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Thursday, January 31, 2013

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Levelling

Rahul Kharat
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Levelling may be defined as the art of determining the relative heights or elevations
of points or objects on the earths surface. It deals with measurements in a vertical
plane.
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Levelling is done for following purpose:


To prepare contour map for fixing sites for reservoirs, dams, barrages, etc. and fix the
alignment of roads, railways, irrigation canals, and so on.
To determine the altitudes of different important points on a hill or to know the
reduced levels of different points on or below the surface of the earth.

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To prepare the longitudinal section and cross sections of a project i.e. roads railways,
irrigation canals etc. in order to determine the volume of the earth work.
To prepare layout map for water supply, sanitary or drainage schemes.
Instrument use for levelling:

2013 (232)
January (2)
Levelling
Plane Table
Survey

Thedolite

Dumpy Level

Levelling Staff

Measuring Tape

February
(79)
March (10)
May (3)
June (3)
July (28)
August (19)
September
(41)
October
(12)
November
(20)
December
(15)
2014 (235)
2015 (137)
2016 (69)

Common Definitions of Terms used in Levelling:


Bench Mark (BM): It is a fixed reference point of know elevation. These are very important
marks. They serve as reference points for finding the RL ( Reduced Level ) of new points or
for conducting levelling operations in projects involving in roads, railways etc. There are four
kind of bench marks
G. T. S. (Greater Trigonometrically Survey) Bench Marks: They are the
bench marks established with very high precision at intervals all over the country by

the survey of India department, and their positions and elevations above the
standard datum (mean sea level at Karachi) are given in the catalogue published by
that department. They are also known as G.T.S. maps.

Permanent Bench Marks: These are fixed points or marks established by


different government departments like PWD, Railways, Irrigation, etc. The Reduced
Levels (RL) of these points are determined with reference to the GTS bench marks
and are kept on permanent points like the plinth of building, parapet of a bridge or
culvert, and so on. Sometimes they are kept on underground pillars.

Arbitrary Bench Marks: They are the reference points whose elevations are
arbitrarily assumed. They are used in small levelling operations.

Temporary Bench Marks: When the bench marks are established temporarily at
the end of a days work, they are said to be temporary bench marks. They are
generally made on the root of tree, the parapet of a nearby culvert, a furlong post, or
on similar place.
Back sight reading (B.S.): This is first staff reading taken in any setup of the instrument after
the levelling has been perfectly done. This reading is always taken on a point of known
Reduce Level i.e. on a bench-mark or change point.
Foresight reading (F.S.): It is the last staff reading in any set up of the instrument, and
indicates the shifting of the instrument.
Intermediate sight (I.S.): It is any other staff reading between the BS (back sight) FS
(foresight) in the same setup of the instrument.
Change point (C.P.): This point indicates the shifting of the instrument. At this point, an FS
(foresight) is taken from one setting and a BS (back sight) from next setting. Any stable and
well defined object such as a boundary stone, curb stone, rail, rock etc is used as change point.
Height of Instrument (H. I.): When the levelling instrument is properly leveled, the RL
(reduced level) of the line of collimation is known as the height of the instrument. This is
obtained by adding the BS (back sight) reading the RL (reduced level) of the BM (benchmark)
or CP (change point) on which the staff reading was taken.
Type of Levelling:
Simple levelling : When the difference of level between two points is determind by setting the
levelling instrument midway between the two points, the process is called simple levelling.

Suppose A and B are two points whose difference of level is to to be determined. The level is
set up at O exactly mid-way between A and B. After proper temporary adjustment the staff
reading on A and B are taken. The difference of these readings gives the difference of level A
and B. Let the respective readings on A and B be 2.340 and 3.135 m. The difference between
these readings gives the difference of level between A and B, which is equal to 3.135 2.340
= 0.795 m.
If the R.L. ( Reduce Level ) of A is 100, the R.L. ( Reduce Level ) of B may be found
thus :
H.I. ( Height Of Instrument ) at O = 100 + 2.340 = 102.340.
R.L. ( Reduce Level ) at B = 102.340 3.135 = 99.205.
Differential Levelling : Differential levelling is used in order to find the difference in
elevation between two points when I) the points are a greate distance apart. II) The differences
of elevation between the points is large. III) There are obstacles between the points.
This method is also know as compound levelling or continuous levelling. In this
method the level is set up at several suitable positions and staff reading are taken at
all of these.

