

of the mth-order fringe is

vmth-order =

dy

m

= v tan = v tan sin 1

d

dt

Chapter 37

P37.17

755

As shown in the figure to the right, the height of the radio telescope

dish is h = d2 sin , and the path difference in the waves reaching the

telescope is

= d2 d1 = d2 ( 1 sin )

where

+ + = 90 = 90 2

If the first minimum ( = 2 ) occurs when = 25.0, then

d2 =

( 250 m ) 2 = 350 m

=

1 sin 1 sin 40.0

P37.18

For a double-slit system, the path difference of the two wave fronts

arriving at a screen is = d sin and the phase difference is

=

(a)

2

2

2 y

=

d sin

d

For = 0.500,

2

d sin

2

=

0.120 103 m ) sin ( 0.500 ) = 13.2 rad

(

9

( 500 10 m )

(b)

5.00 103 m

2

y

3

d =

0.120

10

m

(

)

L ( 500 109 m )

1.20 m

= 6.28 rad

756

Wave Optics

(c)

If = 0.333 rad =

2 d sin

, then

1 (

= sin

= sin

2 ( 0.120 103 m )

2 d

= 1.27 102

(d) If d sin =

, then

4

500 109 m

= sin 1 = sin 1

3

4d

4 ( 0.120 10 m )

= 5.97 102

P37.19

= d1 d2 = d sin 1 d sin 2

For constructive interference, this path difference must be equal to an

integral number of wavelengths:

d sin 1 d sin 2 = m

sin 1 sin 2 =

m

d

2 = sin 1 sin 1

P37.20

(a)

(b)

tan 1

(y )

=

bright

m=1

4.52 103 m

=

= 2.51 103

1.80 m

Chapter 37

(c)

757

4.52 103 m

= 0.144

From (b), 1 = tan 1

1.80 m

The sine and the tangent are very nearly the same, but only

because the angle is small. From d sin bright = m , for m = 1:

d sin 1 ( 2.40 10

=

=

1

m ) sin ( 0.144 )

1

= 6.03 107 m

50

50 = sin 1

= sin 1 ( 50 sin 1 ) = sin 1 [ 50 sin ( 0.144 )]

d

= 7.21

(e)

(f)

The two answers are close but do not agree exactly. The fringes

are not laid out linearly on the screen as assumed in part (a),

and this nonlinearity is evident for relatively large angles such

as 7.21.

P37.21

(a)

2

4

yd ( 1.80 10 m ) ( 1.50 10 m )

=

=

L

1.40 m

(b)

1.93 106 m

=

= 3.00 , or

6.43 107 m

(c)

= 3.00

758

P37.22

Wave Optics

Observe that the pilot must not only home in on the airport, but must

be headed in the right direction when she arrives at the end of the

runway.

=

= 10.0 m

f

30.0 106 s 1

(a)

(b)

= 14.5

angle :

(c)

Section 37.3

P37.23

central maximum. The signal of 10-m wavelength in parts (a) and

(b) would show maxima at 0, 14.5, 30.0, 48.6, and 90. A signal

of wavelength, say, 11.23 m, would show maxima at 0, 16.3,

34.2, and 57.3. The only value in common is 0. A strong signal

for both frequencies would indicate that the airplane was

traveling along the central maximum, thus, straight on the

runway. If 1 and 2 were related by a ratio of small integers in

f

1 n1

n

= , equivalent to 2 = 1 , then the equations d sin = n2 1

2 n2

f1 n2

and d sin = n12 would both be satisfied for the same nonzero

angle. The pilot could approach on an inappropriate bearing, and

run off the runway immediately after touchdown.

Double-Slit Interference Pattern

yd

I = I max cos 2

L

Solving and substituting then gives

I

I max

= cos

= 0.968

9

( 656.3 10 m ) ( 0.800 m )

2

Chapter 37

P37.24

759

E1 + E2 = 6.00 sin (100 t)

+ 8.00 sin(100 t + /2)

= 6.00 sin(100 t) + [ 8.00 sin(100 t)cos( /2)

and

The equation E1 + E2 = ER sin(100 t + ) is satisfied if we require

600 = ER cos and 8.00 = ER sin

P37.25

or

and

intensity in a double-slit interference

pattern, which is

d sin

I = I max cos 2

sin

y

L

y=

L

I

cos 1

d

I max

y=

( 2.50 10 m )

7

P37.26

(a)

0.750 = 48.0 m

Er = E0 sin t + E0 sin ( t + ) + E0 sin ( t + 2 )

where =

2

d sin .

