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Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

DC Series Circuits
A circuit consists of any number of elements joined at terminal points, providing at least one
closed path through which charge can flow:

Two elements are in series if:


1. They have only one terminal in common (i.e., one lead of one is connected to only one lead of

the other).
2. The common point between the two elements is not connected to another current-carrying
element.
As shown in the circuit diagram above, since all the elements are in series, the network is called a
series circuit.
The current is the same through series elements.

Notes:
1. A rise of potential occurs in an active element (source) when going from (-) to (+)
through the source, in the direction of current.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

2. A drop of potential occurs in a passive element (e.g. resistor) when going from (+) to (-)
through the element in the direction of current.

KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW (KVL):


States that the algebraic sum of the potential rises and drops around a closed loop (or path) is zero.

For the following circuit with Clock Wise (CW)


direction:

Where,
is the voltage rise.
are the voltage drops.
Notes:
Clock wise direction will be used for all applications of KVL.
Plus sign (+) is used for potential rise.
Minus sign (-) is assigned for potential drop.

Series Circuit relations:


We are now ready to summarize current, voltage, resistance and power relations for series circuit:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Since:
From KVL:

Dividing by I:

This forms Ohm's law:

Finally:

Example1: Determine the unknown voltages for the following networks:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:
Applying KVL for network a in CW direction yields:

Example2: Find V and V for the network:


1

Solution:
For path 1, starting at point a in a clockwise direction:

For path 2, starting at point a in a clockwise direction:

The minus sign simply indicates that the actual polarities of the potential difference are opposite the
assumed polarity indicated.

Example3: for the following network find:


a. Find RT.
b. Find I.
c. Find V1 and V2.
d. Find the power to the 4 and 6
resistors.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

e.
f.
g.

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Find the power delivered by the battery, and compare it to that dissipated
By the 4 and 6 resistors combined.
Verify KVL.

Solution:

a.
b.
c.
d.

e.
E

VOLTAGE DIVIDER RULE


In a series circuit,

The voltage across the resistive elements will divide as the magnitude of the resistance levels.
For the following series circuit:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Then Voltage Divider Rule (VDR) will be:

Where ,
Vx: Voltage across Rx.

Example4: a K and a
finding current, calculate:
a. V1, V2.
b. P1, P2.
Solution:

are connected in series to

33V

Source, without

a.

b.

Home Work: Three resistors R

R2 and R3 are connected in series to 220V supply. The


combined voltage drop across R1 and R2 is 140 V and that across R2 and R3 is 180V. if the total
resistance of the circuit is 11 K. Calculate R1, R2 and R3.
1

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Voltage Sources and Ground


Except for a few special cases, electrical and electronic systems are grounded for reference
and safety purposes. The symbol for ground connection is:
The following figures show grounded supplies:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example4:for the given circuit find the voltage at point x:

Solution:
By KVL:
By VDR:

Example5:
point x:

for

the

given circuit find the voltage at

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:

By KVL for loop 1:

Or by KVL for loop 2:

INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF VOLTAGE SOURCES


Every source of voltage, whether a generator, battery, or laboratory supply as shown below, will have
some internal resistance.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Case a: for Ideal voltage source, which has no internal resistance the output voltage = E with load and
without load.
Case b: for not ideal voltage source which has internal resistance the output voltage = E with no load.
Case c: for not ideal voltage supply the output voltage will decrease due to the voltage drop across

the internal resistance.

For case c, by applying KVL around the indicated loop we obtain:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

To find the power delivered to the load:

Example6: a Lamp having a resistance of 5.6 is connected across the battery


in the following circuit, find:
a. The current drawn from the battery.
b. The internal voltage drop across its
internal resistance.
c. The internal voltage of the battery.
d. The power dissipated internally
within the battery.
e. The total power generated by the battery.
f. The efficiency of the battery.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Voltage regulation:
A measure of how close a supply voltage will come to ideal conditions, where the ideal
conditions dictate that for all range of load demand (IL), the terminal voltage remain fixed in
magnitude.

For ideal conditions, VFL = VNL and VR% = 0. Therefore, the smaller the voltage regulation, the

less the variation in terminal voltage with change in load.

It can be shown that:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

DC Parallel Circuits
Two elements, branches, or networks are in parallel if they have two points in
common.
Different ways in which three parallel elements may appear as shown in the following figure:

(d)

In figure (d) elements 1 and 2 are in parallel since they have two common points [a, b].
The parallel combination of 1 and 2 is then in series with element 3 because they are
connected by point b only.

1. TOTAL CONDUCTANCE AND RESISTANCE


~1~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

For parallel elements, the total conductance is the sum of the individual conductances.
That is for the following network:

(1)

G: is the conductance in Siemens (S).


Since increasing levels of conductance will establish higher current levels, the more terms
appearing in Eq. 1. In other words, as the number of resistors in parallel increases, the
input current level will increase for the same applied voltagethe opposite effect of
increasing the number of resistors in series.

. (2)

Notes:

~2~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

The total resistance of parallel resistors is always less than the value of the
smallest resistor.
For equal parallel resistors the total resistance will be:

The total resistance of two parallel resistors is:

It can be shown that for 3 parallel resistors:

parallel elements can be interchanged without changing the total resistance


or input current.

2. Current and Power of Parallel Circuits:

~3~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

For the shown parallel network The total resistance is determined by RT = R1R2 /

(R1+ R2), and the source current by Is= E / RT.

Since the terminals of the battery are connected directly across the resistors R1 and R2, the
following should be obvious:

The voltage across parallel elements is the same.


Using this fact will result in:

And

Then:

Multiplying both sides by E we have:

~4~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

For single-source parallel networks, the source current (Is) is equal to the sum of the
individual branch currents.
The power dissipated by the resistors and delivered by the source (in Watts) can be
determined from:

Example1: Six resistors are connected in parallel have the following values:
120, 60, 40, 5, 4 and 2 K. Calculate the:
a. Equivalent conductance of the parallel combination.
b. Equivalent resistance of the parallel combination.
c. Circuit voltage if 20mW is dissipated by the 5K resistor.
d. Current in the 40K resistor.
e. Total circuit current.
f. Total power drawn from the supply
Solution:
a.

~5~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Example2: calculate the total circuit resistance and battery current for the
following circuit. Prove that the power delivered to the circuit equal to the
power dissipated in each resistor.
Solution: the circuit can be redrawn in the following manner:

~6~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Checked

4. KIRCHHOFFS CURRENT LAW (KCL)


States that the algebraic sum of the currents entering and leaving a node, system, or
junction is zero.

Example3: Determine I , I , I , and I for the following network:


1

Solution:

~7~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

At a:

At b:

Since R1 and R3 are in series and the current is the same in series elements.
At c:
At d:

We can conclude that the current entering is I = 5 A; the net current leaving
from the far right is I5 =5 A.

5. CURRENT DIVIDER RULE (CDR):


For the following network:

~8~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

The voltage drop across any of the resistances (Rx) is:

Since

And the general form of current divider rule (CDL)is:

Particularly for two resistors CDL will be:

Example4:
Determine the

~9~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

magnitude of the currents I1, I2, and I3 for the network:

Solution:

~ 10 ~

A.L. Taghreed M.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

6. VOLTAGE SOURCES IN PARALLEL


Voltage sources are placed in parallel as shown in the following figure only if they have the
same voltage rating.

The primary reason for placing two or more batteries in parallel of the same terminal
voltage would be to increase the current rating (and, therefore, the power rating) of the
source.
If two batteries of different terminal voltages were placed in parallel, both would be left
ineffective or damaged because the terminal voltage of the larger battery would try to drop
rapidly to that of the lower supply. Consider two lead-acid car batteries of different terminal
voltage placed in parallel:

The relatively small internal resistances of the batteries are the only current-limiting
elements of the resulting series circuit. The current is:

~ 11 ~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Which far exceeds the continuous drain rating of the larger supply, resulting in a rapid
discharge of E1 and a destructive impact on the smaller supply.

7. OPEN AND SHORT CIRCUITS


An open circuit is simply two isolated terminals not connected by an element of any kind.
While a short circuit is a very low resistance, direct connection between two terminals of a
network.

An open circuit can have a potential difference (voltage) across its terminals, but the current is
always zero amperes.

An open circuit exists between terminals a and b .As shown above, the voltage across the
open-circuit terminals is the supply voltage, but the current is zero due to the absence of a
complete circuit.

~ 12 ~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

A short circuit can carry a current of a level determined by the external circuit, but the
potential difference (voltage) across its terminals is always zero volts.
Consider the circuit shown below; the current through the 2 resistor is 5 A.

If a short circuit should develop across the 2 resistor,

The total resistance of the parallel combination of the 2 resistor and the short (of essentially
zero ohms) will be

And the current will rise to very high levels, as determined by Ohms law:

~ 13 ~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

The effect of the 2 resistor has effectively been shorted out by the low-resistance
connection. The maximum current is now limited only by the circuit breaker or fuse in series
with the source.

