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INTERNSHIP REPORT

BY
STUDENTS OF
MEHRAN UET JAMSHORO.
B.E (Textile Engineering) 4TH Year
(11 BATCH)
MOHAMMAD YOUSIF

11TE72

SADAM HUSSAIN

11TE75

MUJAHID MEHDI

11TE83

TANVEER HUSSAIN

11TE84

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We
proudly present our report which is based on Wet-processing. For this report we
are extremely thankful tothe talented people that worked and helped us in
sortingout our circulated questionnaires and confusionthroughout the
internship especially we would like tothanks the skillfulpersonalities and
workers whos co-operating was verybeneficial & studious for us.

We are also very thankful to,


Mr. Awais

Gray Manager

Mr. Tariq Iqbal

Pretreatment Manager

Mr. Kashif

Dyeing incharge

Mr. Asad Ali

Dyeing department

Mr. Sarfraz

Printing department

Special thanks to respected Mr. Faisal Ansari& Mr. Minhaj,


guided us each and every step during our internship program.

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WET PROCESSING:
It is sequence of processes where fabric is treated in wet condition.
There are mainly six departments in wet processing.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Gray or Grayish
Pretreatment
Dyeing
Printing
Finishing
lab

GRAY
Gray department is the first and foremost department of any wet processing
industry. In Gray department inspection of fabric and grading of fabric is done. In
popular mill 10% fabric is inspect and checked if fabric comes from other mill. And 100%
fabric is inspected, if fabric comes from its own company (popular mill).
GREY DEPARTMENT DEALS:

To keep entry and exit of raw material for wet processing.


To keep the records of stored fabric.
Making lots.
To inspect & grade the fabric.
The rejected fabric is sent back to the respected Mill.
Make path and transfer it to the next department.

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In gray department two following inspection reports is filled:


1) Gray inspection report
2) By pass approval form
Gray inspection report:
In this report following things are inspected and fill the form,

Total meter
Current meter
Width
Hanging thread
Oil stain
Cut pick
Miss pick
Double pick
Crack
Slubs

By pass approval form:


After the inspectionof fabric, approval gets for processing of fabric. Samples are
attached with the report, remarks are made and faults are mention. Fabric is dealt according to
the remarks of company; generally approval takes from company, marketing manager and QC
in-charge. The company gives following remarks and actions to be taken:

As it is
Scrap
Sorting
Reprocess
Concession
other

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PRETREATMENT
It is set of processes where fabric is made ready for dyeing or printing process. The following
processes are carried out in pretreatment department:

SINGEING:
Singeing is the first pretreatment process in which protruding fibers are burn out through
burning.

DESIZING:
Desizing is the second process of pretreatment, in which the size material is removed from the
fabric. It is very necessary to remove size material from fabric so as to make the fabric
hydrophilic because the size material (starch) which is appliedmakes the fabric hydrophobic in
nature due to its insolubility. Extremely enzymatic desizing and acid desizing are carried out in
production level but enzymatic desizing is more common and eco-friendly than the acidic
desizing.
Enzymatic desizing:
It is vast used method and slow method than acid desizing, but very cheap and reliable.After
application of enzymes, 8 to 12 hour rotation time is given for completionof process.
Polyethylene begs are wound on fabric for maintain the temperature of fabric at rotation time.
Acid desizing:
This is very rapid but risky type of desizing. In acid desizing, there is no need of temperature
which is given in bath. This method is done mainly for demineralizationof fabric which helps in
bleaching process as it chalet out the metal/ iron ions (which cause pin hole problems).

SCOURING:
In this process oils, waxes, dust, and dirt are removed from the fabric. This is done in three
steps:
I.
II.
III.

Saponification
Emulsification
Detergency

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BLEACHING:
It is process of pretreatment in which we remove the natural color pigments, chlorophyll and
xanthophyll.
Bleaching is done by two ways, simple bleaching and solomatic bleaching. Simple bleaching is
a process in which scouring and bleaching are done separately but in solomatic bleaching
scouring and bleaching takes place in same bath.