760

Wave Optics

Expanding,

= E0 ( 1 + 2 cos ) sin ( t + )

2 1

I Er2 = E02 ( 1 + 2 cos )

2

1

which is . The maximum intensity occurs at = 0 :

2

9

2 1

I max E02 ( 1 + 2 cos 0 ) = E02

2

2

2 1

E02 ( 1 + 2 cos )

2

2 ( 1 + 2 cos )

I

=

=

9 2

I max

9

E0

2

I

2

I = max ( 1 + 2 cos )

9

I

I = max

9

2 d sin

1 + 2 cos

(b)

is zero at two places between the relative maxima, attained where

1

cos = . The relative secondary maximum in the middle

2

I

I

occurs at cos = 1.00 , where I = max [1 2]2 = max .

9

9

(c)

I

I = max [1 + 2]2 = I max . The ratio of intensities at primary versus

9

secondary maxima is 9 : 1 .

Chapter 37

P37.27

(a)

761

d sin

I = I max cos 2

with =

I

I max

2

d sin . This gives

= cos 2

2

Therefore,

= 2 cos 1

P37.28

I

I max

d sin

In Iavg = I max cos 2

for angles between 0.3 and +0.3 we may

take sin = (in radians) to find

( 250 m )

I = I max cos 2

0.546 m

equally well substitute in values for in degrees and interpret the

argument of the cosine function as a number of degrees. We get the

same answers for negative and for positive. We evaluate

degrees

I/Imax

0.101 1.00

degrees

0.05

0.15

I/Imax

0.10

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.101

TABLE P37.28

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762

Wave Optics

The cosine-squared function has maximum values of 1 at = 0, at

= 0.125, and at = 0.250. It has minimum values of zero halfway

between the maximum values. The graph then has the appearance

shown.

P37.29

(a)

2 d

2 d

y

sin =

2

y + D2

3

3

2 yd 2 ( 0.850 10 m ) ( 2.50 10 m )

=

= 7.95 rad

D

(600 109 m )( 2.80 m )

(b)

I

I max

I

I max

cos 2 ( d ) sin

= cos 2

cos 2 ( 2 )

cos 2 m

7.95 rad

= cos 2

= 0.453

2

2

Section 37.4

Section 37.5

P37.30

(a)

soap film and no reversal on reflection from the inner surface, the

condition for constructive interference in the light reflected from

the soap bubble is

1

1

1

2t = m + n = m +

2nt = m +

2

2 n

2

2nt

1

m +

2

the wavelength is

=

(b)

2 ( 1.33 ) ( 120 nm )

2nt

=

= 638 nm

12

(0 + 1 2)

larger value of m.

Chapter 37

(c)

763

1

1 638 nm

t = m+

= m+

2 2n

2 2 ( 1.33 )

The next greater thickness of soap film that can strongly reflect

638 nm light corresponds to m = 1, giving

1

1 638 nm

t = m+

= 1+

= 360 nm

2 2n

2 2 ( 1.33 )

and the third such thickness (corresponding to m = 2) is

1

1 638 nm

t = m+

= 2 +

= 600 nm

2 2n

2 2 ( 1.33 )

P37.31

The layers are air, oil, and water. Because 1 < 1.25 < 1.33, light reflected

both from the top and from the bottom surface of the oil suffers phase

reversal. For constructive interference we require

2t =

mcons

n

m + ( 1 2 ) des

2t =

n

Then,

cons

1

640 nm

= 1+

=

= 1.25 and m = 2

dest

2m 512 nm

Therefore, t =

P37.32

2 ( 640 nm )

= 512 nm .

2 ( 1.25 )

There are a total of two phase reversals caused by reflection, one at the

top and one at the bottom surface of the coating.

2nt = m +

so

t = m+

2 2n

1 ( 500 nm )

t=

= 96.2 nm

2 2 ( 1.30 )

P37.33

phase reversals caused by reflection, one at the top and one at the

bottom surface of the coating),

1

1

2t = m +

2nt = m +

2 n

2

(destructive interference)

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

764

Wave Optics

Let m = 0. Then,

t=

3.00 cm

=

= 0.500 cm

4n 4 ( 1.50 )

wavelength of the radar to 1.50 cm. Then the coating would exhibit

maximum reflection!

P37.34

(a)

Since the light undergoes a 180 phase change at each surface of

the film, the condition for constructive interference is

2t = m ,

n

or

=

=

m

m

m

for m = 1, 2, and 3:

(b)

reflection maxima are in the ultraviolet and beyond.