Example5: Calculate the current I and the voltage V for the network:

Solution:
The 10-k resistor has been effectively shorted out by the jumper, resulting in the equivalent
network below, using Ohm's law:

~ 14 ~

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

1. MESH ANALYSIS (GENERAL APPROACH)


The second method of analysis to be described is called mesh analysis. The
term mesh is derived from the similarities in appearance between the closed loops of a
network and a wire mesh fence. Applying this method the below steps should be
followed:
1. Assign the current in the clock wise direction (CW) to each closed loop in the network.
2. Show the voltage polarities across each resistor produced by CW mesh currents.
3. Apply KVL around each closed loop.
a) If the resistor has two or more currents, the total current is the current of
the loop in which KVL is being applied plus the currents of other loops in the
same direction, or minus the currents in the opposite direction.
b) The polarity of the voltage source is unaffected.
4. Solve the resulting simultaneous linear equations for the assumed loop currents.

Example1: for the following circuit find the complete solution showing all currents and
voltages by mesh analysis.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Solution:
Two loop currents (I1 and I2) are assigned in the clockwise direction in the windows of
the network. A third loop (I3) could have been included around the entire network, but
the information carried by this loop is already included in the other two.
Now after steps 1 and 2 are done move on applying step 3 (KVL) around loop I1 and I2:

The minus signs indicate that the currents have a direction opposite to that indicated by the
assumed loop current.
2

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( )( )
(

A.L. Taghreed M.

( )( )
)

( )( )

Notes:
*if a current source exist when applying mesh analysis with a resistor in parallel
with it the first step will be to convert all current sources to voltage sources.
*if the current source has no resistance in parallel with it start as before and
assign a mesh current to each independent loop, including the current sources, as
if they were resistors or voltage sources. Then mentally (redraw the network if
necessary) remove the current sources (replace with open-circuit equivalents),
and apply Kirchhoffs voltage law to all the remaining independent paths of the
network using the mesh currents just defined.
Example2: determine the currents of the following network using mesh analysis.

Solution: First, the mesh currents for the network are defined, as shown below.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Then the current source is mentally removed, as shown in the network below, and
Kirchhoffs voltage law is applied to the resulting network. The single path now including
the effects of two mesh currents is referred to as the path of a super mesh current.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

2. MESH ANALYSIS (FORMAT APPROACH)


We will now examine a technique for writing the mesh equations more rapidly and
usually with fewer errors. Before solving the following example using mesh format
approach consider the following:
* The format approach can be applied only to networks in which all current sources have
been converted to their equivalent voltage source.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example 3: Write the mesh equations for the network below, and find the current
through the 7 resistor.

Solution: As indicated in the network, each assigned loop current has a clockwise
direction.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example4: write mesh equations for the following network.


Solution:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

3. NODAL ANALYSIS (GENERAL APPROACH)


Recall from the development of loop analysis that the general network equations were
obtained by applying Kirchhoffs voltage law around each closed loop. We will now
employ Kirchhoffs current law to develop a method referred to as nodal analysis.
A node is defined as a junction of two or more branches. The nodal analysis method is
applied as follows:
1. Determine the number of nodes within the network.
2. Pick a reference node, and label each remaining node with a subscripted value of
voltage: V1, V2, and so on.
3. Apply Kirchhoffs current law at each node except the reference. Assume that all
unknown currents leave the node for each application of Kirchhoffs current law.
4. Solve the resulting equations for the nodal voltages.

Example5: Apply nodal analysis to the network shown below.

Solution: step 1&2: the network has 2 nodes. The lower node is defined as the reference
node at ground potential (zero volts) and the
other node V1, the voltage from node 1 to the
ground.
Step3: applying KCL:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example6: determine nodal voltages for the following network.

Solution: step1, 2 as indicated in the figure below:

step3: applying KCL for the node V1:

10

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For node V2 as illustrated in the figure below:

Resulting in two equations and two unknowns:

11

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12

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Notes:
In applying nodal analysis if there exists voltage source in the network with a resistor in
series then convert them to current sources.
If the voltage source exists without a resistor in series then start as before and assign a
nodal voltage to each independent node of the network, including each independent
voltage source as if it were a resistor or current source. Then mentally replace the
independent voltage sources with short-circuit equivalents, and apply KCL to the
defined nodes of the network.

Example 7: Determine the nodal voltages V1 and V2 using nodal analysis.

Solution:
Replacing the independent voltage source of 12 V with a short-circuit equivalent
will result in the network:

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Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

14

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

4. NODAL ANALYSIS (FORMAT APPROACH)


It will allow us to write nodal equations rapidly and in a form that is convenient
for the use of determinants. A major requirement, however, is that all voltage sources
must first be converted to current sources before the procedure is applied . This approach
will be applied and explained by the following example.

Example8: write nodal equations for the following network.


Solution:

15

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

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A.L. Taghreed M.

Example9: write nodal equations for the following network.


Solution:
In this network 4 nodes can be taken to solve it
i.e.V4 can be included if desired
But three nodes are sufficient to solve this
network:

16

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17

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Note the symmetry about the major diagonal above. This is a check for your
solution.

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1. Superposition Theorm
The superposition theorem states the following:
The current through, or voltage across, an element in a linear bilateral network is equal
to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source.
The most obvious advantage of this method is that it does not require the use of a
mathematical technique such as determinants to find the required voltages or currents.
Instead, each source is treated independently, and the algebraic sum is found to determine a
particular unknown quantity of the network.
When applying this theorem, the difference in potential between the terminals of the
voltage source must be set to zero (short circuit); removing a current source requires that
its terminals be opened (open circuit). Any internal resistance or conductance associated
with the displaced sources is not eliminated but must still be considered.

The total current through any portion of the network is equal to the algebraic sum of the
currents produced independently by each source.

*Note:
The total power delivered to a resistive element must be determined
using the total current through or the total voltage across the element
and cannot be determined by a simple sum of the power levels
established by each source.

19

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example1: Using superposition,


a. find the current through the 6 resistor of the
network.
b. Demonstrate that superposition is not applicable
to power levels.

Solution:
a. * Considering the effect of 36V source:

* Considering the effect of 9A source:

The total current through the 6 resistor is:

20

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

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As mentioned previously, the superposition principle is not applicable to power effects


since power is proportional to the square of the current or voltage (I 2R or V2/R).

Obviously, x + y z, or 24 W + 216 W 384 W, and superposition does not hold.


However, for a linear relationship, such as that between the voltage and current of the
fixed-type 6 resistor, superposition can be applied, as demonstrated by the above
graph.

21

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example2: Using the principle of superposition, find the current I2 through the 12k
resistor.

Solution:
* Considering the effect of 6mA source:

* Considering the effect of 9V voltage source:

22

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

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2. THVENINS THEOREM
Thvenins theorem states the following:
Any two-terminal, linear bilateral dc network can be replaced by
an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series
resistor.
The following sequence of steps will lead to the proper value of
RTh and Eth:
1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Thvenin equivalent circuit is to be
found and Mark the terminals of the remaining two-terminal network.
RTh:
2. Calculate RTh by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced by short
circuits and current sources by open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance
between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current
sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to
zero.)
ETh:
3. Calculate ETh by first returning all sources to their original position and finding the opencircuit voltage between the marked terminals.
Conclusion:
4. Draw the Thvenin equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed
replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit.
23

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

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A.L. Taghreed M.

Example3: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of
the network shown below.

Solution: step1 is applied as shown below:

24

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A.L. Taghreed M.

Step 2 is applied to find RTh:

Step3:

Step 4 :

25

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Example4: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of the
bridge network.

Solution:
Step1:

Step2:

26

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Step3:

step4:

27

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Example5: find Thvenin circuit for the network illustrated below.

Solution:
Step1:

Step2:

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Step3: applying Superposition and *taking the effect of E1.

* For the source E2:

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Step4:

30

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1. MESH ANALYSIS (GENERAL APPROACH)


The second method of analysis to be described is called mesh analysis. The
term mesh is derived from the similarities in appearance between the closed loops of a
network and a wire mesh fence. Applying this method the below steps should be followed:
1. Assign the current in the clock wise direction (CW) to each closed loop in the network.
2. Show the voltage polarities across each resistor produced by CW mesh currents.
3. Apply KVL around each closed loop.

a) If the resistor has two or more currents, the total current is the current of the
loop in which KVL is being applied plus the currents of other loops in the
same direction, or minus the currents in the opposite direction.

b) The polarity of the voltage source is unaffected.


4. Solve the resulting simultaneous linear equations for the assumed loop currents.

Example1: for the following circuit find the complete solution showing all currents and
voltages by mesh analysis.

