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1 Find words and expressions in A opposite with similar meanings to

the words and expressions below (1-10). Sometimes there is more
than one possible answer. The first one has been done for you.

6 deviation between maximum and minimum

2 exact

7 an acceptable deviation WITHIN

3 differ

8 an unacceptable deviation

4 exactness PRECISION

9 little deviation allowed TIGHT

5 not exact IMPRECISE


10 large deviation allowed LOOSE

7.2 Match the related sentences. Look at B opposite to help you.

1 It'll bind. (B)

a The bolt will have to turn in the

2 It'll contract.(F)
in the hole.

b The bolt won't be able to turn freely enough

3 It'll expand. (E)


c The bolt won't fit tightly enough in the

4 There'll be too much play.(C)

tightly on the axle.

d The wheel will have to fit very

5 It needs a clearance fit. (A)


e The hole will widen with the high

6 It needs an interference fit.(D)

slightly as it cools.

f The shaft will shorten and narrow

7.3 Complete the article about engine blueprinting using the words in the box.
Look at A and B
opposite to help you.
clearances (10) fit (9) minus (5) permissible(7) plus(4)
precise (2) range(8) tolerances (3) variation (1) within (6)
The advantage of racing in a kart class with a standard engine spec seems
obvious - everyone has the same power, so it's driving talent that makes the
difference. But things aren't quite that simple. No two standard engines are
identical. There will always be a slight (1) in the size of engine parts, since they
are manufactured, not to perfectly (2) dimensions, but to specified (3) Although
these differences may only be (4) or (5) a few hundredths of a millimetre, they
will nevertheless result in a slight performance gap between any two engines.
One way round this problem (if you have the cash) is to have your engine

blueprinted. The process is perfectly legal, as the sizes of all parts remain (6)
the tolerances that are (7) for the standard engine specification. However, by
carefully matching pairs or groups of parts that are all in either the lower or
upper half of the tolerance (8) a blueprinted engine is built to (9) together very
precisely, thanks to almost perfect (10) between moving parts.

10.1 An engineer is talking to a colleague about the design of a fuel

tank for a water pump.
Complete the explanation using the words in the box. Look at A
opposite to help you.
f-uel (CONSUMPTION ) for -this engine is about 1.5 litres per hour. Of course,
It'll (CONSUME ) a bit more., sometimes a. bi-f less, depending on -tine
workload. fc>o+
15 is an (AVERAGE ) figure. And let's say -the (DURATION ) of a WorK shift
Is & hours, "the pump will have to be stopped occasionally, to clean the Intake
filter, so it won't be & hours of (CONSTANT ) running. At Ae'll say 8 hours, to be
on the safe side. So & hours of running at a ( RATE) of 1.5 litres per hour gives
12 litres of(CUMULATIVE ) tti consumption cnzx a shift. So if toe want the pump
to have sufficient fuel autonomy for an ft-hour shift, the (CAPACITY ) of the fuel
tant needs to be 12 litres, minimum.

10.2The graph below shows water consumption in a washing process

at a manufacturing plant.
Write figures to complete the comments. Look at A opposite to help
1 Water consumption fluctuated between 1 and 7 litres per second.
2 Averaged out over the period shown, consumption was roughly 4 litres per
3 Consumption peaked at a rate of 7 litres per second.
4 If the process ran to capacity, it could use water at a rate of 9 litres per
5 When consumption peaked, the process had spare capacity of 2 litres per

10.3Choose the correct words from the brackets to complete the

explanations from a guided tour of a manufacturing plant. Look at A
and B opposite to help you.

1 A lot of heat is generated in this part of the process. And all of that (input /
output) is recycled - it provides a (demand / supply) of heat for the next
stage of the process. So it's quite an (efficient / inefficient) system.
2 Sometimes, there's (insufficient / surplus) heat, and it can't all be recycled.
At other times there isn't quite enough recycled heat to keep up with (peak /
off-peak) demand for heat energy further along the process.
3 Some material is lost in the washing process, but the mass of water absorbed
is greater than the mass of material lost. So there's a net (loss / gain) in total

1 2.1 Decide whether the sentences below are true or false, and
correct the false sentences. Look at A and B opposite to help you.

1 Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. ______T

2 Mild steel is a high carbon steel. _____F
3 Alloy steels contain carbon. _____T
4 Chromium and nickel are used as alloying metals in steel. ______T
5 Low alloy steels contain more chromium than iron. __________F
6 Stainless steel is an alloy steel. _____T
7 Tungsten is added to steel to make it softer. _________F
8 High-speed steel is suitable for making cutting tools that get very hot. ___T
1 2.2 Complete the table with words related to corrode, oxide and
rust. Then use the words to complete the sentences below. There is
more than one possible answer. Look at C opposite to help you.
Verb Noun Adjective




/ go rusty



1 When steel is exposed to air and water, it CORRODES/OXIDIZES/RUST/GOES

2 A brown/red material on the surface of steel is called
3 The strength of steel is reduced if it is CORRODED/OXIDIZED/RUSTY
1 2.3 Complete the article about a special type of steel, using words
from A, B and C opposite.
The perennial problem with mild (STEEL) is that it (RUSTS) when exposed to air
and water. Generally, the only solution is either to apply a protective coating,
or to use another (GRADE) of steel that is resistant to the (CORROSION) process
- the most well-known being (STAINLESS) steel, which contains significant
guantities of (CHROMIUN) and, often, nickel.
There is, however, an alternative solution. So-called weathering steel is a
special alloy suitable for outdoor use. But rather than being completely
protected from corrosion, the surface of the steel is allowed to go (RUSTY) Once
a layer of (RUST) has formed on the surface, it stabilizes and forms a hard
protective layer. This layer differs from ordinary (IRON) oxide, as it does not
continue to eat into the metal. While not everyone may like the 'rusty look',
weathering steel has been widely used in architectural applications and
outdoor sculptures.