Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 86

SECTION 2

TQM THE ROLE OF QUALITY


SYSTEM

History of Quality Paradigms


Customer-craft quality paradigm:
design and build each product for a particular customer.
producer knows the customer directly.
Mass production and inspection quality paradigm:
focus on designing and building products for mass
consumption.
larger volumes will reduce costs and increases profits.
push products on the customer (limit choices).
quality is maintained by inspecting and detecting bad
products.
TQM or Customer Driven Quality paradigm:
potential customers determine what to design and build.
higher quality will be obtained by preventing problems
2

Need for a New Strategy


Foreign markets have grown
Import barriers and protection are not the
answer.

Consumers are offered more choices


They have become more discriminating.

Consumers are more sophisticated


They demand new and better products.

The Need For New Management


Approaches
Outdated strategies
Short time horizon
Technological Weaknesses in development
and production
Neglect of human resources
Failures of cooperation ( organisational
barriers)

Why Quality Improvement?


Global Competition
Economic and political boundaries are
slowly vanishing
The 1950s slogan Built by Americans for
Americans is very far from reality in the
2000s.

Why Quality Improvement?


(cont.)
On the stroke of midnight on December 31,
1992, the United States will become the
second-largest economy in the world for
the first time in a century.
Quote from a 1990 Xerox quality conference.

More than corporate profits are at risk; the


challenge is to the American standard of
living.
6

Why Quality Improvement?


(cont.)
It pays

Less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer


delays, and better use of time and
materials
In United States today, 15 to 20% of
the production costs are incurred in
finding and correcting mistakes.
7

Rationale for Total Quality


Quality affects an organisation in 4 ways:
1. Companys reputation
2. Cost and market shares
3. Product liability
4. The international implication

How Do Organizations
Compete?
Most common competitive measures:
Quality (both real and perceived)
Cost
Delivery (lead time and accuracy)

Other measures
safety,
employee morale,
product development (time-to-market,
innovative products)
9

Strategic Planning
for Quality

10

Contrasting Approaches
Passive / Reactive Proactive / Preventive
Setting acceptable
quality levels
Inspecting to
measure
compliance

Design quality in
products and processes
Identify sources of
variation (processes and
materials)
Monitor process
performance

11

11

Strategic Planning
A strategy is a pattern or plan that integrates
an organizations major goals, policies, and
action sequences into a cohesive whole.
James Quinn
Senior Director of Strategic Planning at Quinn Advisors

Simply put, strategic planning


determines where an organization is
going over the next year or more, how
it's going to get (strategy) there and
how it'll know if it got there or not
(monitoring mechanism).
12

The focus of a strategic plan is usually


on the entire organization, while the
focus of a business plan is usually on a
particular product, service or program.

13

13

Formal strategy includes:


~ Goals to be achieved
~ Policies to guide or limit action
~ Action sequences, or programs,
that accomplish the goals

14

Tasks Accomplished
by Strategic Planning
Understand important customer and operational
requirements
Optimize use of resources and ensure bridging
between short-term and longer-term requirements
Ensure that quality initiatives are understood at all
organizational levels
Ensure that work organizations and structures will
facilitate accomplishment of strategic plan
15

Leading Practices Strategic Planning


Active participation of top management, employees,
customers, suppliers
Systematic planning systems for strategy development
and deployment, including measurement, feedback,
and review
Use of a variety of external and internal data
Align short-term action plans with long-term strategic
objectives, communicate them, and track progress

16

16

Strategic Planning
in the Baldrige Criteria
The Strategic Planning Category examines how an organization
develops strategic objectives and action plans. It also examines
how chosen strategic objectives and action plans are deployed
and how progress is measured.
2.1 Strategy Development
a. Strategy Development Process
b. Strategic Objectives
2.2 Strategy Deployment
a. Action Plan Development and Deployment
b. Performance Projection

17

17

Quality as a strategy
~

effective strategies develop around a few key


concepts and thrust that provide focus

the essence of strategy is to build a posture


that is so strong in selective ways that the
organisation can achieve its goals despite
unforeseeable external forces that may arise.

quality should become an integral part of the


strategic plan and should be viewed as a
central operating strategy.
18

Strategy and the Baldridge Award


The Baldridge Award criteria considering strategy:
@

Validity and analysis of the quality of


information used in the business decisions.

Analysis of factors societal, regulatory,


economic that bear upon the success or
failure of strategy.

development of scenarios built around possible


outcome of the strategy.

