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5/11/10

The Circulatory System


Functions:
1. Transport of Nutrients to all body parts
* Glucose, amino acids, lipids, inorganic salts and water
2. Transport of Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
* Carried as free dissolve in Plasma
The Circulatory System * Hemoglobin (RBC)
3. Transport of Hormones
4. Transport of Excretory Products
*Urea, uric acid, creatines , and wastes from Liver
5. Fight against Infections and Toxins
* WBC’s of Blood
* Monocytes – Phagocytosis
* Lymphocytes – cooperate in Phagocytosis
a. T-Lymphocytes – heart of cell-mediated immune
response
b. B- Lymphocytes – heart of antibody immune response

6. Maintains acid-base balance through the There are several types of circulatory
buffer system w/c neutralizes acids and systems.
bases.
7. Transport of heat or maintain body 1. open circulatory system = (evolved in
temperature insects, mollusks and other invertebrates)
* radiation, increase metabolic activities, = pump blood into a hemocoel with the
sweating & evaporation blood diffusing back to the circulatory system
8. Maintains degree of Irritability of tissue between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart
cells into the body cavities, where tissues are
* functional activities are carried surrounded by the blood.
satisfactorily
= The resulting blood flow is sluggish.
9. Restriction of Fluid Loss through damaged
vessels or injury.

!! Circulatory systems of an insect (top) and mollusc (middle). Images


from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer 2. closed circulatory system = have the blood closed at
Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman all times within vessels of different size and wall
(www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.
thickness. In this type of system, blood is pumped by
a heart through vessels, and does not normally fill
body cavities.
= Blood flow is not sluggish.
= Hemoglobin causes vertebrate blood to turn red
in the presence of oxygen;
= but more importantly hemoglobin molecules in
blood cells transport oxygen.
= The human closed circulatory system is
sometimes called the cardiovascular system.
= A secondary circulatory system, the
lymphatic circulation, collects fluid and cells and
returns them to the cardiovascular system.

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Aortic arches of fishes -


Components of the Circulatory general pattern of development of arches in
System
1. Blood Vascular System cartilaginous fishes:
1 - Ventral aorta extends forward below pharynx &
a. blood vessels
connects developing aortic arches. The first pair of
Arteries arches develop first.
= carry blood away 2 - Segments of first pair are lost & remaining
sections become efferent pseudobranchial arteries
from the heart
3 - Other pairs of arches (2 - 6) give rise to pre- &
= have muscular,
posttrematic arteries
elastic walls
4 - Arches 2 - 6 become occluded; dorsal
= terminate in
segments = efferent branchial arteries & ventral
capillary beds segments = afferent branchial arteries
5 - Capillary beds develop within nine
demibranchs

!! Teleosts:
"! the same changes convert
6 pairs of embryonic aortic
arches into afferent &
efferent branchial arteries
"! arches 1 & 2 are usually
lost

!! Aortic arches of tetrapods -


!! Lungfish: embryos have 6 pairs of aortic
"! the pulmonary arches:
artery branches "! but the 1st & 2nd arches are temporary
off the 6th aortic & not found in adults
arch and supplies "! the 3rd aortic arches & the paired
dorsal aortas anterior to arch 3 are
the swim bladder
called the internal carotid arteries
(& this is the same
"! the 4th aortic arches are called the
way that tetrapod systemic arches
lungs are "! the 5th aortic arch is usually lost
supplied) "! the pulmonary arteries branch off the
6th arches & supply blood to the lungs

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!! Birds & mammals - no mixing of


oxygenated & unoxygenated blood; complete
interventricular septum + division of ventral
aorta into 2 trunks:
- Pulmonary trunk that takes blood to the
lungs
- Aortic trunk that takes blood to the rest of
the body
- Result of modifications: All blood returning
to right side of heart goes to the lungs; blood
returning from lungs to the left side of heart
goes to systemic circulation.

