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Chapter 9

Chapter 9Performance Management Skills


True/False Questions
9.1

Coaching is a day-to-day function that, among other things, involves observing


performance and complimenting good work.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.3])

9.2

The amiable coaching style involves telling the employee exactly what to do.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.4])

9.3

Coaches who use a persuading style often try to sell what they want the employee
to do.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.4])

9.4

The directing coaching style is the most effective coaching style to use.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.4])

9.5

Documentation of employee development can include memos, letters, e-mail


messages, handwritten notes, comments, observations, descriptions, and
evaluations provided by colleagues.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.10])

9.6

Time, activity, and situational constraints often keep managers from observing an
employees performance regarding developmental activities.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.7])

9.7

When documenting employee performance toward developmental goals, only


document the positive progress that the employee is displaying.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.9])

9.8

One effective way to give praise is to comment on the absence of the negative, for
example, by saying, not bad or better than last time.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.12])

9.9

The goal of giving feedback is to punish and, if needed, embarrass employees.


(Suggested points: 2, [9.12])

9.10

A feedback gap occurs when managers avoid giving negative feedback and
employees avoid seeking it.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.13])

9.11

The best form of documentation to use for a formal evaluation is handwritten


notes.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.6])

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Multiple-Choice Questions
9.12

Coaching consists of which of the following behaviors?


A.Giving advice, guiding employees, giving employees confidence, and helping
them to gain better competence
B. Directing employees, punishing employees, and ensuring they get their job
done
C. Guiding performance, planning daily activities, designing on-the-job training,
and punishing employees
D. None of the above
(Suggested points: 2, [9.3])

9.13

_____________ is the coaching behavior that involves rewarding an employees


positive performance.
A. Giving feedback
B. Motivating employees
C. Documenting performance
D. Developing employees
(Suggested points: 2, [9.3])

9.14

____________________ describes the coaching behavior that involves gathering


information on whether performance deficiencies are due to lack of knowledge
and skills, abilities, motivation, or situational factors beyond the control of the
employee.
A. Giving feedback
B. Motivating employees
C. Diagnosing performance problems
D. Documenting performance
(Suggested points: 2, [9.4])

9.15

Coaches who favor the _______________ style of coaching want employees to be


happy and to do what feels right for them.
A. persuading
B. directing
C. amiable
D. analyzing
(Suggested points: 2, [9.4])

9.16

Coaches who favor the ________________ style of coaching follow rules and
procedures before providing a recommendation.
A. persuading
B. directing
C. amiable
D. analyzing
(Suggested points: 2, [9.6])

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9.17

Please choose the statement below that correctly lists the steps in the coaching
process.
A. Setting developmental goals, identifying developmental resources and
strategies, implementing strategies, observing and documenting
developmental behaviors, and giving feedback
B. Identifying developmental resources and strategies, setting developmental
goals, implementing strategies, giving feedback, and observing and
documenting developmental behaviors
C. Observing and documenting developmental behaviors, setting developmental
goals, giving feedback, identifying developmental resources and strategies,
and implementing strategies
D. None of the above
(Suggested points: 2, [9.12])

9.18

Feedback on performance should be all of the following EXCEPT:


A. Focused on negative performance
B. Timely
C. Frequent and ongoing
D. Specific
(Suggested points: 2, [9.12])

9.19

When delivering feedback, managers should give a(n) __________ first and a(n)
_____________second.
A. evaluation; description
B. description; evaluation
C. evaluation; punishment
D. none of the above
(Suggested points: 2, [9.13])

9.20

Managers are often uncomfortable giving feedback, because they


________________.
A. have had negative experiences with feedback in the past
B. fear employees will react negatively
C. want to gather adequate evidence
D. all of the above
(Suggested points: 2, [9.15])

9.21

Employees who engage in a _____________ response may blame others for


performance deficiencies, stare at the supervisor, or raise their voice.
A. flight
B. fight
C. A and B
D. none of the above
(Suggested points: 2, [9.15])

