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Transféré par Abdulhussain Amravatiwala

Its a comprehensive book covering all aspects of electronic devices and designs

Its a comprehensive book covering all aspects of electronic devices and designs

© All Rights Reserved

- Electrical Fundamentals Chapter 1
- Thevenin
- serpar
- 303454912-Manual-de-Servicio-BW-120-AD-4-pdf.pdf
- Internal Resistance And EMF
- Extension Board
- 1. KSKV Teknologi Elektrik Sem1 Hingga Sem4 (1)
- Exercises Analysismethods
- 3. Questions & Answers on Techniques of Circuit Analysis
- Physics II Problems (36).pdf
- Wye to Delta and Delta to Wye Conversion
- CHAP3(BARU)LITAR1
- System Analogy
- Capacitance and Dielectrics.pdf
- CircuitBuilder (2)
- checkpoint_revision_checklist.pdf
- Al_Olimat
- EEE121 Lecture 22.pptx
- Network Theorems
- Lecture7 Series and Parallel

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A.L. Taghreed M.

DC Series Circuits

A circuit consists of any number of elements joined at terminal points, providing at least one

closed path through which charge can flow:

1. They have only one terminal in common (i.e., one lead of one is connected to only one lead of

the other).

2. The common point between the two elements is not connected to another current-carrying

element.

As shown in the circuit diagram above, since all the elements are in series, the network is called a

series circuit.

The current is the same through series elements.

Notes:

1. A rise of potential occurs in an active element (source) when going from (-) to (+)

through the source, in the direction of current.

A.L. Taghreed M.

2. A drop of potential occurs in a passive element (e.g. resistor) when going from (+) to (-)

through the element in the direction of current.

States that the algebraic sum of the potential rises and drops around a closed loop (or path) is zero.

direction:

Where,

is the voltage rise.

are the voltage drops.

Notes:

Clock wise direction will be used for all applications of KVL.

Plus sign (+) is used for potential rise.

Minus sign (-) is assigned for potential drop.

We are now ready to summarize current, voltage, resistance and power relations for series circuit:

A.L. Taghreed M.

Since:

From KVL:

Dividing by I:

Finally:

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Solution:

Applying KVL for network a in CW direction yields:

1

Solution:

For path 1, starting at point a in a clockwise direction:

The minus sign simply indicates that the actual polarities of the potential difference are opposite the

assumed polarity indicated.

a. Find RT.

b. Find I.

c. Find V1 and V2.

d. Find the power to the 4 and 6

resistors.

e.

f.

g.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Find the power delivered by the battery, and compare it to that dissipated

By the 4 and 6 resistors combined.

Verify KVL.

Solution:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

E

In a series circuit,

The voltage across the resistive elements will divide as the magnitude of the resistance levels.

For the following series circuit:

A.L. Taghreed M.

Where ,

Vx: Voltage across Rx.

Example4: a K and a

finding current, calculate:

a. V1, V2.

b. P1, P2.

Solution:

33V

Source, without

a.

b.

combined voltage drop across R1 and R2 is 140 V and that across R2 and R3 is 180V. if the total

resistance of the circuit is 11 K. Calculate R1, R2 and R3.

1

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Except for a few special cases, electrical and electronic systems are grounded for reference

and safety purposes. The symbol for ground connection is:

The following figures show grounded supplies:

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Solution:

By KVL:

By VDR:

Example5:

point x:

for

the

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Solution:

Every source of voltage, whether a generator, battery, or laboratory supply as shown below, will have

some internal resistance.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Case a: for Ideal voltage source, which has no internal resistance the output voltage = E with load and

without load.

Case b: for not ideal voltage source which has internal resistance the output voltage = E with no load.

Case c: for not ideal voltage supply the output voltage will decrease due to the voltage drop across

A.L. Taghreed M.

in the following circuit, find:

a. The current drawn from the battery.

b. The internal voltage drop across its

internal resistance.

c. The internal voltage of the battery.

d. The power dissipated internally

within the battery.

e. The total power generated by the battery.

f. The efficiency of the battery.

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Voltage regulation:

A measure of how close a supply voltage will come to ideal conditions, where the ideal

conditions dictate that for all range of load demand (IL), the terminal voltage remain fixed in

magnitude.

For ideal conditions, VFL = VNL and VR% = 0. Therefore, the smaller the voltage regulation, the

A.L. Taghreed M.

DC Parallel Circuits

Two elements, branches, or networks are in parallel if they have two points in

common.

Different ways in which three parallel elements may appear as shown in the following figure:

(d)

In figure (d) elements 1 and 2 are in parallel since they have two common points [a, b].

The parallel combination of 1 and 2 is then in series with element 3 because they are

connected by point b only.

~1~

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For parallel elements, the total conductance is the sum of the individual conductances.

That is for the following network:

(1)

Since increasing levels of conductance will establish higher current levels, the more terms

appearing in Eq. 1. In other words, as the number of resistors in parallel increases, the

input current level will increase for the same applied voltagethe opposite effect of

increasing the number of resistors in series.

. (2)

Notes:

~2~

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The total resistance of parallel resistors is always less than the value of the

smallest resistor.

For equal parallel resistors the total resistance will be:

or input current.

~3~

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For the shown parallel network The total resistance is determined by RT = R1R2 /

Since the terminals of the battery are connected directly across the resistors R1 and R2, the

following should be obvious:

Using this fact will result in:

And

Then:

~4~

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For single-source parallel networks, the source current (Is) is equal to the sum of the

individual branch currents.

The power dissipated by the resistors and delivered by the source (in Watts) can be

determined from:

Example1: Six resistors are connected in parallel have the following values:

120, 60, 40, 5, 4 and 2 K. Calculate the:

a. Equivalent conductance of the parallel combination.

b. Equivalent resistance of the parallel combination.

c. Circuit voltage if 20mW is dissipated by the 5K resistor.

d. Current in the 40K resistor.

e. Total circuit current.

f. Total power drawn from the supply

Solution:

a.

~5~

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b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

Example2: calculate the total circuit resistance and battery current for the

following circuit. Prove that the power delivered to the circuit equal to the

power dissipated in each resistor.

Solution: the circuit can be redrawn in the following manner:

~6~

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Checked

States that the algebraic sum of the currents entering and leaving a node, system, or

junction is zero.

1

Solution:

~7~

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At a:

At b:

Since R1 and R3 are in series and the current is the same in series elements.

At c:

At d:

We can conclude that the current entering is I = 5 A; the net current leaving

from the far right is I5 =5 A.

For the following network:

~8~

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Since

Example4:

Determine the

~9~

Solution:

~ 10 ~

A.L. Taghreed M.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Voltage sources are placed in parallel as shown in the following figure only if they have the

same voltage rating.

The primary reason for placing two or more batteries in parallel of the same terminal

voltage would be to increase the current rating (and, therefore, the power rating) of the

source.

If two batteries of different terminal voltages were placed in parallel, both would be left

ineffective or damaged because the terminal voltage of the larger battery would try to drop

rapidly to that of the lower supply. Consider two lead-acid car batteries of different terminal

voltage placed in parallel:

The relatively small internal resistances of the batteries are the only current-limiting

elements of the resulting series circuit. The current is:

~ 11 ~

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Which far exceeds the continuous drain rating of the larger supply, resulting in a rapid

discharge of E1 and a destructive impact on the smaller supply.

An open circuit is simply two isolated terminals not connected by an element of any kind.

While a short circuit is a very low resistance, direct connection between two terminals of a

network.

An open circuit can have a potential difference (voltage) across its terminals, but the current is

always zero amperes.

An open circuit exists between terminals a and b .As shown above, the voltage across the

open-circuit terminals is the supply voltage, but the current is zero due to the absence of a

complete circuit.

~ 12 ~

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A short circuit can carry a current of a level determined by the external circuit, but the

potential difference (voltage) across its terminals is always zero volts.

Consider the circuit shown below; the current through the 2 resistor is 5 A.

The total resistance of the parallel combination of the 2 resistor and the short (of essentially

zero ohms) will be

And the current will rise to very high levels, as determined by Ohms law:

~ 13 ~

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The effect of the 2 resistor has effectively been shorted out by the low-resistance

connection. The maximum current is now limited only by the circuit breaker or fuse in series

with the source.

