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Design optimisation and comparison of tubular

permanent magnet machine topologies


J.Wang, G.W.Jewell and D.Howe

Abstract: The influence of the leading design parameters on the performance of slotless tubular
permanent magnet machines, and the relative merits of different tubular machine topologies, are
deduced from analytical field solutions. The force capability and force ripple are established as
functions of a set of dimensional ratios, with due account of magnetic saturation and subject to a
specific thermal constraint. The results provide an effective means of making comparative studies and
optimising machine designs, and will aid the design process when addressing a given performance
specification.

UK

magnet excitation are particularly attractive since they have


a high force density and excellent servo characteristics,
while having no end-windings [24].
In order to facilitate the design optimisation and accurate
dynamic modelling of linear permanent magnet machines,
a variety of techniques have been employed to predict the
magnetic field distribution [5], the most common approach
being to use a lumped equivalent circuit [6, 71. However,
while this allows the relationship between critical design
parameters and machine performance to be established
analytically, it suffers from problems associated with model
inaccuracy, particularly when flux leakage is significant and
the flux paths are complex. Therefore, numerical analysis
of the field distribution and evaluation of performance is
also employed [&lo]. However, while numerical techniques, such as finite element analysis, provide an accurate
means of determining the field distribution, with due
account of saturation, etc. they remain time-consuming,
and do not provide as much insight as analytical solutions
into the influence of the design parameters on the machine
behaviour. To overcome the aforementioned problems, 2D
analytical solutions for the magnetic field distribution in a
single-sided, planar linear permanent magnet motor have
been established, using the magnetic charge image technique [ll], and a magnetic vector potential formulation
[12, 131. More recently, a unified framework formulated in
the cylindrical co-ordinate system, for the analysis and
design of a class of tubular permanent magnet machines,
has been reported [14].
Utilising the analytical field solutions established in [14],
this paper further investigates the influence of the design
parameters on the performance of different tubular
machine topologies, and assesses their relative merits. For
this purpose, the force capability and force ripple have been
established as functions of a set of design parameters for a
class of slotless tubular permanent magnet machines,
subject to a specific thermal constraint and with due
account of magnetic saturation. The results not only
provide an effective tool for comparative studies and design
optimisation, but also give a useful insight into how basic
design choices can be made in order to meet a given
performance specification.

456

IEE Proc -Electr. Power Appl.. V d . 148, N o 5, September 2001

List of principal symbols

= armature heat dissipation area, m2

Brei,, = remanence, T
F
= thrust force, N
G = air-gap length, m
Jr1,,, = RMS current density, Aim2
kpf = winding packing factor
k,
1,

= armature surface temperature coefficient, W/m2 "C


= armature length, m
= inner radius of ring magnets, m

R,,, = outer radius of magnets, m


R, = outer radius of armature winding, m
R, = outer radius of armature, m
TRF = normalised total force ripple
z
= axial position, m
w
= angular frequency, radls
zln = axial length of magnets per pole, m
z,
= pole-pitch, m
1

Introduction

There is an increasing demand for linear servo-controlled


high-speed actuation, with high precision and a high bandwidth capability [l]. Linear electromagnetic machines,
which provide thrust force directly to a payload, offer
numerous advantages over their rotary-to-linear counterparts; notably the absence of mechanical gears and transmission systems, which results in a higher dynamic
performance and improved reliability. Of the various linear
machine topologies, tubular machines with permanent
0IEE, 2001
IEE Proceedizgs online no. 20010512
DOL 10.1O49/ipepa:2OOl0512
Paper first received 5th February and in revised form 5th April 2001
J. Wang, G.W. Jewell and D. Howe are with the Department of Electronic and
Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin St., Sheffield, S1 3JD,

Force production

+ sin m,

2.1 Force per phase winding


It has been shown in [14] that the axial force exerted on a
phase winding, comprising a number of series connected
coils, each displaced by a winding pitch z, and having a
current density J, is given by:
CO

Fwp= J

K , sin[m,(z

~ ~ ~ / 2 )(1)
]

n=l

where

mn = (an

I(,

l)x-/r,

which may be simplified to

(31

(5)

where F, is the constant thrust force due to the fundamental radial magnetic field component, and F, is the magnitude of the force ripple due to the (2n - 1)th harmonic field.
They are given, respectively, by:

FI = 8d&rpKrl J,,
sin(7r/4)
Fn = (-l)n&KnJTms
n = 2,3,. . .