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9.22

To combat defensive responses, supervisors should try all of the following


EXCEPT:
a. Be empathetic
b. Be defensive
c. Minimize threat
d. Encourage participation
(Suggested points: 2, [9.15])

9.23

Coaching includes which of the following:


a. Punishing poor behavior
b. Directing wanted behavior
c. Exhibiting wanted behavior
d. All of the above are correct
(Suggested points: 2, [9.3])

9.24

Which one of the following is considered among the main coaching styles?
a. Easy
b. Drill
c. Analyzer
d. Friendly
(Suggested points: 2, [9.4])

9.25

Which of the coaching styles is the best?


a. Amiable
b. All of the styles can be used in any situation
c. None of the styles are adequate
d. Different styles may be required for different situations
(Suggested points: 2, [9.4])

9.26

Documentation of employee performance is important because (of)


a. Legal protection, among other things.
b. Employees will not know whether theyve done a good job without
documentation.
c. Employees will not admit to behavior unless there is documentation.
d. All of the above are correct
(Suggested points: 2, [9.9])

9.27

Which of the following is a good suggestion for documenting performance in a


useful and constructive way?
a. Use general terms
b. Focus on positive comments
c. Use adjectives and adverbs sparingly
d. Use different procedures for different personalities
(Suggested points: 2, [9.10])

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9.28

What is the goal of feedback?


a. To improve future performance
b. To keep the lines of communication open
c. To ensure employees understand the effects of behaviors
d. To improve communication between supervisors and employees
(Suggested points: 2, [9.11])

9.29

What can a supervisor do to avoid a negative impact of feedback?


a. Ensure that the employee is in a good mood before giving feedback
b. Focus on specific behaviors rather than the employee overall
c. Focus on positive behaviors rather than negative
d. Ensure that no other employees are around to hear the feedback
(Suggested points: 2, [9.12])

9.30

Failure to provide feedback may result in what consequences?


a. Employees would miss out on the opportunity to improve performance.
b. Organizations may be stuck with chronic poor performance.
c. Employees may develop inaccurate perceptions of how their performance is
regarded by others.
d. All of the above are correct
(Suggested points: 2, [9.11])

9.31

Giving insincere praise may lead to:


a. Employees losing trust in supervisors
b. Supervisors losing sight of the goal of feedback
c. Employees feeling that supervisors are condescending to them
d. Employees failing to see when a change in direction is required
(Suggested points: 2, [9.12])

9.32

The goal of negative feedback is:


a. Not to embarrass or punish employees
b. To identify warning signs
c. To focus on behaviors that can be changed
d. All of the above
(Suggested points: 2, [9.11])

9.33

What is a feedback gap?


a. When employees want feedback but arent able to get it from supervisors
b. When supervisors want to give feedback, but employees will not take it
c. When supervisors and employees mutually instigate and reinforce lack of
communication about poor performance
d. When supervisors and employees discuss poor performance, but they
misunderstand each other
(Suggested points: 2, [9.13])

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9.34

How should a supervisor handle defensiveness?


a. Ignore it
b. Face it head on
c. Refuse to allow defensive comments
d. End any discussion as soon as defensiveness is recognized
(Suggested points: 2, [9.15])

9.35

Which one of the following traits is associated with a personality trait labeled core
self-evaluation?
A. Self esteem
B. Locus of control
C. Conscientiousness
D. Self-efficacy
(Suggested points: 2, [9.13])

9.36

When should a decision-making leave not be used?


A. When an employee is continually late to work
B. When an employee engages in a violation of work policies
C. When an employee has been written up
D. When an employee consistently demonstrates a poor attitude
(Suggested points: 2, [9.15])

9.37

Which of the following is not one of the five pitfalls associated with the
disciplinary process?
A. Not allowing the employee a chance to improve
B. Performance standards are unrealistic or unfair
C. Failure to consult Human Resources
D. Acceptance of poor performance
(Suggested points: 2, [9.15])

9.38

Which of the following is not one of the suggestions for the termination meeting?
A. Wish the employee well
B. Have the employee leave immediately
C. Send the employee to Human Resources
D. None of the above
(Suggested points: 2, [9.15])