Aortic Arches and von Baer’s Law !! Baer's laws (embryology)


He formulated what would later be called Baer's laws of
embryology:
aortic arches- are a series of six paired 1. General characteristics of the group to which an
embryological vascular structures which give embryo belongs develop before special
rise to several major arteries. characteristics.
- They are ventral to the dorsal aorta. 2. General structural relations are likewise formed
before the most specific appear.
- the development of the six aortic arches in
3. The form of any given embryo does not converge
all vertebrate embryos and the systematic upon other definite forms but, on the contrary,
modification or elimination of first one vessel separates itself from them.
and then another in successively higher 4. Fundamentally, the embryo of a higher animal form
vertebrates is an example of Von Baer’s Law never resembles the adult of another animal form,
such as one less evolved, but only its embryo.

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Dorsal Aorta !! Somatic branches - series of paired


segmental arteries from the aorta along the
!! in the head & pharyngeal region;
length of the trunk
-paired in embryos and frequently in adults,
sometimes disguise under the names such as !! Visceral braches - series of unpaired visceral
internal carotid(in which blood flows to the brain) branches (splanchnic vessels) pass via dorsal
and ductus caroticus. mesenteries to the unpaired viscera, chiefly
!! of the trunk; digestive organs, suspended in the coelom
-unpaired. !! Allantoic arteries of amniotes - internal iliacs
-gives off a segmental series of paired somatic sprout off the umbilical arteries as
branches to the body wall and appendages, and a development progress, and the umbilicals
series of paired and unpaired visceral branches. finally become branches of external and
-continues into the tail as caudal artery. internal iliacs

Coronary Arteries Retia Mirabilia (rete mirabile-


“wonderful networks”
!! the vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the
myocardium
singular)
!!

!!is a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to


!! In elasmobranchs; coronary arteries arise from each other, found in some vertebrates.
hypobranchial arteries that receive aerated blood from !! utilizes countercurrent blood flow within the net (blood
several arterial loops around the gill chambers. flowing in opposite directions.)
!! In frogs; arise from carotid arch. !! exchanges heat, ions, or gases between vessel walls so
!! In reptiles and birds; they arise from the aortic trunk that the two bloodstreams within the rete maintain a
leading to the right fourth arch, or from the gradient with respect to temperature, or concentration of
brachiocephalic. gases or solutes.
!! In mammals; arise from the base of the ascending aorta !! found in the head on the carotid arteries of a variety of
just beyond the semilunar valves. vertebrates.
!! In few vertebrates (including urodeles); the coronary !! modulate blood pressure within the brain or other organs
supply consists of many small arteries. of the head.

!!Veins !! The Basic Pattern: Sharks


= carry blood back - cardinal streams: common cardinal veins,
to the heart anterior cardinal veins, posterior cardinal
= have less muscle veins, posterior cardinal sinuses
in their walls than - renal portal stream
arteries but the - lateral abdominal stream: iliac vein, lateral
walls are very abdominal vein, brachial vein, subclavian
elastic vein, cloacal vein, parietal vein
= begin at the end - hepatic portal stream: vitelline veins,
of capillary beds subintestinal vein
- hepatic sinuses

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!! Other fishes !! Tetrapods


- much like those of sharks - cardinal veins: postcardinals, precardinals (interjugular
- CYCLOSTOMES: no renal portal veins, no left vein in tetrapods), common cardinals (precavae in
common cardinals tetrapods)
- RAY-FINNED FISHES: lack abdominals, pelvic fins - postcava: arises in a subcardinal venous plexus, called
are drained by the postcardinals, blood from swim inferior vena cava in mammals
bladders empties into the common cardinal veins - abdominal stream: ventral abdominal vein (amphibians),
allantoic veins (reptiles), (mammals) – round ligament of
- DIPNOANS: pelvic fins are drained by an unpaired
the liver, ductos venosus, ligamentum venosum
ventral abdominal vein, missing right postcardinal,
- renal portal system: external iliac vein (amphibians),
blood from swim bladders empties into the left
snakes, birds, mammals
atrium
- hepatic portal system: similar in all vertebrates
- ALL FISHES: blood from swim bladders empty into
- coronary veins: reptiles, birds and mammals, amphibians
the sinus venosus