= -qTpTwIdpnKTn

where p is the number of pole-pairs, rP is the pole-pitch,


and Z, is the axial width of the phase winding per pole.
Kdpnis defined as the winding factor of the (2n - 1)th harmonic, and is given by

~sin
)

(z- T

(7)

The normalised total force ripple is defined as:

K,., is the coefficient related to the (2n - 1)th harmonic in


the radial field distribution, and is given by

K,, =

L:

r[alnBI1(m,r)

+ b1,Bh'l

(m,r)]dr

(3)
where R,and R, are the inner and outer radii of the coils,
respectively, and BI,(.) and BK,(.) are modified Bessel
functions of the first and second kind, respectively, of order
one. U[, and b,, are the coefficients of the (2n - 1)th
harmonic, and are dependent upon the machine topology,
the permanent magnet material properties and geometric
parameters [14]. It will be noted that for the Halbach
magnetised machine topology described later, in which only
fundamental magnetic field components exist, the harmonic
coeficients are all zero.

Fig. 1

Winding arrmgmzent for two-phuse mchine

Fig.2

W d m g arrmgementfor three-phase machine

2.3 Three-phasemachines
The winding arrangement for a three-phase slotless tubular
machine is shown in Fig. 2. The three phase windings are
mutually displaced by two thirds of a pole-pitch and, similar to the two-phase machine, each winding can comprise a
number of series connected coils, with one coil per pole and
each coil occupying one third of a pole-pitch. The current
density in the phase windings is now given by:

JA = hJ,,,
J B = JZJ,,,

cos&

Jc

cos(&

= hJ,,,

C O S ( W ~-

J A = hJ,,,

+ 2.ir/3)

(9)

The total thrust force is obtained from:


F = FA FB iFc

2.2 Two-phasemachines

(z

The winding arrangement for a two-phase slotless tubular


machme is shown in Fig. 1. The two phase windings are
displaced by a half pole-pitch from each other, and each
winding may comprise a number of series connected coils,
with one coil per pole, each occupying a half pole-pitch.
The current density in each phase winding is given by:

2~/3)

n=l

+sinm,

(2

2)

2)

cos wt

):

cos (ut -

COS W t

J~ = JZJ,,, sinwt
(4)
where Jrm,y is the RMS value and w is the angular
frequency. Since the armature moves in synchronism with
the angular frequency, i.e. w = m/zpthe total thrust force is
obtained as
F = FA + FB

This may be simplified to

k = 1 , 2 ...

Fn3cos[(2n-5)(:)]

(11)

n=3k+3
k=0,1,2..

where F,, F,, and Fn3are given by:


IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 148. No. 5, September 2001

451

72 = 3 k + 3 , k = 0 , 1 , 2 , . . .
(12)
As will be evident from eqn. 11, the force ripple due to
triplen harmonics in the radial field distribution is zero. The
normalised total force ripple is therefore given by:

3.2 Effect of core saturation


Analytical field solutions for the different tubular machine
topologies are obtained assuming that the armature and
stator cores are infinitely permeable. Although saturation
of the cores is unlikely in slotless PM machines, it is prudent to account for saturation during the design optimisation process when different combinations of design
parameters are being considered. Thus, a fictitious radial
airgap is introduced between the armature windings and
the outer armature sleeve. The f drop in the stator or
armature core can be written as:

F =
f 3 k + 2 , k = 0 , 1 , 2 ; . .., (13)
Several observations can be made from the foregoing
analyses:
(i) For the same electrical and magnetic loadings, and the
same geometric design parameters, the ratio of the thrust
force of a three-phase machine due to the fundamental
radial field component to that of a two-phase machine is
1.061, i.e. the force capability of a three-phase machine is
about 6% higher than that of the two-phase equivalent.
(ii) The force ripple due to triplen field harmonics is zero in
the three-phase machine, while a force ripple exists for all
odd harmonics in the two-phase machine. Hence, the threephase machine has a lower force ripple compared to the
two-phase machine.
It follows that, in general, a three-phase machine will
have a better performance than a two-phase machine. Further, integrated power modules are widely available for
three-phase brushless machines. The subsequent discussion
will, therefore, be focused on three-phase machines only.
1%