Lessons learned from previous strategy


developments.
19

The Strategic Management Process


Strategic planning helps leadership mould an
organisations future and manage change by
focusing on an ideal vision of what an
organisation should and could be 10 to 20
years in the future.
Strategic plans are developed at the highest level
of
the organisation and deployed throughout it.
Strategic planning consists of strategy
formulation and strategy implementation.
20

Strategic Planning Process


Reason for existence
Foundation
of
Strategic
plan

Mission

Future intent
Vision

Environmental assessment

Gap Assessment:
current
achievement
compared to
vision

Attitudes and policies


Guiding Principles

Capabilities and risks

Strategies

Broad statements of direction

Strategic Objectives

Things to change or improve

Action Plans

Implementation
21

Strategy Formulation
#

Management must first design the


mission, vision and guiding
principles of the organisation the
foundation of the strategic plan.

The mission of an organisation


defines its reason for existence.

22

22

Strategy Formulation
#

The vision describes where the


organisation is heading and what it
intends to be.

The guiding principles direct the journey


to that vision by defining attitudes and
policies for all employees that are
reinforced through conscious and
subconscious behaviour at all levels of the
organisation.
23

Strategy Formulation
#

the mission, vision and guiding


principles serve as the foundation for
strategic planning.

the next step is to assess the gap


between where the organisation is
now and where it wants to be as
described in its vision.

24

using this assessment, the


planners must develop goals,
strategies and objectives that will
enable the organisers to bridge
this gap.

vision gap analysis strategic


goals strategies
objectives.

25

Mission
Definition of products and services,
markets, customer needs, and
distinctive competencies
Solectron
: to provide
worldwide responsiveness to our
customers by offering the highest quality,
lowest total cost, customized, integrated,
design, supply chain, and manufacturing
solutions through long-term partnerships
based on integrity and ethical business
practices.
(global electronics manufacturing company)

26

Vision
Where the organization is heading and
what it intends to be
Brief and memorable - grab attention
Inspiring and challenging - creates
excitement
Descriptive of an ideal state - provides
guidance
Appealing to all stakeholders - employees
can identify with

Solectron: Be the best and continuously


improve
27

Guiding Principles

Definition

Broad philosophy that guides an organisation


throughout its life in all circumstances,
irrespective of changes in its goals,
strategies, type of work, or the top
management.

28

TQM And Strategy Formulation


TQM can improve the strategy formulation
process in several ways :
#

it forces the organisation to think in


term of customers.

it places the expectation of leadership


on senior management in developing
and implementing the strategy
29

the focus on measurement and


objective reasoning introduces the
reality check in determining the
effectiveness of strategy and
performance in meeting goals and
objectives.

30

The focus on teamwork creates an


expectation that everyone in the
organisation plays a role in the
formulation strategy.

it supports the conclusion of quality


as a part of the fundamental strategy

31

TQM and Strategic Planning in Action


- Stroh Brewery Company
#

TQM program in Stroh Brewery Company is


based on the belief that employees hold the
key to achieving a comprehensive on ServiceQuality an organised concerted effort to add
value to products that will enable Stroh to
meet and exceed the expectations of its
customers.

customers judge Stroh not only by the


reliability of their basic product, but by the total
experience of doing business with them.
32

Strohs strategic plan:

Vision:the vision of the Stroh Brewery


Company is one of a growing and
prospering company with a
dynamic and motivated
organisation providing the
shareholders with reasonable
return on their investment.
33

Mission:To achieve this vision, our mission is


to produce, distribute and market a
variety of high quality beers in a
manner that meets or exceeds the
expectation of our customers.

34

Values:our company values provide a constant


point of reference for all our efforts and
confirm our commitment to Stroh
employees and to all of our customers.
The core values of Quality, Integrity
and Teamwork will serve as a
foundation upon which we will build
success.