P37.35

Since = 2d = ,

dmin =

P37.36

(a)

580 nm

=

= 290 nm

2

2

The light reflected from the top of the oil film undergoes phase

reversal. Since 1.45 > 1.33, the light reflected from the bottom

undergoes no reversal. For constructive interference of reflected

light, we then have

1

1

2t = m +

2nt = m +

2 n

2

or

m =

2nt

=

=

.

m+1 2

m+1 2

m+1 2

Chapter 37

765

m = 0, 0 = 1620 nm (infrared)

m = 1, 1 = 541 nm (green)

m = 2, 2 = 325 nm (ultraviolet)

Both infrared and ultraviolet light are invisible to the human eye,

so the dominant color in reflected light is green .

(b)

produce destructive interference in the reflected light. The

condition for destructive interference upon reflection is

2t = m

or

m =

2nt 812 nm

=

.

m

m

m = 1, 1 = 812 nm (near infrared)

m = 2, 2 = 406 nm (violet)

m = 3, 3 = 271 nm (ultraviolet)

Of these, the only wavelength visible to the human eye (and

hence the dominant wavelength observed in the transmitted

light) is 406 nm. Thus, the dominant color in the transmitted light

is violet .

P37.37

2t = m

The first dark fringe occurs at the end

where the plates meet, where

destructive interference occurs

because of the phase reversal caused

by light reflecting from the top of the

lower glass slide. For 30 dark fringes,

including the one where the plates

meet, m = 29 and

n 29 ( 600 nm )

=

2

2

6

= 8.70 10 m = 8.70 m

t=

766

Wave Optics

The diameter of the wire is the same as the thickness:

d = t = 8.70 m

P37.38

aluminized glass surfaces on the front and back surfaces of the filter.

For maximum transmission, we want destructive interference between

the waves reflected from the front and back surfaces of the film: the

result of this interference is that most light of the H line is

transmitted through the filter.

(a)

light reflected from the front surface of the filter (glass-filter

interface) suffers no phase reversal and light reflected from the

back surface of the filter (filter-glass interface) does undergo

phase reversal. This effect by itself would produce destructive

interference, so we want the distance down and back to be one

n

t=

656.3 nm

=

= 238 nm

2n 2 ( 1.378 )

(b)

2nt = , so does increase .

(c)

2

:

2t =

n

P37.39

( near ultraviolet )

Reflection off the lower glass plate causes a phase reversal. The

condition for bright fringes is

2t = m +

2 n

m = 0, 1, 2, 3, .

2

2 R r

r2

t = R ( 1 cos ) R 1 1 + = =

2 2 R

2R

r2

1

= m+

R

2 n

Thus, for fixed m and , nr2 = constant.

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 37

767

Therefore,

nliquid rf2i = nair r 2 and nliquid = ( 1.00 )

(1.50 cm )2

(1.31 cm )2

= 1.31

P37.40

(a)

interference. The index of the coating (1.38) is greater than that of

air (1.00), and the index of the glass (1.52) is greater than that of

the coating; therefore, light waves reflected off the front and back

surfaces of the coating undergo phase reversals. For destructive

interference,

2t = m +

2 n

m = 0, 1, 2, 3,

and n = 1.38

2t = m +

2 n

(b)

t=

540 nm

=

= 97.8 nm

4n 4 ( 1.38 )

1

Yes. Destructive interference occurs when 2nt = (m + )

2

(Eq. 37.17), where m is an integer. (There is a phase change

at both faces of the film in Figure P37.40.) Hence, for m =

1, 2, ... we obtain thicknesses of 293 nm, 489 nm, ... .

P37.41

for both 400 nm and 600 nm. With phase reversal at just one reflecting

surface (the bottom glass plate), the condition for destructive

interference is

2nairt = m

m = 0, 1, 2, .

we get no reflected light at 2(1.00)t = 3(400 nm) = 2(600 nm) = 1 200

nm, so t = 600 nm at this second dark fringe.

By similar triangles,

600 nm 0.050 0 mm

=

x

10.0 cm

768

Wave Optics

or the distance from the contact point is

0.100 m

x = ( 600 109 m )

= 1.20 mm

5.00 105 m

Section 37.6

P37.42

changes by 2. A shift resulting in the reversal between dark and

bright fringes requires a path length change of one-half wavelength.

m

, where in this case, m = 250.