Essay-Type Questions
9.39

You are rolling out a new employee developmental program, and you are meeting
with a manager who does not believe that documenting her employees
performance is a good use of time. Please explain to her why it is important to
document employee performance, specifically in relation to achieving
developmental goals.
(Suggested points: 3, [9.9])

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9.40

The manager above accepts that she needs to document her employees
performance, but now she would like guidance on how to do so. Please provide
her with some tips on documenting performance.
(Suggested points: 3, [9.12])

9.41

Now that the manager above understands the importance of documenting


performance and she knows how to document performance, she would like
guidance on how to run a performance review meeting. Please give the general
sequence of steps that take place at a performance review meeting along with a
brief description of what happens at each step.
(Suggested points: 3, [9.14])

9.42

Describe the functions involved in coaching.


(Suggested points: 2, [9.3])

9.43

You are a supervisor at a manufacturing company and you are coaching one of the
veteran employees of the company. Describe the behaviors required to perform
this function.
(Suggested points: 3, [9.3])

9.44

Explain the styles of coaching.


(Suggested points: 2, [9.4])

9.45

Describe the steps of the coaching process.


(Suggested points: 2, [9.6])

9.46

Discuss the constraints that a coach may experience in attempting to observe an


employees performance regarding developmental activities.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.7])

9.47

Explain why documentation of developmental activities and progress is important.


(Suggested points: 3, [9.9])

9.48

Explain recommendations for documentation of performance and developmental


activities.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.10])

9.49

Assess the main purposes of feedback.


(Suggested points: 2, [9.11])

9.50

Discuss the key features of effective feedback.


(Suggested points: 2, [9.12])

9.51

Explain factors affecting why people are sometimes uncomfortable giving


negative feedback.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.13])
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9.52

To understand successful coaching, what are the guiding principles you need to
understand?
(Suggested points: 3, [9.2])

9.53

Analyze the steps that can be taken by supervisors to prevent defensive responses
during the performance review meeting.
(Suggested points: 3, [9.15])

9.54

Why is it important for a manager to be concerned with an employees core


self-evaluation?
(Suggested points: 3, [9.13])

9.39

Describe what a decision-making leave is and what it is used for.


(Suggested points: 3, [9.15])

9.40

What can a manager do to avoid the pitfalls associated with the disciplinary
process?
(Suggested points: 3, [9.15])

9.41

Identify each of the suggestions for the termination meeting, and describe each
suggestion. Then, briefly describe why these suggestions are important.
(Suggested points: 2, [9.15])

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Answers
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11

9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
9.18
9.19
9.20
9.21
9.22
9.23
9.24
9.25
9.26
9.27
9.28
9.29
9.30
9.31
9.32
9.33
9.34
9.35
9.36
9.37
9.38

T
F: The driver coaching style involves telling employees what to do.
T
F: None of the coaching styles are superior to the others. Coaches must learn to
adapt their style to different people.
T
T
F: When documenting employee performance, be sure to document positive and
negative examples of behavior.
F: Managers should avoid giving praise in this way.
F: The goal of giving feedback is to not punish or embarrass employees.
T
F: Multiple forms of documentation can be used, including memos, letters, e-mail
messages, handwritten notes, comments, observations, descriptions, and
evaluations provided by colleagues.
A
B
C
C
B
A
A
B
D
B
B
B
C
D
A
C
A
B
D
D
D
C
B
C
B
A
D

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9.39

Even though it may be time consuming and even difficult to document


performance, it is extremely important to do so for several reasons. First,
observing and evaluating developmental activities and performance in general is a
complex cognitive task. Thus, documentation helps prevent memory-related
errors. Second, when documentation exists to support evaluations, there is no
mystery regarding the outcomes. This, in turn, promotes trust and acceptance of
decisions based on the evaluation provided. Third, documenting developmental
activities and their outcomes allows for a discussion about specific facts and
careful examination of these facts allows for better planning of developmental
activities for the future. Finally, keeping accurate records of what developmental
activities employees complete and to what degree of success, and of performance
in general, is a good line of defense in case of litigation based on discrimination
of wrongful termination.