35

TQM and Strategic Planning in


Branch-Smith Printing Division
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award 2002 Award
Recipient, Small Business Category
Branch-Smith Printings focus on the importance of quality
and on meeting customer needs is highlighted in its
strategic objectives: to continuously improve business
results, become the partner of choice for its customers,
and become the employer of choice.
To achieve these objectives, the company uses a
comprehensive strategic planning process and
incorporates continuous improvement processes
throughout the organization.
36

GROUP DISCUSSION PERSONAL


REFLECTION
IN A SMALL GROUP OF STUDENTS, SELECT AN INTERNATIONAL/
MULTI-NATIONAL/ NATIONAL COMPANY; DISCUSS AND PRESENT
THOSE KEY ELEMENTS OF THE COMPANYS STRATEGIC PLAN
AND BUSINESS PLAN:
1. OVERVIEW OF COMPANY: LOCATION/ KEY BUSINESS/
EMPLOYEES
2. VISION STATEMENT
3. MISSION
4. GUIDING PRINCIPLES (ATTITUDES/ CULTURE/ POLICIES)
5. STRATEGIC PLANNING
6. TQM IN STRATEGY FORMULATION
7. PERSONAL REFLECTION (HOW LONG IT CAN BE SUSTAINED/
FUTURE MARKET PENETRATION/ DEVELOP STRONG
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE? WHY/ JUSTIFICATION

37

DEMINGS PROFOUND KNOWLEDGEE


Deming stated that System of Profound
Knowledge (SoPK) consisted of the following
four main subheadings:
1. Knowledge of Systems; i.e., understanding that all the
parts of a business are related in such a way that if you
focus on optimizing one part, other parts may suffer.
2. Knowledge of Variation; i.e., knowledge of common
cause and special variation.
3. Theory of Knowledge; i.e., how we learn things.
4. Knowledge of Psychology; i.e., what motivates people.
38

DEMINGS 14 POINTS
1. Constancy of purpose: Create constancy of purpose
for continual improvement of products and service to
society, allocating resources to provide for long range
needs rather than only short term profitability, with a
plan to become competitive, to stay in business, and
to provide jobs.
2. The new philosophy: Adopt the new philosophy. We
are in a new economic age, created in Japan. We can
no longer live with commonly accepted levels of
delays, mistakes, defective materials and defective
workmanship. Transformation of Western
management style is necessary to halt the continued
decline of business and industry.
39

3. Cease dependence on mass inspection: Eliminate the


need for mass inspection as the way of life to achieve
quality by building quality into the product in the first
place. Require statistical evidence of built in quality in
both manufacturing and purchasing functions.
4. End lowest tender contracts: End the practice of
awarding business solely on the basis of price tag.
Instead require meaningful measures of quality along
with price. Reduce the number of suppliers for the same
item by eliminating those that do not qualify with
statistical and other evidence of quality. The aim is to
minimize total cost, not merely initial cost, by minimizing
variation. This may be achieved by moving toward a
single supplier for any one item, on a long term
relationship of loyalty and trust. Purchasing managers
have a new job, and must learn it.
40

5. Improve every process: Improve constantly and forever


every process for planning, production, and service.
Search continually for problems in order to improve every
activity in the company, to improve quality and productivity,
and thus to constantly decrease costs. Institute innovation
and constant improvement of product, service, and
process. It is management's job to work continually on the
system (design, incoming materials, maintenance,
improvement of machines, supervision, training,
retraining).
6. Institute training on the job: Institute modern methods of
training on the job for all, including management, to make
better use of every employee. New skills are required to
keep up with changes in materials, methods, product and
service design, machinery, techniques, and service.
41

7 Institute leadership: Adopt and institute leadership


aimed at helping people do a better job. The
responsibility of managers and supervisors must be
changed from sheer numbers to quality. Improvement
of quality will automatically improve productivity.
Management must ensure that immediate action is
taken on reports of inherited defects, maintenance
requirements, poor tools, fuzzy operational definitions,
and all conditions detrimental to quality.
8 Drive out fear: Encourage effective two way
communication and other means to drive out fear
throughout the organization so that everybody may
work effectively and more productively for the company.
42

9. Break down barriers: Break down barriers between departments


and staff areas. People in different areas, such as Leasing,
Maintenance, Administration, must work in teams to tackle
problems that may be encountered with products or service.
10. Eliminate exhortations: Eliminate the use of slogans, posters
and exhortations for the work force, demanding Zero Defects and
new levels of productivity, without providing methods. Such
exhortations only create adversarial relationships; the bulk of the
causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system,
and thus lie beyond the power of the work force.
11. Eliminate arbitrary numerical targets: Eliminate work
standards that prescribe quotas for the work force and numerical
goals for people in management. Substitute aids and helpful
leadership in order to achieve continual improvement of quality
and productivity.
43