Therefore, 2 =

2

( 250 ) ( 6.328 10

= m =

4

4

*P37.43

m)

= 39.6 m

2ngas L

2L

2L

=

originally in the cylinder is m1 =

. It changes to m2 =

ngas

2L

n 1 , or the index of refraction of the gas

passing, N = m2 m1 =

gas

is

ngas

P37.44

N

= 1+

= 1+

= 1.001

2L

2 ( 5.00 102 m )

2L 2nL

2L

=

originally in the cylinder is m1 =

. It changes to m2 =

as

n

2L

( n 1) , or the index of refraction of the gas is

passing, N = m2 m1 =

n = 1+

N

2L

Chapter 37

769

Additional Problems

P37.45

The wavelength is

=

= 5.00 m

f

60.0 106 s 1

Along the line AB the two traveling waves going in opposite directions

add to give a standing wave. The two transmitters are exactly 2.00

wavelengths apart and the signal from B, when it arrives at A, will

always be in phase with transmitter B. Since B is 180 out of phase with

A, the two signals always interfere destructively at the position of A to

form a node.

The first antinode (point of constructive interference) is located at

distance

5.00 m

=

= 1.25 m from the node at A

4

4

*P37.46

angle between the center line of the

speakers and the corners of the room is

1.5 m

= tan 1

= 14.0

6.0 m

ANS. FIG. P37.46

In order for no other maxima to be

heard, the m = 1 maximum must be

more than 14.0 away from the central maximum. From Equation 37.2,

the condition for constructive interference is

d sin bright = m

or

d sin bright

m

v

f

where v = 343 m/s is the speed of sound. Solving for f and substituting

m = 1 and = 14.0 then gives

f=

P37.47

v

mv

( 1)( 343 m/s )

=

=

= 1.4 102 Hz

d sin bright ( 1.0 m ) sin 14.0

The same source will radiate light into the sugar solution with

n

becomes

d sin = mn d sin = m

770

Wave Optics

Also, for small angles, as is the case here

sin tan =

y

L

The first side bright fringe (m = 1) is separated from the central bright

fringe by distance y described by

d sin = m

y

d =

L n

n

y=

P37.48

(a)

9

L ( 560 10 m )( 1.20 m )

=

= 1.62 102 m = 1.62 cm

6

nd

( 1.38 )( 30.0 10 m )

d sin = m = m ,

(b)

requiring

m

=

m

m 430 nm 43

=

=

m 510 nm 51

m

1

m = sin

= sin

= 61.3

3

d

0.025 10 m

1

and

P37.49

(a)

between consecutive like interference fringes (bright-to-bright, or

dark-to-dark) is to the change in thickness t of the air gap as the

entire length of a plate (14.0 cm) is to the diameter d of the fiber

(equal to the thickness of the air gap at the open end of the gap):

x

=

t d

2t = m + t =

2

2

Chapter 37

771

=

2 d

and solving for the diameter d of the fiber then gives

2

9

( 14.0 10 m ) ( 650 10 m )

d=

=

2x

2 ( 0.580 103 m )

P37.50

(a)

light are described by d sin = m , with 0 = 0. Then,

d sin = m

( 2 10

(b)

Thus,

1 = 2 103 ,

and

1 0 ~ 103 .

( 2 10

m ) sin 20 = ( 1)

f=

(c)

P37.51

c 3 108 m/s

=

~ 1011 Hz

3

7 10 m

by integral multiples m of 2 :

2 x2

2 x1

924 t +

924 t + = 2 m

650

6 650

8

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

772

Wave Optics

which becomes

2 ( x1 x2 )

+ = 2 m

6 8

650

( x1 x2 ) +

650

x1 x2 = ( m

1

48

1

1

=m

12 16

) 650, where x

m = 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3,

P37.52

d sin d tan = m11

y

d = m11

L

d

y

= m2 2

L

m1 ( 540 nm ) = m2 ( 450 nm )

m2 540 nm 6

=

=

m1 450 nm 5

and smallest integers satisfying the equation are m1 = 5 and m2 = 6.

Then for both,

d

y

= 2 700 nm

L

which gives

1.4 m

L

y = ( 2 700 nm ) = ( 2.7 m )

= 2.52 cm

150 m

d

P37.53

If the center point on the screen is to be a dark spot rather than bright,

passage through the plastic must delay the light by one-half

t 1

t

nt

=

wavelength. Calling the thickness of the plastic t, + =

or

2 n

t=

2 ( n 1)

Chapter 37

P37.54

773

There is no phase shift upon reflection from the upper surface (glass to

due to the reflection at the

2

lower surface of the film (air to metal).