9.40

When documenting performance, use the following tips:

Be specific. Document specific events and outcomes. Avoid making general


statements such as hes lazy. Provide specific examples to illustrate your
point.

Use adjectives and adverbs sparingly. The use of evaluative adjectives and
adverbs may lead to ambiguous interpretations. In addition, it may not be clear
whether the level of achievement has been average or outstanding.

Balance positives with negatives. Document instances of both good and


poor performance. Do not focus on only the positives or the negatives.

Focus on job-related information. Focus on information that is job-related


and, specifically, related to the developmental activities and goals at hand.

Be comprehensive. Include information on performance regarding all


developmental goals and activities and cover the entire review period as
opposed to a shorter time period. Also, document performance for all
employeesnot only those who achieve their developmental goals (or those
who do not).

Standardize procedures. Use the same way and format to document


information for all employees.

Use behavioral terms. Phrase your notes in behavioral terms and avoid
statements that would imply subjective judgment or prejudice.

9.41

Performance review meetings usually follow the sequence of steps below:


1.
Explain the purpose of the meeting. The first step includes a description of
the purpose of the meeting and the topics to be discussed.
2.
Self-appraisal. This portion of the meeting allows the employee to provide
his or her perspective regarding performance. The role of the supervisor is to
listen to what the employee has to say and to summarize what he or she heard.
3.
Share ratings and explain rationale. Next, the supervisor explains the
rating he or she provided for each performance dimension and explains the
reasons that led to each score. It is more effective to start with a discussion of
the performance dimensions for which there is agreement between the
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4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

9.42

employees self-appraisal and the supervisors appraisal. For areas for which
there is disagreement between self and supervisor ratings, the supervisor must
take great care in discussing the reason for his or her rating and provide
specific examples and evidence to support the score given. For dimensions for
which the score is low, there should be a discussion of the possible causes for
poor performance.
Developmental discussion. Now the supervisor and the employee should
discuss and agree on the developmental steps that will be taken to improve
performance in the future.
Employee summary. Next, the employee should summarize, in his or her
own words, the main conclusions of the meeting: what performance
dimensions are satisfactory, which need improvement, and how improvement
will be achieved.
Rewards discussion. The supervisor should explain the rules used to
allocate rewards and how the employee would be able to reach higher rewards
levels as a consequence of future performance improvement.
Follow-up meeting. Before the meeting is over, it is important to schedule
the next performance-related formal meeting.
Approval and appeals process discussion. Finally, the supervisor asks the
employee to sign the form to attest that the evaluation has been discussed. In
addition, if disagreements about ratings have not been resolved, the supervisor
should remind the employee of the appeals process.
Final recap. Finally, the supervisor summarizes what happened during the
review period in terms of performance levels in the various dimensions,
reviews how rewards will change based on this level of performance, and
sums up what the employee will need to do in the next year to maintain and
enhance performance.

The functions involved in coaching include:

Giving advice to help employees improve their performance, including not


only what needs to be done, but also how things need to be done. Both results
and behaviors should be addressed.

Providing employees with guidance, so that employees can develop the


skills and knowledge that are necessary to do the work correctly, and also
providing information on how the employee can acquire these skills and
knowledge.

Providing support to employees and being there only when the manager is
needed. Coaching involves being there when the employee needs support, but
does not involve monitoring and controlling an employees every move.
Coaching is about facilitation.

Giving employees confidence that will enable them to enhance their


performance continuously. Giving positive feedback can give employees
confidence in the things they do.

Helping employees gain greater competence by guiding them toward


acquiring more knowledge and sharpening skills that can prepare them for
more complex tasks and higher-level positions.
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9.43

As a supervisor at a manufacturing company coaching one of the veteran


employees of the company, I must display a large set of complex behaviors,
including:

Establishing developmental objectivesworking along with employees to


develop objectives that are clear, achievable, and challenging.

Communicating effectivelyincluding communicating positive and


negative feedback regarding behavior and results.

Motivating employeesthrough the use of rewards for desired behavior


and results, and other methods of motivation.

