Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

ULTRASONIC PULSE ECHO CONTACT TECHNIOUES I 205

'ART 2

NGLE

BEAM CONTACT TESTING

A1thoughthe majOlity of contact testing is done with


b1gitudinalwaves propagating normal to the test object
surface,there are many instances when an angled beam is
preferred.The predominant reason for angle beam testing
the detection of discontinuities with geometJies and orientationsother than parallel to the test surface. Planar
cracksnormal to the test object sUlface, voids with small
reflecti\'esurfaces parallel to the test object surface and discontinuitiesin welds with uneven top surfaces are examples
ofsituationsthat require angle beam techniques.

FIGURE 18. Block standards for angle beam


transducer verification: la)/nternationallnstitute
of Welding IIIW) block and lb) miniature angle
beam block

(a)

r
4

Verificatian

af

Shear Wave Angle

Angledlongitudinal waves, shear waves or surface waves


aregenerated in a test object by mounting the piezoelectJic
elementat an angle in the contact transducer. The correct
anglecan be determined with Snel!' s law of refraction. Most
of the commercial angle beam contact transducers are designedto produce shear waves of 30, 45 and 60 degrees in
steel.Some produce surface waves. For materials with different sound velocities, the angles of refraction can be
calculatedusing Snel!' s law when standard transducers are
used.The transducer angle can be verified using a calibrationblock such as the one shown in Fig. 18a.
The first step in angle beam calculation is to determine
the transducer's beam exit point. The transducer is placed
onthe focal point of the calibration block and is moved back
andforth until the monitor reaches maximum amplitude for
the reflection from the large outside radius. The focal point
on the block then corresponds with the beam exit point of
the transducer.
The transducer is next placed on the other side of the
blockto obtain a reflection from the 50 mm (2 in.) diameter
hole.The transducer again is moved back and forth until the
reflection from the hole shows maximum amplitude on the
monitordisplay. At this point, the angle of the sound beam
matchesthe degrees stamped on the side of the calibration
block.
The transducer sound beam exit point should always be
checked first. If the exit point marking is not correct, then
the angle cannot be measured accurately. Two examples of
shear wave transducer angle verificabon using an IIW block
are shown in Fig. 19 for a 60 degree transducer and in
Fig.20 for a 45 degree transducer.
In the case of the
nominal 60 degree transducer of Fig. 18, the shear wave
angle is shown to be only 55 degrees. The miniature angle
beam block, shown in Fig. 18b, can also be used to calibrate
the transducer angle in far field work.

Lr

8 In.

------

0.25 In.
0.125 In.

40" 50"
60"
0.06
In. HOLE

U
f\--

31.64
In.

60"
75"
2 In 70"
DIAMETER
HOlE

-.l

FOCAl POINT
12

~ '\

In.

=_: i

1:1 In.

PlASTlC INSERT

(b)
f-

3 In.

-j

1:

1 In.

0.06

[J 0.75

t..=-=I ~~75

In.

In

~75In.
In HOlE

FOCAl

POINT

Ranging in Shear Wave Tests


In angle beam testing with the beam directed away from
the transducer, no back sUlface reflection is present on the
monitor display. The appearance of a reflected signal usually
signifies the presence of a discontinuity. Ranging of the discontinuity is not as simple as in straight beam testing. In
metals, a standard reference block such as the International
Institute of Welding (IIW) block can be used to calibrate
the distance from the transducer to the discontinuity. In materials other than steel, a conversion must be made, taking
into account the rabo of velocities in the material to the velocities in steel.

range estimating, the beam spread of the angle beam


Id also be taken into account. The sound beam radifrom the transducer fans out or diverges. The exact
ion of the discontinuity represented by the reflected

URE 19. Angle beam verifieation tests with


degree shear wave transdueer and steel IIW
erenee block: la) response at 53 degrees,
response at maximum 55 degrees and
response at 57 degrees
0.8

la}

signal on the monitor display may be difficult to judge


because of the beam spread. Another difficulty in discontinuity ranging les in the uncertainty of where the discontinuity may be located relative to the boundary surfaces. As

FIGURE 20. Angle beam verification test with


45 degree shear wave transdueer and steel IIW
referenee block: la) response at 43 degrees,
lb) response at maximum 45 degrees and
le) response at 47 degrees

0.4

0.2

::lV;1--,=
::JO
Cl...
>

00

FIGURE 21. Possible sound beam paths in angle


beam testing

(a)

06

o::l1-::;
:JO

-0.2
-0.4

Cl...

-0.6
-0.8
68

70

72

46

48

52

54

TIME
8ACK

SURFACE

(b)
w

o::J1-::;

Q2
QO

Cl...