MERCERIZATION:
It is process of pretreatment used to increase the dye uptake of fabric by swelling. In
mercerization actually kidney shape crossection of cotton fiber is coverted into round or oval
shape and due to removal of caugulations dye uptakes is increased.

MACHINES USED IN PRETREATMENT:


In Popular fabrics following machines used for pretreatment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Osthof-senge (PK93, Germany) (singeing+desizing)


Osthof-senge (FRG56, Germany) (singeing+desizing)
Goller bleaching (scouring or bleaching)
Banninger (scouring or bleaching)
Goller mercerization (mercerization)

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OSTHOF-SENGE:
In Popular Fabrics there are two Osthof-senge machines are installed
I.
II.

OSTHOF-SENGEPK93
OSTHOF-SENGEFRG56

OSTHOF-SENGE PK93:
Specification:
Machine speed:
Total threading length: 40m
Fabric width process: 39-68

Main machine parts:


1) Guiderollers: Used to guide fabric
2) Pre brushing: Used to clean fluff and fly. Two brushes are used to clean face and back of
fabric.
3) Singeing section:
I. It contains 2 burners
II.
Temperature= about 1100:C
III.
Distance b/w flame and fabric=100mm
IV. Flame intensity = 18mbar
V. Exhaust fan (to maintain the temperature of singing unit)
4) Desize bath:
I. a) Acid desizing: Solution 4 gm/l of oxalic acid.
b) Enzymatic desizing:
Desizer 1-2gm/liter,
Wetting agent 1-2gm/liter,
Squesting agent 0.5-1gm/liter
II.
Temperature of desizing bath= 60:C for enzymatic
III.
Pick up% =100%
IV. Threading length 12m
5) Padder: It is used to squeeze the fabric uniformly.
6) Batch: Used to wind the fabric
7) Rotator motor: which revolves to batch for required time.
For acid desizing 4 hr.
For enzymatic desizing 8-12 hr.

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OSTHOF-SENGE FRG56:
Specification:
Machine speed:
Total threading length: 40m
Fabric width process: 39-68

Main machine parts:


1) Scary: It is used to store fabric for continuous production.
2) Guiderollers: Used to guide and create tension in fabric.
3) Pre brushing: Used to clean from fluffy and fly. Two brushes which clean both side of
fabric.
4) Singeing section(same as above)
5) Desize bath:
I. Threading length 7m
II.
Remaining same as above
6) Padder: It is used to squeeze the fabric uniformly.
7) Batch: Used to wind the fabric
8) Rotator motor: which revolves to batch for required time.
For acid desizing 4 hr.
For enzymatic desizing 8-12 hr.

GOLLER BLEACH:
In this machine scouring and bleaching is carried out. In this machine one steamer that why
only one process can be carried out either scouring or bleaching or solomatic bleaching.

Machine specification:
Machine name:
Model no. :
Machine speed:

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Main machine parts:


1. Scary: It is used to store the fabrics for continuous process.

2. Guide/tensioning/stentor roller:It is used to guide the fabric.


3. Pre washing tanks:There are two pre washing tanks used.
4. Chemical bath
Bath: Continuous showering of solution (Dosing system)
Recipe (Tank=300 liters of solution) solution is made according to the basis of GSM of
fabric.
For scouring:
I. Caustic soda (NaOH)
II.
Sequesting agent
III.
Wetting agent
IV. Fresh water
For bleaching:
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Hydrogen Per oxide (H2O2)


Stabilizer
Wetting agent
Sequesting agent

For solomatic bleaching:


I. H2O2 :
30gm/l
II.
NaOH :
20gm/l
III.
Soap/detergent :
3g/l
5. Steamer: It is use for specific action of reaction scouring and
bleaching(temperature=102:C, time= 20 minutes)
6. Washing tank 3: (water only, Temperature=90:C-100:C)
7. Washing tank 4: (Water only, Temperature=90:C-100:C)
8. Washing tank 5: (Water only, Temperature=90:C-100:C)
9. Padder: For squeezing the fabric
10. Drying rollers: 12 dryers are used to dry the fabric at 110:C-120:C temperature
11. Batching: Fabric is wound on roller.