Solution:
Two loop currents (I1 and I2) are assigned in the clockwise direction in the windows of the
network. A third loop (I3) could have been included around the entire network, but the
information carried by this loop is already included in the other two.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Now after steps 1 and 2 are done move on applying step 3 (KVL) around loop I1 and I2:

The minus signs indicate that the currents have a direction opposite to that indicated by the
assumed loop current.
( )( )
(

( )( )
)

( )( )

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Notes:
*if a current source exist when applying mesh analysis with a resistor in parallel
with it the first step will be to convert all current sources to voltage sources.
*if the current source has no resistance in parallel with it start as before and assign
a mesh current to each independent loop, including the current sources, as if they
were resistors or voltage sources. Then mentally (redraw the network if necessary)
remove the current sources (replace with open-circuit equivalents), and apply
Kirchhoffs voltage law to all the remaining independent paths of the network using
the mesh currents just defined.
Example2: determine the currents of the following network using mesh analysis.

Solution: First, the mesh currents for the network are defined, as shown below.

Then the current source is mentally removed, as shown in the network below, and
Kirchhoffs voltage law is applied to the resulting network. The single path now including the
effects of two mesh currents is referred to as the path of a super mesh current.
3

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

2. MESH ANALYSIS (FORMAT APPROACH)


We will now examine a technique for writing the mesh equations more rapidly and usually
with fewer errors. Before solving the folloing example using mesh format approach
consider the following:
* The format approach can be applied only to networks in which all current sources have

been converted to their equivalent voltage source.

Example 3: Write the mesh equations for the network below, and find the current
through the 7 resistor.

Solution: As indicated in the network, each assigned loop current has a clockwise
direction.

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

Example4: write mesh equations for the following network.


Solution:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Control and Systems Eng.

A.L. Taghreed M.

3. NODAL ANALYSIS (GENERAL APPROACH)


Recall from the development of loop analysis that the general network equations were
obtained by applying Kirchhoffs voltage law around each closed loop. We will now
employ Kirchhoffs current law to develop a method referred to as nodal analysis.
A node is defined as a junction of two or more branches. The nodal analysis method is
applied as follows:
1. Determine the number of nodes within the network.
2. Pick a reference node, and label each remaining node with a subscripted value of
voltage: V1, V2, and so on.
3. Apply Kirchhoffs current law at each node except the reference. Assume that all
unknown currents leave the node for each application of Kirchhoffs current law.
4. Solve the resulting equations for the nodal voltages.

Example5: Apply nodal analysis to the network shown below.


Solution: step 1&2: the network has 2 nodes. The
lower node is defined as the reference node at ground
potential (zero volts) and the other node V1, the
voltage from node 1 to the ground.

Step3: applying KCL:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

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Example6: determine nodal voltages for the following network.

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Solution: step1, 2 as indicated in the figure below:

step3: applying KCL for the node V1:

For node V2 as illustrated in the figure below:

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

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Resulting in two equations and two unknowns:

10

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Notes:
In applying nodal analysis if there exists voltage source in the network with a resistor in
series then convert them to current sources.
If the voltage source exists without a resistor in series then start as before and assign a
nodal voltage to each independent node of the network, including each independent
voltage source as if it were a resistor or current source. Then mentally replace the
independent voltage sources with short-circuit equivalents, and apply KCL to the
defined nodes of the network.
Example 7: Determine the nodal voltages V1 and V2 using nodal analysis.

Solution:

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Replacing the independent voltage source of 12 V with a short-circuit equivalent


will result in the network:

12

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4. NODAL ANALYSIS (FORMAT APPROACH)


It will allow us to write nodal equations rapidly and in a form that is convenient
for the use of determinants. A major requirement, however, is that all voltage sources must

first be converted to current sources before the procedure is applied. This approach will be
applied and explained by the following example.

Example8: write nodal equations for the following network.


Solution:

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Example9: write nodal equations for the following network.


Solution:
In this network 4 nodes can be taken to solve it
i.e.V4 can be included if desired
But three nodes are sufficient to solve this
network:

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Note the symmetry about the major diagonal above. This is a check for your
solution.

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1. Superposition Theorm
The superposition theorem states the following:

The current through, or voltage across, an element in a linear bilateral network is equal to the
algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source.
The most obvious advantage of this method is that it does not require the use of a
mathematical technique such as determinants to find the required voltages or currents.
Instead, each source is treated independently, and the algebraic sum is found to determine a
particular unknown quantity of the network.
When applying this theorem, the difference in potential between the terminals of the
voltage source must be set to zero (short circuit); removing a current source requires that its
terminals be opened (open circuit). Any internal resistance or conductance associated with
the displaced sources is not eliminated but must still be considered.

The total current through any portion of the network is equal to the algebraic sum of the
currents produced independently by each source.

*Note:
The total power delivered to a resistive element must be determined
using the total current through or the total voltage across the element
and cannot be determined by a simple sum of
the power levels established by each source.
Example1: Using superposition,
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a. find the current through the 6 resistor of the network.


b. Demonstrate that superposition is not applicable to power levels.

Solution:
a. * Considering the effect of 36V source:

* Considering the effect of 9A source:

The total current through the 6 resistor is:

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As mentioned previously, the superposition principle is not applicable to power effects


since power is proportional to the square of the current or voltage (I 2R or V2/R).

Obviously, x + y z, or 24 W + 216 W 384 W, and superposition does not hold.


However, for a linear relationship, such as that between the voltage and current of the
fixed-type 6 resistor, superposition can be applied, as demonstrated by the above
graph.

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Example2: Using the principle of superposition, find the current I2 through the 12k
resistor.

Solution:
* Considering the effect of 6mA source:

* Considering the effect of 9V voltage source:

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2. THVENINS THEOREM
Thvenins theorem states the following:

Any two-terminal, linear bilateral dc network can be replaced by an


equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series resistor.
The following sequence of steps will lead to the proper value of RTh
and Eth:
1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Thvenin
equivalent circuit is to be found and Mark the terminals of the remaining two-terminal
network.
RTh:
2. Calculate RTh by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced by short

circuits and current sources by open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance
between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current

sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to zero.)
ETh:
3. Calculate ETh by first returning all sources to their original position and finding the opencircuit voltage between the marked terminals.
Conclusion:
4. Draw the Thvenin equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed
replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit.
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Example3: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of
the network shown below.

Solution: step1 is applied as shown below:

Step 2 is applied to find RTh:

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Step3:

Step 4 :

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Example4: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of the
bridge network.

Solution:
Step1:

Step2:

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Step3:

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step4:

Example5: find
Thvenin circuit for
network illustrated below.

the

Solution:
Step1:

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Step2:

Step3: applying Superposition and *taking


the effect of E1.

* For the source E2:

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Step4:

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3. NORTONS THEOREM
States the following:
Any two-terminal linear bilateral dc network can be replaced by an equivalent
circuit consisting of a current source and a parallel resistor.
The steps leading to the proper values of IN and RN are now listed.

1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Norton equivalent circuit is
found.
2. Mark the terminals of the remaining two-terminal network. RN:

3. Calculate RN by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced with
short circuits and current sources with open circuits) and then finding the resultant
resistance between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the
voltage and/or current sources is included in the original network, it must remain
when the sources are set to zero.) Since RN _ RTh, the procedure and value obtained
using the approach described for Thvenins theorem will determine the proper value
of RN. IN:

4. Calculate IN by first returning all sources to their original position and then finding
the short-circuit current between the marked terminals. It is the same current that
would be measured by an ammeter placed between the marked terminals
Conclusion:
5. Draw the Norton equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously
removed replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit

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The Norton and Thvenin equivalent circuits can also be found from each other by
using the source transformation discussed earlier and reproduced:

Example

Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the network external to the 9 resistor

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Solution:
Steps 1 and 2:

Step 3:

Step 4: As shown below, the Norton


current is the same as the current through the 4 resistor. Applying the current divider
rule,

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Step 5:

Example2:- Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the portion of the network to the left of a-b.

Solution:
Steps 1 and 2:

Step 3:
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Step 4: (Using superposition) For the 7-V battery :

For the 8-A source we find that both R1 and


R2 have beenshort circuited by the direct
connection between a and b, and

The result is

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Step 5:

4. MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM


The maximum power transfer theorem states the following:
A load will receive maximum power from a linear bilateral dc network
when its total resistive value is exactly equal to the Thvenin resistance of the
network as seen by the load.
For the network below, maximum power will be delivered to the load when

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

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From past discussions, we realize that a Thvenin equivalent circuit can be found
across any element or group of elements in a linear bilateral dc network. Therefore,
if we consider the case of the Thvenin equivalent circuit with respect to the
maximum power transfer theorem, we are, in essence, considering the total effects
of any network across a resistor RL. For the Norton equivalent circuit of the
following network, maximum power will be delivered to the load when

This result will be used to its fullest advantage in the analysis of transistor networks, where
the most frequently applied transistor circuit model employs a current source rather than a voltage
source.
For Thvenin circuit we have:

Let us now consider an example where ETh = 60 V and RTh = 9, as shown


below:

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The power to the load is determined by

Note, in particular, that PL is, in fact, a maximum when RL = RTh = 9 .


The power curve increases more rapidly toward its maximum value than it
decreases after the maximum point, clearly revealing that a small change in load
resistance for levels of RL below RTh will have a more dramatic effect on the
power delivered than similar changes in RL above the RTh level.