Example5: Calculate the current I and the voltage V for the network:

Solution:

The 10-k resistor has been effectively shorted out by the jumper, resulting in the equivalent

network below, using Ohm's law:

~ 14 ~

A.L. Taghreed M.

The second method of analysis to be described is called mesh analysis. The

term mesh is derived from the similarities in appearance between the closed loops of a

network and a wire mesh fence. Applying this method the below steps should be

followed:

1. Assign the current in the clock wise direction (CW) to each closed loop in the network.

2. Show the voltage polarities across each resistor produced by CW mesh currents.

3. Apply KVL around each closed loop.

a) If the resistor has two or more currents, the total current is the current of

the loop in which KVL is being applied plus the currents of other loops in the

same direction, or minus the currents in the opposite direction.

b) The polarity of the voltage source is unaffected.

4. Solve the resulting simultaneous linear equations for the assumed loop currents.

Example1: for the following circuit find the complete solution showing all currents and

voltages by mesh analysis.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

Two loop currents (I1 and I2) are assigned in the clockwise direction in the windows of

the network. A third loop (I3) could have been included around the entire network, but

the information carried by this loop is already included in the other two.

Now after steps 1 and 2 are done move on applying step 3 (KVL) around loop I1 and I2:

The minus signs indicate that the currents have a direction opposite to that indicated by the

assumed loop current.

2

( )( )

(

A.L. Taghreed M.

( )( )

)

( )( )

Notes:

*if a current source exist when applying mesh analysis with a resistor in parallel

with it the first step will be to convert all current sources to voltage sources.

*if the current source has no resistance in parallel with it start as before and

assign a mesh current to each independent loop, including the current sources, as

if they were resistors or voltage sources. Then mentally (redraw the network if

necessary) remove the current sources (replace with open-circuit equivalents),

and apply Kirchhoffs voltage law to all the remaining independent paths of the

network using the mesh currents just defined.

Example2: determine the currents of the following network using mesh analysis.

Solution: First, the mesh currents for the network are defined, as shown below.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Then the current source is mentally removed, as shown in the network below, and

Kirchhoffs voltage law is applied to the resulting network. The single path now including

the effects of two mesh currents is referred to as the path of a super mesh current.

A.L. Taghreed M.

We will now examine a technique for writing the mesh equations more rapidly and

usually with fewer errors. Before solving the following example using mesh format

approach consider the following:

* The format approach can be applied only to networks in which all current sources have

been converted to their equivalent voltage source.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example 3: Write the mesh equations for the network below, and find the current

through the 7 resistor.

Solution: As indicated in the network, each assigned loop current has a clockwise

direction.

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Solution:

A.L. Taghreed M.

Recall from the development of loop analysis that the general network equations were

obtained by applying Kirchhoffs voltage law around each closed loop. We will now

employ Kirchhoffs current law to develop a method referred to as nodal analysis.

A node is defined as a junction of two or more branches. The nodal analysis method is

applied as follows:

1. Determine the number of nodes within the network.

2. Pick a reference node, and label each remaining node with a subscripted value of

voltage: V1, V2, and so on.

3. Apply Kirchhoffs current law at each node except the reference. Assume that all

unknown currents leave the node for each application of Kirchhoffs current law.

4. Solve the resulting equations for the nodal voltages.

Solution: step 1&2: the network has 2 nodes. The lower node is defined as the reference

node at ground potential (zero volts) and the

other node V1, the voltage from node 1 to the

ground.

Step3: applying KCL:

A.L. Taghreed M.

A.L. Taghreed M.

10

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11

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12

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Notes:

In applying nodal analysis if there exists voltage source in the network with a resistor in

series then convert them to current sources.

If the voltage source exists without a resistor in series then start as before and assign a

nodal voltage to each independent node of the network, including each independent

voltage source as if it were a resistor or current source. Then mentally replace the

independent voltage sources with short-circuit equivalents, and apply KCL to the

defined nodes of the network.

Solution:

Replacing the independent voltage source of 12 V with a short-circuit equivalent

will result in the network:

13

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14

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It will allow us to write nodal equations rapidly and in a form that is convenient

for the use of determinants. A major requirement, however, is that all voltage sources

must first be converted to current sources before the procedure is applied . This approach

will be applied and explained by the following example.

Solution:

15

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Solution:

In this network 4 nodes can be taken to solve it

i.e.V4 can be included if desired

But three nodes are sufficient to solve this

network:

16

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17

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Note the symmetry about the major diagonal above. This is a check for your

solution.

18

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1. Superposition Theorm

The superposition theorem states the following:

The current through, or voltage across, an element in a linear bilateral network is equal

to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source.

The most obvious advantage of this method is that it does not require the use of a

mathematical technique such as determinants to find the required voltages or currents.

Instead, each source is treated independently, and the algebraic sum is found to determine a

particular unknown quantity of the network.

When applying this theorem, the difference in potential between the terminals of the

voltage source must be set to zero (short circuit); removing a current source requires that

its terminals be opened (open circuit). Any internal resistance or conductance associated

with the displaced sources is not eliminated but must still be considered.

The total current through any portion of the network is equal to the algebraic sum of the

currents produced independently by each source.

*Note:

The total power delivered to a resistive element must be determined

using the total current through or the total voltage across the element

and cannot be determined by a simple sum of the power levels

established by each source.

19

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a. find the current through the 6 resistor of the

network.

b. Demonstrate that superposition is not applicable

to power levels.

Solution:

a. * Considering the effect of 36V source:

20

A.L. Taghreed M.

since power is proportional to the square of the current or voltage (I 2R or V2/R).

However, for a linear relationship, such as that between the voltage and current of the

fixed-type 6 resistor, superposition can be applied, as demonstrated by the above

graph.

21

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example2: Using the principle of superposition, find the current I2 through the 12k

resistor.

Solution:

* Considering the effect of 6mA source:

22

A.L. Taghreed M.

2. THVENINS THEOREM

Thvenins theorem states the following:

Any two-terminal, linear bilateral dc network can be replaced by

an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series

resistor.

The following sequence of steps will lead to the proper value of

RTh and Eth:

1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Thvenin equivalent circuit is to be

found and Mark the terminals of the remaining two-terminal network.

RTh:

2. Calculate RTh by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced by short

circuits and current sources by open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance

between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current

sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to

zero.)

ETh:

3. Calculate ETh by first returning all sources to their original position and finding the opencircuit voltage between the marked terminals.

Conclusion:

4. Draw the Thvenin equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed

replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit.

23

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Example3: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of

the network shown below.

24

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Step3:

Step 4 :

25

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Example4: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of the

bridge network.

Solution:

Step1:

Step2:

26

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Step3:

step4:

27

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Solution:

Step1:

Step2:

28

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29

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Step4:

30

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The second method of analysis to be described is called mesh analysis. The

term mesh is derived from the similarities in appearance between the closed loops of a

network and a wire mesh fence. Applying this method the below steps should be followed:

1. Assign the current in the clock wise direction (CW) to each closed loop in the network.

2. Show the voltage polarities across each resistor produced by CW mesh currents.

3. Apply KVL around each closed loop.

a) If the resistor has two or more currents, the total current is the current of the

loop in which KVL is being applied plus the currents of other loops in the

same direction, or minus the currents in the opposite direction.

4. Solve the resulting simultaneous linear equations for the assumed loop currents.

Example1: for the following circuit find the complete solution showing all currents and

voltages by mesh analysis.

Solution:

Two loop currents (I1 and I2) are assigned in the clockwise direction in the windows of the

network. A third loop (I3) could have been included around the entire network, but the

information carried by this loop is already included in the other two.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Now after steps 1 and 2 are done move on applying step 3 (KVL) around loop I1 and I2:

The minus signs indicate that the currents have a direction opposite to that indicated by the

assumed loop current.

( )( )

(

( )( )

)

( )( )

A.L. Taghreed M.

Notes:

*if a current source exist when applying mesh analysis with a resistor in parallel

with it the first step will be to convert all current sources to voltage sources.

*if the current source has no resistance in parallel with it start as before and assign

a mesh current to each independent loop, including the current sources, as if they

were resistors or voltage sources. Then mentally (redraw the network if necessary)

remove the current sources (replace with open-circuit equivalents), and apply

Kirchhoffs voltage law to all the remaining independent paths of the network using

the mesh currents just defined.