!!Capillaries Portal System


#! A system of veins terminating in a capillary bed
= have very thin walls (endothelium only) HEART

= are the site of exchange between the blood


and body cells
Sinusoids of Capillaries of Capillaries of liver
anterior pituitary kidneys

Hepatic portal
portal system
Hypophysial

Renal portal

system
system

Capillaries of
Capillaries Capillaries of Capillaries of
digestive tract and
elsewhere hypothalamus tail spleen

B. The Heart Layers of the Heart


1. Epicardium
- outermost layer
connective tissue
- THE PROPULSIVE ORGAN component
OF THE CIRCULATORY 2. Myocardium
SYSTEM
- middle layer
muscular component
3. Endocardium
- innermost layer
epithelial component

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Single- and Double-Circuit


Hearts
1. Single-circuit heart
- found in species that breathe with gills
*path
Heart

All parts of the body Gills

*path

2. Double- Body cells


circuit heart
- found in
species that veins conus arteriosus
breathe with
lungs rather
than gills sinus venosus ventral aorta

atrium gills

ventricles dorsal aorta

Hagfish Cartilaginous fishes


"! open blood vessels, !! single-circuit heart with 4 chambers: sinus
"! The heart has two chambers separated by a venosus, atrium, ventricle, & conus
cartilaginous rod. When muscles contract to bend arteriosus
this rod, the volume of each chamber changes; "! the sinus venosus receives blood & is filled by
one side expanding to draw in blood and the other suction when the ventricle contracts & enlarges
contracting to expel blood. the pericardial cavity
"! the atrium is a thin-walled muscular sac; an A-V
"! Valves prevent backflow of blood.
valve regulates flow between atrium & ventricle
"! the ventricle has thick, muscular walls
"! the conus arteriosus leads into the ventral aorta
(and a series of conal valves in the conus
arteriosus prevent the backflow of blood)

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Teleosts
!! heart is similar to that of cartilaginous fishes,
except a bulbus arteriosus (a muscular
extension of the ventral aorta) is present
rather than a conus arteriosus (a muscular
extension of the ventricle)
!! which is probably why most of them are

"cold-blooded".

!! Blood collected from throughout the fish's


body enters a thin-walled receiving
chamber, the atrium.
!! As the heart relaxes, the blood passes
through a valve into the thick-walled,
muscular ventricle.
!! Contraction of the ventricle forces the
blood into the capillary networks of the
gills where gas exchange occurs.
!! The blood then passes on to the capillary
networks that supply the rest of the body
where exchanges with the tissues occur.
!! Then the blood returns to the atrium.

!! Lungfish & amphibians !! Partial or complete


- modifications are partition within atrium
correlated with the (complete in anurans and
some urodeles)
presence of lungs &
!! Partial interventricular
enable oxygenated blood
septum (lungfish) or
returning from the lungs ventricular trabeculae
to be separated from (amphibians) to maintain
deoxygenated blood separation of oxygenated
returning from elsewhere & unoxygenated blood

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!! Formation of a The Frog Heart


spiral valve in the conus
arteriosus of many !! The frog heart has 3 chambers: two atria
dipnoans and amphibians. and a single ventricle.
The spiral valve alternately
blocks & unblocks the !! The atrium receives deoxygenated blood
entrances to the left and
right pulmonary arches from the blood vessels (veins) that drain the
(sending unoxygenated various organs of the body.
blood to the skin & lungs).
!! Shortening of ventral !! The left atrium receives oxygenated blood
aorta, which helps ensure from the lungs and skin (which also serves as
that the oxygenated & a gas exchange organ in most amphibians).
unoxygenated block kept
separate in the heart !! Both atria empty into the single ventricle.
moves directly into the
appropriate vessels

!! While this might appear to waste the


opportunity to keep oxygenated and
deoxygenated bloods separate, the ventricle
is divided into narrow chambers that reduce
the mixing of the two blood.
!! So when the ventricle contracts,
!! oxygenated blood from the left atrium is sent,
relatively pure, into the carotid arteries
taking blood to the head (and brain);

!! deoxygenated blood from


the right atrium is sent,
relatively pure, to the
pulmocutaneous arteries
taking blood to the skin and
lungs where fresh oxygen
can be picked up.
!! Only the blood passing into
the aortic arches has been
thoroughly mixed, but even
so it contains enough
oxygen to supply the needs
of the rest of the body.