12. Permit pride of workmanship: Remove the barriers


that rob hourly workers, and people in management, of
their right to pride of workmanship. This implies, among
other things, abolition of the annual merit rating
(appraisal of performance) and of Management by
Objective. Again, the responsibility of managers,
supervisors, foremen must be changed from sheer
numbers to quality.
13. Encourage education: Institute a vigorous program of
education, and encourage self improvement for
everyone. What an organization needs is not just good
people; it needs people that are improving with
education. Advances in competitive position will have
their roots in knowledge.
44

14. Top management commitment and action:


Clearly define top management's permanent
commitment to ever improving quality and productivity,
and their obligation to implement all of these principles.
Indeed, it is not enough that top management commit
themselves for life to quality and productivity. They
must know what it is that they are committed to-that is,
what they must do. Create a structure in top
management that will push every day on the preceding
13 Points, and take action in order to accomplish the
transformation. Support is not enough: action is
required!
45

Quality Certification
Set of international standards on quality management
and Quality assurance, critical to international
Business
ISO 9000 series standards, briefly, require firms to
document their quality-control systems at every step
(incoming raw materials, product design, in-process
monitoring and so forth) so that theyll be able to
identify those areas that are causing quality problems
and correct them.

46

What Is ISO 9000?


The ISO 9000 standards define minimum
requirements for business quality assurance
systems.
These are "consensus standards" promulgated
by the International Organization for
Standardisation in Europe and the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) in the United
States. The ANSI standards are officially titled the
"Q90" series. They are identical to the ISO 9000
series and people use the names interchangeably.

47

What is ISO 9000 (cont.)


#

ISO 9000 is a series of international


standards establishing global
requirements for quality management
systems.

it is not a product standard, but a


Quality System Standard.

It applies not to products or services


but to the process that creates them.

48

ISO
@

These standards were first published in


1987 by a technical committee of the
International Organisation for
Standardisation ISO.

Based in Geneva, Switzerland, ISO is the


consortium of the national standard
bodies of 91 countries.

The group mission is to develop the


industrial standards that facilitate
international trades.
49

The ISO 9000 series of quality standards


has been formally adopted, word by word, by
the US as the ANSI/ASQC Q90 series.

ISO 9000 defines quality system standards, based


on the premise that certain generic characteristics
of management practices can be standardised, and
that a well designed, well implemented and
carefully managed quality system provides
confidence that the output will meet customer
requirements and expectations.

50

ISO 9000 Series


ISO 9000

Helps companies determine which standard


of ISO 9001, 9002, and 9003 applies

ISO 9001

Outlines guidelines for companies that


engaged in design, development, production,
installation, and servicing of products or
service
Similar to 9001, but excludes companies
engaged in design and development

ISO 9002
ISO 9003

Covers companies engaged in final inspection


and testing

ISO 9004

The guidelines for applying the elements of


the Quality Management System
51

Discover ISO
ISO's name
Because "International Organization for Standardization" would have
different acronyms in different languages ("IOS" in English, "OIN" in
French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), its founders
decided to give it also a short, all-purpose name. They chose "ISO",
derived from the Greek isos, meaning "equal". Whatever the
country, whatever the language, the short form of the organization's
name is always ISO

52

Why standards matter


Standards make an enormous and positive contribution
to most aspects of our lives.
Standards ensure desirable characteristics of products
and services such as quality, environmental friendliness,
safety, reliability, efficiency and interchangeability - and at
an economical cost.
When products and services meet our expectations, we
tend to take this for granted and be unaware of the role of
standards.
53

However, when standards are absent, we soon notice,


care when products turn out to be of poor quality, do not
fit, are incompatible with equipment that we already
have, are unreliable or dangerous.
When products, systems, machinery and devices work
well and safely, it is often because they meet standards.
And the organization responsible for many thousands
of the standards which benefit the world is ISO.

54

What standards do
ISO standards:
- make the development, manufacturing and supply of
products and services more efficient, safer and cleaner
- facilitate trade between countries and make it fairer
- provide governments with a technical base for health,
safety and environmental legislation, and conformity
assessment

55

- share technological advances and good management


practice
- disseminate innovation
- safeguard consumers, and users in general, of
products and services
- make life simpler by providing solutions to common
problems

56

Who standards benefit


ISO standards provide technological, economic and
societal benefits.
1. For businesses, the widespread adoption of
International Standards means that suppliers can develop
and offer products and services meeting specifications that
have wide international acceptance in their sectors.
Therefore, businesses using International Standards can
compete on many more markets around the world.
57

Contd

2. For innovators of new technologies, International


Standards on aspects like terminology, compatibility
and safety speed up the dissemination of
innovations and their development into
manufacturable and marketable products.

