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PHYSICS PROJECT

LOGIC GATES

NAME DEBJANI DAS


CLASS 12
SECTION- A
ROLL NO:SCHOOL HEM SHEELA MODEL SCHOOL

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Debjani Das
bearing Roll No:is going
to appear the AISSCE -2016 has
completed all the practicals and
projects in Physics during the session
of 2015-2016 as per the prescribed
syllabus of C.B.S.E , New Delhi.

_______________
_____________
Signature of internal
Signature of external
Examiner
Examiner

INTRODUCTION
Logic gates are the building blocks
of most electronic systems in the
world .They form the base of almost
every electronic circuits today.
In this project we are going to learn
about the various basic logic gates
such as AND gate, OR gate, and the
NOT gate. These basic logic gates
can are combined to form NOR
gates and the NAND gates.
Combination of various logic gates
are used to create both simple and
complex electronic circuits. In the
field of investigatory projects, using
logic gates , we can create even
complex models such as
demonstration of the working of

traffic signals , minor model of


computers , and so on

OBJECTIVE:- To design electronic

circuits for demonstrating the


working of OR and AND logic gates.
APPARATUS:- A battery of 6volts , two-

switches, torch bulbs, connecting wires.


THEORY:-

The three logic gates are given below,


are the building blocks of the digital
circuit.
1. OR gates:- This logic gates takes
two variables say A and B, as
inputs and the output A+B is as
given in the truth table below:

A
0

B
0

OUTPUT
0

0
1

1
0

1
1

2. AND gates : this logic gates also


takes input of two Boolean
variables A and B, and the
output A+B is given in the truth
table below
A

OUTPUT

3.NOT gates: This logic gates takes


one Boolean variable as input and
the output is as given in the truth
table below
A
0
1

A
1
0

PROCEDURE
Demonstration of OR gate by an
electronic circuit: The simplified OR
gate shown below has two inputs,
switch A and switch B. The bulb Q will
light if either switch A or B is closed.
This will allow current to flow through
the bulb, illuminating the filament.
When the bulb- lights this represents a
1 as current is running through the
filament.
If current is not running through the
filament the bulb-will not light and this
represents a 0(zero).

Demonstration of AND gate by an


electronic circuit: The simplified
AND gate shown below has two
inputs switchA and switch B. The
bulb Q will only light if both switches
are closed. This will allow the
current to flow through the bulb
illuminating the filament. When the
bulb lights it represents 1 as current
flows through the filament. When the
bulb does not light it represents 0 as
no current flows through the
filament.
RESULT:-AND gates and OR gates have
been demonstrated by simple electronic
circuits.

PRECAUTIONS:1) The circuit connections should


be light and firm.
2) The voltage magnitude must be
within range.
3) The current magnitude must not
exceed the maximum value.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
To complete this project I have
taken help from the following
books and websites:1) NCERT PHYSICS FOR CLASS
12
2) COMPREHENSIVE PHHSICS
FOR CLASS 12
3) www.google.co.in
4) www.wikipedia.com
5) www.explorephysics.com