Design optimisation

Having established an analytical expression for the force


capability, the design of a tubular machine can be optimised with respect to a given criterion. For example, for
maximum force capability or for minimum cost for a given
performance specification and volumetric constraint. In this
paper, design optimisation is addressed at maximising the
force capability, subject to satisfying other performance
specifications.

3.7 Thermal contraints


As can be seen from eqn. 12, the force capability is proportional to the RMS current density, which is limited by the
allowable temperature rise, under a specific cooling
arrangement. Hence, the permissible winding copper loss
and iron loss are governed by the dissipation capability of
the machine, i.e.:
where k p ,is the winding packing factor, p is the resistivity
of copper, ke is the armature surface temperature coefficient, A is the armature surface dissipation area, and AT is
the allowable temperature rise of the windings. The iron
loss pfe can be predicted using the formula in [ 151, from the
flux density derived from the analytical field solution given
in [14]. The permissible current density is therefore given by

Thus, eqns. 12 and 15 relate the force capability to the


design parameters under a given thermal condition.
458

lT

H,,(z)dz

(16)

where H,,,(z) is the average magnetic field strength, which


can be deduced from the calculated flux density and the
B-H characteristic of the core. The length of the fictitious
airgap, AG, may then be determined from:

AG = (L
+W / ~ a v / P o

(17)

where F,, and F,, are the f drops in the armature and
stator cores, respectively, and Bo, is the average flux density
at the bore of the armature sleeve, i.e at r = R,. The effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed by finite
element analysis.

3.3 Machines with surface-mounted radially


magnetised magnets
The main design parameters which influence the performance are shown in Fig. 3, where 1, is the active armature
length, G is the airgap length, and R, is the outer radius of
the armature. For slotless machines, finite element analysis
shows that the influence of end effects associated with the
finite armature length on the flux-linkage and thrust force
of the windings is negligible. Hence, eqns. 11-1 3 and 15 can
be used to predict the force capability and the force ripple.
In order that the findings are independent of machine size,
the thrust force due to the fundamental component of the
radial magnetic field is divided by the volume of the armature, zRZ1, to give the force density. Thus, the design
objective is to optimise the machine parameters so as to
maximise the force density and minimise the total force
ripple, while satisfying other given specifications.
k

Fig.3

armature

Design parameters of machine equipped with r d i d v nwgneliwd

n2agnets

For a given outer radius, RA,the design parameters that


affect the force density and the force ripple are Qr,
R,,,IR,, z,lR,, R,IR, and G. However, for slotless machines,
the influence of the airgap length is not as significant as for
slotted machmes, and in this study it is therefore considered
to be constant.
The force density and the force ripple are functions of a
set of dimensional ratios, and an optimal design can be
sought by scanning all possible combinations within specified ranges. However, since the influence of some dimensional ratios is almost independent of the others, the
optimisation process can be performed in separate parameter subspaces.
IEE Ptoc -Electr Powei A p p l , Vol 148, N u 5. September 2001

By way of example, Fig. 4a shows how the force density


varies as a function of z,lzp for three different values of
z l R while Figs. 4b and c show the variation for three
&f&ent values of R,IR, and RoIR,, respectively, assuming
Brem= 1.15T, pr = 1.05, p = 1.71 x 10-lQm, kp,= 0.5, k , =
4.3Wlm2 C, AT 100C and R, = 0.03m.

ratios zplR,s,RJR, and RJR,s,i.e. it has a minimum value


when zm/zp= 0.8, at which the spatial field distribution due
to the permanent magnets is almost sinusoidal and has the
minimum harmonic content.