FIGURE 22. Sound beam bouneing off inner and


outer walls in ultrasonie tube test

(b)

:JO
>

-Q2
-Q4
-Q6

-1

-Q8
64

66

68

70

~
46

72

48

50

52

54

TIME

TIME

BACK

SURFACE

(microseconds)

(microseconds)

Ic)

50

(microseconds)

Q4

(c)

0.8

0.6
w

o
::lf-~
::J

Cl...

o>

The angle beam technique is extensively used for weld


testing (see Fig. 23a). Typically, the weld is tested in using
a full skip, making use of the two test directions provided by
the angle beam test (as shown in Figs. 23b and 23c). To
assist in interpreting the results of angle beam tests, a direct
reading ultrasonic calculator (shown in Fig. 24a) may be
developed for this purpose. The horizontal scale across the
top of the card represents the horizontal distance from the
exit point of the transducer. Distance from the exit point

-1
66

08
Q6

1--'=
::JO
Cl...
>

Weld Testing

(a)

(microseconds)

o::lV;-

Angle beam testing of tubes uses shear waves reflected


repeatedly along the tube wall. Occasionally longitudinal
waves are used but they suffer much from mode conversion.
Figure 22 shows a sound beam bouncing off inner and outer
walls of a tube dming a typical ultrasonic test. Longitudinal
cracks in the path of the sound beam reflect the sound and
are indicated on the test system's monitor. In order to cover
the entire area of the tube, the transducer or the tube must
be rotated while either one traverses in the longitudinal
direction.

>

TIME

Ultrasonic Tests of Tubes

64

[b)

indicated in Fig. 21a, the sound beam undergoes four


slanted trips to complete a round trip to a crack located at
or near the top surface. When the crack is located at or near
the bottom surface, the sound beam only takes two trips to
make the round trip (Fig. 21b). In Fig. 21c, where the crack
is located near the middle of the plate, the sound beam
bounces off both the upper and lower surfaces and may
retum to the transducer, if the plate is not too thick.
Whenever possible, the plate should be tested from both
sides to judge the crack location more accurately.

04
02

o::l-

(c)

1-::;
:JO>

QO

-Q2
-~
-Q6

Cl...

DISCONTINUITY

-1

-Q8
64

66

68

TIME
(microseconds)

70

72

46

48

50

TIME
(microseconds)

52

54
BACK

SURFACE

DISCONTINUITY

FIGURE 24. Direct reading ultrasonic


discontinulty location calculator

;URE 23. Ultrasonic angle beam weld tests

la)

a)
("

I
.
~OOOCffi

FIRST LEG

I1
,

1+-

-"~., ..

r "\

b]"""

II
,

FIRSTV
PATH

10

. _.
\
... 1$
,
!i

'.

THIRD LEG
~

SECONDV
PATH

..

'I

70 '
~O60

htJ+-+
~?U
I

b)

lb)
DASHED UNE

~----:::

..:~

-_

~--

'

~~

4050

I I II Ij

10
7 5I
,>\
69785 703 6 80,;:)...
DISCONTINUITY
~yj POINT
I OF2 INCIDENC~'
I

60~J.x

2 U

I '"

e)

'.
:-_~

-... ..

I/J-:,~
-_ ..

....

.-_.:: ...

___
:~;~:L.

. '

ne center of the weld is laid out along this scalc. The


al scale represents distance in the thickness direction.
men thickness is indicated on this scale and the arc
; the angle of the sound beam.
an example of using the calculator, assume a double
Id with an opening of 30 degrees in a 50 mm (2 in.)
)late. The weld is to be tested using a 60 degree shear
transducer. A line is first drawn from the point of in~e at the upper left corner 01' the calculator through
O degree
mark on the arc, extending to the 50 mm
I point representing the plate thickness.
ibrate the hOlizontal sweep of the monitor to represent
travel distance in the test matetial. The 1'ulJskip disof the sound beam is obtained by doubling the 86 mm
1.) intersecting point at the bottom 01' the plate and
ng the point at 175 mm (6.9 in.) on the upper plate
e. The 30 degree V weld is next drawn on transparent
positioned over the monitor screen - here at a value
I mm (5.5 in.). The distance between the centcr of the
ucer (exit point) and the center ol' the weJdmcnt is
11easured, giving 116 mm (4.6 in.). The transparent
is moved by the same distance. The position ol' the
tinuity is indicated and can be evaluated.

FIGURE 25. Pitch and catch angle beam testing


la)

lb)
RECEIVER

/1'
BACK SURFACE

Pitch and Catch Contact Testing

Surface Wave Testing Techniques

Angle beam contact testing can also be conducted using


two transducers in a pitch and catch mode. The transmitting
transducer pitches a sound beam that skips in the plate and
is caught by a receiving transducer (see Fig. 25).
The distance between the two transducers can be calibrated to maximize the received signal amplitude. As shown
in Fig. 25b, aplanar discontinuity perpendicular to the plate
surface in the path ol' the sound beam deflects the sound
beam and prevents it l'rom reaching the receiving transducel'. Therefore, a loss of signal on the monitor indicates the
presence 01'a discontinuity.

With a proper wedge anglc, the sound beam enteting the


test object surhlce can reach a refracted angle of 90 degrees.
The re1'racted waves in this case propagate along the surface
ofthe test object and are referred to assuiface waves.Surface
waves are typically used in metals, with a travel distance up
to 100 mm (4 in.).
Surface wave techniques are used to detect fatigue cracks
along the surface of metallic components. The sensitivity of
the technique is quite good on smooth surfaces. With propel' instrumentation,
a 1 mm (0.04 in.) crack length can be
detected in aluminum and steel test objects.