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BENNINGER BLEACHING MACHINE:


In this machine scouring and bleaching is carried out. Here also one steamer so as only one
process is carried out scouring or bleaching or solomatic bleaching.

Machine specification:
Machine name: Benninger machine
Model no. : CH-9240 uzwil 1999
Machine speed: 50-100 m/min
Fabric width process: 120-128 max
Steamer: 01
Washing tanks: 06

Machine main parts:


Machine parts are almost same as Goller bleaching machine.

GOLLER MERCERIZATION
In Popular Fabrics there is one Goller mercerization machine.

Main machines parts


1. Scary: It is used to store the fabrics for continuous process.
2. Guide/tensioning/stentor roller: used to guide the fabric.
3. Strong lye: It contains strong alkali of sodium hydroxide (100% 28:Be) the strong lay
treats in normal room temperature. The fabric is dipped in lay so as to pick the
amount of NaOH with the help of rollers which are responsible to avoid shrinkage.
4. Squeezing rollers: These rollers are used to remove the NaOH from the fabric. These
rollers remove about 90% of NaOH from the fabrics
5. Weak lye: Weak lye also responsible for swelling the fabric. Chamber consists of hot
water having 98:C temperature. In this lye remaining 10% (7:Be)of NaOH is react with
water and is removed bit by bit. At least 99% of NaOH is being removed
6. Washing tanks: Four washing tanks having hot water temperature 98:C.
Drying rollers: Used to dry the fabrics(Temperature 100:C-120:C)
7. Batch: Mercerized fabric is batched.

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DYEING
Adding color to textile product such as yarns, fibers, and fabrics is known as dyeing. There are
four main types of the dyes are usually used in Popular Fabrics:
1. Reactive dye:
2. Disperse dye:
3. Pigment dye:
4. Vat dye:

Dyeing Process:1. For Reactive(cotton):


i. Pad dry chemical pad
ii. Pad dry cure
2. For Disperse(polyester):
i. Pad dry cure
3. For PC(polyester cotton)
i. One bath process: (Disperse Vat dyeing)
ii. Two bath process: (Disperse reactive dyeing)
First for polyester pad dry cure on Thermosol machine and R.G(reduction
cleaning) on pad steam. And second for cotton pad dry cure.
4. For Vat(Cotton):
I. Pad dry chemical pad

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Recipe used in dyeing


1. For reactive:
For pad dry:
Reactive dye
Anti-foaming agent
Wetting agent
Anti-migrating agent
Resist salt
For chemical pad:
Refine salt
Soda ash
Resist salt
Caustic soda
Anti-foam
For pad dye cure:
Reactive dye
Soda ash
Anti-foam
Leveling agent
Urea
Wetting agent
2. For disperse:
Disperse dye
Dispersing agent(DlS)
Acidic acid(fixing agent)
Anti-foam(AVD)
Wetting agent(Optra)
3. For pigment:
Pigment dye
Binder
Anti-foam

x g/l
5 g/l
5 g/l
15 g/l

250 g/l
20 g/l
5 g/l
8 ml/l
2 g/l
x g/l
12 g/l
0.5 g/l
20 g/l
100 g/l
1 g/l
x g/l
1 g/l
1 g/l
0.5 g/l
1 g/l
x g/l
40 g/l
0.5 g/l

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4. For vat:
Pad dry:
Vat dye
Vat develop(reduction):
Sodium hydrosulfite
Caustic soda
Oxidation:
H2O2
Acetic acid
5. R.C (reduction cleaning):
Sodium hydrosulfite
Caustic soda

x g/l
40 g/l
40 ml/l
5 g/l
2 g/l
40 g/l
40 g/l

MACHINES
There are sevenmachines are used in Popular Fabrics Mill:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Thermosol dyeing machine


