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Chapter 2 Blood Circulation and Transport

1. The human circulatory system consists of:


a. _______________________
Pumps blood to the whole body.
b. _______________________
Consists of arteries, veins and capillaries.
c. _______________________
Transport useful and waste materials to and from cells.
2. Human heart:

a. Made up of cardiac muscles, connective tissues and blood


vessels.
b. Four chambers.
i)
Left and right atrium.
Top. Receive blood from the body or lungs.
ii)
Left and right ventricles.
Bottom. Right Pumps blood to the lungs to pick up
oxygen. Left Pumps blood to the rest of the body.
Strongest chamber.
c. ___________ Separates the right atrium and right ventricle
from the left atrium and left ventricle prevent blood from
passing between the left side and right side.
d. Four valves _________________________________ and
__________________________________________
_____________________. Produce sound and can be heard
by ____________________.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Right atrium is connected to _______________________.


Left atrium is connected to________________________.
Right ventricle is connected to _____________________.
Left ventricle is connected to ______________________.

i.
j.

The ______________ Largest blood vessel.


The _______________ Thinner walls.

k. The function of the right side:


Collect ______________________ blood from the ________
and pump it to the ____________.
l. The function of the left side:
Collect ______________________ blood from the _________
and pumps it out to the _____________.

3. The differences between artery, vein and capillary.


Characteristic
Function

Artery

Vein

Capillary

Wall

Size of lumen

Type of blood
transport

4. The bodys circulation has two parts:


a. ____________________________________
From heart to lungs.
b. ____________________________________
From heart to all parts of the body except the lungs.
5. The heart acts as a double pump.

Blood flow

Blood pressure

Presence of
valves

6. Diseases of heart:

a.
b.
c.
d.

____________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________

Human blood Made up of ___________________ (55%) and


___________________ (45%).
8. Three kinds of blood cells:
a. ________________________________
Take their colour from haemoglobin.
b. ________________________________
Protect the body from disease.
c. ________________________________
Help blood to clot.

III.
IV.
V.
VI.

7.

Plasma
I.
II.
III.

_______________ watery fluid.


90% ___________ and 10% dissolve substances such as
nutrients, inorganic ions, respiratory gases and proteins.
As a ____________________________________.
Transport ________________ and
___________________ to the body cells.
Remove __________________________________.
Distribute ______________, _____________ and
__________________ to specific part of body.
Maintain _______________________________________.

Transport oxygen in the form of ________________________


to the body cells.
Carry carbon dioxide from the body cells to the lungs.
Life span of about ____________.
The old red blood cells that have worn out will be destroyed in
the ______________ and ______________.

White blood cells (leucocytes)

I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

____________ than red blood cells.


_________ all the same size and shape.
Has a _____________ but does not contain ______________.
__________________ and ________________________.
For body immune system to defend the body against disease.
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

Platelets (thrombocytes)

Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

I.
II.

________________, _________________________________
____________ More flexible so they can squeeze through
very narrow capillaries.
Contain _____________________ Make blood red colour.

I.
II.
III.
IV.

_____________ cells in the body.


Produced from the ___________________________.
Has _____________ but does not have a ________________.
To ______________________________.
Form a sticky lump to trap red blood cells.
React with proteins in the plasma to produce threads.

Platelets + red blood cells trapped in the net of threads


making a sort of plug to stop the bleeding.
(______________________)
When dries out, a ___________ is formed and new skin
grows.

9. Blood groups
I.
II.
III.

ABO system.
Group AB ______________________________________
Group O _______________________________________

Blood group
Can donate to
Can receive from
A
B
AB
O
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
1. _____________________________ Tissues that transport
substances in plants.
2. Two types:
a. _______________________
b. _______________________
3. Xylem and phloem are found in ______________, ____________
and _________________. They form ______________________.
4. Xylem = Carry ____________ containing dissolved mineral salts
from the ________ to the leaves through osmosis.
5. Phloem = Carry ______________________________________
to all parts of plants.

6. Wilting

7.

The loss of cell turgidity of non-woody plants as a result of


excess water loss in the cells.
Causes the plant to lose their ability to transpire and grow.
Also cause death to the plant.
Due to
a. ____________________________________
b. ____________________________________
c. ____________________________________
d. ____________________________________

Transpiration
Water is loss by evaporation from the leaves of plants.

8. Stoma

Gases can enter or leave a plant leaf.


Surrounded by ______________________________
control opening and closing of the stomata.

The opening of the stomata:


a. During _____________________.
b. Extra water enters by osmosis into guard cells make them
become _____________ and
_______________________________.
c. Stomata open and excess water escape into environment.
d. Allow
Cools the plants.

Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

The closing of the stomata:


a.
b.
c.
d.

During ____________________.
The guard cells become _________________________>
Stomata close.
Slow down water loss.

9. Factors affecting the rate of transpiration:


a. __________________________________________________
b. __________________________________________________
c. __________________________________________________
d. __________________________________________________
10. The role of transpiration in transport:
a. Transport of water and mineral salts.
b. Removal of excess water.
c. Keeps the plants cool in hot weather.
d. Helps in the exchange of gases.
e. Absorption of water.