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ORGANIZED CRIME

INTRODUCTION
Organized crime is illegal behavior that is planned and carried out by groups of people in a very
systematic manner. Today, organized crime is business at large scale that is conducting global
commerce for the trafficking of illegal services and products as well as developing the associated
supply chains.
These crimes include: Bribery, Murder, Counterfeiting, Embezzlement of Union Funds, Mail
Fraud, Wire Fraud, Money Laundering, Obstruction of Justice, Murder for Hire Drug
Trafficking, Prostitution Sexual Exploitation of Children, Alien Smuggling, Trafficking in
Counterfeit Goods, Kidnapping Gambling, Arson Robbery, Sports Bribery Extortion, Drugs, and
Theft from Interstate Shipment/Interstate.
In India, organized crime is committed to seeking protection money, contract killing, bootlegging, gambling, prostitution and smuggling, and drug trafficking, illicit arms trading, money
laundering, transporting illegitimate activities based essentially on its readiness to use physical
force and violence.
By corrupting public officials and thereby monopolising or near monopolising, organised crime
aims to secure for itself power. Organised crime has been committed in India since earlier time in
some form or another.
In India, there is no broad law to control organised crime. There is substantive law regarding
criminal scheme.
ORGANIZED CRIME- MEANING
Organized crime is described as any group having a corporate structure whose main aim is to
obtain money through unlawful activities often surviving on fear and corruption.
Organized crime:
Is an act committed by two or more criminals as a joint venture in an organised manner
It is an illegal act which the members of association commit with their mutual co-operation and
adventure.
Organised Crime is an unlawful misadventure which is carried on by a boss, his leiutenants and
operates and operators who form a hierarchial structure for a specific period- Dr. Walter Reckless
Organised crime resembles those economic adventures or enterprises which are organised to
carry on illegal activities Sellin

Like any other business organisation, professional criminals organise themselves into criminal
gangs to carry on the anti social activities with the skill and efficiency for profit making.
Criminals organise themselves into criminal groups with a view to specialising in their traits and
accept a particular crime as their occupation.
These criminals are habitual and hardened offenders who have embraced criminality as a regular
profession.
Eg. Organised gambling, liquor trade, prostitution, drug trafficking
According to Sutherland there is at least one thing common among these criminal organisations
i.e., they are bound together by a common hostility towards law and therefore members assist
and protect each other from law enforcing authorities.
INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION
The UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols thereto
UNODC is the guardian of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized
Crime (Organized Crime Convention) and the three Protocols -on Trafficking in Persons,
Smuggling of Migrants and Trafficking of Firearms - that supplement it.
This is the only international convention, which deals with organized crime. It is a landmark
achievement, representing the international community's commitment to combating transnational
organized crime and acknowledging the UN's role in supporting this commitment. The adoption
of the Convention at the fifty-fifth session of the General Assembly of the United Nations in
2000 and its entry into force in 2003 also marked a historic commitment by the international
community to counter organized crime.
The Organized Crime Convention offers States parties a framework for preventing and
combating organized crime, and a platform for cooperating in doing so. States parties to the
Convention have committed to establishing the criminal offences of participating in an organized
crime group, money laundering, corruption and obstruction of justice in their national legislation.
By becoming parties to the UNTOC, States also have access to a new framework for mutual
legal assistance and extradition, as well as a platform for strengthening law enforcement
cooperation. States parties have also committed to promoting training and technical assistance to
strengthen the capacity of national authorities to address organized crime.

TYPES OF ORGANISED CRIME


Organised crime has three major types: gang criminality, racketeering, and syndicated crime.
1. Gang Criminality
This type of criminality includes kidnapping, extortion, robbery, vehicle theft, etc. on a large
scale. Gangs are composed of tough and hardened criminals who do not hesitate to kill, assault,
or use violence. They are equipped with modern pistols, bullet-proof vests, cars, etc. The gang
criminals are efficient, disciplined but dangerous.
These criminals are recruited from among ex-convicts, escaped murderers, professional
gangsters, and high-powered robbers.
The Tyagi gang in Delhi, the Radha Yadav gang in Champaran district in Bihar, the Aran Gandhi
gang in Bombay, the Vikram Singh gang in Uttar Pradesh, and the Shrikant gang in Bihar are
some of the notorious gangs operating in different parts of our country, and, are engaged in
robberies, kidnapping small children and wealthy individuals for obtaining ransoms, murder,
extortion, and smuggling.
2. Racketeering
This is an activity of an organised criminal gang engaged in extortion of money from both
legitimate and illegitimate business through intimidation of force. It also involves dishonest way
of getting money by deceiving or cheating people, selling worthless goods and articles,
adulterated commodities, spurious drugs and so forth.
The racketeers, unlike organised criminal gangs do not take away all the profits but allow the
owners of the illegitimate business to continue their operations like prostitution, gambling, liquor
trafficking, drug peddling, etc., but give them (racketeers) regular fixed money.
3. Syndicate Crime
This is furnishing illegal goods and services by an organised criminal gang, often called 'mafia'.
The illegal goods could be drugs, liquor, etc. while the illegal services could be call-girls,
gambling and so forth. The syndicates create their own 'business' procedures.
They generally operate in big metropolitan areas which happen to be big centres of
communication, transportation and distribution of goods.

The leaders of big crime syndicates periodically gather at fixed places to discuss their problems
The scope and effect of the criminal operations of syndicates vary from one area to another, the
wealthiest and most influential groups operate in Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Calcutta and the
capital cities of some states like Patna, Lucknow, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, etc.
Characteristics of organised crime
Organised crime has following important characteristics
1. Team work: It involves association of a group of criminals which is relatively permanent
and may even last decades.
2. Planning: It involves advance arrangements for successfully committing crimes,
minimising risks and insuring safety and protection.
3. Specialisation: Some groups specialise in just one crime while some others may be
simultaneously engaged in multiple crimes. Those groups which are engaged in multiple
crimes are more powerful and influential.
4.

Division of labour: Organised crime involves delegation of duties and responsibilities


and specialisation of functions.

5. Violence: It depends upon use of force and violence to commit crimes and to maintain
internal discipline and restrain external competition.