The total phase difference in the two reflected beams is then

= 2nt +

2 ( 1.00 ) t +

= m

2

Thus, the film thickness for the mth order bright fringe is

tm = m = m

2 4

2 2

and the thickness for the m 1 bright fringe is:

tm1 = ( m 1)

2 4

Therefore, the change in thickness required to go from one bright

fringe to the next is

t = tm tm1 =

To go through 200 bright fringes, the change in thickness of the air film

must be

200 = 100

2

Thus, the increase in the length of the rod is

From

L = Li T

L

5.00 105 m

we have: =

=

= 20.0 10 6C 1

Li T ( 0.100 m ) ( 25.0C )

P37.55

Since 1 < 1.25 < 1.34, light reflected from top and bottom surfaces of

the oil undergoes phase reversal. The path difference is then 2t, thus

2t = mn =

m

n

774

Wave Optics

for maximum reflection, with m = 1 for the given first-order condition

and n = 1.25. So

t=

m 1( 500 nm )

=

= 200 nm

2n

2 ( 1.25 )

1.00 m3 = (200 nm)A

The area is then

A=

P37.56

1.00 m 3

= 5.00 106 m 2 = 5.00 km 2

9

( 200 10 m )

The interfering waves travel either along the hypotenuses or the bases

of the right triangles. The total length of the two bases is 15.0 km. The

condition for destructive interference for minimum height h is

2

(15.0 10

(15.0 10

m ) + h2 = 30.175 103 m

P37.57

second slit is the mirror image of the source, 1.00 cm below the mirror

plane; however, we must remember that the light undergoes a

phase shift at the mirror, so light and dark fringes are interchanged

2

in the interference pattern. Thus, for destructive interference, the path

length must differ by m. For dark for the first dark fringe (modifying

Equation 37.7), we have

ydark =

P37.58

7

m L 1( 5.00 10 m ) ( 100 m )

=

= 2.50 mm

d

( 2.00 102 m )

I

I max

yd

= cos 2

= 0.810

1 L

I

yd

= 1 cos 1 1

L

I max

12

12

= 271 nm

Chapter 37

775

I2

I 2, max

= 0.640

Then,

yd L

2 =

cos 1 I 2 I 2, max

12

271 nm

1 2 = 421 nm

cos 1 ( 0.640 )

I

Note that in this problem, cos

I max

1

P37.59

12

As with any air gap between glass plates, light reflecting off the lower

plate undergoes a phase reversal. Thus, for the mth-dark fringe after

the first fringe (m = 0), with the gap filled with air:

2nt = m

where n = 1.00 and m = 1, 2, , 84. So, at the widest edge of the wedge,

t=

84

= 42

2

2nt = m

m=

=

= 111.7 = 111

So, counting the first fringe (m = 0), the total number of fringes is

P37.60

Refer to Figure P37.60. Call t the thickness of the sheet. With the sheet in

place, the central maximum corresponds to zero phase difference. Thus,

the added distance traveled by the light from the lower slit introduces

a phase difference equal to that introduced by the plastic film sheet. Call

the original length of the path from the upper slit to the screen D; then,

the original number of wavelengths along distance D are

N0 =

D

a

where a is the wavelength in air. With the plastic sheet in the path,

the number of wavelengths changes to

N=

Dt t

Dt

t

D t + nt D + ( n 1) t

+

=

+

=

=

a

p

a

a n

a

a

776

Wave Optics

where a is the wavelength in plastic. The phase difference introduced

by the plastic sheet is

D + ( n 1) t D

( n 1) t

= 2 ( N N 0 ) = 2

= 2

a

a

a

( n 1) t a

= a = 2

= t ( n 1)

2

a 2

Note that the wavelength of the light does not appear in this equation.

In the figure, the two rays from the slits are essentially parallel.

Thus the angle may be expressed as

sin =

( n 1) t

=

d

d

( n 1) t

= sin 1

y

= tan

L

( n1) Lt

( n1) t

y = L tan sin 1

=

2

2

d

d ( n1) t 2

P37.61

From Figure P37.61, observe that the distance that the ray travels from

the top of the transmitter to the ground is

d

x = h2 +

2

50.0 m

2

( 35.0 m )2 +

= 1850 m = 43.0 m

2

Including the phase reversal due to reflection from the ground, the

total shift between the two waves (transmitter-to-ground-to-receiver

and transmitter-to-receiver) is

= 2x +

d

2

2x +

2x d

d = m =

1

2

m

2

Chapter 37

777

2x +

(a)

(b)

2x d

= 14x 2d = 4 1850 m 2 2 ( 50.0 m ) = 72.0 m

1

1

2

=

P37.62

1

2x d

d = m+ =

2

2

m

2x d

= 2 1850 m 2 50.0 m = 36.0 m

1

From Figure P37.57, observe that the distance that the ray travels from

the top of the transmitter to the ground is

2

d

x= h + =

2

2

4h2 + d 2

2

Including the phase reversal due to reflection from the ground, the

total shift between the two waves (transmitter-to-ground-to-receiver

and transmitter-to-receiver) is

= 2x +

d

2

2x +

2x d

d = m =

1

2

m

2

2x +

(a)

(b)

1

2x d

d = m+ =

2

2

m

2x d

4 4h2 + d 2

= 4x 2d =

2d = 2 4h2 + d 2 2d

1

2

1

2

2x d

=

1

4h2 + d 2 d

778

P37.63

Wave Optics

(a)

Constructive interference in the reflected light requires

1

2t = m + .