If we plot VL and IL versus the same resistance scale, we find that both
change nonlinearly, with the terminal voltage increasing with an increase in load
resistance as the current decreases. Note again that the most dramatic changes in
VL and IL occur for levels of RL less than RTh. As pointed out on the plot, when
RL = RTh, VL = ETh/2 and
IL = Imax/2, with Imax = ETh/RTh.

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The dc operating efficiency of a system is defined by the ratio of the power


delivered to the load to the power supplied by the source; that is,

Also

The power delivered to RL under maximum power conditions (RL =RTh) is

Electrical circuits 2010/2011

Example3

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A dc generator, battery, and laboratory supply are connected to a

resistive load RL

a. For each, determine the value of RL for maximum power transfer to RL.
b. Determine RL for 75% efficiency.

Solutions:
a. For the dc generator, RL = RTh =Rint= 2.5 ,
For the battery, RL = RTh = Rint = 0.5
For the laboratory supply, RL =RTh = Rint = 40
b. For the dc generator,

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Example 4:- For the network below, determine the value of R for
maximum power to R, and calculate the power delivered under these
conditions.

Solution:

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5. MILLMANS THEOREM
Through the application of Millmans theorem, any number of parallel
voltage sources can be reduced to one. The three voltage sources in the following
figure can be reduced to one. This would permit finding the current through or
voltage across RL without having to apply a method such as mesh analysis, nodal
analysis, superposition, and so on. The theorem can best be described by applying
it to the network. Basically, three steps are included in its application.

Step 1: Convert all voltage sources to current sources This is performed below:

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Step 2: Combine parallel current sources, where

IT = I1 + I2 + I3 and GT = G1 + G2 + G3

Step 3: Convert the resulting current source to a voltage source, and the desired
single-source network is obtained:

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In general, Millmans theorem states that for any number of parallel voltage
sources,

The plus-and-minus signs include those cases where the sources may not be
supplying energy in the same direction.
The equivalent resistance is

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Example5:- Using Millmans theorem, find the current through and voltage
across the resistor RL

Solution:

The minus sign is used for E2 /R2 because that supply has the opposite polarity of
the other two. The chosen reference direction is therefore that of E1 and E3. The
total conductance is unaffected by the direction, and

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6. SUBSTITUTION THEOREM
The substitution theorem states the following:
If the voltage across and the current through any branch of a dc bilateral
network are known, this branch can be replaced by any combination of elements
that will maintain the same voltage across and current through the chosen
branch.
More simply, the theorem states that for branch equivalence, the terminal voltage
and current must be the same. Consider the circuit:

In which the voltage across and current through the branch a b are
determined. Through the use of the substitution theorem, a number of equivalent ab branches are shown :

Note that for each equivalent, the terminal voltage and current are the same.
Also consider that the response of the remainder of the circuit is unchanged by
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substituting any one of the equivalent branches. As demonstrated by the singlesource equivalents of Fig. above, a known potential difference and current in a
network can be replaced by an ideal voltage source and current source,
respectively.
Understand that this theorem cannot be used to solve networks with two or
more sources that are not in series or parallel. For it to be applied, a potential
difference or current value must be known or found using one of the techniques
discussed earlier. One application of the theorem is shown below. Note that in the
figure the known difference V was replaced by a voltage source, permitting the

isolation of the portion of the network including R3, R4, and R5. Recall that this

was basically the approach employed in the analysis of the ladder network as we
worked our way back toward the terminal resistance R5.

The current source equivalence of the above is shown in the following figure,
where a known current is replaced by an ideal current source, permitting the
isolation of R4 and R5.

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You will also recall from the discussion of bridge networks that V= 0 and I = 0
were replaced by a short circuit and an open circuit, respectively. This substitution
is a very specific application of the substitution theorem.

7. RECIPROCITY THEOREM:
The reciprocity theorem is applicable only to single-source networks. It is,
therefore, not a theorem employed in the analysis of multisource networks
described thus far. The theorem states the following:
The current I in any branch of a network, due to a single voltage source E
anywhere else in the network, will equal the current through the branch in
which the source was originally located if the source is placed in the branch in
which the current I was originally measured.
In other words, the location of the voltage source and the resulting current
may be interchanged without a change in current. The theorem requires that the
polarity of the voltage source have the same correspondence with the direction of
the branch current in each position.

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In the representative network below, the current I due to the voltage source E
was determined. If the position of each is interchanged as shown in (b), the current
I will be the same value as indicated.

To demonstrate the validity of this statement and the theorem, consider the
network, in which values for the elements of (a) above have been assigned.

The total resistance is

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For the following network that corresponds to the above:

We have:

The uniqueness and power of such a theorem can best be demonstrated by


considering a complex, single-source network such as the one shown:

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1. The electric field:


Electric field exists in the region around any charged body. It is
represented by electric flux lines, which are drawn to indicate the strength of the
electric field at any point around the charged body; that is, the denser the lines of flux,
the stronger the electric field.

The flux density is represented by:

The larger the charge Q in coulombs, the greater the number of flux lines since:

The electric field strength at a point is the force acting on a unit positive charge at that
point; that is,

The force exerted on a unit positive charge

, by a charge

determined by Coulomb's Law:

~1~

, r meters away as

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Then:

Electric flux lines always extend from a positively charged body to a negatively
charged body, always extend or terminate perpendicular to the charged surfaces, and
never intersect.

2. Capacitors
Simply two parallel conducting plates separated by an insulating material (like,
air), is called a capacitor.
Capacitance is a measure of a capacitors ability to store charge on its plates
in other words, its storage capacity.
A capacitor has a capacitance of 1 farad if 1 coulomb of charge is deposited on the
plates by a potential difference of 1 volt across the plates.

~2~

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The farad is named after Michael Faraday a nineteenth century English chemist and
physicist. The farad, however, is generally too large a measure of capacitance for most
practical applications, so the microfarad (
) or picofarad (
) is more
commonly used.
If a potential difference of V volts is applied across the two plates separated by a
distance of d, the electric field strength between the plates is

The electrons within the insulator are unable to leave the parent atom and travel to the
positive plate. The positive components (protons) and negative components (electrons)
of each atom do shift, however [as shown in Fig. above], to form dipoles. When the
dipoles align themselves as shown in figure below, the material is polarized.

~3~

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The purpose of the dielectric (the insulating material), therefore, is to create an


electric field to oppose the electric field set up by free charges on the parallel plates. For
this reason, the insulating material is referred to as a dielectric, di for opposing and
electric for electric field.
The ratio of the flux density to the electric field intensity in the dielectric is called
the permittivity of the dielectric:

It is a measure of how easily the dielectric will permit the establishment of flux lines
within the dielectric.
For a vacuum, the value of e (denoted by ) is
F/m. The ratio of
the permittivity of any dielectric to that of a vacuum is called the relative permittivity;
It simply compares the permittivity of the dielectric to that of air. In equation form,

Also prove that:

~4~

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Example1: For the following capacitor:


a. Determine the capacitance.
b. Determine the electric field strength between the plates if 450 V are
applied across the plates.
c. Find the resulting charge on each plate.

Solution:

~5~

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Example2: A sheet of mica 1.5 mm thick having the same area as the plates is inserted
between the plates of example1
a. Find the electric field strength between the plates.
b. Find the charge on each plate.
c. Find the capacitance.
Solution:

~6~

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3. TRANSIENTS IN CAPACITIVE NETWORKS: a. CHARGING PHASE


Consider the following network:

When the switch is thrown into position 1 (t=0) the capacitor behaves as a short circuit
and the current:

( )

As C is charged the flow of charge will stop, the current i will be zero, and the voltage
will cease to change in magnitude:

For all future analysis:


A capacitor can be replaced by an open-circuit equivalent once the charging phase in
a dc network has passed.

~7~

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The following figure shows the behavior of the circuit current;

The mathematical expression of the current

will be:

The factor RC in is called the time constant of the system and has the units of time Its
symbol is the Greek letter (tau).

Below is a time chart that explains the change of

~8~

with during the charging phase.

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Concerning the charging voltage across the capacitor we have:

Then the mathematical expression of Vc is:

After 5 time constants the voltage across the capacitor will be

~9~

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Example3: a. Find the mathematical expressions for the transient behavior of vC, iC, and
vR for the circuit of the following network when the switch is moved to position 1. Plot the
curves of vC, iC, and vR.
b. How much time must pass before it can be assumed, for all practical purposes, that

Solution:

~ 10 ~

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~ 11 ~

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b. Discharge phase:
For the network below if the capacitor is fully charged and the switch is thrown
at position 2 the capacitor will begin to discharge at a rate sensitive to the same time
constant

The equation for the decaying voltage across the capacitor would be the
following:

In essence, the capacitor functions like a battery with a decreasing terminal


voltage. Note in particular that the current iC has reversed direction, changing the
polarity of the voltage across R.
The resulting curve will have the same shape as the curve for
last section. During the discharge phase, the current
defined by the following equation:

~ 12 ~

and

in the

will also decrease with time, as

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The complete discharge will occur, for all practical purposes, in five time
constants. If the switch is moved between terminals 1 and 2 every five time constants,
the wave shapes of figure below will result for vC, iC, and vR.