Suppose it is required to know the differences of level between A and B. The level is
setup at points O1,O2,O3 etc. After temporary adjustment staff reading are taken at
every setup. The points C1,C2 and C3 are known as change points. Then the

difference of level between A and B is found out. If the difference is positive, A is


lowe than B. If it is negative, A is higher than B.
Knowing the R.L. ( Reduce Level ) of A, that of B can be calculated.
Method Of Calculation Of Reduced Level
There are two types
A) The collimation system or height of instrument system
B) The rise and fall system
The collimation system or height of instrument system

The reduced level of the line of collimation is said to be the height of the
instrument. In this system, the height of the line of collimation is found out by
adding the backsight reading to the Reduced level (RL) of the Bench mark (BM) on
which the backsight (BS) is taken. Then the reduced level (RL) of the intermediate
points and the change point (CP) are obtained by subtracting the respective staff
readings from the height of instrument ( H.I).
The level is then shifted for the next setup and again the height of the line of
collimation is obtained by adding the backsight reading to the Reduced level ( RL )
of the change point (which is calculated in the first setup).
So the height of the instrument is different in different setup of the level. Two
adjacent planes of collimation are correlated at the change point by an
Foresight (FS) reading from one setting and a Backsight (BS) reading from the next
setting.
It should be remembered that in this system the reduced level (RL) of unknown
points are to be found out by deducting the staff readings from the reduced level
(RL) of the height of the instrument.

The rise and fall system

In this system the difference of level between two consecutive points is determined
by comparing each forward staff reading with the staff reading at the immediately
preceding point.
If the forward staff reading is smaller than the immediately preceding staff reading,
a rise is said to have occurred. The rise is added to the reduce level (RL) of the
preceding point to get the reduce level (RL) of the forward point.
If the forward staff reading is Greater than the immediately preceding staff reading,
It means there has been fall. The fall is subtracted from the reduce level (RL) of the
preceding point to get the reduce level (RL) of the forward point.
Example :
The following consecutive readings were taken with a dumpy level along a chain
line at a common interval of 15 m. The first reading was at a chainage of 165 m
where the Reduce Level (RL) is 98.085. The instrument was shifted after the fourth
and ninth reading.
3.150, 2.245, 1.125, 0.860, 3.125, 2.760, 1.835, 1.470, 1.965, 1.225, 2.390, 3.035 m.
Mark rules on a page of your notebook in the form of a level book page and enter on
it the above readings and find the reduce level (RL) of all the points.
1 By the collimation system
Station
point

Chainage

Backsight

Intermediate
sight

Forsight

RL of collimation line
or height of instrument
(HI)

Reduced
Level (RL)

165

3.150

101.235

98.085

180

2.245

98.990

195

1.125

100.110

210

3.125

0.860

103.500

100.375

225

2.760

100.740

Remark

Change
Point

240

1.835

101.665

255

1.470

102.030

270

1.225

1.965

102.760

101.535

285

2.390

100.370

10

300

3.035

99.725

Total =

7.500

Change
Point

5.860

Arithmetical Check:
= Back Sight (BS) = Fore Sight (FS)
7.500 5.860 = + 1.640
Last Reduce level RL 1st Reduce level
99.725 99.085 = + 1.640
Example :
The following consecutive readings were taken with a dumpy level along a chain
line at a common interval of 15 m. The first reading was at a chainage of 165 m
where the Reduce Level (RL) is 98.085. The instrument was shifted after the fourth
and ninth reading.
3.150, 2.245, 1.125, 0.860, 3.125, 2.760, 1.835, 1.470, 1.965, 1.225, 2.390, 3.035 m.
Mark rules on a page of your notebook in the form of a level book page and enter on
it the above readings and find the reduce level (RL) of all the points.
2. By the rise and fall system
Station
point

Chainage

Backsight

Intermediate
sight

Forsight

Rise
+

Fall -

Reduced Level
(RL)

165

3.150

98.085

180

2.245

0.905

98.990

195

1.125

1.120

100.110

210

3.125

0.860

0.265

100.375

225

2.760

0.365

100.740

240

1.835

0.925

101.665

255

1.470

0.365

270

1.225

1.965

0.495

101.535

285

2.390

1.165

100.370

10

300

3.035

0.645

99.725

Total =

7.500

5.860

3.945

Remark

Change
Point

102.030
Change
Point

2.305

Arithemetical Check :
= Back Sight (BS) = Fore Sight (FS)
7.500 5.860 = + 1.640
= Rise = Fall
3.945 2.305 = + 1.640
Last Reduce Level (RL) 1st Reduce Level
99.275 98.085 = + 1.640
Reading the Staff:
First note the red figure, then the black figure, and finally count the spaces. Record
the reading.

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