a
2.2

I
n
-

2.1

E 2.0

1
,j 1.9
.Lo

1.8
a,

n
P

1.7

1.6
1.5
b

2.3

2.2

;
- 2.1

I
n
-

2.0

.-.
5
7 1.9

.ln

1.8

2 1.7

1.6
1.5
0.6

0.7

0.8
tm/xp

0.9

1.0
%l/%

Fig. 5

(1R.t = 1.5
?IR = 1.0
h 5IR, = l!k,SR,lR,, = 0.75
R...IR = 0.80
..
.. RJR, = 0.75
RJR, = 0.70
c z,,IR, = 1.25, R,,,IR, = 0.715
RJR,,, = 0.80
- .. - .. RJR,,, = 0.15
RJR,,, = 0.10

Noimulived totalforce ripple usfmction of q,&


u RJR, = 0.775, RJR,,, = 0.75
T I R = 2.0
- .. - .. z?IRs= 1.5
PIR = 1.0
h r,,IRs = l!h,sR,/R,, = 0.15
RJR, = 0.80
RJR, = 0.75
R,,IR,y = 0.70
(. T,,IR, = 1.25, R,,,IR, = 0.115
RJR,,, = 0.80
- .. - .. RJR,,, = 0.15
- RJR,, = 0.70

As will be seen, the variation of the force density with


zmlzpis essentially similar, irrespective of the ratios of zplRs,
RJR, and R,IR,. The general trend is that an increase in
zn7/zP
results in an increase in the force capability. However,
the rate of increase of the force capability reduces progressively as qnlz approaches 1.0. The higher the ratio z,,,/zp,
the greater t i e magnet volume, and therefore, the more
expensive the machine.
Fig. 5 shows how the total force ripple vanes as a function of zmlzp.Again, it will be observed that the influence of
z,/zp on the total force ripple is the same, irrespective of the

From the foregoing discussion, it follows that: (i) the


influence of z,lzp on both the force capability and the total
force ripple is independent of the other dimensional ratios;
and (ii) the force capability increases as z,/rp is increased,
and there is an optimal ratio of zJzp = 0.8 at which the
total force ripple is a minimum. Hence, if the primary
design objective is to maximise the force capability, a ratio
of zm/zp = 1 would be desirable. In many servo applications, however, the total force ripple is an important consideration and a ratio of zm/zp = 0.8 may be more
appropriate.

Fig.4 Force density us fwiction of T,,%


a RJR, = 0.115, RJR,,, = 0.75
T IR = 2.0

-,,-?

~~

IEE Proc -Elertr Power A p p l , Vol 148, No 5. September 2001

459

Fig. 6 shows how the force capability and the normalised total force ripple vary as functions of zplRs,assuming
R, = 0.03m, RmIR,$= 0.115, RJR, = 0.15, and zn,/zp= 0.8.
As will be seen, an optimum value of z$RI exists which
results in maximum force capability. As the ratio of zplRsis
reduced below the optimum value the field produced by the
permanent magnets decays more rapidly with radius, and
hence the force capability reduces. However, if the ratio of
SIR, is too large, the flux per pole becomes excessive and
results in saturation of both the stator and armature iron
cores, if their radii are maintained constant, or require
larger cores if their flux density is to be maintained constant. In both cases, the force density again reduces. The
total force ripple, however, increases progressively as the
ratio of zp/Rsis increased. Hence, a smaller ratio would be
preferred if a low force ripple is required.

leakage and saturation. In this particular example, the optimal values for R,IRs and R,IR,,, are 0.8 and 0.6, respectively. However, this ratio of RoIRmmay be excessive in
terms of cost and demagnetisation withstand capability.
Increasing the ratio to 0.15 would reduce the magnet cost
by 30%, but decrease the force density by only 7%.

0.9

2.10

m
-

2.08
2.06

2.3 I

2.04

2.2

.-5
?

2.02

m
-

0
,-.

2.1

m
E

.
z

2.0

.-

1.9

U
a3

1.a

2!

2.00
1.98

1.961

a3

1.7

1.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

RnlfR,
b

Fig.7 Force &mAty urfunction of R J ! , and R,,/R,,


- .. -

I
0.95

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

XpfR,

Fig. 6 Force density dnormulired totalforce ripple LIS junctions of?&


a Force density

b Total force ripple

Fig. 8 shows the variation of the normalised total force


ripple with RJR, and RmIRs,with zn,/zp = 0.8 for minimum force ripple, and the other parameters remaining
unchanged. As will be seen, the force ripple increases as the
ratio R,,,IR, increases, but is relatively insensitive to RJR,.