Pad steam machine
Kusture Pad batch machine
Jigger dyeing machine
Winch dyeing machine
Piece dyeing machine
Dryer machine

Thermosol Dyeing Machine:


This machine is also known as universal dyeing machine because almost all types of
dyeing can be processed. In Popular Fabrics mill, mostly reactive dyeing, disperse
dyeing, vat dyeing and PC dyeing are processed in this machine. Here we can achieve
two processes of dyeing in this machine:
I. Pad dry
II.
Pad dry cure

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Machine parts:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Unwinding roller: These rollers are used unwind the fabric.


Scary: it is used to store extra fabric length for continuous process.
Guide rollers: These rollers are used to guide the fabric.
Tensioning rollers: These rollers are used to give the proper tension to fabric.
Trough: It is the bath in which chemical recipe is putted and fabric dipped as to
get the chemical recipe. Max: 40-50 liters can be stored on trough.
Padding roller:These rollers are used to squeezing the fabric.
IR Zone: it is heating zone in which fabric is passed to dry(Temp: 300:C-700:C)
Drying chambers:The drying chambers are used to dry the fabric. There are five
drying chambers in this machine(Temperature120:C to 220:C)
Batch: Finally yarn is wound on the roller called batch.

Pad Steam machine:


In Popular Fabrics Mill,Pad steam machine is used for threepurposes:
I. Fixation of reactive dyeing.
II.
Vat developing
III.
RC

Machine parts:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

vii.
viii.
ix.

Unwind roller: It is used to unwind the fabric.


Scary:It is used to store the fabric for continuous process
Trough: It is a bath in which required chemical recipe is putted and maximum 40-50
liter
Padding rollers: It is used to squeezing the fabric.
Steamer: It is used for moisture absorbance. The fabric threading length at the
steamer is 60 meters at 102C.
Washing machine:Washing is the process in which unfixed dyes are removed. Hot
water and detergent are used as washing substance and acetic acid is used to
control pH of the fabric. Six washing chambers are installed here. In Vat developing
1st cold wash, 2nd washing chambers oxidation, 3rd soaping and 4-6 washing.
Drying roller: These rollers are used to dry the fabric. There are 16 drying roller. The
temp: of these roller is usually 100C.
Cooling roller: These rollers are used to cool the fabric.
Batch: Finally fabric is wound on batch.

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Kusters Pad Batch:


It is dyeing machine where pad batch method of dyeing is achieved. In Popular Fabrics
Mill, reactive and vat dyes are processed. We prepare dye solution and drop into
machine trough/bath. Fabric is just dip in bath and other end fabric is simply wound in
batcher. Now if fabric processed with reactive dye then after winding fabric on batcher,
we give rotation time for fixation. For light shed rotation time is 6-8 hours and for dark
shed rotation time is 10-12 hours.
If fabric is processed with vat dye then here we just apply dye on fabric and wound on
batcher. After that the batcher goes for developing/ reduction and oxidation on jigger
machine.

Machine Specification:
Recipe:

Machine parts:
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

Unwinding roller:It is used to un wind the fabric.


Guide &tensioning roller:
Trough:It is a bath in which required chemical recipe is putted and maximum 40-50 liter
Padding roller:It is used for squeeze the fabric
Batch:It is used for wind the fabric.
Rotating time:24 hours

Jigger Machine:
Jigger machine is old machine and categorized in exhaust dyeing machine. In
Popular Fabrics Mill, there are three Jigger machines and following process can be achieved:

Washing
Reduction cleaning
Desizing
Scouring
Bleaching
Dyeing
Vat dyeing develop
Washing

Principle of Jigger machine is very easy. The two rollers, one is unwound fabric roller and other
is winding roller in which processed fabric is wound. In between these rollers a bath in which
chemical is filled according to process.

