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Control System Design-II


Dr. Abdul Qayyum Khan
Room No. SE-302
Department of Electrical Engineering,
Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences,
P.O. Nilore Islamabd Pakistan

Email: aqkhan@pieas.edu.pk
http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/aqayyum/

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PID Controllers I

PID controllers were occasionally discussed


PID Controllers
comprises more than 50% industrial controllers
are adjusted on-site many tuning methods have been proposed
are useful, especially when the plant model is unknown
are useful, but not necessarily to be optimal in many cases

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Tuning Rules for PID Controllers I

The transfer function is


Gpid

(
)
1
= Kp I + Td s +
Ti s

where the PID parameters

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Tuning Rules for PID Controllers II


Kp : Proportional Gain
Td : Derivative Time Constant
Ti : Integral Time Constant

Tuning the PID parameters = Ziegler and Nichols methods


First method:
Obtain a step response of the plant to be controlled
If there is no integrator and no complex conjugate poles (dominant),
then the unit step response looks like S-shaped
Note down the characteristics of the S-shaped curve.
(1) Delay time L, (2) Time Constant T
The transfer function of the plant is approximated as
Y (s)
Ke Ls
=
U(s)
Ts + 1
Then the parameters of the PID controller can be set according to the
following table
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Tuning Rules for PID Controllers III


Type of Controller
P
PI
PID

Kp

Ti

T
L

0.9 TL
1.2 TL

L
0.3

2L

Td
0
0
0.5L

The PID controller according to the 1st method of Z &N


(
)
1
Gpid (s) = Kp I + Td s +
Ti s
(
)
T
1
= 1.2
I + 0.5Ls +
L
2Ls
(
)2
s + L1
= 0.6T
s
One pole at the origin;
double zeros at s = L1

Second method
This method applies when the response is not S-shaped
Put Ti = , Td = 0. Vary Kp unless sustained oscillation starts.
Note down that value of Kp = Kcr
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Tuning Rules for PID Controllers IV


Also determine, the corresponding period Pcr
Then the parameters of the PID controller can be set according to the
following table
Type of Controller
P
PI
PID

Kp
0.5Kcr
0.45Kcr
0.6Kcr

Ti

Pcr
1.2

0.5Pcr

Td
0
0
0.125Pcr

The PID controller according to the 1st method of Z &N


(
)
1
Gpid (s) = Kp I + Td s +
Ti s
(
)
1
= 0.6Kcr I + 0.125Pcr s +
0.5Pcr
(
)2
4
s + Pcr
= 0.075Kcr Pcr
s
One pole at the origin;
double zeros at s = P4cr

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Tuning Rules for PID Controllers V


Comments:
Z &N rules have been widely used for tuning PID controller in the
process industry
If the mathematical model of the plant to be controlled is known e.g.
Transfer function; then root locus is used to find Kcr and Pcr ; that is,
Pcr =

2
wcr

If the root-locus parameter does not cross jw axis, this method will
not apply
For the plant with known mathematical model, many other analytical
and graphical methods can be used besides Z &N.
Z &N and all methods proposed in literature provide initial guess. The
parameters may further be tuned for desirable response.

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Tuning Rules for PID Controllers VI

Table: Eects of increasing a parameter independently


Parameter
Kp
Ki
Kd

Rise time
Decrease
Decrease
Minor change

Overshoot
Increase
Increase
Decrease

Settling time
Small change
Increase
Decrease

Steady-state error
Decrease
Eliminate
No eect in theory

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Stability
Degrade
Degrade
Improve if Kd small

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Modification OF PID Control Schemes I

Figure: PID controlled system and equivalent block diagram


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Modification OF PID Control Schemes II


R(s) : Reference Signal
E (s) : Error Signal
D(s) : Disturbance Signal
Y (s) : Output Signal
N(s) : Noise Signal
B(s) : Observed Signal
Notice that for R(s) : Step function; U(s) will involve delta function
Td s
due to Td s term. Due to this reason; Td s is replaced by 1+T
ds
Advantage: U(s) will involve sharp pulses instead of impulses. This
phenomenon is known as set-point kick

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PI-D Control I

To avoid set-point kick phenomenon


Derivative action in the feedback path
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PI-D Control II
The transfer functions

Y (s)
R(s)


(
)
Kp Gp (s)
Y (s)
1
= 1+
R(s) D=0,N=0
Ti s 1 + Kp Gc (s)Gp (s)
The transfer functions

Y (s)
D(s)


Gp (s)
Y (s)
=

D(s) R=0,N=0 1 + Kp Gc (s)Gp (s)
where
(
)
1
Gc (s) = I + Td s +
Ti s
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I-PD Control I

PID & PI-D (R(s) = step, U(s) will involve step)


NOT desirable in many occasion
Advantageous if move KP + Derivative action into feedback path
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I-PD Control II
Only feedback signal is aected
The transfer functions

Y (s)
R(s)


(
)
Kp Gp (s)
Y (s)
1
=

R(s) D=0,N=0
Ti s 1 + Kp Gc (s)Gp (s)
The transfer functions

Y (s)
D(s)


Gp (s)
Y (s)
=
D(s) R=0,N=0 1 + Kp Gc (s)Gp (s)
where
Gc (s) =

)
(
1
I + Td s +
Ti s
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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control I

PI-D: Derivative control action is in feedback path


I-PD: Proportional+derivative control in feedback path
PI-PD: to move some portion of the controllers
PI-PD Control: Characteristics of this control lie between PID control
and I-PD control
PID-PD Control: One control is Feed forward path and one is in
Feedback path.