Example2: determine the currents of the following network using mesh analysis.

Solution: First, the mesh currents for the network are defined, as shown below.

Then the current source is mentally removed, as shown in the network below, and

Kirchhoffs voltage law is applied to the resulting network. The single path now including the

effects of two mesh currents is referred to as the path of a super mesh current.

3

A.L. Taghreed M.

A.L. Taghreed M.

We will now examine a technique for writing the mesh equations more rapidly and usually

with fewer errors. Before solving the folloing example using mesh format approach

consider the following:

* The format approach can be applied only to networks in which all current sources have

Example 3: Write the mesh equations for the network below, and find the current

through the 7 resistor.

Solution: As indicated in the network, each assigned loop current has a clockwise

direction.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

A.L. Taghreed M.

Recall from the development of loop analysis that the general network equations were

obtained by applying Kirchhoffs voltage law around each closed loop. We will now

employ Kirchhoffs current law to develop a method referred to as nodal analysis.

A node is defined as a junction of two or more branches. The nodal analysis method is

applied as follows:

1. Determine the number of nodes within the network.

2. Pick a reference node, and label each remaining node with a subscripted value of

voltage: V1, V2, and so on.

3. Apply Kirchhoffs current law at each node except the reference. Assume that all

unknown currents leave the node for each application of Kirchhoffs current law.

4. Solve the resulting equations for the nodal voltages.

Solution: step 1&2: the network has 2 nodes. The

lower node is defined as the reference node at ground

potential (zero volts) and the other node V1, the

voltage from node 1 to the ground.

A.L. Taghreed M.

A.L. Taghreed M.

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10

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Notes:

In applying nodal analysis if there exists voltage source in the network with a resistor in

series then convert them to current sources.

If the voltage source exists without a resistor in series then start as before and assign a

nodal voltage to each independent node of the network, including each independent

voltage source as if it were a resistor or current source. Then mentally replace the

independent voltage sources with short-circuit equivalents, and apply KCL to the

defined nodes of the network.

Example 7: Determine the nodal voltages V1 and V2 using nodal analysis.

Solution:

11

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will result in the network:

12

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It will allow us to write nodal equations rapidly and in a form that is convenient

for the use of determinants. A major requirement, however, is that all voltage sources must

first be converted to current sources before the procedure is applied. This approach will be

applied and explained by the following example.

Solution:

13

A.L. Taghreed M.

14

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Solution:

In this network 4 nodes can be taken to solve it

i.e.V4 can be included if desired

But three nodes are sufficient to solve this

network:

15

A.L. Taghreed M.

Note the symmetry about the major diagonal above. This is a check for your

solution.

16

A.L. Taghreed M.

1. Superposition Theorm

The superposition theorem states the following:

The current through, or voltage across, an element in a linear bilateral network is equal to the

algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source.

The most obvious advantage of this method is that it does not require the use of a

mathematical technique such as determinants to find the required voltages or currents.

Instead, each source is treated independently, and the algebraic sum is found to determine a

particular unknown quantity of the network.

When applying this theorem, the difference in potential between the terminals of the

voltage source must be set to zero (short circuit); removing a current source requires that its

terminals be opened (open circuit). Any internal resistance or conductance associated with

the displaced sources is not eliminated but must still be considered.

The total current through any portion of the network is equal to the algebraic sum of the

currents produced independently by each source.

*Note:

The total power delivered to a resistive element must be determined

using the total current through or the total voltage across the element

and cannot be determined by a simple sum of

the power levels established by each source.

Example1: Using superposition,

17

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b. Demonstrate that superposition is not applicable to power levels.

Solution:

a. * Considering the effect of 36V source:

18

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since power is proportional to the square of the current or voltage (I 2R or V2/R).

However, for a linear relationship, such as that between the voltage and current of the

fixed-type 6 resistor, superposition can be applied, as demonstrated by the above

graph.

19

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Example2: Using the principle of superposition, find the current I2 through the 12k

resistor.

Solution:

* Considering the effect of 6mA source:

20

A.L. Taghreed M.

2. THVENINS THEOREM

Thvenins theorem states the following:

equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series resistor.

The following sequence of steps will lead to the proper value of RTh

and Eth:

1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Thvenin

equivalent circuit is to be found and Mark the terminals of the remaining two-terminal

network.

RTh:

2. Calculate RTh by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced by short

circuits and current sources by open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance

between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current

sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to zero.)

ETh:

3. Calculate ETh by first returning all sources to their original position and finding the opencircuit voltage between the marked terminals.

Conclusion:

4. Draw the Thvenin equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed

replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit.

21

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Example3: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of

the network shown below.

22

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Step3:

Step 4 :

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Example4: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of the

bridge network.

Solution:

Step1:

Step2:

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Step3:

25

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step4:

Example5: find

Thvenin circuit for

network illustrated below.

the

Solution:

Step1:

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Step2:

the effect of E1.

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Step4:

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3. NORTONS THEOREM

States the following:

Any two-terminal linear bilateral dc network can be replaced by an equivalent

circuit consisting of a current source and a parallel resistor.

The steps leading to the proper values of IN and RN are now listed.

1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Norton equivalent circuit is

found.

2. Mark the terminals of the remaining two-terminal network. RN:

3. Calculate RN by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced with

short circuits and current sources with open circuits) and then finding the resultant

resistance between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the

voltage and/or current sources is included in the original network, it must remain

when the sources are set to zero.) Since RN _ RTh, the procedure and value obtained

using the approach described for Thvenins theorem will determine the proper value

of RN. IN:

4. Calculate IN by first returning all sources to their original position and then finding

the short-circuit current between the marked terminals. It is the same current that

would be measured by an ammeter placed between the marked terminals

Conclusion:

5. Draw the Norton equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously

removed replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit

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The Norton and Thvenin equivalent circuits can also be found from each other by

using the source transformation discussed earlier and reproduced:

Example

Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the network external to the 9 resistor

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Solution:

Steps 1 and 2:

Step 3:

current is the same as the current through the 4 resistor. Applying the current divider

rule,

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Step 5:

Example2:- Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the portion of the network to the left of a-b.

Solution:

Steps 1 and 2:

Step 3:

4

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R2 have beenshort circuited by the direct

connection between a and b, and

The result is

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Step 5:

The maximum power transfer theorem states the following:

A load will receive maximum power from a linear bilateral dc network

when its total resistive value is exactly equal to the Thvenin resistance of the

network as seen by the load.

For the network below, maximum power will be delivered to the load when

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From past discussions, we realize that a Thvenin equivalent circuit can be found

across any element or group of elements in a linear bilateral dc network. Therefore,

if we consider the case of the Thvenin equivalent circuit with respect to the

maximum power transfer theorem, we are, in essence, considering the total effects

of any network across a resistor RL. For the Norton equivalent circuit of the

following network, maximum power will be delivered to the load when

This result will be used to its fullest advantage in the analysis of transistor networks, where

the most frequently applied transistor circuit model employs a current source rather than a voltage

source.

For Thvenin circuit we have:

below:

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The power curve increases more rapidly toward its maximum value than it

decreases after the maximum point, clearly revealing that a small change in load

resistance for levels of RL below RTh will have a more dramatic effect on the

power delivered than similar changes in RL above the RTh level.

If we plot VL and IL versus the same resistance scale, we find that both

change nonlinearly, with the terminal voltage increasing with an increase in load

resistance as the current decreases. Note again that the most dramatic changes in

VL and IL occur for levels of RL less than RTh. As pointed out on the plot, when

RL = RTh, VL = ETh/2 and

IL = Imax/2, with Imax = ETh/RTh.

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delivered to the load to the power supplied by the source; that is,

Also

Example3

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resistive load RL

a. For each, determine the value of RL for maximum power transfer to RL.

b. Determine RL for 75% efficiency.

Solutions:

a. For the dc generator, RL = RTh =Rint= 2.5 ,

For the battery, RL = RTh = Rint = 0.5

For the laboratory supply, RL =RTh = Rint = 40

b. For the dc generator,

10

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Example 4:- For the network below, determine the value of R for

maximum power to R, and calculate the power delivered under these

conditions.

