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# Alignment

Centrifugal
Compressor
Alignment

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The measure of the mechanical behavior of a compressor is given by the amplitude and frequency of the rotor vibrations.
The rotor vibration amplitude must not cause:
Contact between rotating and stator parts;
Fatigue in the bearings.
The typical vibrations of the centrifugal compressors can be classified with reference to the frequency and the nature of the force
causing vibrations.
According to the first classification (frequency) the vibration may be:
Synchronous
The vibration frequency corresponds to the machine rotation speed (R)
Asynchronous
The vibration frequency is different from the machine rotation speed ( R)

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=
The most common causes are:
Unbalance in the rotor system;
Rotor and stator parts contact;
Fouling deposit.

It is necessary to do another distinction between frequency of the vibration and machine rotational speed
Frequency of the vibration multiple of R

=
Frequency of the vibration lower or higher than R

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## The most common causes are:

Coupling misalignment;

= 2

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## The most common causes are:

High clearance in journal bearings

= 0.5

Oil whip;

= ( 0.4 0.5 )

## Aerodynamic effects (rotating stall in diffusers)

= ( 0.1 0.2 )

Cross - coupling

= 0.2
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Frequency of rotation

Supersynchrounous Vibration

Vibration amplitude

Subsybchrounous Vibration

Frequency

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The main problem that we have to consider when a rotor-bearing system is subjected to a periodic force is the phenomenon of
RESONANCE.

## A system is in resonance when vibration amplitude becomes maximum;

This occurs when the frequency of a periodic force (excitation frequency), applied to a rotor-bearing system, corresponds to a
natural frequency of that system.

A centrifugal compressor has many natural frequencies that are colled Critical Speeds.
The most important are the first and the second; It is necessary to determine the field operation speeds that avoid the resonance.

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To achieve this objective has been defined the Amplification Factor (AF).
According to API 617, it is an index of maximum vibration amplitude.

Amplitude

n lower

n critical

n upper

Speed

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Amplification Factor Determine:

System Stability:
Amount of System dampening needed.

Amplitude

> .

< .
Speed

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2
1

NC1
Ncn
Nmc
N1
N2
SM

0.707

## = Rotor first critical, center frequency, cycles per minute

= Critical speed, n th
= Maximum continuous speed, 105 percent
= Initial (lower) speed at 0,707 x peak amplitude (critical)
= Final (higher) speed at 0,707 x peak amplitude (critical)
= Separation margin

2 1

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When the rotor amplification factor is greater than or equal to 2.5, the corresponding frequency is called a critical frequency,
and the corresponding shaft rotational frequency is called a critical speed;
If the AF is less than 2.5, the response is considered critically dumped and no SM is required;
If the AF is 2.5 to 3.55, a SM of 15% above the maximum continuous speed and 5% below the minimum operating speed is
required.

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Vibrations damping is performed by means of journal bearings, the damping effect depends on rotational speed and bearing
clearances.
To ensure that vibrations are damped correctly a test, lateral analysis, is performed.
Lateral analysis reports only the rotordynamic behaviour of the compressor, torsional analysis reports the rotordynamic
behaviour of the whole train, including drivers, gearboxes etc.

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