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The Lizard Heart


Lizards have a muscular septum which
partially divides the ventricle.
!! When the ventricle contracts, the opening in
the septum closes and the ventricle is
momentarily divided into two separate
chambers.
!! This prevents mixing of the two bloods.
"! The left half of the ventricle pumps oxygenated
blood (received from the left atrium) to the body.
"! The right half pumps deoxygenated blood
(received from the right atrium) to the lungs.

Amniotes: Four Chambers: Birds and Mammals


1. Heart consists of 2 atria & 2 ventricles &, except in
adult birds & mammals, a sinus venosus !! The septum is complete in the hearts of birds
2 - Complete interatrial septum and mammals providing two separate
3 - Complete interventricular septum only in circulatory systems:
crocodilians, birds, & mammals; partial septum in
other amniotes !! pulmonary for gas exchange with the
environment and
!! systemic for gas exchange (and all other
exchange needs) of the rest of the body.

Innervation of the Heart Morphogenesis of the Heart


!! The contraction of the heart is autogenic.
!! Pulsation depends on the appropriate !! Specification of cardiac precursor cells
concentrations of certain electrolytes (Na+, K !! Migration of cardiac precursor cells and
+, Ca+). fusion of the primordia
!! The rate of autogenic pulsation of a !! Heart looping
denervated sinus venosus is imposed on the !! Heart chamber formation
atria and ventricles via the Purkinje fibers. !! Septation and valve formation
!! An extrinsic neural stimulus is necessary to
produce a regular beat that can be increased
or slowed by the CNS.

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C. Blood !! Formed Elements


!! Composition of Blood a.! Erythrocytes (Red
blood cells)
- Structure:
Biconcave,
anucleate
- Components:
Hemoglobin, Lipids,
ATP, carbonic
anhydrase
- Function: Transport
oxygen from lungs to
tissues and carbon
dioxide from tissues
to lungs

b. Leukocytes
(White blood
cells)
*Granulocytes
- Eosinophils: Detoxify
chemicals; reduce
inflammation (4%)
- Basophils: Alergic
reactions; Release
histamine, heparin increase
inflam. response (1%)
*HEMOGLOBIN - Neutrophils: Most common;
phagocytic cells destroy
bacteria (60%)
Consists of:
*Agranular leukocytes
-4 globin molecules: Transport carbon dioxide
- Lymphocytes: Immunity 2 types; b & t Cell types. IgG-
(carbonic anhydrase involved), nitric oxide infection, IgM-microbes, IgA-Resp & GI, IgE- Alergy, IgD-immune
-4 heme molecules: Transport oxygen response
!! Iron is required for oxygen transport - Monocytes: Become macrophages

c. Thrombocytes !! Hemopoiesis – the formation of blood


(Platelets)
cells
*Cell fragments
pinched off
from Blood islands
megakaryocyte
Circulatory System
s in red bone
marrow Hemocytoblasts
*Important in
preventing
blood loss Bone marrow Lymphocytes
-Platelet plugs
-Promoting
formation and
contraction of clots

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Circulation in the Mammalian !! At birth major circulatory changes adapt the organism for
pulmonary respiration:
Fetus and Changes at Birth 1.- The ductus arteriosus closes as a result of nerve impulses
passing to its muscular wall. These impulses are initiated
!! Dorsal aorta – umbilical arteries reflexly when the lungs are filled with air with the first gasp
!! Umbilical cord – placenta after the delivery.
- In birds, this is usually the day after hatching.
!! Placenta [oxygenated blood] – fetus - Arterial ligament
!! Ductus venosus – postcava – right atrium 2.- The flaplike interatrial valve is pressed against the
interatrial foramen by the sudden increase in pressure in
!! Right atrium – interatrial foramen – left atrium the left atrium that results from the greatly increased
!! Left atrium – left ventricle – systemic arch volume of blood entering from the lungs.
- It prevents the unoxygenated blood in the right atrium from
!! Oxygenated blood – fetal brain and anterior entering the left atrium
limbs - Fossa ovalis remains

