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CHE620

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Chapter 2: MANAGER, ORGANIZATION & TEAM

By: Cik Siti Khatijah Jamaludin


Faculty of Chemical Engineering

Definitions of Project Manager


The person with authority to manage a project. This
includes leading the planning and the development
of all project deliverables. The project manager is
responsible for managing the budget and work plan
and all Project Management procedures such as
scope management, issues management, risk
management, etc.

Project Manager (PM)


Prime job of a PM:

To make sure that project is


properly planned, implemented
and completed!!!

Functional vs. Project Managers


Functional Manager
Expert in functional area
Full authority over employees
Competes for resources with
other functional dept.
Knows subordinates very well
Functional environment is
fairly stable & people are
comfortable in their jobs
Applies Analytical Approach to
understanding and solving
problems

Project Manager
May not be expert in any area
May have limited authority
over employees
Competes for resources with
other projects
May
not
have
known
subordinates very long
Project
environment
is
temporary & people expect
changes
Applies System Approach to
understanding and solving
problems

What does a PM do?

What does a PM do? (cont.)


Project
Integration

Project
Procurement

Risk
Management

Scope
Management

People
Management

Schedule
Management
Cost
Management

Quality
Management

Project Integration

At the beginning of a project, its important to develop a solid understanding of


the projects goals, and how the various elements will fit together for a successful
outcome.

Project manager has to perform project analysis and develop a comprehensive


Project Initiation Document, critical and high-level document, which covers the
basic project needs and outcomes, so that everyone can understand the projects
goals.

Scope Management

Projects have a nasty habit of expanding as they go along, making it impossible to


hit deadlines. To control this expansion, its essential to define the scope at
the very start of your project based, and then manage it closely against this
signed-off definition.
For example, in case that a client wants to change the scope during project
development because of some new functionality, project manager has to
re-negotiate terms and conditions, and prepare new documentation for signing.

Schedule Management
A projects scope can easily grow, and so can the time needed to complete it.
For a project to be completed successfully, despite all of the unknowns, its important
to clearly define the sequence of activities, estimate the time needed for each one,
and build in sufficient contingency time to allow for the unexpected.
Project can be very complex, particularly when different people do different things and
their work output becomes the input for another piece of work. Thats why its
necessary to monitor every activity, just as much as the whole project.
Cost Management
To determine what a project will cost, project manager must be systematic with the
estimation, budgeting, and controlling.
Many project decisions will have an impact on cost. Therefore, its important to
understand whats driving the costs and develop a system for monitoring the
projects financial performance.
Managing project finances requires many tools and strategies, and its very important
to set up a reliable control system to keep track of the costs and required changes.

Quality Management
Projects must be delivered not only on time and on budget, but also in according to
specification (this is what quality means in project management).
Its a project managers responsibility to ensure that project outcomes, at every stage
of the project, are consistent with clients needs. Never waste precious time and
resources trying to achieve an inappropriate level of quality.

People Management
The people on the project team can make or break the final outcome. Getting the right
mix of interpersonal and political skills is just as important as the right technical skills.
PM must keep the project team on track and working productively, also be prepared to
help people through the Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing stages that so
many teams go through.

Risk Management
Project managers must understand which of the risks could significantly impact their
plans.
An Impact / Probability Chart is a good way to deal with this. Always be prepared, so
develop a plan for monitoring and controlling the major risks involved in the project.
Using Risk Analysis, develop options to reduce risks, prepare Contingency Plans, and
decide who is responsible for which parts of risk response.

Project Procurement

Generally, cooperation with external suppliers has a large influence on project costs.
Suppliers also affect whether the project will deliver on time and according to
specification.
Never rushes with the decision, and makes sure to select the best supplier.

PMs Essential Soft Skills

PM is also a good.
Manager
oversees and manages the work and the employees

Facilitator
ensures that all resources and work are available when
needed and that any problems are resolved

Communicator
must effectively communicate with senior management,
client, project team, and other participants (vendors, dept.
managers, etc.) as needed (which is frequently)

Communication Path of a PM

Mantel et al. (2011)

PM is also a good.(cont)
Politician
knows how to get things done, how to work the
system, how to get people to cooperate, how to influence
others

Negotiator
skilled at getting what is needed for the project to
succeed: negotiate with senior mgmt. for more resources,
negotiate with functional manager to get a particular
project team member or to use a functional resource,
negotiate with vendor for shorter lead time, negotiate
with client about project goal changes

PMs Responsibilities
Acquiring resources
Funds, personnel, other resources

Fighting fires and obstacles


Providing leadership
Making tradeoffs between project goals
Negotiating and persuading
Resolving conflicts

Top 10 Qualities of an Effective Project


Manager
1. Inspires a Shared Vision
2. Good Communicator
3. Possess High Integrity
4. Possess High Enthusiasm
5. Empathy
6. Competent
7. Ability to Delegate Tasks
8. Cool Under Pressure
9. Possess Team-building Skills
10. Possess Problem Solving Skills

Background & Qualifications


At least 4-5 years of Work Experience
Management Degrees / Related Training or Coursework
Leadership / Team handling Experience
Certifications :
PMP certification offered by Project Management Institute
Certification Programs offered by International Institute of
Learning

Job Outlook
Faster than average growth through 2014
Money, money, money
Figures are intended as a guideline only. Salaries depend
on experience, the industry, the country and the size and
type of project.
Earnings are usually between 25,000 and 50,000 a year Top
salaries can reach 80,000 or more
Freelance project managers may be paid around 300 to 400 a
day
There may be extra bonuses for meeting deadlines

Challenges
Management of team dynamics
Management of client relationships
Long working hours
High stress work environment

Ethical dilemmas
Impact on personal life

Example : Job Posting

Conclusion

High level of responsibility


Key position within the organization
Job outlook positive
Time, resource, people, and client
management skills necessary
Technology skills necessary
Better salary for meeting bigger challenges

Project Team Members


Characteristics of effective team members:
High quality technical skills
Political sensitivity
Strong problem orientation
Strong goal orientation
High self-esteem

Human Factors and the Project Team


Inspiring Project Team Members:
The project manager often has little control over the economic
rewards and promotions of project team members, but this
does not mean he/she cannot facilitate motivation of team
How are technical employees motivated?
Recognition
Achievement
The work itself
Responsibility
Advancement
Learning new skills
2006 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Interpersonal Conflict
Conflict and the Project Manager
Most of the conflict on project teams is the result of
individuals focusing on the project through the eyes of their
individual discipline or department
Conflict avoiders do not make successful project managers
On occasion, compromise appears to be helpful, but most
often, gently confronting and resolving the conflict is the
method of choice, for a win-win situation

2006 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Interpersonal Conflict
The focus of conflict can often be related to the stage in
the projects life cycle
When the project is first organized, priorities, procedures and
schedules all have roughly equal potential to cause conflict
During the buildup phase, priorities become significantly more
important than any other conflict factor
In the main program phase schedules are the most important
cause of conflict followed by technical disagreements
At the project finish, meeting the schedule is the critical issue

2006 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Thats allThanx! ;-)