2

The first bright ring has m = 0 and the 55th has m = 54, so at the

edge of the lens

1

650 109 m

t = m + = ( 54.5 )

= 17.7 m

2 2

2

Now from the geometry in textbook Figure P37.59, we can find

the distance t from the curved surface down to the flat plate by

considering distances measured from the center of curvature:

R 2 r 2 = R t or R 2 r 2 = R 2 2Rt + t 2

Solving for R gives

2

5

r 2 + t 2 ( 5.00 10 m ) + ( 1.77 10 m )

R=

=

= 70.6 m

2t

2 ( 1.77 105 m )

2

(b)

P37.64

1

1

1

1

1

= ( n 1)

= 0.520

70.6 m

f

R2 R2

so

f = 136 m

Reflection off the top surface of the wedge produced a phase reversal,

but light reflecting off the bottom surface produces no phase change.

Thus, a first dark fringe occurs at the thin end of the wedge. For bright

fringes in the thin film, the thickness is given by Equation 37.17:

m + 1

2

t=

2n

The first fringe corresponds to m = 0, the second to m = 1, etc.; so the

Nth fringe corresponds to N = m + 1.

To find how many fringes are present, we solve for m by setting t = h:

3

1 2nt 2nh 2 ( 1.50 )( 1.00 10 m )

m+ =

=

=

= 4 740

2

(632.8 109 m )

m = 4 740

So, the number of fringes is N = m + 1 = 4 741. This number is less than

5000.

Chapter 37

P37.65

779

Light reflecting from the upper interface of the air layer suffers no

phase change, while light reflecting from the lower interface is

reversed 180. Then there is indeed a dark fringe at the outer

circumference of the lens, and a dark fringe wherever the air thickness

t satisfies

2t = m,

m = 0, 1, 2, .

(a)

50

2

= 25 ( 589 109 m ) = 1.47 105 m = 14.7 m

t0 =

(b)

R 2 = r 2 + ( R t0 )

( 8.00 m )2 = r 2 + ( 8.00 m )2

2 ( 8.00 m )( 1.47 105 m ) + 2.16 1010 m 2

r = 2 ( 8 m ) ( 1.47 105 m ) = 1.53 102 m = 1.53 cm

(c)

1

1

1

1

1

= ( n 1)

= ( 1.50 1)

8.00 m

f

R1 R2

f = 16.0 m

780

P37.66

Wave Optics

The shift between the waves reflecting from

the top and bottom surfaces of the film at

the point where the film has thickness t is

being

= 2tnfilm + , with the factor of

2

2

due to a phase reversal at one of the

surfaces.

For the dark rings (destructive interference),

1

2

m = 0, 1, 2, 3, . This requires that

m

t=

. To find t in terms of r and R,

2nfilm

R 2 = r 2 + ( R t ) r 2 = 2Rt + t 2

2

m

r 2 2Rt = 2R

2nfilm

Thus, r

P37.67

m R

nfilm

where m is an integer.

interference problem, where d = 2h, but with maxima and minima

interchanged because of phase reversal caused by the reflection off the

mirror:

d sin = 2h sin = m +

2

and sin tan =

bright fringe

y

for small angles; hence,

L

2h sin = m +

2

1

y

2h = m +

L

2

The spacing between consecutive fringes corresponding to m and m + 1

is

y

2h =

L

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 37

781

so

9

L ( 2.00 m )( 606 10 m )

h=

=

2y

2 ( 1.20 103 m )

P37.68

(a)

at y = 20.0 cm, we write

n(y) = 1.90 + (1.33 1.90)y/(20.0 cm)

or

(b)

20.0 cm

20.0 cm

n(y)dy = 0

0.0285y 2

= 1.90y

2

20.0 cm

(c)

P37.69

regions of greater index of refraction. The lower part of the

wavefront travels more slowly than the upper part; the result is

that the wavefront bends, becoming more horizontal. The path is

similar to that of a beam crossing the boundary between a

medium of lesser to a medium of greater index of refraction, as,

for example, from air into water: the beam tends to bend toward

the normal. The difference is that the change in direction is

gradual rather than sudden. The beam will continuously curve

downward.