Documenting performanceobserving and documenting performance,


behaviors, and results.

Giving feedbackincluding measuring progress toward goals and pointing


out successes as well as failures and providing insight as to how to avoid poor
performance in the future.

Diagnosing performance problemsincluding determining whether


performance problems are due to deficiencies in knowledge, skills, abilities,
or motivation, or are the result of circumstances beyond the control of the
employee, then providing the resources and help required to remedy the
deficiencies.

Developing employeesproviding financial support and resources


required for employee development.

9.44

The styles of coaching are:

The driver style is one in which the coach tells the employee what to do,
such as This task must be completed this way. These coaches tend to be
assertive, speak quickly and often firmly, usually talk about tasks and facts,
are not very expressive, and expose a narrow range of personal feelings to
others.

The persuader style is one in which the coach attempts to convince the
employee why he or she should do a task a certain way. Persuaders are
assertive, but tend to use expansive body gestures, talk more about people and
relationships, and expose others to a broad range of personal feelings.

The amiable style is one in which the coach directs employees based on
feelings. This feels like the right way to handle this situation. The coach
may rely on his or her own feelings or the feelings of the employee. Amiable
coaches are not very assertive, speak deliberately and pause often, seldom
interrupt others, and make many conditional statements.

The analyzer style is one in which the coach analyzes performance in a


logical and systematic way and then follows rules and procedures before
providing recommendations. These coaches are not very assertive, and are
more likely to talk about facts and tasks than about personal feelings.

9.45

The steps of the coaching process are:


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Setting developmental goals that are reasonable, attainable, and derived


from a careful analysis of the areas where an employee needs to improve.
These goals should take into account both short-term and long-term career
objectives.
Identifying resources and strategies that will help the employees achieve
the developmental goals.
Implementing strategies that will allow the employee to achieve the
developmental goals.
Collecting and evaluating data to assess the extent to which each of the
developmental goals has been achieved.
Providing feedback to the employee and then revising developmental goals
as needed.

9.46

When attempting to observe an employees performance regarding developmental


activities, a coach may experience the following constraints:

Time constraintscoaches (supervisors) may be too busy to gather


information on an employees progress. Too much time between assignment
of activity and the supervisor checking on the employees progress may be
problematic.

Situational constraintssupervisors may not be able to directly observe an


employees developmental activities and therefore will not have firsthand
information regarding performance of these activities.

Activity constraintssome activities are highly unstructured and a


supervisor may have to wait until the activity is finished, or until milestones
have been completed, before evaluating performance in the activity.

9.47

Documentation of developmental activities and progress is important because it:

Minimizes cognitive loaddocumentation helps prevent memory-related


errors.

Creates trustdocumentation reduces mystery in evaluations by providing


documentation of behaviors.

Plans for the futuredocumentation allows for discussion about specific


facts rather than hearsay and allows for better planning for developmental
activities in the future.

Provides legal protectiondocumentation of performance and behaviors


reduces the likelihood of legal issues upon dismissal or termination for cause.

9.48

When documenting performance and developmental activities:

Be specific, because generalities cause confusion and make it impossible


for employees to know exactly which behaviors and performance are
successful and which are not.

Use adjectives and adverbs sparingly, because evaluative adjectives and


adverbs may lead to ambiguous interpretations, and again, to confusion.
Avoiding these interpretations will lead employees to have a better
understanding of the behaviors and performance they are expected to exhibit.
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Balance positives with negatives, because focusing on only negative


performance will lead to resentment, and focusing on only positive
performance will not give employees the opportunity to improve performance.
Focus on job-related performance, because there is no need to evaluate
performance that is not job-related, as that performance cannot necessarily be
controlled by the organization. Additionally, focusing on performance that is
not job-related can lead to legal issues.
Be comprehensive and include information regarding all aspects of job
performance and developmental activities rather than focusing on one aspect.
This is the only way that an employee will be able to achieve maximum
performance in all areas of job performance.
Standardize procedures, because using the same procedures to document
performance for all employees will foster trust and reduce the likelihood of
legal problems.
Describe observable behavior, because this will reduce the likelihood of
subjective judgments or prejudice which may lead to mistrust and possibly
legal liability.

