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EXPT. No.

Date:

STUDY THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE SOLUBILITY OF INORGANIC SALT

Aim: To study the effect of temperature on the solubility of salts


Principle: Solubility is an important phenomenon in pharmaceutical sciences. It plays a
very important role in the formulation of dosage form as a Preformulation factor.
Solubility of a compound in a particular solvent is defined as the concentration of the
solute in a saturated solution at a certain temperature. A true homogenous solution is
formed due to the interaction or two or more compounds to form a molecular dispersion.
Effect of temperature on solubility:
Generally in many cases solubility increases with the rise in temperature and decreases
with the fall of
temperature but it is not necessary in all cases. However we must
follow two behaviors:
In endothermic process solubility increases with the increase in temperature
for
example: solubility of potassium nitrate increases with the increase in temperature. In
exothermic process solubility decrease with the increase in temperature. For example:
solubility of calcium oxide decreases with the increase in temperature. Gases are more
soluble in cold solvent than in hot solvent.
Requirement:
Chemicals & reagents
1. Pure inorganic salts (KCl, NaCl, NaNO3 KzSO4 etc)
2. Distilled water
Equipments and glassware
1. Theromostat
2. Thermometer
3. Pocelain dishes or watch glasses
4. Pipette
5. Hot plate

Procedure:
1. Clean all glassware using detergent solution or chromic acid solution
2. Wash two to three times using purified water
3. Take 50 ml of distilled water in a beaker (100 ml)
4. Add some amount of salt like potassium chloride or sodium chloride in distilled water
and stir using glass rod or by an electric motor driven shaker
5. Increase the temperature to 850C with continuous stirring
6. Maintain this temperature for few minutes and then cool down the solution
7. Take sample at 800C using pipette with a piece of filter paper, tie at the tip of the
pipette, so that the insoluble in soluble salt is removed
8. Remove the piece of filter paper from the tip of pipette and transfer 10 ml of this
solution in weighed porcelain dish or watch glass.
9. Allow the temperature to fall down slowly to 70 0C, 600C, 500C, 400C, 300C, and then
to room temperature.
10. At each temperature take sample of the solution and repeat the step 7 and step 8.
11. Evaporate the solution of each porcelain dish or watch glass using direct heat or on
the water bath or put in the oven.
12. Dry the solution till constant weight.
13. Take weight of the dish using double pan balance or chemical balance and calculate
the weight of the powder
14. Record all the parameter in the form of table
Observations
S/N

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Temperature Weight
(0C)
of
empty
Dish
W1 g
80
70
60
50
40
30
RT

Weight
of dish
+solutio
n W2 g

Weight
of dish
+
residue
W3 g

Weight
of
residue
W3-w1
g

Weight
of
solvent
W2-W3
g

Solubilit
y in
g/100g

Calculations:
Solubility of salt in solvent at temperature __ 0C is calculated by the following formula in
g/100g
solubility of salt at 80 C=

w3w 1
x 100
w 2w 3

Result
Solubility of the given salt at room temperature (considering the saturated solution at
room temperature) = ____ %. Plot the graph between solubility and temperature.