3.4
Fig. 7 shows the variation of the force density as a function of R,IR,,, and RJR, with ZJR.~= 1.25, the other
parameters being the same as those which were assumed
for Fig. 6. As will be seen, for a given RoIRln,there is an
optimal ratio of R,IR,\ which yields the maximum force
capability. This ratio represents an optimal balance
between the electrical loading and the magnetic loading
of the machine for a given thermal performance. The ratio
RJR,,,, on the other hand, determines the radial thickness
of the magnets, and the maximum value may be governed
by the required demagnetisation withstand capability under
the worst tase operating scenario. For a given R,n, increasing the magnet thickness leads to an increased material
cost, but does not necessarily result in an improved force
capability, as can be observed from Fig. 7a, in which an
optimal ratio of RoIRmexists which yields maximum force
density. Decreasing R,IR,, below t h s optimal value lowers
the force density, due to the combined effects of inter-pole
460

R..IR.,. = 0.80
RiIR;;;= 0.75
RJR,,, = 0.70
R,/R,,, = 0.65
RJR,,, = 0.60

Machines with axially magnetised magnets

Fig. 9 shows the main design parameters which influence


the performance of a tubular machine, whose stator
comprises axially magnetised magnets and ferromagnetic
pole pieces. Normally, the magnets and the pole-pieces
would be accommodated within a non-magnetic stainless
steel tube. Thus, the effective airgap G is usually greater
than that in a machine equipped with radially magnetised
magnets. Again, however, G is considered to be a specified
design parameter. Thus, there are three dimensional ratios
to be considered: zn7/zp, RmIRs and zplRs. Similar to
machines equipped with radially magnetised magnets the
influence of the ratio of z,z/z, on the performance is largely
independent of the other two dimensional ratios. By way of
example, Fig. 10 shows the variation of the force density
and the normalised total force ripple with zmlz,, and R,,,IR,,
assuming TP/Rs= 1.25, G = 0.002m, and R, = 0.030m,
other parameters being the same as those which were
assumed for the radially magnetised machme.
I E E Proc-Electr. Power AppI., Vol. 148. No. 5, September 2001

a,

2
P

0.018

-aQ,

0.016

.E 0.014

0.012

0.010

.-

0.008

0.006
0.004

I
0.70

1.51
0.65

0.002

0.4

0.80
0.65 0.90
RdRS
b
Fig.% Norinulked totalforce ripple UI'fwiciion of R&,, and RJR,,
1

____

0.75

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

zm/Tp

Force dmrity

RJR,, = 0.80
RJR,,, = 0.75
RJR,, = 0.70
RJR,,, = 0.65
RJR,, = 0.60

b
normtrliwd totalforce r&de

CIS functions

of'~Jz,

a Force density

h Normalised total force ripple


R,,,IR, = 0.75

- .. - ..

RJR, = 0.70
RJR, = 0.65

k
Fig.9
nets

'e

Design parmeters of nuicliine equipped with cucicrlly mugneiked mug-

As can be seen, the force density increases as the ratio

zmI3>is varied from 0.4 to 0.9, in a similar manner to that

which was observed earlier. With regard to the total force


ripple, this exhibits a local maximum at z,,/z, = 0.525, and
a minimum at zmlzp= 0.70. Thus, a value of zmlzpbetween
0.6 and 0.7 probably represents the best compromise
between performance and magnet cost.
Fig. 11 shows the variation of the force density with
R,,,IR, and zplR,, from which it is evident that for a given
value of z,lR,, there is an optimal ratio of R,,,IR, which
results in the maximum force density. For a given value of
R,IR,, there is also an optimal value for zJR, which results
in the maximum force density. The optimal combination of
dimensional ratios for R,,IR, and z,,IRs for this particular
example, are 0.81 and 0.94, respectively, which results in a
maximum force density of 2.58 x lo5 N/m3.
Fig. 12 shows the variation of the total force ripple as a
function of R,,IR, and zpIR,.As will be seen, the force ripple increases when both of these dimensional ratios are
increased. However, at the optimal dimensional ratios for
maximum force density, the normalised total force ripple is
less than 0.3%).
IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 148, No 5 . September 2001

.. .