58

Contd

3. For customers, the worldwide compatibility of


technology which is achieved when products and
services are based on International Standards gives
them a broad choice of offers. They also benefit from
the effects of competition among suppliers.
4. For governments, International Standards provide
the technological and scientific bases underpinning
health, safety and environmental legislation.
59

Contd

5. For trade officials, International Standards


create "a level playing field" for all competitors
on those markets. The existence of divergent
national or regional standards can create
technical barriers to trade. International Standards
are the technical means by which political trade
agreements can be put into practice.

60

Contd

6. For developing countries, International Standards


that represent an international consensus on the state
of the art are an important source of technological
know-how. By defining the characteristics that products
and services will be expected to meet on export markets,
International Standards give developing countries a
basis for making the right decisions when investing
their limited resources and thus avoid squandering them.

61

Contd

7. For consumers, conformity of products and services to


International Standards provides assurance about their
quality, safety and reliability.
8. For everyone, International Standards contribute to the
quality of life in general by ensuring that the transport,
machinery and tools we use are safe.

62

Contd

9. For the planet we inhabit, International


Standards on air, water and soil quality, on
emissions of gases and radiation and
environmental aspects of products can contribute to
efforts to preserve the environment.

63

OBJECTIVES OF STANDARDS:
1. Achieve, maintain and seek to continuously improve
product quality (including services) in relationship to
requirements.
2. Improve the quality of operations to continually meet
customers and stakeholders stated and implied needs.

64

3. Provide confidence to internal management and other


employees that quality requirements are being fulfilled
and that improvement is taking place.
4. Provide confidence to customers and stakeholders that
quality requirements are being achieved in the
delivered product.
5. Provide confidence that quality system requirements
are fulfilled.
65

Total Quality Management Vs ISO


Total Quality Management emphasizes leadership,
teamwork, empowerment, worker involvement, customer
requirement, process control and continuous improvement.
The standard requires clear responsibility and authority. It
emphasizes decision procedures, their documentation
and implementation. The standards will enhance and
complement either TQM or conventional quality systems.

66

Conformance does not guarantee world-class quality. An


organization can conform and still have a mediocre
(ordinary) output quality and a high quality cost.
For many firms, ISO 9000 can be part of a competitive
edge. It can contribute to marketing, reduce costs, and
be an qualifier for certain markets or customers. It is a
strong foundation for Total Quality Management and
Lean Manufacturing .

67

Basic Requirements
@

A documented quality system

Consistent adherence to the


documented quality system.

management by facts.

Check to see that the plan was


carried out.
68

ISO 9000 Registration Process


When an organization feels that its quality
system is good enough, it may ask an
accredited registrar or other third party audit
team for pre-assessment.
When the registrar is satisfied with the
favorable recommendation of the audit
team, it grants registration and issues a
registration document to the company.
69

ISO 9000 Registration Process


The final audit begins with a review of the
company's quality manual, which the
accredited registrar or third party audit
team typically uses as its guide. The
audit team checks to see that the
documented quality system meets the
requirement of ISO 9000 and that the
organization is practicing what is
documented.
70

COMPARING BALDRIDGE,
ISO 9000 AND SIX SIGMA
Although each of these frameworks are process-focused,
data-based and management-led, each offers a different
emphasis in helping organisations to improve
performance and increase customer satisfaction.
Baldridge focuses on performance excellence for the
entire organisation in an overall management framework,
identifying and tracking important organisational results.
71

ISO focuses on product and service conformity for


guranteeing equity in the marketplace and
concentrates on fixing quality system problems and
product and service nonconformities.
Six Sigma concentrates on measuring product
quality and driving process improvement and cost
savings throughout the organisation.

