Disusun untuk memenuhi tugas mata kuliah Genetika Molekuler
Dosen: Dr. Budi S. Daryono, M.Agr.Sc, Ph.D.

Disusun oleh:
Royan Mahmud Musthofa



He is a scientist who have a decided in the plant. but not exactly 100 I think. he tried to research the peas and its offspring. He thinks that what the biological mechanism that caused the certain characteristic disappear in the first generation and show up in the second generation. The result is he found that all of the peas seed are round shape. which has a round shape and other has a wrinkled shape. and especially how the heredity process. Those factors are called genes. The characteristics of our parent will show up in us. but arranged very clearly and continuously from the first discoveries to the next. Explain what makes us as a human. Here are the discoveries of genetics in the video: 1) The Law of Inheritance by Gregor Mendel (19th century) As we know that we are born from our parent. Fountain and Jonathan Zurer and the Bill Nye as a host. The wrinkled shape of peas is just in one-quarter than whole offspring. He starts to crossbreeding the different types of garden peas. the inheritance from the parents to their child or offspring can be done. This video shows us the great of 100 discoveries in genetics. And the recessive is the characteristic which is rarely to show even disappear. Each parent contributes on factor each characteristic. telling us the journey of genetics invention from the past until the recent.Resume This video title is “100 Greatest Discoveries of Genetics” produced by Michael F. Very great video I think. The offspring of the second generation shows the different characteristics. Mendel has discovered the great invention in the science of genetics. Then he observes the characteristic of the offspring. No matter will seem almost like to our father or our mother. He continuous to crossbreeding to get the second generation. The characteristics of the certain in the peas are controlled by a single gene. there are the peas with round shape and the wrinkle shape. Each inherited characteristics must be decided by a pair of what he called factors. . by means that the characteristic which usually show up. certain factor are dominance and other are recessive depending on the combination of the factors. In his first curiosity. He continuous his experiment to crossbreeding the second generation and reveal that the comparation of the round shape and wrinkled shape are in numerical ratios. not like as he expected that the offspring will show up the combination of both parents. Uncover the miracle of heredity viewed by molecular to defining the biology of life. or may be the combination of both. The concept of that phenomena now we called as a dominance. This first phenomena are realized by Gregor Mendel in 19 th century.

At that time. The female has two X chromosomes than. the second reason is one female fly can produce hundreds of offspring. When the spores of Neuspora are radiated by the X-rays.2) Genes are Located on the Chromosome by Thomas Hunt Morgan (1909) Morgan is an embryologist in Columbia University start the experiment to prove the inheritance of Mendel factor. The first generation offspring show that all of the flies have red eye. Their research is about the Neurospora crasa. he finally realizes that the gender is determined by a two rod shape structure found in the nucleus.” 4) Transposons by Barbara McClintock (20th century) . In fact. He chooses Drosophila for several reasons. it generates the hypothesis of “one gene one enzyme. the Neusopres can be live only given by nutrients. red with the male which have a white eye. Morgan start working his experiment using Drosophila melanogaster. the male has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. he realizes that the red eye is associated with the X chromosome. He crossbreeding the female with the ordinary eye. 3) Genes Control Biochemical Events by George Beadle and Tatum (1935) Beadle still examine the different color of Drosophila and his argument that different color of eyes is caused by the chemical reaction. Hence. the genes which responsible to making the nutrient are defective. In the male chromosome. He thinking that the white eye is distinctive similar with the Mendel’s experiment of peas. The offspring of the second generation show the characteristics that there are both fly in the red and white eye. much of flies. such as the Drosophila has a short period of reproduction time. the chromosome. But Morgan found something else that all of the fly with white eyes are male. He continuous his experiment to see the second generation. the one X chromosome will be overshadowing the other X chromosome to show up the red eye color. Then. This experiment reveal that the genes are not only responsible for inheritance but also producing the enzyme need by to do metabolism. the species we known as fruit flies. Because in the genetically work we need much of data. In the first week the offspring of the first generation one by one generated. much individuals.