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Recipe:
For Vat reduction:
Sodium hydrosulfite
Caustic soda
Temperature
For vat oxidation:
H2O2
Acetic acid
Temperature

30-40 g/l
30-40 g/l
70-75 oC
10 g/l
10 g/l
30-40 oC

Machine main parts:


Unwind roller
Trough/ chemical Bath
Winding roller

Winch dyeing machine:


It is also an old machine and categorized as exhaust dyeing machine. In Popular Fabric Mills,
there are two winch machines are installed. The main purpose of using this machine is that the
light weight fabrics cannot be run on continuous machines. The all above processes of Jigger
machine can be achieve here also.
The principle of this machine is that fabric is treated in rope form. After dippingthe fabric in
bath through passing winch roller, the ends of fabric is stitched so this rope form fabric can be
rotates continuous.
Main parts:
Winch roller:
Guide roller:
Trough / chemical bath:

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Piece dyeing machine:


This machine is used for dyeing socks, trousers, towels, hand gloves etc. In Popular Fabric Mill, there are
two machines installed.
Principle of this machine is that a rotating perforated drum in which garment put down. A tank/
chemical bathin which solution is filled as the rotating drum is somehow contact or little bit dip on that.
As this rotating drum rotates our task will be done at particular time.
Main parts:
Perforated drum
Tank / chemical bath

Drying machine:
It is used to dry fabrics. In Popular Fabric Mills, there are two drying machines. It works on basic drying
principle.
Main Parts:

Rotating perforated drum.


Closed / sealed frame.
Hot air system.

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PRINTING
Coloration of fabrics on a pre-determined area of the fabric OR Technical dyeing on the pre
decided area of the fabrics is called printing.
TYPES OF PRINTING:
1. Pigment dye (paste form)
2. Reactive dye (powder form)

SEPERATING/ Designing DEPARTMENT


Separating department separates the colors which are made on the sample of papers, piece of
fabric, in CD drive. There are following tasks of this department:

Set the repeat design


Open the congested design
Make pixels on design
Dots in the design of screen

These all tasks can be done on adobe Photoshop or Ramsete-3 softwares.


Supplier or costumer gives only their required design in cd format. In cd they also give a form in
which following things are mention:

Number of ways on same design (deign is same but color change)


Number of screen required
Repeat size
Screen width
Print direction

ENGRAVING DEPARTMENT
This department makes the sheets for printing known as screens.
There are two types of engraving
1. Rotary engraving
2. Flat engraving

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ROTARY ENGRAVING:
Engraving means exposing of design on the screen. These screens are made of nickel. Following
are parameters concern with screen:
Screen size (length):
Screen size
1280 mm
1620 mm
1850 mm
2650 mm
3050 mm
3500 mm
Screen repeat (diameter):
64 mm
82 mm
91.4 mm
101 mm
Screen mashes:
20 /cm
40 /cm
60 /cm
80 /cm
125 /cm
135 /cm
135 /cm
155 /cm
165 /cm
195 /cm

Max. Fabric width processed


45
60
72
94
110
130

Gold, silver, white


white and back side print
Geometric, rafted effect, half tone and fine print
same
same
same
same
same

Following is the sequence of process for exposing screen:


Chemical coating:
G.B.M used for chemical coating the screen.
This task is done on coating machine.
The screen fixed in vertical form.
The chemical put on squeegee.
The squeegee diameter depends on screen diameter.
Time depends on screen length.
Speed of machine is 15-16 m/min for hard coating and 6-7 for light coating.

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Climatizer Machine ( Dryer):


This machine is used for drying the chemical coating on screen.
Temperature is set 47-48 oC
Time= 10mins
Exposing machine:
There are two exposing machines used in Popular Fabrics Mill:
I.
II.