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80 0.85
R m h

0.90 0.95

b
Fig. 11 Force density crsfwzction ofRJRs and T,&
TIR = 10
- - :IRA = 0.94
_ _ _ {IR; = 0 78
~

46 1

1.o

0.9

Fig. 12 Nornlalised totulforce ripple m f i c t i o n ofR,,/R, und ?,&

3.5 Machines with Halbach magnetised


magnets
Fig. 13 shows a schematic of a Halbach magnetised tubular
machine [16], in which magnets may be supported on either
a ferromagnetic or a non-magnetic stator. As has been
shown in [141, although iron-cored, Halbach magnetised
magnets no longer possess the 'self shelding' (i.e. zero fluxlinkage) property, the magnetic field in the region r < & is
relatively weak. Therefore, the role of the stator back-iron
is not primarily to provide a permeable flux path, but
mainly for mechanical support. Three dimensional ratios,
Rn,IR,, zARs and RoIR,, can be optimised for a given R,,
the airgap G being the same as that for the radially magnetised machine. It should be noted that since the magnetic
field is sinusoidally distributed, the force ripple will, in
theory, be zero.

Fig. 13

0.8 0 7

RO/R,
b

Fig. 14 Force d " t y


~

_ _
_ _

NS

a function of RJR5 urui RJR,,,

RJR, = 0 80

RJR, = 0 75
R,,IR, = 0 70

De.,@ parm2eters of Hulbuch mugnetked niucliine topology

Fig. 14 shows the variation of the force density with


RoIR, and R,,IR,, assuming TAR, = 1.25, R, = 0.03m and
the other parameters being the same as those which were
assumed for Fig. 4. As will be seen from Fig. 14b, the
curves of force density as functions of R,IR, for three
values of R,IR, are almost parallel to each other, which
suggests that the influence of R,lR, on the force density is
largely independent of the other two dimensional ratios.
Further, the force density increases significantly as the ratio
of R,IR, is varied from 0.8 to 0.2, i.e. as the radial thickness of the magnets increases, although the rate of increase
becomes progressively smaller. However, the apparently
optimal value of R,IR, 0.2 is probably inappropriate due
to the potentially h g h cost of the magnets, which are likely
to be considerably thicker than the minimum for the
required demagnetisation withstand capability.
Fig. 15 shows the variation of the force density with TAR,
and R,IR,, with RoIR, = 0.75 and the other parameters
being the same as those which were assumed for Fig. 14.
Again, there exists an optimal combination of dimensional
ratios, zplRs= 0.6 and R,IR, = 0.85, which yields the maximum force density of 2.34 x 105N/m3.

0.9

a
I

E.

2.3
2.2

.
z

rQ

2.1

2.0

'g

462

0 6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0 2 0 1

1.9

1.8
$2 1.7

1.6
1.5

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0.90

Fig. 15 Force density as u f i c t i o n of r-Rs mi M R , ,


~

.. - ..

TJR,= 1.0
IR = 0.80
{IR; = 0.60
IEE Proc -Elecrr. Power Appl.. Vol. 148, No. 5, September 2001