One radio wave reaches the receiver R directly from the distant source

at an angle above the horizontal. The other wave undergoes phase

reversal as it reflects from the water at P. The distance from P to R is

the same as from P to R, where R is the mirror image of the telescope.

Therefore, the path difference is d.

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

782

Wave Optics

Constructive interference first occurs for a path difference of

d=

[1]

The angles in the figure are equal because they each form part of a

right triangle with a shared angle at R.

So the path difference is

The wavelength is

c 3.00 108 m/s

= =

= 5.00 m

f

60.0 106 Hz

Substituting for d and in equation [1],

( 40.0 m ) sin =

5.00 m

2

5.00 m

= sin 1

= 3.58

80.0 m

P37.70

One phase reversal occurs by reflection off the front of the soap film.

(a)

2

Hence, the first bright band (m = 0) corresponds to nt =

.

4

occurs is proportional to the thickness t of the film:

x1 t1

=

x 2 t2

Thus, we have

t

680 nm

x2 = x1 2 = x1 2 = ( 3.00 cm )

= 4.86 cm

420 nm

t1

1

(b)

t1 =

1 420 nm

=

= 78.9 nm

4n 4 ( 1.33 )

t2 =

2 680 nm

=

= 128 nm

4n 4 ( 1.33 )

Chapter 37

(c)

tan =

783

t1 78.9 nm

=

= 2.63 106 rad

x1 3.00 cm

Challenge Problems

P37.71

Refer to ANS. FIG. P37.71 for the geometry of the situation. At the airfilm interface, Snells law gives

2 = 21.2

Call t the unknown thickness of the film. Then,

cos 21.2 =

t

t

a=

a

cos 21.2

tan 21.2 =

c

t

sin 1 =

b

2c

c = t tan 21.2

b = 2t ( tan 21.2 ) ( sin 30.0 )

The net shift for the second ray, including the phase reversal on

reflection of the first, is

2an b

where the factor n accounts for the shorter wavelength in the film. For

constructive interference, we require

2an b

= m

2

2an b

=0

2

Then,

nt

= 2an b = 2

2t ( tan 21.2 ) ( sin 30.0 )

2

cos 21.2

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

784

Wave Optics

and

590 nm 2 ( 1.38 )

=

2 ( tan 21.2 )( sin 30.0 ) t = 2.57t

2

cos 21.2

P37.72

, where a

2

and b are as shown in the ray diagram in ANS. FIG. P37.72, n is the

is due to phase reversal at the top

2

surface. For constructive interference, = m , where m has integer

values. This condition becomes

The shift between the two reflected waves is = 2na b

2na b = m +

[1]

From the figures geometry,

a=

t

cos 2

t sin 2

cos 2

2t sin 2

b = 2c sin 1 =

sin 1

cos 2

c = a sin 2 =

Thus,

2nt sin 2 2

b=

.

cos 2

equation [1] becomes:

t 2nt sin 2 2

1

2n

= m+

cos 2

2

cos 2

2nt

1

1 sin 2 2 ) = m +

(

cos 2

2

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 37

(1 sin ) = m + 1

2

2nt

1 sin 2

2nt 1

(a)

2nt 1 sin 2 2 = m +

or

P37.73

785

sin 2 1

= m+ 21 , where m = 0, 1, 2,

2

n

Minimum: 2nt = m2

for m = 0, 1, 2,

2

Note that m and m are distinct integer values, and must be

consecutive because no intensity minima are observed between

1 and 2 .

Also, 1 > 2 m +

1

< m, so m = m 1.

2

Thus, we have

1

1

2nt = m2 = m + 1 = ( m 1) + 1

2

2

m2 = m 1

2

2m2 = 2m1 1

so

(b)

m=

1

.

2 ( 1 2 )

500 nm

= 1.92 2 (wavelengths measured to

2 ( 500 nm 370 nm )

5 nm )

m=

Minimum: 2nt = m2

2(1.40)t = 2(370 nm)

t = 264 nm

1

1

2

2

2(1.40)t = 1.5(500 nm)

t = 268 nm

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

786

P37.74

Wave Optics

The amplitude of the light from slit 1 is three times that from slit 2;

therefore, the magnitude of the light arriving at the screen at some

point P is

= E0 3sin t + sin ( t + )

EP

= 3sin ( t ) + sin ( t + )

E0

= 3sin ( t ) + sin ( t ) cos ( ) + cos ( t ) sin ( )

= sin ( t ) 3 + cos ( ) + cos ( t ) sin ( )

The square of this expression is

2

EP

2

2

E = sin ( t ) 3 + cos ( )

0

+ cos 2 ( t ) sin 2 ( )

2

EP

2

2

E = sin ( t ) 3 + cos ( ) + sin ( 2 t ) 3 + cos ( ) sin ( )