Solution:

11

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5. MILLMANS THEOREM

Through the application of Millmans theorem, any number of parallel

voltage sources can be reduced to one. The three voltage sources in the following

figure can be reduced to one. This would permit finding the current through or

voltage across RL without having to apply a method such as mesh analysis, nodal

analysis, superposition, and so on. The theorem can best be described by applying

it to the network. Basically, three steps are included in its application.

Step 1: Convert all voltage sources to current sources This is performed below:

12

A.L. Taghreed M.

IT = I1 + I2 + I3 and GT = G1 + G2 + G3

Step 3: Convert the resulting current source to a voltage source, and the desired

single-source network is obtained:

13

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In general, Millmans theorem states that for any number of parallel voltage

sources,

The plus-and-minus signs include those cases where the sources may not be

supplying energy in the same direction.

The equivalent resistance is

14

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Example5:- Using Millmans theorem, find the current through and voltage

across the resistor RL

Solution:

The minus sign is used for E2 /R2 because that supply has the opposite polarity of

the other two. The chosen reference direction is therefore that of E1 and E3. The

total conductance is unaffected by the direction, and

15

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6. SUBSTITUTION THEOREM

The substitution theorem states the following:

If the voltage across and the current through any branch of a dc bilateral

network are known, this branch can be replaced by any combination of elements

that will maintain the same voltage across and current through the chosen

branch.

More simply, the theorem states that for branch equivalence, the terminal voltage

and current must be the same. Consider the circuit:

In which the voltage across and current through the branch a b are

determined. Through the use of the substitution theorem, a number of equivalent ab branches are shown :

Note that for each equivalent, the terminal voltage and current are the same.

Also consider that the response of the remainder of the circuit is unchanged by

16

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substituting any one of the equivalent branches. As demonstrated by the singlesource equivalents of Fig. above, a known potential difference and current in a

network can be replaced by an ideal voltage source and current source,

respectively.

Understand that this theorem cannot be used to solve networks with two or

more sources that are not in series or parallel. For it to be applied, a potential

difference or current value must be known or found using one of the techniques

discussed earlier. One application of the theorem is shown below. Note that in the

figure the known difference V was replaced by a voltage source, permitting the

isolation of the portion of the network including R3, R4, and R5. Recall that this

was basically the approach employed in the analysis of the ladder network as we

worked our way back toward the terminal resistance R5.

The current source equivalence of the above is shown in the following figure,

where a known current is replaced by an ideal current source, permitting the

isolation of R4 and R5.

17

A.L. Taghreed M.

You will also recall from the discussion of bridge networks that V= 0 and I = 0

were replaced by a short circuit and an open circuit, respectively. This substitution

is a very specific application of the substitution theorem.

7. RECIPROCITY THEOREM:

The reciprocity theorem is applicable only to single-source networks. It is,

therefore, not a theorem employed in the analysis of multisource networks

described thus far. The theorem states the following:

The current I in any branch of a network, due to a single voltage source E

anywhere else in the network, will equal the current through the branch in

which the source was originally located if the source is placed in the branch in

which the current I was originally measured.

In other words, the location of the voltage source and the resulting current

may be interchanged without a change in current. The theorem requires that the

polarity of the voltage source have the same correspondence with the direction of

the branch current in each position.

18

A.L. Taghreed M.

In the representative network below, the current I due to the voltage source E

was determined. If the position of each is interchanged as shown in (b), the current

I will be the same value as indicated.

To demonstrate the validity of this statement and the theorem, consider the

network, in which values for the elements of (a) above have been assigned.

19

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We have:

considering a complex, single-source network such as the one shown:

20

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Electric field exists in the region around any charged body. It is

represented by electric flux lines, which are drawn to indicate the strength of the

electric field at any point around the charged body; that is, the denser the lines of flux,

the stronger the electric field.

The larger the charge Q in coulombs, the greater the number of flux lines since:

The electric field strength at a point is the force acting on a unit positive charge at that

point; that is,

, by a charge

~1~

, r meters away as

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Then:

Electric flux lines always extend from a positively charged body to a negatively

charged body, always extend or terminate perpendicular to the charged surfaces, and

never intersect.

2. Capacitors

Simply two parallel conducting plates separated by an insulating material (like,

air), is called a capacitor.

Capacitance is a measure of a capacitors ability to store charge on its plates

in other words, its storage capacity.

A capacitor has a capacitance of 1 farad if 1 coulomb of charge is deposited on the

plates by a potential difference of 1 volt across the plates.

~2~

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The farad is named after Michael Faraday a nineteenth century English chemist and

physicist. The farad, however, is generally too large a measure of capacitance for most

practical applications, so the microfarad (

) or picofarad (

) is more

commonly used.

If a potential difference of V volts is applied across the two plates separated by a

distance of d, the electric field strength between the plates is

The electrons within the insulator are unable to leave the parent atom and travel to the

positive plate. The positive components (protons) and negative components (electrons)

of each atom do shift, however [as shown in Fig. above], to form dipoles. When the

dipoles align themselves as shown in figure below, the material is polarized.

~3~

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electric field to oppose the electric field set up by free charges on the parallel plates. For

this reason, the insulating material is referred to as a dielectric, di for opposing and

electric for electric field.

The ratio of the flux density to the electric field intensity in the dielectric is called

the permittivity of the dielectric:

It is a measure of how easily the dielectric will permit the establishment of flux lines

within the dielectric.

For a vacuum, the value of e (denoted by ) is

F/m. The ratio of

the permittivity of any dielectric to that of a vacuum is called the relative permittivity;

It simply compares the permittivity of the dielectric to that of air. In equation form,

~4~

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a. Determine the capacitance.

b. Determine the electric field strength between the plates if 450 V are

applied across the plates.

c. Find the resulting charge on each plate.

Solution:

~5~

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Example2: A sheet of mica 1.5 mm thick having the same area as the plates is inserted

between the plates of example1

a. Find the electric field strength between the plates.

b. Find the charge on each plate.

c. Find the capacitance.

Solution:

~6~

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Consider the following network:

When the switch is thrown into position 1 (t=0) the capacitor behaves as a short circuit

and the current:

( )

As C is charged the flow of charge will stop, the current i will be zero, and the voltage

will cease to change in magnitude:

A capacitor can be replaced by an open-circuit equivalent once the charging phase in

a dc network has passed.

~7~

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will be:

The factor RC in is called the time constant of the system and has the units of time Its

symbol is the Greek letter (tau).

~8~

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~9~

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Example3: a. Find the mathematical expressions for the transient behavior of vC, iC, and

vR for the circuit of the following network when the switch is moved to position 1. Plot the

curves of vC, iC, and vR.

b. How much time must pass before it can be assumed, for all practical purposes, that

Solution:

~ 10 ~

~ 11 ~

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b. Discharge phase:

For the network below if the capacitor is fully charged and the switch is thrown

at position 2 the capacitor will begin to discharge at a rate sensitive to the same time

constant

The equation for the decaying voltage across the capacitor would be the

following:

voltage. Note in particular that the current iC has reversed direction, changing the

polarity of the voltage across R.

The resulting curve will have the same shape as the curve for

last section. During the discharge phase, the current

defined by the following equation:

~ 12 ~

and

in the

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The complete discharge will occur, for all practical purposes, in five time

constants. If the switch is moved between terminals 1 and 2 every five time constants,

the wave shapes of figure below will result for vC, iC, and vR.

Since the polarity of vC is the same for both the charging and the discharging

phases, the entire curve lies above the axis. The current iC reverses direction during the

charging and discharging phases, producing a negative pulse for both the current and the

voltage vR. Note that the voltage vC never changes magnitude instantaneously but that

the current iC has the ability to change instantaneously, as demonstrated by its vertical

rises and drops to maximum values.

~ 13 ~

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vC, iC, and vR for the following circuit after the closing of the switch. Plot the

curves for vC, iC, and vR.