The examine the bacteriophage (the bacteria that was infected by the virus). They research a E. The virus injects its DNA and placing the certain DNA in the nucleus. But the question is. The two strand are link together by the hydrogen bond. They have been successful to discover the structure of DNA molecule. 6) The Double Helix Structure of DNA by Watson and Crick (1953) The next genetics discoveries that change the global viewed about genetics and contribute to development of genetics science has uncovered by James Watson and Francis Crick. The virus is known consist of two parts. the protein shell outside the genetic material Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid / DNA inside.Coli bacteri that was infected by the virus. The transposons is defined as a gene which able to move from one location to another and can leads to the mutation. what can the DNA control the protein synthesize that occurred in the cytoplasm even they are in the .McClintock says that certain gene was locate on the chromosome would be on a different position at different times. Thymin (T). By the X-ray crystallography technique. the expression is not produce the certain protein but producing the virus. The DNA are consisting of code genetics information which is arrange by the four types of nitrogen base. Finally. they are able to describe in 3 dimensional model of DNA. 7) Messenger RNA Years before Watson and Crick found the structure of DNA. He examines the kernel and found that the different types of color in kernel. The DNA molecule is described by the double helix model. There are Adenin (A). the DNA molecules has discovered that their function is making the protein. 5) DNA Carries Genetics Material by Hershey and Cease (1952) Hershey and Cease found the great discovery in genetics engineering. Cytocin (C). The transposons can make the chromosome to mutate due to the environment condition or the revolutionary mechanism. The process is called transformation that the virus injected the central machinery (nucleus) and take over the function. and Guanin (G). He finally realized that all the living thing has transposons.

the scientist named it as a RNA messenger.nucleus? The scientist. When the virus attach to bacteria and start to inject their DNA into the cytoplasm. soon the RNA are found in the whole of cytoplasm and the production of protein are increased. once again examine the bacteriophage to answer that question. . Then. it communicates with the other RNA to synthesize the protein. This is the point of discovery that when the RNA which has a single strand entered the protein factory.

When the viral DNA injected by the virus into the cytoplasm of bacteria. finally Smith are able to extract the restriction enzyme from the bacteriophage. Adenin. the scientist research finally discovers the RNA alternative splicing. Also he discovers that the restriction enzyme cut the DNA molecule in the same place. In the concept before. As known before that RNA copied the sequence of information in the DNA to make the specific amino acid. now.8) The Genetic Code by Marshal Nirenberg and Heinric McTie (9161) The Nirenberg and McTie have discovered the genetic code. nowadays. For example. He found the molecule DNA which is just consist of several sequence and it sequence are . there have been extracted many of restriction enzyme as the basic tools of genetic engineering. The molecule which able to cut the DNA is called the restriction enzyme. 11) Minisatellite DNA by Alec Jeffreys (1984) In the 1984. The research before has known that there twenty of amino acid and the RNA are consisting of four types of nitrogen bases. Smith discovery is about the mechanism how the restriction enzyme cut the DNA molecule. 9) Restriction Enzyme by Verner Arber (1962) and Hamilton Smith (1972) Arber in 1962 research the bacteriophage and discover the restriction enzymes. After the discovery of RNA alternative splicing. But what this sequence of information means. 10) RNA Alternative Splicing (1980) In the 1980. Alec Jeffreys found the something new which he never seen before. From his discovery. Their discovery is one amino acid is coded by the three of nitrogen bases. From his research. the process protein synthesize not only can make one protein but also can make the multiple protein. we know that one gene is copied into the RNA to synthesize one protein. That discovery begun when examine the virus which inject the bacteria. the Arginin are coded by the three nitrogen bases of Adenin. and Cytocin. inside the bacteria against by cutting that viral DNA so that it can’t be functional.

leads by the Craig Venter. Their experiment is when they injected two strand of RNA molecule into the specific cell. the one RNA is breakdown and other is maintain. 12) RNA Interference by Andrew Fire and Craig Mello (1997) Andrew and Mello research the function of the specific gene. Alec research about the boy DNA and found the minisatllite DNA.000 genes In the June 2000. This is a great discovery of sequencing the human genome which complete by many time of research. 13) 25.repeated. That are some discovery of genetics by the scientist from Gregor Mendel in his discovery of gene that able to inheritance the characteristics of the parent to the offspring until the sequencing of complete genetic code (genom). the sequencing of complete genetic blueprint called the genome are completely done. and the result is exactly identic. Finally. His research about the minisatellite DNA was initiated from the case that the Boy who travel from Ghana to England finally deport because of a forgery passport. That discovery absolutely giving us the valuable scientific knowledge and hopefully the next discovery are soon uncovered to the development of science for the human being. Jeffreys then called this repeated sequences as “minisatelite DNA”. The minisatellite DNA of the boy then compared to the mother’s boy. . As the effect the gene which responsible to making the protein is turned-off.