Since the polarity of vC is the same for both the charging and the discharging
phases, the entire curve lies above the axis. The current iC reverses direction during the
charging and discharging phases, producing a negative pulse for both the current and the
voltage vR. Note that the voltage vC never changes magnitude instantaneously but that
the current iC has the ability to change instantaneously, as demonstrated by its vertical
rises and drops to maximum values.

~ 13 ~

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Example4: Find the mathematical expressions for the transient behavior of


vC, iC, and vR for the following circuit after the closing of the switch. Plot the
curves for vC, iC, and vR.
Solution:

~ 14 ~

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If the charging phase is disrupted before reaching the supply voltage, the
capacitive voltage will be less, and the equation for the discharging voltage v C will take
on the form

Where Vi is the starting or initial voltage for the discharge phase. The equation
for the decaying current is also modified by simply substituting Vi for E; that is,

Example5:
a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the voltage
across the capacitor of the network below if the switch is thrown into
position 1 at t = 0 s.
b. Repeat part (a) for iC.
c. Find the mathematical expressions for the response of vC and iC if the
switch is thrown into position 2 at 30 ms.
d. Find the mathematical expressions for the voltage vC and current iC if the
switch is thrown into position 3 at t = 48 ms.
e. Plot the waveforms obtained in parts (a) through (d) on the same time axis
for the voltage vC and the current iC using the defined polarity and current
direction.

Solution:

~ 15 ~

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~ 16 ~

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Example6:
a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the voltage across the
capacitor of the following network if the switch is thrown into position 1 at t = 0 s.
b. Repeat part (a) for iC.
c. Find the mathematical expression for the response of vC and iC if the switch is thrown
into position 2 at t = 1t of the charging phase.
d. Plot the waveforms obtained in parts (a) through (c) on the same time axis for the
voltage vC and the current iC using the defined polarity and current direction.

~ 17 ~

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Solution:
a. Charging phase: Converting the current source to a voltage source will result in

~ 18 ~

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~ 19 ~

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2. Initial values:
If the capacitor has an initial value of charge (i.e. at t=0 Q0) and has a initial voltage
before the charging face Vi:

3. Instantaneous values:
To determine the voltage or current at a particular instant of time that is not an
integral multiple of

, as in the previous sections. There are also occasions when the

time to reach a particular voltage or current is required. There are two forms that require
some development. First, consider the following sequence:

~ 20 ~

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~ 21 ~

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Electrical circuits 2010/2011

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4. THVENIN EQUIVALENT:

A.L. Taghreed M.

Occasions will arise in which the network does not have the simple series form. It
will then be necessary first to find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network
external to the capacitive element. ETh will then be the source voltage E and RTh will be
the resistance R. The time constant is then t = RThC.

Example7: for the following network


a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the voltage
vC and the current iC following the closing of the switch (position 1 at t = 0 s).
b. Find the mathematical expression for the voltage vC and current iC as a
function of time if the switch is thrown into position 2 at t = 9 ms.
c. Draw the resultant waveforms of parts (a) and (b) on the same time axis.

~ 22 ~

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Solution:

The resultant Thvenin equivalent circuit with the capacitor replaced is shown
below:

~ 23 ~

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with Vf = Eth and Vi = 0 V, we find that:

~ 24 ~

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c. The figures are:

~ 25 ~

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Example8: the following capacitor is initially charged to 40 V. Find the mathematical


expression for vC after the closing of the switch.

Solution: The network is redrawn in:

~ 26 ~

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1. THE CURRENT iC
The current iC associated with a capacitance C is related to the voltage across the
capacitor by

Where
The function

is a measure of the change in

in a vanishingly small period of time.

is called the derivative of the voltage

with respect to time t.

If the voltage fails to change at a particular instant, then

The average current is defined by the equation

Where indicates a finite (measurable) change in charge, voltage, or time.

Note:
If the voltage increases with time, the average current is the change in
voltage divided by the change in time, with a positive sign. If the voltage
decreases with time, the average current is again the change in voltage
divided by the change in time, but with a negative sign.

~ 27 ~

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Example1: Find the waveform for the average current if the voltage across a
capacitor is as shown below

Solution:
a. From 0 ms to 2 ms, the voltage increases linearly from 0 V to 4 V, the change in
voltage
(with a positive sign since the voltage increases with
time). The change in time
, and

~ 28 ~

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d. From 11 ms on, the voltage remains constant at 0 and


, so
waveform for the average current for the impressed voltage is as shown

A.L. Taghreed M.

. The

Notes
In general, the steeper the slope, the greater the current, and when the

voltage fails to change, the current is zero.


It is not the magnitude of the voltage across a capacitor that determines
the current but rather how quickly the voltage changes across the
capacitor. An applied steady dc voltage of 10,000 V would (ideally) not
create any flow of charge (current), but a change in voltage of 1 V in a
very brief period of time could create a significant current.
The method described above is only for waveforms with straight-line
(linear) segments. For nonlinear (curved) waveforms, a method of
calculus (differentiation) must be employed.

Homework:
1. Find the waveform for the average current if the voltage across a
capacitor is as shown

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2. CAPACITORS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL


Increasing levels of capacitance can be obtained by placing capacitors in parallel,
while decreasing levels can be obtained by placing capacitors in series.

For capacitors in series, the charge is the same on each capacitor:

Since Q1=Q2=Q3=QT then:

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The voltage across each capacitor of the previous figure is

A similar equation will result for each capacitor of the network.

For capacitors in parallel, as shown above, the voltage is the same across each
capacitor, and the total charge is the sum of that on each capacitor:

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Example : Find the voltage across and charge on each capacitor for the network

Solution:

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Example3: Find the voltage across and charge on each capacitor of the
network after each has charged up to its final value.

Solution:

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1. MAGNETIC FIELDS
In the region surrounding a permanent magnet there exists a magnetic field, which can be
represented by magnetic flux lines similar to electric flux lines. Magnetic flux lines, however, do
not have origins or terminating points as do electric flux lines but exist in continuous loops, as
shown

The symbol for magnetic flux is the Greek letter (phi). The magnetic flux lines radiate
from the north pole to the south pole, returning to the north pole through the metallic bar.

If a nonmagnetic material, such as glass or copper, is placed in the flux paths surrounding
a permanent magnet, there will be an almost unnoticeable change in the flux distribution.
However, if a magnetic material, such as soft iron, is placed in the flux path, the flux lines will
pass through the soft iron rather than the surrounding air because flux lines pass with greater ease
through magnetic materials than through air.
This principle is put to use in the shielding of sensitive
electrical elements and instruments that can be affected by
stray magnetic fields.

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A magnetic field is present around every wire that carries an electric current. The direction of the
magnetic flux lines can be found simply by placing the thumb of the right hand in the direction of
conventional current flow and noting the direction of the
fingers. (This method is commonly called the right-hand rule.)

If the conductor is wound in a single-turn coil, the resulting flux will flow in
a common direction through the center of the coil.
A coil of more than one turn would produce a magnetic
field that would exist in a continuous path through and
around the coil.

The flux distribution of the coil is quite similar to that of the permanent magnet. The flux
lines leaving the coil from the left and entering to the right simulate a north and a south pole,
respectively. The principal difference between the two flux distributions is that the flux lines are

more concentrated for the permanent magnet than for the coil. Also, since the strength of a
magnetic field is determined by the density of the flux lines, the coil has weaker field strength.

The field strength of the coil can be effectively increased by placing certain materials,
such as iron, steel, or cobalt, within the coil to increase the flux density within the coil. By
increasing the field strength with the addition of the core, we have devised an electromagnet.
Applications for electromagnetic effects are shown

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2. FLUX DENSITY
The number of flux lines per unit area is called the flux density

An instrument designed to measure flux density in gauss (CGS system) 1 T = 104 gauss.

