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Group No 3

Zahoor Soomro
Awele Ikem
Manesh Nair
SMM108 Seminar grouping
Samoon Aroufath
(Sem B -2007/2008)
Module Leader:
Nnamdi Madichie Presented on 01/05/08
American Marketing Association
(Gronroos, C. 1994)

Planning Executing the conception Pricing

Promotion Distribution
create exchange and satisfy Services
individual and organizational
Brooksbank, R. W. (1991)
company wide commitment Customer satisfaction
managerial process Firms regular analysis competitive situation
formulation and implementation of strategies marketing objectives
Functional, commodity, institutional and managerial schools of marketing.

1940s – Production Efficiencies were regarded as essential for

achieving and maintaining a successful and prosperous
business activity
1950s - Customer Orientation began to dominate marketing
thinking and the needs and wants of customers began to be
the central focus of marketing practices.
1980s - Economic as well as a social process became apparent.
1990s - Relationship Marketing Practices.

2000s – Service - Centred Model of Exchange (Vargo and

Lusch 2004).
Svensson (2002: 512-516)
Journal of Marketing Practice:
Applied Marketing
Science1995Tim Denison,
Malcolm McDonald,

Cisco Emphasizing Collaborated with resellers

network solutions to provide value-added
in data, video, solutions leading to higher
and voice prices and enhanced
applications. margins.

Yahoo Yahoo found Dot.com crash cut revenue

themselves too stream by 75%. Company
dependent on has now
selling ads refocused on selling new
to fading Internet business
firms. and consumer services.
Reference: H. Wayne Huizenga (JUNE 2006), JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC MARKETING 14 115–127
sometimes firms believe that
because the current
situation is profitable, they
neglect, and/or do not
realise, that changes in the
marketplace must be
handled with great respect.
Levitt (1960, p. 56) also
: emerald: Supply Chain Management: An
International Journal

Marketing channel as a
single entity, i.e. from the
point-of-origin to the point-
Source: Supply Chain Management: An
International Journal
Göran Svensson, Göran Svensson is Associate
Professor in the School of Business and
The theory generation of SCM Engineering, Halmstad University, Halmstad,
Outsourcing-Very low price

(Greg Aimi 2007)


strong information
Communication and IT

variety & shorter lead

time (fast fashion

Source: Information adapted from Mintel

 Quality
 Customer Care
 Constant improvement
 Employee Involvement
 They consider dealers and
suppliers to be their partners

"Visions demand a strategy, strategy requires a plan."
Holistic Marketing:
1. Internal Marketing
2.Integrated Marketing
3.Relationship Marketing
4.Socially Responsible marketing
• Helping company achieve focus
& direction
• Keeping customers happy &
• Attracting new business
• Professional company literature
• Professional image
• Differentiating from competitors
• Growing awareness of business
• Creating the appropriate

 (P.Kotler, Keller,2006,12e,ch: 13,p410-413)

Singapore Airline is constantly
recognized world’s best airline
customers and identifying
opportunities generated by
customer feedback

 Healthy long term L'Oreal the world’s most successful

growth for a brand cosmetic company worth $15.3
requires that the
marketing organization billion
be managed properly
 Holistic marketers must Leveraged cultural heritage
embrace the complexity
of marketing by R&D
engaging in a host of
carefully planned Technological reputation
marketing activities Innovation

Source: P.Kotler, Keller,2006,Marketing Management,12e,ch: 22695

Green Marketing
Vence packarad : The waste
makers- business practices
destroyed scare resources
without thought of scarce
Michael J. Baker(1996), Marketing An Introductory Text:
sixth Edition, ch23, p531

 According to a study by Hines and Ames

(2000), about half of the respondents felt that
they could make a difference to a company’s
behaviour by buying ethical products and
68 per cent claimed to have done so in the past
 In a study by MORI (2000), 46 per cent
of the European consumers claimed to be
willing to pay a substantial price premium
for ethical products
 Nike has accepted strict
environmental standards to comply
with by 2005.