Solution:

~ 14 ~

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If the charging phase is disrupted before reaching the supply voltage, the

capacitive voltage will be less, and the equation for the discharging voltage v C will take

on the form

Where Vi is the starting or initial voltage for the discharge phase. The equation

for the decaying current is also modified by simply substituting Vi for E; that is,

Example5:

a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the voltage

across the capacitor of the network below if the switch is thrown into

position 1 at t = 0 s.

b. Repeat part (a) for iC.

c. Find the mathematical expressions for the response of vC and iC if the

switch is thrown into position 2 at 30 ms.

d. Find the mathematical expressions for the voltage vC and current iC if the

switch is thrown into position 3 at t = 48 ms.

e. Plot the waveforms obtained in parts (a) through (d) on the same time axis

for the voltage vC and the current iC using the defined polarity and current

direction.

Solution:

~ 15 ~

~ 16 ~

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Example6:

a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the voltage across the

capacitor of the following network if the switch is thrown into position 1 at t = 0 s.

b. Repeat part (a) for iC.

c. Find the mathematical expression for the response of vC and iC if the switch is thrown

into position 2 at t = 1t of the charging phase.

d. Plot the waveforms obtained in parts (a) through (c) on the same time axis for the

voltage vC and the current iC using the defined polarity and current direction.

~ 17 ~

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Solution:

a. Charging phase: Converting the current source to a voltage source will result in

~ 18 ~

~ 19 ~

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2. Initial values:

If the capacitor has an initial value of charge (i.e. at t=0 Q0) and has a initial voltage

before the charging face Vi:

3. Instantaneous values:

To determine the voltage or current at a particular instant of time that is not an

integral multiple of

time to reach a particular voltage or current is required. There are two forms that require

some development. First, consider the following sequence:

~ 20 ~

~ 21 ~

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4. THVENIN EQUIVALENT:

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Occasions will arise in which the network does not have the simple series form. It

will then be necessary first to find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network

external to the capacitive element. ETh will then be the source voltage E and RTh will be

the resistance R. The time constant is then t = RThC.

a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the voltage

vC and the current iC following the closing of the switch (position 1 at t = 0 s).

b. Find the mathematical expression for the voltage vC and current iC as a

function of time if the switch is thrown into position 2 at t = 9 ms.

c. Draw the resultant waveforms of parts (a) and (b) on the same time axis.

~ 22 ~

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Solution:

The resultant Thvenin equivalent circuit with the capacitor replaced is shown

below:

~ 23 ~

~ 24 ~

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~ 25 ~

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expression for vC after the closing of the switch.

~ 26 ~

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1. THE CURRENT iC

The current iC associated with a capacitance C is related to the voltage across the

capacitor by

Where

The function

Note:

If the voltage increases with time, the average current is the change in

voltage divided by the change in time, with a positive sign. If the voltage

decreases with time, the average current is again the change in voltage

divided by the change in time, but with a negative sign.

~ 27 ~

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Example1: Find the waveform for the average current if the voltage across a

capacitor is as shown below

Solution:

a. From 0 ms to 2 ms, the voltage increases linearly from 0 V to 4 V, the change in

voltage

(with a positive sign since the voltage increases with

time). The change in time

, and

~ 28 ~

, so

waveform for the average current for the impressed voltage is as shown

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. The

Notes

In general, the steeper the slope, the greater the current, and when the

It is not the magnitude of the voltage across a capacitor that determines

the current but rather how quickly the voltage changes across the

capacitor. An applied steady dc voltage of 10,000 V would (ideally) not

create any flow of charge (current), but a change in voltage of 1 V in a

very brief period of time could create a significant current.

The method described above is only for waveforms with straight-line

(linear) segments. For nonlinear (curved) waveforms, a method of

calculus (differentiation) must be employed.

Homework:

1. Find the waveform for the average current if the voltage across a

capacitor is as shown

~ 29 ~

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Increasing levels of capacitance can be obtained by placing capacitors in parallel,

while decreasing levels can be obtained by placing capacitors in series.

~ 30 ~

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For capacitors in parallel, as shown above, the voltage is the same across each

capacitor, and the total charge is the sum of that on each capacitor:

~ 31 ~

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Example : Find the voltage across and charge on each capacitor for the network

Solution:

~ 32 ~

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Example3: Find the voltage across and charge on each capacitor of the

network after each has charged up to its final value.

Solution:

~ 33 ~

~ 34 ~

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1. MAGNETIC FIELDS

In the region surrounding a permanent magnet there exists a magnetic field, which can be

represented by magnetic flux lines similar to electric flux lines. Magnetic flux lines, however, do

not have origins or terminating points as do electric flux lines but exist in continuous loops, as

shown

The symbol for magnetic flux is the Greek letter (phi). The magnetic flux lines radiate

from the north pole to the south pole, returning to the north pole through the metallic bar.

If a nonmagnetic material, such as glass or copper, is placed in the flux paths surrounding

a permanent magnet, there will be an almost unnoticeable change in the flux distribution.

However, if a magnetic material, such as soft iron, is placed in the flux path, the flux lines will

pass through the soft iron rather than the surrounding air because flux lines pass with greater ease

through magnetic materials than through air.

This principle is put to use in the shielding of sensitive

electrical elements and instruments that can be affected by

stray magnetic fields.

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A magnetic field is present around every wire that carries an electric current. The direction of the

magnetic flux lines can be found simply by placing the thumb of the right hand in the direction of

conventional current flow and noting the direction of the

fingers. (This method is commonly called the right-hand rule.)

If the conductor is wound in a single-turn coil, the resulting flux will flow in

a common direction through the center of the coil.

A coil of more than one turn would produce a magnetic

field that would exist in a continuous path through and

around the coil.

The flux distribution of the coil is quite similar to that of the permanent magnet. The flux

lines leaving the coil from the left and entering to the right simulate a north and a south pole,

respectively. The principal difference between the two flux distributions is that the flux lines are

more concentrated for the permanent magnet than for the coil. Also, since the strength of a

magnetic field is determined by the density of the flux lines, the coil has weaker field strength.

The field strength of the coil can be effectively increased by placing certain materials,

such as iron, steel, or cobalt, within the coil to increase the flux density within the coil. By

increasing the field strength with the addition of the core, we have devised an electromagnet.

Applications for electromagnetic effects are shown

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2. FLUX DENSITY

The number of flux lines per unit area is called the flux density

An instrument designed to measure flux density in gauss (CGS system) 1 T = 104 gauss.

3. PERMEABILITY

If cores of different materials with the same physical

dimensions are used in the electromagnet, the strength of the magnet will vary in accordance with

the core used. Materials in which flux lines can readily be set up are said to be magnetic and to

have high permeability. The permeability () of a material, therefore, is a measure of the ease

with which magnetic flux lines can be established in the material.

* The permeability of free space o (vacuum) is

3

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* the permeability of all nonmagnetic materials, such as copper, aluminum, wood, glass, and air,

is the same as that for free space.

* Materials that have permeabilities slightly less than that of free space are said to be diamagnetic,

and those with permeabilities slightly greater than that of free space are said to be paramagnetic.

* Magnetic materials, such as iron, nickel, steel, cobalt, and alloys of these metals, have

permeabilities hundreds and even thousands of times that of free space. Materials with these very

high permeabilities are referred to as ferromagnetic.

The ratio of the permeability of a material to that of free space is called its relative permeability;

that is,

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Inductors

1. FARADAYS LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

If a conductor is moved through a magnetic field so that it cuts magnetic lines of flux, a

voltage will be induced across the conductor, as shown

The greater the number of flux lines cut per unit time (by increasing the speed

with which the conductor passes through the field), or the stronger the magnetic field

strength (for the same traversing speed) the greater will be the induced voltage across the

conductor.

If the conductor is held fixed and the magnetic field is moved so that its flux lines cut the

conductor, the same effect will be produced.

If a coil of N turns is placed in the region of a changing flux, as illustrated, a voltage will

be induced across the coil as determined by

Faradays law:

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2. LENZS LAW

It was shown that the magnetic flux linking a coil of N turns with a current I has the

distribution of:

A changing flux linking a coil induces a voltage across the coil. For this coil,

therefore, an induced voltage is developed across the coil due to the change in current

through the coil. The polarity of this induced voltage tends to establish a current in the coil

that produces a flux that will oppose any change in the original flux. In other words, the

induced effect (eind) is a result of the increasing current through the coil. However, the

resulting induced voltage will tend to establish a current that will oppose the increasing

change in current through the coil.

A.L. Taghreed M.

The instant the current begins to increase in magnitude, there will be an opposing

effect trying to limit the change. It is choking the change in current through the coil.