72

ISO 14000
ISO 14000 - A set of international standards
for assessing a companys environmental
performance
Standards in three major areas
Management systems
Operations
Environmental systems

73

ISO 14000
Management systems
Systems development and integration of
environmental responsibilities into business
planning

Operations
Consumption of natural resources and energy

Environmental systems
Measuring, assessing and managing
emissions, effluents, and other waste

74

ISO 14000
In brief:
ISO 14000 refers to a family of voluntary standards
developed by the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO). The standards provide a framework
for a strategic approach to an organizations environmental
policies, plans and actions. Using the framework, a company
develops an environmental management system or EMS.
The EMS is evaluated by a certification body to determine
whether the EMS conforms to ISO 14000. If so, the
organization is said to have ISO 14000 certification.
75

Background
The ISO has been developing voluntary technical
standards over almost all sectors of business, industry
and technology since 1947. The vast majority of ISO
standards are highly specific to a particular product,
material or process.
ISO 14000 is quite different from most other ISO
standards. It is known as a generic management system
standard. Generic means that the same standard can be
applied to any organization, large or small, whatever its
product or service, in any sector of activity, and whether it
is a business enterprise, public administration or
government department.
76

Management system refers to what the organization does


to manage its processes or activities. ISO 14000 is
concerned with the way an organization goes about its
work, and not directly with the results of this work. The
focus is on processes, not products.
ISO 14000 grew out of ISOs commitment to support
sustainable development as discussed at the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development in
Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Conversations among 20 countries,
11 international organizations, and more than 100
environmental experts actually began in 1991 to define the
basic requirements of a new approach to environmentrelated standards. The first standardsISO 14004 and
ISO 14001were published in September and October
1996, respectively.
77

ISO 14000 Family of Standards


The ISO 14000 family consists of standards and
guidelines relating to environmental management systems
and supporting standards on terminology and specific
tools, such as auditing. Essentially, the standards are
concerned with what an organization does to minimize
harmful effects on the environment caused by its activities:
either during production or disposal, either by pollution or
by depleting natural resources.
78

ISO 14000 is a group of standards covering the following


areas:
- Environmental Management Systems (14001,14002,14004)
- Environmental Auditing (14010, 14011, 14012)
- Evaluation of Environmental Performance (14031)
- Environmental Labeling (14020, 14021, 14022, 14023,
14024, 14025)
- Life-Cycle Assessment (14040, 14041,14042, 14043)
79

What is an ISO 14000 EMS?


An environmental management system (EMS) based on
the ISO 14000 standards is a management tool enabling
an organization of any size or type to control the impact of
its activities, products or services on the environment. It
defines a structured approach for
1)setting environmental objectives and targets,
2)achieving these goals, and
3)demonstrating that they have been achieved.
80

Because ISO 14000 does not set levels of


environmental performance, the standards can be
implemented by a wide variety of organizations,
whatever their current level of environmental
maturity. However, a commitment to compliance
with applicable environmental legislation and
regulations is required, along with a commitment
to continuous improvement.
81

What are the steps to certification?


1. Understand ISO 14001s need for controls,
procedures and records.
2. Determine environmental impacts and laws
relevant to your organization.
3. Identify existing procedures to use in ISO
14001 and new ones needed.

82

4. Write a Policy, Environment Manual,


Management Procedures and Records.
5. Measure and record your environmental
performance against objectives.
6. Audit, correct and improve your
environmental system and procedures.
7. Undergo independent assessment and
registration to ISO 14001.
83

Who conducts conformity assessments?


ISO does not carry out assessments to check that
standards are being implemented by users in conformity
with the requirements of any ISO standard. Rather, private
sector suppliers or regulatory bodies that have been
approved by a national accreditation body will carry out
certifications.
In Malaysia, member body to ISO is Department of
Standards Malaysia , DSM.
84

Benefits of ISO 14000 certification


The ISO 14000 approach forces managers to take a
critical look at all areas where their businesses have
an environmental impact. This systematic approach
can lead to benefits like the following:
Reduced cost of waste management,
Savings in consumption of energy and materials,
Lower distribution costs,
Improved corporate image among regulators,
customers and the public, and
Framework for continuous improvement of
environmental performance.
85

GROUP DISCUSSION
IN A SMALL GROUP OF 4 OR 5 STUDENTS; SELECT A
COMPANY WHICH HAS ISO CERTIFICATION (EITHER
ISO 9000 OR 14000 SERIES).
DISCUSS THE OVERALL COMPANY BACKGROUND
(SIZE, TYPE OF PRODUCTS..) AND
SCOPES OF ISO CERTIFICATION THE COMPANY
INVOLVED
(WHICH STANDARD;DEPARTMENT/ SCOPE OF
CERTIFICATION; OBJECTIVES OF PRODUCT OR SPEC.
TARGET; EXAMPLE OF PROCEDURES, RECORD,
MEASUREMENT, LAWS/ POLICY -14000
86