9.49

The main purposes of feedback are that it:

Helps build confidence. Praising good performance helps build confidence


for future performance.

Develops competence. Information about what has been done right and
how to do the job correctly is valuable information that helps employees
become more competent in future performance.

Enhances involvement. Discussing performance issues allows the employee


to understand his or her role in the unit and the organization and fosters
greater involvement.

9.50

The key features of effective feedback are that it is:

Timelyfeedback is not as effective if it is given much after the incident;


giving feedback as soon as possible after the behavior will help the employee
to improve performance.

Frequentfeedback should happen on an ongoing basis, as frequently as


possible. Too little feedback will result in slow, if any, improvement in
performance.

Specificgeneralized comments of youre doing a good job are nice to


hear, but they will not be as effective in improving performance as specific
information regarding behaviors and performance.

Verifiablethe information commented on should be verifiable and


accurate, rather than based on inferences and rumors. Feedback is unlikely to
be accepted by the employee if it is based on inaccurate information about
behavior.

Consistentgood performance should result in positive feedback and poor


performance should result in negative feedback across all situations, so that
feedback will not come as a shock to the employee. Although some employees
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9.51

may be surprised by negative feedback, it is important that similar behaviors


are not sometimes met with harsh criticism and sometimes met with praise.
Privateemployees should receive feedback in a place and time that will
allow them to accept the information without an audience. Even positive
feedback may cause embarrassment for an employee.
Includes description of consequencesemployees should understand the
consequences of their behavior so that they will realize the importance of their
involvement in the organization.
Descriptive first and evaluative secondthe first order of business is to
describe the behavior that was observed. Once there is agreement about what
happened, evaluation can take place without as much risk of defensiveness,
which makes the feedback more effective.
Related to a performance continuumfeedback should include information
regarding positive aspects of the performance and negative aspects of the
performance, and include an explanation of what steps can be taken to
perform the positive performance more often and the poor performance less
often.
Based on identifiable patterns of performancenegative feedback is most
effective when it is based on patterns of performance rather than isolated
incidents. Patterns of behavior can also be helpful in identifying the reasons
for poor performance.
A confidence builder for employeesa coach can use feedback as a
confidence builder by stressing that he or she is confident that the employee
can improve his or her behavior. This also ensures that the employee
understands that the feedback is about performance rather than about the
performer.
A tool for generating advice and ideasfeedback is a good opportunity for
a supervisor to give advice about how to improve performance, but should
also be a good opportunity to solicit ideas from the employee about how
performance may be improved.

People are sometimes uncomfortable giving negative feedback because:

They fear negative reactions and consequencesmanagers may be fearful


that employees will react in a negative way, including defensiveness and
anger. Additionally, managers may also fear that working relationships, and
even friendships, will suffer because of negative feedback.

They have had negative experiences in the pastmanagers may have had
negative experiences with feedback in the past from their own supervisors
and, because of that experience, may be reluctant to give negative feedback to
their charges.

They dont want to play Godsome managers may feel that giving
negative feedback places them in a position of all knowing or God-like
and they want to avoid that position.

They need irrefutable and conclusive evidencesome managers are


unwilling to risk providing negative feedback without irrefutable evidence.
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Although information used for feedback must be verifiable, it is not necessary


to have irrefutable evidence of a behavior; however, some managers may not
feel comfortable without that evidence.
9.52

Supervisors can take the following steps to prevent defensive responses during the
performance review meeting:

Establish and maintain rapport.


o
Start by making sure that the meeting takes place in a good
environment.
o
The meeting should be private and there should be no interruptions.
o
The supervisor should put the employee at ease and foster two-way
communication. Some ways of handling this are sitting next to the
employee rather than across a desk, chatting with the employee briefly,
and using the employees name, among other techniques. (Failure to
establish and maintain rapport may lead to a cold and closed
communication environment and may foster defensiveness and challenges
to what is being said.)