Hence, the term choke is often applied to the inductor or coil.

This effect is an example of a general principle known as Lenzs law, which states

that

An induced effect is always such as to oppose the cause that produced it.

3. SELF-INDUCTANCE

The ability of a coil to oppose any change in current is a measure of the self-

inductance L of the coil. Inductors are coils of various dimensions designed to introduce

specified amounts of inductance into a circuit.

The inductance of a coil varies directly with the magnetic properties of the coil.

Ferromagnetic materials, therefore, are frequently employed to increase the inductance by

increasing the flux linking the coil.

The inductance of the coils of the figure below can be found using the following

equation:

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where

A: the area of the core (m2).

: the mean length of the core (m).

Solution:

Example2:

Repeat

8

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

Note:

Associated with every inductor is a resistance equal to the resistance of the turns. The longer

or thinner the wire used in the construction of the inductor, the greater will be the dc

resistance as determined by

element.

4. INDUCED VOLTAGE

The inductance of a coil is also a measure of the change in flux linking a oil due to a change

in current through the coil; that is,

is the flux in webers, and i is the current through the coil.

The larger the inductance of a coil (with N fixed), the larger will be the instantaneous change

in flux linking the coil due to an instantaneous change in current through the coil.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Obviously, therefore, the greater the rate of change of current through the coil, the greater

will be the induced voltage. This certainly agrees with Lenzs law.

For dc applications, after the transient effect has passed, di/dt = 0, and the induced voltage is

Example 3 Find the waveform for the average voltage across the coil if the current through

a 4-mH coil is as shown

Solution:

10

A.L. Taghreed M.

The waveform for the average voltage across the coil is shown

11

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The changing voltages and current that result during the storing of energy in the form of a

magnetic field by an inductor in a dc circuit can best be described using the circuit

At the instant the switch is closed, the inductance of the coil will prevent an instantaneous

change in current through the coil. The potential drop across the coil, vL, will equal the

impressed voltage E as determined by Kirchhoffs voltage law since vR = iR = (0) R = 0 V.

The current iL will then build up from zero, establishing a voltage drop across the

resistor and a corresponding drop in vL. The current will continue to increase until the

voltage across the inductor drops to zero volts and the full impressed voltage appears across

the resistor. Initially, the current iL increases quite rapidly, followed by a continually

decreasing rate until it reaches its maximum value of E/R.

When steady-state conditions have been established and the storage phase is

complete, the equivalent network will appear as shown below

12

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steady-state conditions have been established.

The equation for the current iL during the storage phase is the following:

The abscissa is scaled in time constants, with t for inductive circuits defined by the following:

The voltage VL during the storage phase can be described mathematically by the following

equation:

13

A.L. Taghreed M.

In five time constants, iL = E/R, vL = 0 V, and the inductor can be replaced by its short-circuit

equivalent.

And the curve for vR will have the same shape as obtained for i .

L

Example4: Find the mathematical expressions for the transient behavior of iL and vL or the

following circuit after the closing of the switch. Sketch the resulting curves.

14

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

15

A.L. Taghreed M.

6. INITIAL VALUES

Since the current through a coil cannot change instantaneously, the current through

a coil will begin the transient phase at the initial value established by the previous network

before the switch was closed. It will then pass through the transient phase until it reaches the

16

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example5: The inductor in the following circuit has an initial current level of 4 mA in the

direction shown.

a. Find the mathematical expression for the current through the coil once the switch is

closed.

b. Find the mathematical expression for the voltage across the coil during the same

transient period.

c. Sketch the waveform for each from initial value to final value.

Solution

17

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c.

18

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19

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In R-L circuits, the energy is stored in the form of a magnetic field established by

the current through the coil. Unlike the capacitor, however, an isolated inductor cannot

continue to store energy since the absence of a closed path would cause the current to drop

to zero, releasing the energy stored in the form of a magnetic field.

If the series R-L circuit below had reached steady-state conditions and the switch was

quickly opened, a spark would probably occur across the contacts due to the rapid change

in current from a maximum of E/R to zero amperes.

across the coil that in conjunction with the applied voltage E appears across the points

of the switch. This is the same mechanism as applied in the ignition system of a car to ignite

the fuel in the cylinder.

To avoid this rapid discharge in R-L circuits we use a circuit as illustrated below to analyze

the decay phase.

20

A.L. Taghreed M.

When the switch is closed, the voltage across the resistor R2 is E volts, and the RL branch will respond in the same manner as described earlier, with the same waveforms

and levels. A Thvenin network of E in parallel with R2 would simply result in the source

as shown in figure (b) since R2 would be shorted out by the short-circuit replacement of the

voltage source E when the Thvenin resistance is determined.

After the storage phase has passed and steady-state conditions are established, the

switch can be opened without the sparking effect or rapid discharge due to the resistor R2,

which provides a complete path for the current

The voltage

determined by

The voltage across an inductor can change instantaneously but the current cannot.

The result is that the current

is still

and

21

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This is bigger than E volts by the ratio R2 /R1. In other words, when the switch is

opened, the voltage across the inductor will reverse polarity and drop instantaneously

from

to

volts.

As an inductor releases its stored energy, the voltage across the coil will decay to zero in

the following manner:

so that

22

The voltage vR1 has the same polarity as during the storage phase since the current

the same direction. The voltage

A.L. Taghreed M.

has

is expressed as follows

Home Work:

a. Find the mathematical expressions for iL, vL, vR1, and vR2 for five time constants of the

storage phase.

b. Find the mathematical expressions for iL, vL, vR1, and vR2 if the switch is opened after five

time constants of the storage phase.

c. Sketch the waveforms for each voltage and current for both phases.

23

A.L. Taghreed M.

Note:

if the switch is opened before iL reaches its maximum value (Im), the equation for the

decaying current will be:

2. INSTANTANEOUS VALUES

The similarity between the equations

results

then

24

A.L. Taghreed M.

There are occasions when the circuit does not have the basic form described earlier it is

necessary to find the Thvenin equivalent circuit before proceeding in the manner

described before.

a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the current iL and the

voltage vL after the closing of the switch (Ii =0 mA).

b. Draw the resultant waveform for each.

Solution:

a. Applying Thvenins theorem to the 80-mH inductor yields

25

A.L. Taghreed M.

26

A.L. Taghreed M.

Each waveform of the following figure is an alternating waveform available

from commercial supplies. The term alternating indicates only that the waveform

alternates between two prescribed levels in a set time sequence.

1. Generation

Sinusoidal ac voltages are available from a variety of sources. The most common

source is the typical home outlet, which provides an ac voltage that originates at a power

plant; such a power plant is most commonly fueled by water power, oil, gas, or nuclear

fusion. In each case an ac generator (also called an alternator), as shown below, is the

primary component in the energy-conversion process.

A.L. Taghreed M.

The power to the shaft developed by one of the energy sources listed will turn a rotor

(constructed of alternating magnetic poles) inside a set of windings housed in the stator

(the stationary part of the dynamo) and will induce a voltage across the windings of the

stator, as defined by Faradays law,

2. Definitions

Waveform: The path traced by a quantity, such as the voltage in Fig. above, plotted as a

function of some variable such as time (as above), position, degrees, radians, temperature,

and so on.

Instantaneous value: The magnitude of a waveform at any instant of time; denoted by

lowercase letters (e1, e2).

A.L. Taghreed M.

Peak amplitude: The maximum value of a waveform as measured from its average, or

mean, value, denoted by uppercase letters (such as Em for sources of voltage and Vm for

the voltage drop across a load).

Peak value: The maximum instantaneous value of a function as measured from the zerovolt level. For the waveform of the above figure, the peak amplitude and peak value are the

same, since the average value of the function is zero volts.

Peak-to-peak value: Denoted by Ep-p or Vp-p, the full voltage between positive and

negative peaks of the waveform, that is, the sum of the magnitude of the positive and

negative peaks.

Periodic waveform: A waveform that continually repeats itself after the same time

interval.

Period (T ): The time interval between successive repetitions of a periodic waveform (the

period T1= T2 = T3), as long as successive similar points of the periodic waveform are

used in determining T.

Cycle: The portion of a waveform contained in one period of time. The cycles within T1,

T2, and T3 in the above figure may appear different, but they are all bounded by one

period of time and therefore satisfy the definition of a cycle.