0

+ cos 2 ( t ) sin 2 ( )

and the time average of this expression is

2

EP

1

1

2

2

E = 2 3 + cos ( ) + 2 sin ( )

0

=

1

1

9 + 6 cos ( ) + cos 2 ( ) + sin 2 ( ) = 10 + 6 cos ( )

2

2

average of sin ( 2 t ) is zero. Using the identity

1

, and the time

2

2 2

2

we have

2

EP

1

1

2

E = 2 10 + 6cos ( ) = 2 10 + 6 2 cos 2 1

0

=

4 + 12 cos 2 = 2 1 + 3cos 2

2

2

2

Chapter 37

787

amplitude, so

2

Thus, we have

2E02 1 + 3 cos 2

2 1

I

=

= 1 + 3 cos 2

2

2

I max

8E0

4

I=

P37.75

I max

4

2

1 + 3 cos 2

point P as a phasor. The two have very nearly

equal amplitudes E. Since intensity is

proportional to amplitude squared, we are told

they add to amplitude 3E. As shown in the

figure, the triangle representing the sum of

phasors may be divided into two right triangles

whose common side that bisects the line of length

triangle, we see that

cos =

3E 2

= 30

E

Next, the obtuse angle between the two phasors is 180 30 30 = 120,

and so = 180 120 = 60 .

The phase difference between the two phasors is caused by the path

,

360

60

=

= . Then

360 6

= L2 + d 2 L =

2L 2

2L 2

2

L +d =L +

+

d =

+

6

36

6

36

2

788

Wave Optics

The last term is negligible, so

2L

d=

6

P37.76

12

6

= 0.498 mm

The first bright ring has m = 0 and the hundredth has m = 99.

1

.

2

So,

t=

1

( 99.5) ( 500 109 m ) = 24.9 m

2

Call rb the ring radius. From the geometry shown in ANS. FIG. P37.76,

) (

t = r r 2 rb2 R R 2 rb2

2

r

r

= r r 1 b R + R 1 b

r

R

1 r2

1 r2 1 r2 1 r2

t = r r 1 b2 R + R 1 b2 = b b

2r

2R 2 r 2 R

2t

rb =

1 r 1 R

12

2 ( 24.9 106 m )

=

1 4.00 m 1 12.0 m

12

= 1.73 cm

Chapter 37

789

P37.2

3.53 mm

P37.4

515 nm

P37.6

impossible.

P37.8

P37.10

36.2 cm

P37.12

P37.14

11.3 m

P37.16

m

v tan sin 1

d

P37.18

(a) 13.2 rad; (b) 6.28 rad; (c) 1.27 102 deg; (d) 5.97 102 deg

P37.20

(a) 22.6 cm; (b) 2.51 103; (c) 6.03 107 m; (d) 7.21; (e) 2.28 cm; (f) The

two answers are close but do not agree exactly. The fringes are not laid

out linearly on the screen as assumed in part (a), and this nonlinearity

is evident for relatively large angles such as 7.21.

P37.22

P37.24

2

P37.26

I

2 d sin

(a) I = max 1 + 2 cos

; (b) See P37.24(b) for full

P37.28

P37.30

(a) 638 nm; (b) A thicker film would require a higher order of

reflection, so use a larger value of m; (c) 360 nm, 600 nm

P37.32

96.2 nm

P37.34

(a) 276 nm, 138 nm, 92.0 nm; (b) No visible wavelengths are intensified.

P37.36

P37.38

P37.40

1

2nt = (m + ) (Eq. 37.17), where m is an integer. (There is a phase

2

change at both faces of the film in Figure P37.40.) Hence, for m = 1, 2,

we obtain thicknesses of 293 nm, 489 nm, . . .

790

Wave Optics

P37.42

39.6 m

P37.44

1+

P37.46

1.4 102 Hz

P37.48

P37.50

P37.52

2.52 cm

P37.54

20.0 106 C1

P37.56

1.62 km

P37.58

421 nm

P37.60

( n1) t

y=L tan sin 1

=

d

P37.62

P37.64

5 000.

P37.66

P37.68

(a) n(y) = 1.90 0.0285 y/cm; (b) 32.3 cm; (c) The beam will

continuously curve downward.

P37.70

(a) 4.86 cm; (b) 78.9 nm, 128 nm; (c) 2.63 106 rad

P37.72

2nt 1

P37.74

P37.76

1.73 cm

N

2L

( n1) Lt

2

( n1) t 2

4h2 + d 2 d

m R

nfilm

sin 2 1

=( m+ 21 ) , where m = 0, 1, 2,

2

n

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