Comparison of machine topologies

The results and discussions which have been presented


show that an optimal design can be derived for all three
tubular machine topologies, given a specified objective; for
example, to maximise the force capability with due consideration of the force ripple. For all three topologies, the
force capability increases as the magnet thickness and the
ratio of the magnet length per pole to the pole-pitch, T,/T,,
are increased. This may, however, lead to an unacceptably
high magnet material cost, and in practice the maximum
magnet thickness may be dictated simply by the demagnetisation withstand requirement. There is an optimal ratio of
T ~ , / Tfor
~ both the radially and axially magnetised machine
topologies, which results in the minimum force ripple and
. only a small reduction in the thrust force capability. It may,
therefore, be prudent to adopt this ratio. The other two
influential dimensional ratios are rP/Rsand R,IR,, for
which optimal values can be derived for maximum force
density. The influence of zP/RJis, however, less significant
than that of R,IR,. Thus, the most effective and convenient
parameter to vary in order to optimise the design is the
dimensional ratio R,,IR,.
With respect to the relative merits of the different
machine topologies, the Halbach magnetised machine
topology eliminates force ripple due to spatial field harmonics, although force ripple due to harmonics in the
phase currents and saliency associated with the finite length
of the armature core may still exist. However, the force ripple is still likely to be significantly lower than that for the
other two machine topologies, while its force capability is
comparable. The manufacture of Halbach oriented NdFeB
magnets may, however, be problematic due, for example,
to anisotropic shrinkage during sintering. It would, however, be relatively easy to produce a Halbach oriented
bonded anisotropic NdFeB magnet by compression moulding, although its remanence, and hence the resultant force
capability, would be lower.
Table 1: Comparison of the three machine topologies
I

To~OlOgY

Radial
magnetisation

Axial
Halbach
magnetisation magnetisation

4 ,m

0.03

0.03

0.03

G,m

0.001

0.002

,0.001

rmlrp

0.8

0.7

RdRm

0.6

0.75

RmIRs

0.8

0.81

1 0.85

ZdRS

1.25

0.94

0.60

Force density,
N/m3

2.25 x I O 5

2.58 x 105

2.34 x

2.55 x

Total force ripple 2.58 x IO

Magnet material n(Rm2-Ro2)~m/~p


nRm2(tm/rp)
per axial length, = 9.26 x
= 1.30 x
m2

almost identical. However, the axially magnetised machine


requires more permanent magnet material than the other
two topologies. Therefore, its higher force density is
achieved at the expense of a higher magnet volume. If the
volume of magnet material in the axially magnetised
machine is reduced to the same value as that in the radially
magnetised machine, by reducing R,/R,, to 0.685, for example, the resulting force density will be 2.31 x 105N/m3,
which is almost identical to that of the other machine
topologies.
It will also be noted that the design of the axially
magnetised machine is based on an assumed thickness of
0.001m for the non-magnetic tube which contains the
magnets and iron pole-pieces. Any variation of this figure
will, of course, affect the force density.
As regards the permanent magnets, sintered axially
anisotropic rare-earth magnets are widely available, and
can easily be magnetised by placing them in a solenoid.
Radially anisotropic ring magnets are also available,
although they are likely to be more expensive, and will
require a custom-designed impulse magnetising fixture.
Hence, the higher volume of magnet material in the axially
magnetised machine may not necessarily result in a higher
production cost. By comparison, Halbach oriented rareearth magnets are, as yet, not widely available, and may
therefore be relatively expensive.

Based on analytical field solutions, the force capability and


force ripple of three topologies of slotless tubular pemanent magnet machine have been established as functions of
various dimensional ratios. They provide a useful tool for
assessing the influence of leading design parameters on
their performance. It has been shown that for each
machine topology, optimal ratios of R,,IR, and 3,/R,sexist,
which result in maximum force capability for a given radius
R,%and a specific thermal condition. For both the radially
and axially magnetised machines, an optimal ratio of zmlzp
also exists for minimum force ripple, the force ripple of the
Halbach magnetised machine being zero, in theory. A comparative study has shown that the axially magnetised
machine topology has a higher force capability than the
other two machine topologies, but requires more permanent magnet material.
6

io5

4 R m 2- Ro2)
=8.94~

3
4

Comparing the force capability of an optimally designed


radially magnetised machine with that of an optimal axially
magnetised machine, the latter has a higher force density
for the same outer radius, R,, of the armature windings.
The optimal design parameters and the resulting performance for all three machine topologies are given in Table 1.
The design optimisation was carried out for maximum
force capability subject to the total force ripple < 0.3%. As
will be seen, the total force ripples of the radially magnetised and the axially magnetised machine topologies are
IEE P I O C-EIectr Power Appl

Vol 148 N o 5 September 2001

Conclusions

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IEE Prm-Electr. Power Appl.. Vol. 148, No. 5. September 2001