3. PERMEABILITY
If cores of different materials with the same physical
dimensions are used in the electromagnet, the strength of the magnet will vary in accordance with
the core used. Materials in which flux lines can readily be set up are said to be magnetic and to
have high permeability. The permeability () of a material, therefore, is a measure of the ease
with which magnetic flux lines can be established in the material.
* The permeability of free space o (vacuum) is
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* the permeability of all nonmagnetic materials, such as copper, aluminum, wood, glass, and air,
is the same as that for free space.
* Materials that have permeabilities slightly less than that of free space are said to be diamagnetic,
and those with permeabilities slightly greater than that of free space are said to be paramagnetic.
* Magnetic materials, such as iron, nickel, steel, cobalt, and alloys of these metals, have
permeabilities hundreds and even thousands of times that of free space. Materials with these very
high permeabilities are referred to as ferromagnetic.
The ratio of the permeability of a material to that of free space is called its relative permeability;
that is,

In general, for ferromagnetic materials, r 100, and for nonmagnetic materials, r = 1

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Inductors
1. FARADAYS LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
If a conductor is moved through a magnetic field so that it cuts magnetic lines of flux, a
voltage will be induced across the conductor, as shown

The greater the number of flux lines cut per unit time (by increasing the speed
with which the conductor passes through the field), or the stronger the magnetic field
strength (for the same traversing speed) the greater will be the induced voltage across the
conductor.
If the conductor is held fixed and the magnetic field is moved so that its flux lines cut the
conductor, the same effect will be produced.
If a coil of N turns is placed in the region of a changing flux, as illustrated, a voltage will
be induced across the coil as determined by

Faradays law:

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2. LENZS LAW
It was shown that the magnetic flux linking a coil of N turns with a current I has the
distribution of:

A changing flux linking a coil induces a voltage across the coil. For this coil,
therefore, an induced voltage is developed across the coil due to the change in current
through the coil. The polarity of this induced voltage tends to establish a current in the coil
that produces a flux that will oppose any change in the original flux. In other words, the
induced effect (eind) is a result of the increasing current through the coil. However, the
resulting induced voltage will tend to establish a current that will oppose the increasing
change in current through the coil.

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The instant the current begins to increase in magnitude, there will be an opposing
effect trying to limit the change. It is choking the change in current through the coil.
Hence, the term choke is often applied to the inductor or coil.
This effect is an example of a general principle known as Lenzs law, which states
that

An induced effect is always such as to oppose the cause that produced it.

3. SELF-INDUCTANCE
The ability of a coil to oppose any change in current is a measure of the self-

inductance L of the coil. Inductors are coils of various dimensions designed to introduce
specified amounts of inductance into a circuit.
The inductance of a coil varies directly with the magnetic properties of the coil.
Ferromagnetic materials, therefore, are frequently employed to increase the inductance by
increasing the flux linking the coil.
The inductance of the coils of the figure below can be found using the following
equation:

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where

N : the number of turns.

: the permeability of the core.


A: the area of the core (m2).
: the mean length of the core (m).

where Lo is the inductance of the coil with an air core.

Example1: Find the inductance of the air-core coil

Solution:

Example2:
Repeat
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Example 1, but with an iron core and conditions such that

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Solution:

Note:
Associated with every inductor is a resistance equal to the resistance of the turns. The longer
or thinner the wire used in the construction of the inductor, the greater will be the dc
resistance as determined by

Our initial analysis will treat the inductor as an ideal

element.

4. INDUCED VOLTAGE
The inductance of a coil is also a measure of the change in flux linking a oil due to a change
in current through the coil; that is,

where N is the number of turns.


is the flux in webers, and i is the current through the coil.
The larger the inductance of a coil (with N fixed), the larger will be the instantaneous change
in flux linking the coil due to an instantaneous change in current through the coil.

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Obviously, therefore, the greater the rate of change of current through the coil, the greater
will be the induced voltage. This certainly agrees with Lenzs law.
For dc applications, after the transient effect has passed, di/dt = 0, and the induced voltage is

The average voltage across the coil is defined by the equation

Example 3 Find the waveform for the average voltage across the coil if the current through
a 4-mH coil is as shown

Solution:
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The waveform for the average voltage across the coil is shown

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5. R-L TRANSIENTS: STORAGE CYCLE


The changing voltages and current that result during the storing of energy in the form of a
magnetic field by an inductor in a dc circuit can best be described using the circuit

At the instant the switch is closed, the inductance of the coil will prevent an instantaneous
change in current through the coil. The potential drop across the coil, vL, will equal the
impressed voltage E as determined by Kirchhoffs voltage law since vR = iR = (0) R = 0 V.

The current iL will then build up from zero, establishing a voltage drop across the
resistor and a corresponding drop in vL. The current will continue to increase until the
voltage across the inductor drops to zero volts and the full impressed voltage appears across
the resistor. Initially, the current iL increases quite rapidly, followed by a continually
decreasing rate until it reaches its maximum value of E/R.
When steady-state conditions have been established and the storage phase is
complete, the equivalent network will appear as shown below
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An ideal inductor (Rl = 0 ) assumes a short-circuit equivalent in a dc network once


steady-state conditions have been established.
The equation for the current iL during the storage phase is the following:

The abscissa is scaled in time constants, with t for inductive circuits defined by the following:

The voltage VL during the storage phase can be described mathematically by the following
equation:
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In five time constants, iL = E/R, vL = 0 V, and the inductor can be replaced by its short-circuit
equivalent.

And the curve for vR will have the same shape as obtained for i .
L

Example4: Find the mathematical expressions for the transient behavior of iL and vL or the
following circuit after the closing of the switch. Sketch the resulting curves.

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Solution:

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6. INITIAL VALUES
Since the current through a coil cannot change instantaneously, the current through
a coil will begin the transient phase at the initial value established by the previous network
before the switch was closed. It will then pass through the transient phase until it reaches the

steady-state (or final) level after about five time constants.

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Example5: The inductor in the following circuit has an initial current level of 4 mA in the
direction shown.
a. Find the mathematical expression for the current through the coil once the switch is
closed.
b. Find the mathematical expression for the voltage across the coil during the same
transient period.
c. Sketch the waveform for each from initial value to final value.

Solution

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c.

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R-L TRANSIENTS: DECAY PHASE


In R-L circuits, the energy is stored in the form of a magnetic field established by
the current through the coil. Unlike the capacitor, however, an isolated inductor cannot
continue to store energy since the absence of a closed path would cause the current to drop
to zero, releasing the energy stored in the form of a magnetic field.
If the series R-L circuit below had reached steady-state conditions and the switch was
quickly opened, a spark would probably occur across the contacts due to the rapid change
in current from a maximum of E/R to zero amperes.

The change in current di/dt of the equation

would establish a high voltage

across the coil that in conjunction with the applied voltage E appears across the points
of the switch. This is the same mechanism as applied in the ignition system of a car to ignite
the fuel in the cylinder.
To avoid this rapid discharge in R-L circuits we use a circuit as illustrated below to analyze
the decay phase.

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When the switch is closed, the voltage across the resistor R2 is E volts, and the RL branch will respond in the same manner as described earlier, with the same waveforms
and levels. A Thvenin network of E in parallel with R2 would simply result in the source
as shown in figure (b) since R2 would be shorted out by the short-circuit replacement of the
voltage source E when the Thvenin resistance is determined.
After the storage phase has passed and steady-state conditions are established, the
switch can be opened without the sparking effect or rapid discharge due to the resistor R2,
which provides a complete path for the current
The voltage

across the inductor will reverse polarity and have a magnitude

determined by

The voltage across an inductor can change instantaneously but the current cannot.
The result is that the current

must maintain the same direction and magnitude as shown

above. Therefore, the instant after the switch is opened,

is still

and

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This is bigger than E volts by the ratio R2 /R1. In other words, when the switch is
opened, the voltage across the inductor will reverse polarity and drop instantaneously
from

to

volts.

As an inductor releases its stored energy, the voltage across the coil will decay to zero in
the following manner:

The current will decay from a maximum of Im _ E/R1 to zero.


so that

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The voltage vR1 has the same polarity as during the storage phase since the current
the same direction. The voltage

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has

is expressed as follows

Home Work:
a. Find the mathematical expressions for iL, vL, vR1, and vR2 for five time constants of the
storage phase.
b. Find the mathematical expressions for iL, vL, vR1, and vR2 if the switch is opened after five
time constants of the storage phase.
c. Sketch the waveforms for each voltage and current for both phases.

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Note:
if the switch is opened before iL reaches its maximum value (Im), the equation for the
decaying current will be:

where Ii is the starting or initial current. Also:

2. INSTANTANEOUS VALUES
The similarity between the equations

results

in a derivation of the following:

For the other form, the equation

is a close match with

then

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3. THVENIN EQUIVALENT: t = L/RTh


There are occasions when the circuit does not have the basic form described earlier it is
necessary to find the Thvenin equivalent circuit before proceeding in the manner
described before.

Example1: for the following network:


a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the current iL and the
voltage vL after the closing of the switch (Ii =0 mA).
b. Draw the resultant waveform for each.

Solution:
a. Applying Thvenins theorem to the 80-mH inductor yields

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Applying the voltage divider rule:

The Thvenin equivalent circuit is shown below

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Sinusoidal Alternating Waveforms


Each waveform of the following figure is an alternating waveform available
from commercial supplies. The term alternating indicates only that the waveform
alternates between two prescribed levels in a set time sequence.

1. Generation
Sinusoidal ac voltages are available from a variety of sources. The most common
source is the typical home outlet, which provides an ac voltage that originates at a power
plant; such a power plant is most commonly fueled by water power, oil, gas, or nuclear
fusion. In each case an ac generator (also called an alternator), as shown below, is the
primary component in the energy-conversion process.