Manual machine
Ink-jet machine
Manual machine now a days, not used.
Inkjet machine:

CST Ink-jet machine 2011 model


Time for exposing design on screen depends on design & length of
screen.
After completing task, screen is brought into lighting machine in which
light is given to screen. The design area becomes soft and remaining is
hard.
8 round of lighting carriage are given to screen length & about 10-12 min
time taken for this task.
Exposing & developing:
Screen is dip on bath containing water for 5-10 min.
After this screen is fixed on rod and pressurized water is giving and soft brush is
rub on screen through that soft area or chemical is taken off from exposed area.
Ring machine:
Solid ring is fixed at both ends of screen which is fit on print machine.
Adhesive is applied for joining the rings with screen.
Polymer chamber:
This machine is used for drying the adhesive on screen.
Temperature= 220 oC
Time = 10 min

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Color preparation:
For printing color is prepared in paste form. In popular Fabrics Mill, there are two types of paste used:

Pigment paste
Reactive paste

Recipe:
1000 kg of pigment paste:
Urea
Liquor ammonia
Thickener
Binder
1000 kg of reactive paste:
Urea
Soda bicarbonate
Resist salt / RG
Thickener

4%
1.4 %
4 % (further depends on design and screen)
3%
15 %
4%
1.5 %
4 % (further depends on design and screen)

Note: IPS machine is used for color paste preparation. In Popular Fabric Mills, this
machine is out of order now days.

MACHINES USED FOR ROTARY PRINTING:


1. sampling machine(used 1 color only at a time)
2. Reggiani (1-14 colors )

Main parts of rotary machines:


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Scary: It is used to store the fabric for continuous process.


Guide, tensioning and compel setter roller: Used to guide
Pre brushing:It is used to remove the dust, dirt.
Gluing device: It is used to give uniformly glue to whole blanket for fixation of fabrics
with blanket
Pressing roller: It is used to press the fabrics with blanket
Blanket: It is like a conveyer belt which transfer the fabric through screens
Screens: It is used for printing the design on fabric.
Dry chambers:It is used to dry the fabric.
Batch: It is wind the printed fabrics.
NOTE: This fabric is then treated in steaming curing machine for proper
fixation of printing.

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FINISHING
Finishing department is the last department of wet processing. Here we give
additional application to get more qualitative fabric like here we increase the softness;
shininess, luster, absorbency and lot of more properties of the fabric
The fabric treated here mainly two purposes
1. Equalizing
2. Finishing

1 Equalizing:
Equalizing is the process in which we parallelize the warp and weft yarn of the fabric.
This process is mainly done after bleaching and mercerization. In this process no recipe is
needed, just treated with water in trough and pass through machines parameters of finishing
department.

2 Finishing:
Finishing is the process in which we give additional properties on to the fabric this is
done after dyeing or printing of fabric. In this process we need proper recipe for making
finished fabric. Recipe is depend on endure quality and customer requirements. Mainly finished
goods contain more softness luster shines easy handling.

Types of Finishing
There are two types used to make finished fabric
1 Chemical
2 Mechanical

CHEMICAL METHOD:
Recipe:
For soft finishing:
Poly ethylene soft XL
Silicon soft CSE
Binder 77
Libra fix ML
Acetic acid
For hard finish:
UTM 50 (PVA)
Wet Optra

25 gm/l
15 gm/l
10 gm/l
5 gm/l
.25 gm/l

(crocking improves)
(washing improves)
(ph. control)

90 gm/l
0.5 gm/l

(wetting agent)

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Resin finish (shrinkage control):


Glop fix KVS
RCO fix NIC
Magnesium chloride
10-15 gm/l
Softener
Acetic acid
Water repellent:
NOVA HPU
80-100 gm/l
Acetic acid
2 gm/l
Dyeing:
Mostly pigment dyeing is carried out.
Recipe is same as required for pigment.

(increase strength)

Machines used for finishing:


For chemical method, Popular Fabrics Mill used four Bruckner stenter machines.