A.L. Taghreed M.

A.L. Taghreed M.

The sinusoidal waveform is of particular importance, however, since it lends itself

readily to the mathematics and the physical phenomena associated with electric circuits.

Consider the power of the following statement:

The sinusoidal waveform is the only alternating waveform whose shape is unaffected by

the response characteristics of R, L, and C elements.

In other words, if the voltage across (or current through) a resistor, coil, or capacitor is

sinusoidal in nature, the resulting current (or voltage, respectively) for each will also have

sinusoidal characteristics, as shown

A.L. Taghreed M.

A.L. Taghreed M.

The velocity with which the radius vector rotates about the center, called the angular

velocity, can be determined from the following equation:

A.L. Taghreed M.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example2: Given = 200 rad/s, determine how long it will take the sinusoidal waveform

to pass through an angle of 90.

Solution:

Example3: Find the angle through which a sinusoidal waveform of 60 Hz will pass in a

period of 5ms.

Solution:

A.L. Taghreed M.

where Am is the peak value of the waveform and a is the unit of measure for the

horizontal axis, as shown

For a particular angular velocity, the longer the time, the greater the number of cycles

shown.

For electrical quantities such as current and voltage, the general format is

Where the capital letters with the subscript m represent the amplitude, and the lowercase

letters i and e represent the instantaneous value of current or voltage, respectively, at any

time t.

10

A.L. Taghreed M.

5. PHASE RELATIONS

If the waveform is shifted to the right or left of 0, the expression becomes

where is the angle in degrees or radians that the waveform has been shifted.

If the waveform passes through the horizontal axis with a positive going (increasing with

time) slope before 0,

If the waveform passes through the horizontal axis with a positive-going slope after 0,

If the waveform crosses the horizontal axis with a positive-going slope 90 (/2) sooner,

11

A.L. Taghreed M.

The terms lead and lag are used to indicate the relationship between two sinusoidal

waveforms of the same frequency plotted on the same set of axes.

The cosine curve is said to lead the sine curve by 90, and the sine curve is said to lag

the cosine curve by 90.

The 90 is referred to as the phase angle between the two waveforms. The waveforms

are out of phase by 90.

If both waveforms cross the axis at the same point with the same slope, they are in

phase.

Example4: What is the phase relationship between the sinusoidal waveforms of each of the

following sets?

12

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

a.

b.

c.

13

A.L. Taghreed M.

d.

e.

14

A.L. Taghreed M.

6. AVERAGE VALUE

The algebraic sum of the areas must be determined, since some area contributions

will be from below the horizontal axis. Areas above the axis will be assigned a positive

sign, and those below, a negative sign.

A positive average value will then be above the axis, and a negative value, below.

The average value of any current or voltage is the value indicated on a dc meter. In other

words, over a complete cycle, the average value is the equivalent dc value.

Solution:

a. By inspection, the area above the axis equals the area below over one cycle, resulting in

an average value of zero volts.

b.

15

A.L. Taghreed M.

In reality, the waveform of Fig. (b) is simply the square wave of Fig. (a) with a dc shift of

4 V; that is, v2 = v1 + 4 V

Homework: Find the average values of the following waveforms over one full cycle of:

Finding the area under the positive pulse of a sine wave using integration, we have

where is the sign of integration, 0 and are the limits of integration, Am sin a is the

function to be integrated, and d indicates that we are integrating with respect to a.

Integrating, we obtain

16

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

The peak-to-peak value of the sinusoidal function is 16 mV+ 2 mV = 18 mV. The peak

amplitude of the sinusoidal waveform is, therefore, 18 mV/2 = 9 mV. Counting down 9

mV from 2 mV (or 9 mV up from -16 mV) results in an average or dc level of -7 mV, as

noted by the dashed line

Homework: prove that the average value of a pure sinusoidal waveform over one

full cycle is zero.

17

A.L. Taghreed M.

The power delivered by the ac supply at any instant of time is

The average power delivered by the ac source is just the first term, since the average

value of a cosine wave is zero even though the wave may have twice the frequency of

the original input current waveform. Equating the average power delivered by the ac

generator to that delivered by the dc source,

which, in words, states that the equivalent dc value of a sinusoidal current or voltage is

1/2 or 0.707 of its maximum value. The equivalent dc value is called the effective

value of the sinusoidal quantity. In summary,

18

A.L. Taghreed M.

The effective value of any quantity plotted as a function of time can be found by using the

following equation derived from the experiment just described:

This procedure gives us another designation for the effective value, the root-mean-square

(rms) value.

Example7: Find the rms values of the sinusoidal waveform in each part of the following:

Solution:

(a), Irms = 0.707(12 * 10-3 A) = 8.484 mA.

(b), again Irms = 8.484 mA. Note that frequency did not change the effective value in (b)

above compared to (a).

(c), Vrms = 0.707(169.73 V) = 120 V.

19

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example8: The 120-V dc source of Fig. (a) delivers 3.6 W to the load. Determine the

peak value of the applied voltage (Em) and the current (Im) if the ac source [Fig. below]

is to deliver the same power to the load.

Solution:

Example9: Calculate the rms value of the voltage of the following wave form:

Solution:

20

A.L. Taghreed M.

PHASORS

The addition of sinusoidal voltages and currents will frequently be required in

the analysis of ac circuits. A short method uses the rotating radius vector. This radius

vector, having a constant magnitude (length) with one end fixed at the origin, is called a

phasor when applied to electric circuits. During its rotational development of the sine

wave, the phasor will, at the instant t = 0, have the positions shown in figure (a) for each

waveform in figure (b).

A.L. Taghreed M.

Since the rms, rather than the peak, values are used almost exclusively in the analysis

of ac circuits, the phasor will now be redefined as having a magnitude equal to the rms

value of the sine wave it represents. The angle associated with the phasor will remain the

phase angle. In general, for all of the analyses to follow, the phasor form of a sinusoidal

voltage or current will be

Where V and I are rms values and v is the phase angle. In phasor notation, the sine

wave is always the reference, and the frequency is not represented.

Phasor algebra for sinusoidal quantities is applicable only for waveforms having the

same frequency.

Solution:

Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law, we have

ein = va + vb

Converting from the time to the phasor domain yields

A.L. Taghreed M.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

A.L. Taghreed M.

IMPEDANCE AND THE PHASOR DIAGRAM:

1. Resistive Elements

v and i were in phase, and the magnitude

ZR: the impedance of a resistive element (). It is measured in ohms and is a measure of

how much the element will impede the flow of charge through the network.

A.L. Taghreed M.

2. Inductive Reactance

The voltage leads the current by 90 and that the reactance of the coil XL is determined by

.

ZL: impedance of an inductive element (). It is a measure of how much the inductive

element will control or impede the level of current through the network (always keep in

mind that inductive elements are storage devices and do not dissipate like resistors).

A.L. Taghreed M.

3. Capacitive Reactance:

the current leads the voltage by 90 and that the reactance of the capacitor XC is

determined by 1/

ZC: the impedance of a capacitive element (). It is a measure of how much the capacitive

element will control or impede the level of current through the network (always keep in

mind that capacitive elements are storage devices and do not dissipate like resistors).

A.L. Taghreed M.

SERIES CONFIGURATION:

the total impedance of a system is the sum of the individual impedances:

Example3: Determine the input impedance to the series network. Draw the impedance

diagram.

Solution:

A.L. Taghreed M.

R-L

Example4:

A.L. Taghreed M.

Phasor diagram:

10

A.L. Taghreed M.

11

A.L. Taghreed M.

To determine the power factor, it is necessary only to form the ratio of the total resistance

to the magnitude of the input impedance.

R-C

Example5:

12

A.L. Taghreed M.

The current I is in phase with the voltage across the resistor and leads the voltage across

the capacitor by 90.

13

A.L. Taghreed M.

14

A.L. Taghreed M.

R-L-C

15

A.L. Taghreed M.

Phasor Diagram:

16

A.L. Taghreed M.

17

A.L. Taghreed M.

The basic format for the voltage divider rule in ac circuits is exactly the same as that for dc

circuits:

b. Calculate the total power factor.

c. Calculate the average power delivered to the circuit.

d. Draw the phasor diagram.

e. Obtain the phasor sum of VR, VL, and VC, and show that it equals the input voltage E.

f. Find VR and VC using the voltage divider rule.