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The power to the shaft developed by one of the energy sources listed will turn a rotor
(constructed of alternating magnetic poles) inside a set of windings housed in the stator
(the stationary part of the dynamo) and will induce a voltage across the windings of the
stator, as defined by Faradays law,

2. Definitions

Waveform: The path traced by a quantity, such as the voltage in Fig. above, plotted as a
function of some variable such as time (as above), position, degrees, radians, temperature,
and so on.
Instantaneous value: The magnitude of a waveform at any instant of time; denoted by
lowercase letters (e1, e2).

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Peak amplitude: The maximum value of a waveform as measured from its average, or
mean, value, denoted by uppercase letters (such as Em for sources of voltage and Vm for
the voltage drop across a load).
Peak value: The maximum instantaneous value of a function as measured from the zerovolt level. For the waveform of the above figure, the peak amplitude and peak value are the
same, since the average value of the function is zero volts.
Peak-to-peak value: Denoted by Ep-p or Vp-p, the full voltage between positive and
negative peaks of the waveform, that is, the sum of the magnitude of the positive and
negative peaks.
Periodic waveform: A waveform that continually repeats itself after the same time
interval.
Period (T ): The time interval between successive repetitions of a periodic waveform (the
period T1= T2 = T3), as long as successive similar points of the periodic waveform are
used in determining T.
Cycle: The portion of a waveform contained in one period of time. The cycles within T1,
T2, and T3 in the above figure may appear different, but they are all bounded by one
period of time and therefore satisfy the definition of a cycle.

Frequency ( f ): The number of cycles that occur in 1 s.

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Example1: Determine the frequency of the waveform of the following figure

Solution: From the figure, T = (25 ms - 5 ms) = 20 ms, and

3. THE SINE WAVE


The sinusoidal waveform is of particular importance, however, since it lends itself
readily to the mathematics and the physical phenomena associated with electric circuits.
Consider the power of the following statement:
The sinusoidal waveform is the only alternating waveform whose shape is unaffected by
the response characteristics of R, L, and C elements.
In other words, if the voltage across (or current through) a resistor, coil, or capacitor is
sinusoidal in nature, the resulting current (or voltage, respectively) for each will also have
sinusoidal characteristics, as shown

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The velocity with which the radius vector rotates about the center, called the angular
velocity, can be determined from the following equation:

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The radians subtended in this time interval are 2. Substituting, we have

Example2: Given = 200 rad/s, determine how long it will take the sinusoidal waveform
to pass through an angle of 90.

Solution:

Example3: Find the angle through which a sinusoidal waveform of 60 Hz will pass in a
period of 5ms.

Solution:

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4. GENERAL FORMAT FOR THE SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE OR CURRENT

where Am is the peak value of the waveform and a is the unit of measure for the
horizontal axis, as shown

For a particular angular velocity, the longer the time, the greater the number of cycles
shown.

For electrical quantities such as current and voltage, the general format is

Where the capital letters with the subscript m represent the amplitude, and the lowercase
letters i and e represent the instantaneous value of current or voltage, respectively, at any
time t.
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5. PHASE RELATIONS
If the waveform is shifted to the right or left of 0, the expression becomes

where is the angle in degrees or radians that the waveform has been shifted.

If the waveform passes through the horizontal axis with a positive going (increasing with
time) slope before 0,

If the waveform passes through the horizontal axis with a positive-going slope after 0,

If the waveform crosses the horizontal axis with a positive-going slope 90 (/2) sooner,

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The terms lead and lag are used to indicate the relationship between two sinusoidal
waveforms of the same frequency plotted on the same set of axes.
The cosine curve is said to lead the sine curve by 90, and the sine curve is said to lag
the cosine curve by 90.
The 90 is referred to as the phase angle between the two waveforms. The waveforms
are out of phase by 90.
If both waveforms cross the axis at the same point with the same slope, they are in
phase.

Example4: What is the phase relationship between the sinusoidal waveforms of each of the
following sets?

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Solution:
a.

b.

c.

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d.

e.

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6. AVERAGE VALUE

The algebraic sum of the areas must be determined, since some area contributions
will be from below the horizontal axis. Areas above the axis will be assigned a positive
sign, and those below, a negative sign.
A positive average value will then be above the axis, and a negative value, below.
The average value of any current or voltage is the value indicated on a dc meter. In other
words, over a complete cycle, the average value is the equivalent dc value.

Example5: Determine the average value of the waveforms of

Solution:
a. By inspection, the area above the axis equals the area below over one cycle, resulting in
an average value of zero volts.

b.
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In reality, the waveform of Fig. (b) is simply the square wave of Fig. (a) with a dc shift of
4 V; that is, v2 = v1 + 4 V

Homework: Find the average values of the following waveforms over one full cycle of:

Finding the area under the positive pulse of a sine wave using integration, we have

where is the sign of integration, 0 and are the limits of integration, Am sin a is the
function to be integrated, and d indicates that we are integrating with respect to a.
Integrating, we obtain

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The average value of on sine wave pulse is:

And for the wave form:

Example6: Determine the average value of the waveform of

Solution:
The peak-to-peak value of the sinusoidal function is 16 mV+ 2 mV = 18 mV. The peak
amplitude of the sinusoidal waveform is, therefore, 18 mV/2 = 9 mV. Counting down 9
mV from 2 mV (or 9 mV up from -16 mV) results in an average or dc level of -7 mV, as
noted by the dashed line

Homework: prove that the average value of a pure sinusoidal waveform over one
full cycle is zero.

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7. EFFECTIVE (rms) VALUES


The power delivered by the ac supply at any instant of time is

The average power delivered by the ac source is just the first term, since the average
value of a cosine wave is zero even though the wave may have twice the frequency of
the original input current waveform. Equating the average power delivered by the ac
generator to that delivered by the dc source,

which, in words, states that the equivalent dc value of a sinusoidal current or voltage is
1/2 or 0.707 of its maximum value. The equivalent dc value is called the effective
value of the sinusoidal quantity. In summary,

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The effective value of any quantity plotted as a function of time can be found by using the
following equation derived from the experiment just described:

This procedure gives us another designation for the effective value, the root-mean-square
(rms) value.

Example7: Find the rms values of the sinusoidal waveform in each part of the following:

Solution:
(a), Irms = 0.707(12 * 10-3 A) = 8.484 mA.
(b), again Irms = 8.484 mA. Note that frequency did not change the effective value in (b)
above compared to (a).
(c), Vrms = 0.707(169.73 V) = 120 V.
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Example8: The 120-V dc source of Fig. (a) delivers 3.6 W to the load. Determine the
peak value of the applied voltage (Em) and the current (Im) if the ac source [Fig. below]
is to deliver the same power to the load.

Solution:

Example9: Calculate the rms value of the voltage of the following wave form:
Solution:

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PHASORS
The addition of sinusoidal voltages and currents will frequently be required in
the analysis of ac circuits. A short method uses the rotating radius vector. This radius

vector, having a constant magnitude (length) with one end fixed at the origin, is called a
phasor when applied to electric circuits. During its rotational development of the sine
wave, the phasor will, at the instant t = 0, have the positions shown in figure (a) for each
waveform in figure (b).

using the vector algebra

In other words, if we convert v1 and v2 to the phasor form using

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Since the rms, rather than the peak, values are used almost exclusively in the analysis
of ac circuits, the phasor will now be redefined as having a magnitude equal to the rms
value of the sine wave it represents. The angle associated with the phasor will remain the
phase angle. In general, for all of the analyses to follow, the phasor form of a sinusoidal
voltage or current will be

Where V and I are rms values and v is the phase angle. In phasor notation, the sine
wave is always the reference, and the frequency is not represented.

Phasor algebra for sinusoidal quantities is applicable only for waveforms having the
same frequency.

Example1: Find the input voltage of the circuit

Solution:
Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law, we have

ein = va + vb
Converting from the time to the phasor domain yields

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Exaple2: Determine the current i2 for the network

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Solution:

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Series and Parallel ac Circuits


IMPEDANCE AND THE PHASOR DIAGRAM:
1. Resistive Elements
v and i were in phase, and the magnitude

ZR: the impedance of a resistive element (). It is measured in ohms and is a measure of
how much the element will impede the flow of charge through the network.

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2. Inductive Reactance

The voltage leads the current by 90 and that the reactance of the coil XL is determined by
.

ZL: impedance of an inductive element (). It is a measure of how much the inductive
element will control or impede the level of current through the network (always keep in
mind that inductive elements are storage devices and do not dissipate like resistors).

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3. Capacitive Reactance:
the current leads the voltage by 90 and that the reactance of the capacitor XC is
determined by 1/

ZC: the impedance of a capacitive element (). It is a measure of how much the capacitive
element will control or impede the level of current through the network (always keep in
mind that capacitive elements are storage devices and do not dissipate like resistors).

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SERIES CONFIGURATION:
the total impedance of a system is the sum of the individual impedances:

Example3: Determine the input impedance to the series network. Draw the impedance
diagram.

Solution:

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R-L
Example4:

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Phasor diagram:

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To determine the power factor, it is necessary only to form the ratio of the total resistance
to the magnitude of the input impedance.