Bruckner stenter
Bruckner stenter
Bruckner stenter
Bruckner stenter

model 1995
model 1995
model 2001
model 2003

max width process:


max width process:
max width process:
max width process:

120
80
102
125

Main parts of machine:


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Scary: Scary is used to store extra fabric length as to connect new batch
Composter: It maintains the fabric speed and gives proper tension
Trough: It is a box in which required chemical recipe is putted maximum 40-50 liter
Padding: This is used to squeeze the fabric and to make even chemical pickup%
throughout fabric.
Mahlo: Mahlo is a mechanism which parallelizes the weft yarn of fabric. Mahlo is
basically set of rollers. Three SQ rollers responsible for cross control and two bow rollers
responsible for curve control.
Chain: It is used to make fabric in open width form and clips are used to hold the fabric
width
Heating chamber: It is specially mechanism in which fabric is to dried at 120C-200C
temperature
Cooling roller: It is two heavy steel drum which is used to cool down the dry fabric
Batch: To wound in proper way

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MECHANICAL METHOD:
In Popular Fabrics Mill three machines are used for mechanical finishing. Mechanical method
isan especial setup in which finishing on fabric gets from machines moving parts and no
additional chemical require.
1. Peach machine
2. Calendar machine
3. Sanforizing machine
Peach machine:
This machine is used for softening on fabric. When one side peach paper is used then it is
known as emerzing finish and when both sides peach paper is used then it is known as Falaen
finish. Different peach papers are used, depends on fabric quality.
Machine specification:
Company
sucker muller hacoba
Model
2000
Type
SF-4C
Machine speed
30 m/min
Main parts of machine:
Trolley
Brushing device
Tensioning and guide rollers
Peach mechanism:
o 4 peach paper rollers
o 2 tape rollers
o 5 top steel rollers
Tension rollers
Wooden roller
Trolley

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Calander machine:
This machine is used for shininess purpose.
Machine specification:
Company
Ramisch Kleinewefers
Model
1996
Type
RKK
Main parts of machine:
Batcher
Tensioning and guide rollers
Curved type steel roller
Three large cylinders connected with each other:
o Chile cylinder/ taflon rubber cylinder: containing cold water which gives
moisture to the fabric.
o Steel cylinder: containing oil which gives shines to the fabric. Depends on
fabric quality hot oil or cold one used.
o Wooden cylinder
Tensioning rollers
Batcher
Sanforizing Machine:
This machine is used for shrinkage control (increase or decrease) and also softening provides.
Machine specification:
Company

Main machine parts:

Cibi tex (Italy)

Batcher
Scary
Tension rollers
Steel cylinder: pre moisture provider.
Sanfirize mechanism:
o Rubber belt which connects two roller (start and end)
o Steel cylinder: steam in side cylinder.
o Through/bath: water in the bath.
Two pressures used:
o Pressure for shrinkage control. This pressure moves cylinder up and down.
o Pressure for rankle control. This pressure contract and expand rubber belt
curve.
Dryer:
o Large cylinder
o Blanket around cylinder
o Steel cylinder
Batcher

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LABORATORY
Laboratory is the place where all the (gray fabric testing, dyes, pigments, finishes and other auxiliaries)
are inspected and tested. Actually all the decisions are made after the approval of lab.
Popular mills lab is categorized in three sections:
Physical testing
RND (chemical testing)
Lab dyeing or lab dip

Physical testing:
In physical test, many tests are carried out but in Popular Mill following tests are carried out:
Size content:
It is used to check the size content/material on fabric.
Tagwa solution is used. Just drop two or three drops of tagwa solution on fabric,
size content is known by this method,
Tagawa scale is used for measuring the size material. The impact of tagawa
solution is compare with tagawa scale and measure the actual size material.
Scale contains 1-9 readings and acceptable range is 4-5.
PH of fabric:
PH is power of hydrogen.
Universal PH solution is used.
The PH scale is 1-14 and 7 is neutral reading.
Blend ratio (PC):
Used to measure the ratio of PC blend.
Dry the PC sample.
Weigh the PC sample
PC sample is dipped on sulfuric acid of 70% concentrsted solution for about
10mins.
The cotton material is dissolvedin the solution because cotton is sensitive to acid
but this solution does not effect polyester.
Sample is dried and sample is weighed.
Ratio of polyester of pc blend is calculated by following formula :
(Weight of first sample weight of 2nd sample/weight of 1st sample)* 100