 its office in the Netherlands is the

most energy efficient office in that
country by 35%.
 Nike also uses organically grown
cotton, promotes the Eco-class
program with Delta Airlines, and
founded N.E.A.T. in 1993

 Competitive Advantage

According to Bloomberg,
Consumers are not equally
interested in buying ethical
products e.g. A Case Coffee
 Dickson (2001) found that age,
income, and employment status
did not Discriminate
 Roberts (1995) concluded that
demographics were
insignificant in identifying the
socially responsible consumer
 Therefore, demographic
characteristics do not appear to
have a substantial impact on
ethical product buying behaviour.
Consumer preferences for the
marketing of ethically labelled:Coffee:
International Marketing Review, Emerald
 The internationalization of
 Customer expertise,
sophistication and power
 Lack of market growth
 Time-based competition
McKenna (1991) warns
that the latter approach
simply “turns marketing
into an expensive fight
over crumbs, rather than
Garda (1988) and Lazer
a smart effort to own the (1993) cite globalization
whole pie” as the challenge :
An integral element of the
Four Ps has made it very relationship marketing
difficult for the marketing
approach is the promise concept
function to earn
credibility which has been strongly
emphasized by Henrik Calonius.

From: Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Christian Grönroos

Management Decision, Vol. 32 No. 2, 1994, pp. 4-20
© MCB University Press Limited, 0025-1747
What makes Marketing successful today

•More marketing oriented More clearly defined objectives

business approach: Beyond lip (peterson and lil)
services (clutterbuck)
More aggressive and challenging
•More comprehensive situation
(goldsmith, clutterbuck)
•A greater use of basic planning Greater orientation towards key
tools – SWOT or PLC product areas
life cycle
Better customer targeting
•More staff involvement in the
planning process
Better competitive targeting
•Time adoption of the longer (Clifford)
term planning horizon
(saunders/wong) Successful marketing overview :
literature overview by roger w.bnrooks
Shifting Values in Western Societies
 Traditional values New values
 Self-denial ethic Self-fulfilment ethic
 Higher standard of living Better quality of life
 Traditional sex roles Blurring of sex roles
 Accepted definition of Individualized definition of
success success
 Traditional family life Alternative families
 Faith in industry, institutions Self-reliance
 Live to work Work to live
 Hero worship Love of ideas
 Patriotism Less nationalistic
 Industrial growth Information/service growth
 Receptivity to technology Technology orientation

Marketing 5000:The Overview

Think global Act local
 Internalization & Globalization
 Elements to create Competitive advantage
•Since 1969 the number of multinational
corporation increased from 7000 to
•Example: Multinational companies such
as; Coca-cola, General Electric, IBM,
Gillette, Colgate, Caterpillar, Ford,
Boeing, McDonalds, Sony, Toyota, BP,
Nokia, etc.
P.Kotler, Keller,2006,12e,ch: 19,p589)

Claudio vignali, Manchaster UK,

think global act local Emerald
The Global Marketing Environment
 Tarif –Tax by foreign govt against
certain imported products
 Quotas- sets limit on the amount of
goods imported
 Embargo- boycott
 Exchange controls- limit the amount of
foreign exchange rates against other
 WTO and GAAT
 Designed to reduce tariffs and promote
world trade – boosting trade by as
much as 10% or $270 billion by 2002
 Regional free trade zones
EU formed 1957
 NAFTA North American Free Trade
 US, Canada, Mexico •P.Kotler, Keller,2006,12e,ch: 19,p589-592)
New Technology and marketing
The Internet is growing at an annualized rate of 18%
Jscob nelson Alertbox, December 19, 2005:

Achrol and Kotler (1999) described the continued

growth of electronic commerce as the single biggest
opportunity and threat facing almost every industry.

Hamel and Sampler (1998), predicted that the Internet

would change the relationship between producers and
consumers and
saw business as entering the new Internet age in which
companies can no longer rely
solely on the traditional bricks and mortar model
Porter (2001) suggested that companies have no choice
but to deploy Internet technology if they want to
Source: www.internetworldstats.com
Holistic Approach
Relationship Marketing
New technology
Time- based Competitive Edge
Go-Green Concept