Be empatheticthe supervisor should put him or herself into the shoes of


the employee and try to discover what has caused the employees behavior
and performance rather than assuming that any positive performance has been
caused by external forces or that negative performance is caused by internal
forces.

Observe verbal and nonverbal cuesthe supervisor should be able to read,


and react to, the employees emotions and reactions to feedback to determine
if clarification is required.

Minimize threatsthe meeting should be framed as having the goal to


benefit the employee rather than to punish the employee.

Encourage participationthe supervisor should not monopolize the


meeting, allowing the employee to express views and to speak openly.

9.53

The guiding principles for understanding successful coaching include the


following:

A good coaching relationship is essential:


o
Trusting and collaborative
o
Willing to listen in order to understand
o
Looking for positive aspects of the employee
o
Understanding that coaching is done with the employee, not to the
employee

The employee is the source and director of change.

The employee is whole and unique.

The coach is the facilitator of the employees growth.

9.54

It is important for a manager to be concerned with an employees core selfevaluation when giving feedback to employees. This is because individuals with
low core self-evaluations are more sensitive to feedback because they feel they
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D.

Chapter 9

are less able to deal with the world and, consequently, are overall less satisfied
with their jobs and lives in general. Recommendations about confidence in the
employee and advice and idea generation are particularly helpful for
employees with low core self-evaluations.
9.55

A decision-making leave is a once-in-a-career day of contemplation in which an


employee is allowed to take a paid one day leave to stay home and decide whether
working in this organization is what he or she really wants to do. Its purpose is to
give the employee an opportunity to evaluate his or her current work effort, to see
if the employee will improve his or her performance in the work place. In
addition, a decision-making leave holds the employee responsible for their future
actions with the organization.

9.56

The five pitfalls associated with the disciplinary process are:


1. Acceptance of poor performance
2. Failure to get the message through
3. Performance standards are unrealistic or unfair
4. Negative affective reactions
5. Failure to consult human resources.
In order to avoid the five pitfalls, one should engage in each of the following,
respectively:
1. Do not ignore the problem. Rather, address any problem as soon as possible.
2. Be very specific about the performance problem and the consequences of not
addressing it effectively. You can also document the action plan and secure the
employees agreement regarding the plan.
3. Remind the employee that (a) his or her performance standards are similar to
others holding the same position, and (b) performance standards have been
developed over time with the participation of the employee in question.
Further, one could share documentation from past appraisals with the
employee.
4. Do not let emotional reactions derail you from your mission, which is to
describe the nature of the problem, what needs to be done, and consequences
of not doing so. If necessary, the manager should be prepared to offer
compassion, provide the employee with space, or reschedule the meeting.
5. Consult with the Human Resources Department regarding any legal issues
before engaging in the disciplinary process.

9.57

Each of the following points are the six suggestions for the termination meeting
along with a description of why they are important:
1. Be respectful. Treat the terminated employee with respect and dignity and
keep information regarding the termination confidential.
2. Get right to the point. At this state, the less said, the better. Summarize the
performance problems, actions that the organization has taken to help the
employee overcome these problems, outcomes of these actions, and the
decision about termination that you have reached.
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Part III: Employee Development____________________________________________________________

3. Wish the employee well. The purpose of this meeting is not to re-hash all the
reasons for your termination decision. Instead, use the meeting to wish the
person well in his or her next job and that he or she will be missed.
4. Send the employee to Human Resources. Allow the employee to receive
information regarding his or her benefits and legal rights. If appropriate, seek
outside legal counsel for this information.
5. Have the employee leave immediately. Keeping the terminated employee onsite can lead to gossip, conflict, and disgruntled employees may engage in
sabotage.
6. Have the termination meeting at the end of the day. This will allow the
employee to leave the office as everyone else and also there will be fewer
people around.
These suggestions are important mainly for two reasons: first, to protect the
feelings and future of the terminated employee; and second, to protect the
organization and the employees within the organization. A termination is
difficult enough for the employee. There is no reason to make it any more
difficult on the employee. Further, a termination could easily provoke
contention and disrupt employees within the organization. The more this can
be limited, the better it is.

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D.