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Absorbency test:
Cut three sample large then 10cm. (left, center and right)
Mark the 10cm scale on sample through stamp.
Dip end of sample in tarquish solution for one min.
Through capillaryaction solution travels upward.
Hence absorbency is measured.
Whiteness test:
This is simply measure on data color spectrometer.
Three test are carried out (left, center and right)
70-80% whiteness is acceptable.
Pilling test:
This test is done on NC-Martindale (England).
Cut two pieces of fabric front and back for using pillar cutter.
Mostly 1000 rotations for good result and also set on customer demand.
After completing test, sample is compare with standard card .
GSM test:
Universal GSM cutter is used for cutting the sample.
Just weigh the sample, GSM is achieved.
Dyeing tests:
Rubbing fastness test:
Crock meter machine is used for rubbing test.
Take sample for test and fixe on machine.
Take two standard white samples, one is dry and another is 100% wet.
First fix dry sample in its position and start machine.
According to test method rotations are selected, here 10 rotations are
set.
After completing task, check the stains on white sample and compare
with gray scale for giving reading.
Now same way wet sample is fixed and checked.
Washing fastness test:

Cut the sample of 10*4 cm and attach with un-mercerized fabric of 10*4 cm.
Prepare solution according to test method and put onto the pot.
Now put the sample onto the pot and pot is then fixed on machine.
Temperature and time is giving according to test method.
After completing time, sample is dried.
Now match the staining on fabric with standard gray scale and give reading.

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Perspiration test:
Cut two pieces of sample and also take two pieces of un-mercerized
fabric.
Attach one sample and one un-mercerized piece.
One sample is dip on acidic solution while other dip on basic solution for
2-3mins.
These samples are then brought on per-spirometer.
Samples are placed on sheet/plate.
Seal the machine & apply the standard weight & fixed the position with
nuts.
Remove the weight & give time about 4hours.
Finally check the staining on un-mercerized fabric and give readings.
Shrinkage test:
Mark the fabric with standard area of 50 cm. Two areas are marked.
This fabric is put on to the washing machine:
o Standard washing machine
o Manual washing machine
After washing fabric is squeeze on spun machine.
Then after fabric is dried on drying machine.
Now finally check that how much shrinkage in the sample.

RND (Chemical testing):


In RND section, strength and purity of chemicals, axillaries and dyes are tested. Following are
the main chemicals which are commonly used and tested in lab:

Hydrogen per oxide


Soda ash
Sodium hydrosulfite
Acetic acid
Wetting agent
Sequesting agent
Stabilizer
Binder
Thickener
Urea
Dispersing agent

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Matching section (dyeing dip):


In this section selection of dyes is carried out and also process samples with dyes for testing.A
lab dip is a swatch of fabric test dyed to hit a color standard. Several lab dips may be submitted
for feedback until the standard is achieved and the lab dip is approved. There is also now a
machine used to read lab dips called a "spectrometer which will give the same
feedback.Selection of dyes depends on fabric quality. Samples are then comparing with
standard at color matching booth. Matching is mainly carried out in following three standard
lights:
TL-84
D-65
F-2

Folding
This is the final department of processing department. Taking samples from each and
every roll and faults are detected and the grading is done. The rolls are separated in shade wise.
The defected fabric is separated. The grading is done a/c to the customer requirement.
There are two types of machines used in Popular Fabrics Mill namely,

Rolling machine.

Flat folding machine.

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