Solution:

18

A.L. Taghreed M.

19

A.L. Taghreed M.

d. phasor diagram:

20

A.L. Taghreed M.

PARALLEL ac CIRCUITS

ADMITTANCE AND SUSCEPTANCE

In dc circuits, conductance (G) was defined as being equal to 1/R. The total conductance

of a parallel circuit was then found by adding the conductance of each branch. The total

resistance RT is simply 1/GT. In ac circuits, we define admittance (Y) as being equal to

1/Z(siemens S). Admittance is a measure of how well an ac circuit will admit, or allow,

current to flow in the circuit. The larger its value, therefore, the heavier the current flow

for the same applied potential. The total admittance of a circuit can also be found by

finding the sum of the parallel admittances.

The total impedance ZT of the circuit is then 1/YT; that is,

21

A.L. Taghreed M.

susceptible an element is to the passage of current through it. Susceptance is also

measured in siemens and is represented by the capital letter B.

For the inductor,

22

A.L. Taghreed M.

For any configuration (series, parallel, series-parallel, etc.), the angle associated

with the total admittance is the angle by which the source current leads the applied

voltage. For inductive networks,

is

positive.

R-L

Example7:

23

A.L. Taghreed M.

Admittance diagram:

24

A.L. Taghreed M.

phasor diagram: indicates that the applied voltage E is in phase with the current IR and

leads the current IL by 90.

25

A.L. Taghreed M.

R-C:

Example8:

26

A.L. Taghreed M.

Admittance diagram:

27

A.L. Taghreed M.

through the resistor IR and lags the capacitive

current IC by 90.

28

A.L. Taghreed M.

29

A.L. Taghreed M.

R-L-C

Example:

Phasor notation:

Admittance diagram:

30

A.L. Taghreed M.

Phasor diagram: the impressed voltage E is in phase with the current IR through the

resistor, leads the current IL through the inductor by 90, and lags the current IC of the

capacitor by 90.

31

A.L. Taghreed M.

or

32

A.L. Taghreed M.

The basic format for the current divider rule in ac circuits is exactly the same as that for dc

circuits; that is, for two parallel branches with impedances Z1 and Z2 as shown:

Series-Parallel ac Networks

Example1: For the network

a. Calculate ZT.

b. Determine Is.

c. Calculate VR and VC.

d. Find IC.

e. Compute the power delivered.

f. Find Fp of the network.

33

A.L. Taghreed M.

c.

34

A.L. Taghreed M.

Note: The network is capacitive in nature and therefore has a leading power factor. The fact

that the network is capacitive can be determined from the original network by first realizing

that, for the parallel L-C elements, the smaller impedance predominates and results in an R-

C network.

Example2: for the network:

a. Calculate the current Is.

b. Find the voltage Vab.

Solution:

a. redrawing the netwrk we obtain:

In this case the voltage Vab is lost in the redrawn network, but the currents I1 and I2 remain

defined for future calculations necessary to determine Vab.

35

A.L. Taghreed M.

Using KVL:

networks. The transistor equivalent circuit includes a current source I and an output

impedance Ro. The resistor RC is a biasing resistor to establish specific dc conditions, and

the resistor Ri represents the loading of the next stage. The coupling capacitor is designed to

be an open circuit for dc and to have as low impedance as possible for the frequencies of

interest to ensure that VL is a maximum value. The frequency range of the example includes

the entire audio (hearing) spectrum from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. The purpose of the example is

to demonstrate that, for the full audio range, the effect of the capacitor can be ignored. It

performs its function as a dc blocking agent but permits the ac to pass through with little

disturbance.

36

A.L. Taghreed M.

b. Repeat part (a) at a frequency of 20 kHz.

c. Compare the results of parts (a) and (b).

Solution:

The network is redrawn with impedance blocks as follows

37

A.L. Taghreed M.

c. The results clearly indicate that the capacitor had little effect on the frequencies of interest.

In addition, note that most of the supply current reached the load for the typical parameters

employed.

a. Determine the current I.

b. Find the voltage V.

38

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

39

A.L. Taghreed M.

a. Compute I.

b. Find I1, I2, and I3.

c. Verify Kirchhoffs current law by showing that I = I1 + I2 + I3

d. Find the total impedance of the circuit.

Solution:

a. Redrawing the circuit

40

A.L. Taghreed M.

41

A.L. Taghreed M.

SOURCE CONVERSIONS

When applying the methods to be discussed, it may be necessary to convert a current source

to a voltage source, or a voltage source to a current source.

Solution:

42

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example1: Using the format approach to mesh analysis, find the current I .

2

43

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example 2: Write the mesh equations for the network. Do not solve.

44

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

2.

45

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example1: Using the format approach to nodal analysis, find the voltage across the 4-

resistor.

Example2: Using

46

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

Converting the voltage source to a current source and choosing nodes, we obtain:

47

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

48

A.L. Taghreed M.

Apply mesh analysis to the network:

49

A.L. Taghreed M.

50

A.L. Taghreed M.

51

A.L. Taghreed M.

a) Is the bridge balanced?

b) Using Mesh analysis find the current through the

capacitive reactance.

c) Using Nodal analyses find the voltage across

the capacitive reactance.

-Y, Y- CONVERSIONS:

The general equations for the impedances of the Y

in terms of those for the :

52

A.L. Taghreed M.

or Y were

the same, the conversion from one to the other could be accomplished using the equation

Solution:

53

Replace the

A.L. Taghreed M.

by the Y

54

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example2: Using both the -Y and Y- transformations, find the total impedance ZT for the

network

55

A.L. Taghreed M.

In this case, since both systems are balanced (same impedance in each branch), the center

point d' of the transformed

56

A.L. Taghreed M.

57

A.L. Taghreed M.

1. SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:

Example1: Using the superposition theorem, find the current I through the 4- reactance

(XL2)

Solution:

58

A.L. Taghreed M.

59

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example2: determine the sinusoidal expression for the voltage v3 using superposition.

Solution: For the dc source, recall that for dc analysis, in the steady state the capacitor can

be replaced by an open-circuit equivalent, and the inductor by a short-circuit equivalent.

For ac analysis, the dc source is set to zero and the network is redrawn

60

A.L. Taghreed M.

61

A.L. Taghreed M.

2. THE'VENINS THEOREM:

Any two-terminal linear ac network can be replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of a

voltage source and impedance in series.

Since the reactances of a circuit are frequency dependent, the Thvenin circuit

found for a particular network is applicable only at one frequency.

Example1: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network external to branch a-a'

Solution:

62

A.L. Taghreed M.

63

A.L. Taghreed M.

3. NORTONS THEOREM:

It allows us to replace any two-terminal linear bilateral ac network with an equivalent circuit

consisting of a current source and impedance.

The Norton equivalent circuit, like the Thvenin equivalent circuit, is applicable at only one

frequency since the reactances are frequency dependent.

The source transformation is applicable for any Thvenin or Norton equivalent circuit

determined from a network with any combination of independent or dependent sources.

Example1: Determine the Norton equivalent circuit for the network external to the 6-

resistor

Solution:

64

A.L. Taghreed M.

65

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example2: Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the network external to the 7-capacitive

reactance

Solution:

66

A.L. Taghreed M.

67

A.L. Taghreed M.

When applied to ac circuits, the maximum power transfer theorem states that

Maximum power will be delivered to a load when the load impedance is the conjugate of the

Thvenin impedance across its terminals.

The conditions just mentioned will make the total impedance of the circuit appear purely

resistive,

68

A.L. Taghreed M.

Since the circuit is purely resistive, the power factor of the circuit under maximum power

conditions is 1; that is,

Example1: Find the load impedance for maximum power to the load, and find the

maximum power.

Solution:

69

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example2: Find the load impedance for maximum power to the load, and find the

maximum power.

Solution:

70

Converting from a

A.L. Taghreed M.

to a Y

71

A.L. Taghreed M.

For ETh, use the modified circuit below with the voltage source replaced in its original position. Since I1 = 0,

ETh is the voltage across the series impedance of Z'1 and Z2. Using the voltage divider rule gives us

72

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