3.- The umbilical arteries and vein are severed at 2. Lymphatic system
the umbilicus.
!! Is a partner with the circulatory system
- No blood passes through the umbilical
!! collect and return interstitial fluid, including protein
arteries beyond the urinary bladder.
to the blood and thus help maintain fluid balance.
- Lateral umbilical ligaments.
!! defend the body against disease by producing
5.- Blood no longer flows through the umbilical lymphocytes
vein. !! absorb lipids from the intestine and transport them
- Round ligament of the liver. to the blood
- Ligementum venosum !! Consists of lymph vessels, lymph ( a fluid in
- Failure of the foramen ovale to close or of the transit), lymph hearts (embryonic birds), lymph
nodes (birds and mammals) and lymph nodules,
ductus arteriosus to fully constrict may result in
( the largest of which is the spleen)
cyanosis.

Lymphatic Vessels Lymph


!! They primarily collect interstitial fluid together with the lymph
capillaries. !! Colorless or pale yellow, once inside the tubes.
A tubular system that absorbs and recirculates escaped fluid to the
!!
general circulation.
!! A fluid carried by the lymphatic vessels.
!! They also absorb lipids from the digestive tract, termed lacteals, !! It consists mostly of water and a few dissolved
pick up large-chain fatty acids and return them to the blood substances such as electrolytes and proteins
circulation
!! walls are single-layered endothelial tubes and are similar to veins. !! This fluid passes from one endothelial-lined
!! They are branching tubes of slightly greater diameter than blood channel to the next, and finally empties into a
capillaries, but exhibiting constrictions and expansions rather than
being of a standard diameter. vein.
!! Lymph sinusoids – expansions of the vessels !! Certain lymphatics in cyclostomes,
Major vessels: jugular lymphatics (head and neck), subclavian
!!
lymphatics (anterior appendage), lumbar lymphatics (posterior
cartilaginous fishes contain some red blood
appendage), thoracic lymphatics (trunk, viscera of body cavity, cells, the fluid in these vessels is called,
tail) hemolymph.

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Lymph hearts Lymph Nodes


!! occur along the route of return !! Are masses of hemopoietic tissue interposed along the course of
lymph channels of birds and mammals but are absent in other
!! help ensure the return of lymph to the cardiovascular vertebrates. In reptiles, dilation or expansion of lymphatic vessels
system. termed as lymphatic cisterns or lymphatic sacs occur at
!! these are not true hearts because they lack cardiac locations usually occupied by true lymph nodes in birds and
muscle, but striated muscles in their walls slowly mammals.
develop pulses of pressure to drive the lymph. !! They are “swollen glands” that can be palpated in the neck ,
axilla, and groin of humans when there is inflammation in the
!! Occur in frogs - 2 pairs of lymph hearts areas.
Urodeles – 16 pairs !! Lymph enters a node via several afferent lymphatics, filters
through the node, and leaves via a single large efferent
Caecilians – as many as 100
lymphatic.
Amphibians, especially aquatic and semiaquatic !! Second line of defense against bacterial infections acquired
amphibians through the skin, the first line being granulocytes that assemble
Embryonic birds at the invaded area.

Other miscellaneous lymphoid


masses
Spleen - plays an important part in a person's immune system
!!
and helps the body fight infection. Like the lymph nodes, the
spleen contains antibody-producing lymphocytes.
!! Thymus (absent in Myxiniformes) - helps to produce white blood
cells. It is usually most active in teenagers and shrinks in
adulthood.
!! Bursa of Fabricius (birds) - is the site of hematopoiesis and is
necessary for B cell (part of the immune system) development
!! Peyer’s patches (small intestine of amniotes) - facilitate the
generation of an immune response within the mucosa.
!! tonsils (in mammals)
$! are paired lymph nodules in the oral cavity
$! patches of lymph tissue produce lymphocytes,
$! The tonsils protect the throat and respiratory system

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