R-C
Example5:

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The current I is in phase with the voltage across the resistor and leads the voltage across
the capacitor by 90.

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R-L-C

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Phasor Diagram:

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VOLTAGE DIVIDER RULE


The basic format for the voltage divider rule in ac circuits is exactly the same as that for dc
circuits:

Example6: for the circuit:

a. Calculate I, VR, VL, and VC in phasor form.


b. Calculate the total power factor.
c. Calculate the average power delivered to the circuit.
d. Draw the phasor diagram.
e. Obtain the phasor sum of VR, VL, and VC, and show that it equals the input voltage E.
f. Find VR and VC using the voltage divider rule.

Solution:

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Using phasor notation:

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d. phasor diagram:

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PARALLEL ac CIRCUITS
ADMITTANCE AND SUSCEPTANCE
In dc circuits, conductance (G) was defined as being equal to 1/R. The total conductance
of a parallel circuit was then found by adding the conductance of each branch. The total
resistance RT is simply 1/GT. In ac circuits, we define admittance (Y) as being equal to
1/Z(siemens S). Admittance is a measure of how well an ac circuit will admit, or allow,
current to flow in the circuit. The larger its value, therefore, the heavier the current flow
for the same applied potential. The total admittance of a circuit can also be found by
finding the sum of the parallel admittances.
The total impedance ZT of the circuit is then 1/YT; that is,

For two impedances in parallel,

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conductance is the reciprocal of resistance, and

The reciprocal of reactance (1/X) is called susceptance and is a measure of how


susceptible an element is to the passage of current through it. Susceptance is also
measured in siemens and is represented by the capital letter B.
For the inductor,

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For any configuration (series, parallel, series-parallel, etc.), the angle associated
with the total admittance is the angle by which the source current leads the applied
voltage. For inductive networks,

is negative, whereas for capacitive networks,

is

positive.

R-L
Example7:

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Admittance diagram:

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phasor diagram: indicates that the applied voltage E is in phase with the current IR and
leads the current IL by 90.

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R-C:
Example8:

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Admittance diagram:

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phasor diagram: E is in phase with the current


through the resistor IR and lags the capacitive
current IC by 90.

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R-L-C
Example:

Phasor notation:

Admittance diagram:

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Phasor diagram: the impressed voltage E is in phase with the current IR through the
resistor, leads the current IL through the inductor by 90, and lags the current IC of the
capacitor by 90.

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or

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CURRENT DIVIDER RULE


The basic format for the current divider rule in ac circuits is exactly the same as that for dc
circuits; that is, for two parallel branches with impedances Z1 and Z2 as shown:

Series-Parallel ac Networks
Example1: For the network

a. Calculate ZT.
b. Determine Is.
c. Calculate VR and VC.
d. Find IC.
e. Compute the power delivered.
f. Find Fp of the network.

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Solution: the network is redrawn with block impedance:

c.

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Note: The network is capacitive in nature and therefore has a leading power factor. The fact
that the network is capacitive can be determined from the original network by first realizing
that, for the parallel L-C elements, the smaller impedance predominates and results in an R-

C network.
Example2: for the network:
a. Calculate the current Is.
b. Find the voltage Vab.

Solution:
a. redrawing the netwrk we obtain:

In this case the voltage Vab is lost in the redrawn network, but the currents I1 and I2 remain
defined for future calculations necessary to determine Vab.

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Using KVL:

Example3: The network below is frequently encountered in the analysis of transistor


networks. The transistor equivalent circuit includes a current source I and an output
impedance Ro. The resistor RC is a biasing resistor to establish specific dc conditions, and
the resistor Ri represents the loading of the next stage. The coupling capacitor is designed to
be an open circuit for dc and to have as low impedance as possible for the frequencies of
interest to ensure that VL is a maximum value. The frequency range of the example includes
the entire audio (hearing) spectrum from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. The purpose of the example is
to demonstrate that, for the full audio range, the effect of the capacitor can be ignored. It
performs its function as a dc blocking agent but permits the ac to pass through with little
disturbance.
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a. Determine VL for the network of Fig. 16.10 at a frequency of 100 Hz.


b. Repeat part (a) at a frequency of 20 kHz.
c. Compare the results of parts (a) and (b).

Solution:
The network is redrawn with impedance blocks as follows

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c. The results clearly indicate that the capacitor had little effect on the frequencies of interest.
In addition, note that most of the supply current reached the load for the typical parameters
employed.

Example4: for the network:


a. Determine the current I.
b. Find the voltage V.

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Solution:

Redrawing the network:

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Example5: for the network:

a. Compute I.
b. Find I1, I2, and I3.
c. Verify Kirchhoffs current law by showing that I = I1 + I2 + I3
d. Find the total impedance of the circuit.
Solution:
a. Redrawing the circuit

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Methods of Analysis and Selected Topics (ac)


SOURCE CONVERSIONS
When applying the methods to be discussed, it may be necessary to convert a current source
to a voltage source, or a voltage source to a current source.

Example 1: Convert the current source to a voltage source.

Solution:

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1. MESH ANALYSIS (Format Approach)


Example1: Using the format approach to mesh analysis, find the current I .
2

Solution: the network is redrawn:

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Example 2: Write the mesh equations for the network. Do not solve.

Solution: the network is redrawn as follows for simplicity

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Example 3: Write the mesh equations for the network.

Solution:

2.
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NODAL ANALYSIS (Format Approach):


Example1: Using the format approach to nodal analysis, find the voltage across the 4-
resistor.

Solution: Choosing nodes and

Example2: Using

writing the nodal equations, we have

the format approach, write the nodal


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equations for the network.

Solution:

Converting the voltage source to a current source and choosing nodes, we obtain:

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Example3: Write the nodal equations for the network

Solution:

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BRIDGE NETWORKS (ac)


Apply mesh analysis to the network:

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Applying nodal analysis to the network

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Homework: for the following bridge network:


a) Is the bridge balanced?
b) Using Mesh analysis find the current through the
capacitive reactance.
c) Using Nodal analyses find the voltage across
the capacitive reactance.

-Y, Y- CONVERSIONS:
The general equations for the impedances of the Y
in terms of those for the :

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For the impedances of the

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in terms of those for the Y, the equations are

In the study of dc networks, we found that if all of the resistors of the

or Y were

the same, the conversion from one to the other could be accomplished using the equation

Example1: Find the total impedance ZT of the network

Solution:

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Replace the

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by the Y

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Example2: Using both the -Y and Y- transformations, find the total impedance ZT for the
network

Solution: Using the -Y transformation.

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In this case, since both systems are balanced (same impedance in each branch), the center
point d' of the transformed

will be the same as point d of the original Y:

Using the Y- transformation, we obtain


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Network Theorems (A.C.):


1. SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:
Example1: Using the superposition theorem, find the current I through the 4- reactance
(XL2)

Solution:

Considering the effect of the voltage source E1:

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Considering the effect of the voltage source E2:

The resultant current through the 4- reactance XL2 is

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Example2: determine the sinusoidal expression for the voltage v3 using superposition.

Solution: For the dc source, recall that for dc analysis, in the steady state the capacitor can
be replaced by an open-circuit equivalent, and the inductor by a short-circuit equivalent.

For ac analysis, the dc source is set to zero and the network is redrawn

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2. THE'VENINS THEOREM:
Any two-terminal linear ac network can be replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of a
voltage source and impedance in series.
Since the reactances of a circuit are frequency dependent, the Thvenin circuit
found for a particular network is applicable only at one frequency.

Example1: Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit for the network external to branch a-a'

Solution:

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IZ3 =0. Then ETh is the voltage drop across Z2:

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3. NORTONS THEOREM:
It allows us to replace any two-terminal linear bilateral ac network with an equivalent circuit
consisting of a current source and impedance.

The Norton equivalent circuit, like the Thvenin equivalent circuit, is applicable at only one
frequency since the reactances are frequency dependent.
The source transformation is applicable for any Thvenin or Norton equivalent circuit
determined from a network with any combination of independent or dependent sources.

Example1: Determine the Norton equivalent circuit for the network external to the 6-
resistor

Solution:
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Example2: Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the network external to the 7-capacitive
reactance

Solution:

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3. Maximum power transfer:


When applied to ac circuits, the maximum power transfer theorem states that

Maximum power will be delivered to a load when the load impedance is the conjugate of the
Thvenin impedance across its terminals.

for maximum power transfer to the load,

The conditions just mentioned will make the total impedance of the circuit appear purely
resistive,

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Since the circuit is purely resistive, the power factor of the circuit under maximum power
conditions is 1; that is,

The magnitude of the current I:

Example1: Find the load impedance for maximum power to the load, and find the
maximum power.

Solution:

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To find the maximum power, we must first find ETh as follows:

Example2: Find the load impedance for maximum power to the load, and find the
maximum power.

Solution:

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Converting from a

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to a Y

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For ETh, use the modified circuit below with the voltage source replaced in its original position. Since I1 = 0,
ETh is the voltage across the series impedance of Z'1 and Z2. Using the voltage divider rule gives us

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