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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control II

In the above figure


D(s) : Process disturbance
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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control III


N(s) : Measurement noise
R(s) : Reference Input
Gp (s) : Plant Transfer function (fixed and uncertain)
Gc (s) : Controller transfer function
Notice that
Gc Gp
Y (s)
=
R(s)
1 + Gc Gp
Gp
Y (s)
=
=
D(s)
1 + Gc Gp
Gc Gp
Y (s)
=
= Gyr
=
N(s)
1 + Gc Gp

Gyr =
Gyd
Gyn

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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control IV

Also
Gp Gyd
Gp
Gyd Gp
=
Gp

Gyr =
Gyn

Notice that if Gyd is known, then Gyr and Gyn are fixed. This means that
by only computing Gyd , Gyr and Gyn can be determined. Hence the above
system is one-degree of freedom. Consider another example

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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control V

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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control VI


Gc1 Gp
Y (s)
=
R(s)
1 + Gc Gp
Gp
Y (s)
=
=
D(s)
1 + Gc Gp
Gc Gp
Y (s)
=
=
N(s)
1 + Gc Gp

Gyr =
Gyd
Gyn
where

Gc = Gc1 + Gc2
Also
Gyr = Gc1 Gyd
Gyd Gp
Gyn =
Gp
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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control VII


For Gyd is known, Gyn is fixed. Even then Gyr is unknown due to Gc1 . It
means that the two loops are independent. Hence the system is a
two-degrees of freedom control system. Take a look at the following figure

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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control VIII


Gc1 Gp
Gc2 Gp
Y (s)
=
+
R(s)
1 + Gc1 Gp
1 + Gc1 Gp
Gp
Y (s)
=
=
D(s)
1 + Gc1 Gp
Gc1 Gp
Y (s)
=
=
N(s)
1 + Gc1 Gp

Gyr =
Gyd
Gyn
Also

Gyr = Gc2 Gyd +


Gyn =

Gp Gyd
Gp

Gyd Gp
Gp

If Gyd is given, Gyn is fixed. Gyr is not fixed. Gc1 can be tuned
independently from Gc2 .
Comments
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Two Degrees of Freedom PID Control IX

The degrees of freedom means the control loops which are tuned to
get the desired response.
If two control loops are to be tuned independently, then the control
system will be two degrees of freedom. The same arguments can be
used for one degree of freedom and more degrees of freedom
Sometimes the name degrees of freedom is given based on the
independent control variables to be tuned

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Zero placement approach to improve response


characteristics I

It is useful techniques when it is desired to minimize steady state


error in systems subjected to changing inputs (step input, Ramp
input, acceleration input).
In high performance control, zero steady state error is always desired.
Example Problem
Consider the figure 2, design a Control System that will exhibit no steady
state error for ramp and acceleration input and force the response to step
disturbance input to approach zero as quickly as possible.

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Zero placement approach to improve response


characteristics II

Figure: Two-degrees of freedom control system


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Zero placement approach to improve response


characteristics III
Solution:
A(s)
Let Gp (s) = K B(s)
be minimum phase and

A(s) = (s + z1 ) (s + z2 ) (s + zm )
B(s) = s N (s + pN+1 ) (s + pN+2 ) (s + pn )
where N = 0, 1, 2 and n m.
Let Gc1 be a PID controller followed by a filter
Gc1 =

1
A(s) ;

that is,

1 s 2 + 1 s + 1 1
s
A(s)
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Zero placement approach to improve response


characteristics IV
and Gc2 be PID,PI,PD,I,D or P controller followed by a filter
Gc2 =

1
A(s) ;

that is,

2 s 2 + 2 s + 2 1
s
A(s)

where 2 , 2 , 2 might be zero depending upon the choice of control.


Recall
Gc1 Gp
Y (s)
=
R(s)
1 + Gc Gp
Gp
Y (s)
=
=
D(s)
1 + Gc Gp

Gyr =
Gyd
where

Gc = Gc1 + Gc2
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Zero placement approach to improve response


characteristics V
we need
Gc = Gc1 + Gc2 =

s 2 + s + 1
s
A(s)

Then
Gyd =

Gp
Y (s)
=
D(s)
1 + Gc Gp
A(s)
K B(s)

=
1+


A(s)
s 2 +s+ 1

K B(s)
s
A(s)


KsA(s)
sB(s) + K (s 2 + s + )
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Zero placement approach to improve response


characteristics VI
if D(s) =

d
s

: Step input with magnitude d, then


Y (s) =

sKA(s)
d


2
sB(s) + K (s + s + )
s

assuming the system is stable, using final value theorem


sKdA(s)
=0
s0 sB(s) + K (s 2 + s + )

Y () = lim
Notice that

The denominator of YR and Y


D is the same which means that the
characteristics equation is the same
The poles can be adjusted to improve the response
What is the importance of adjusting zeros of the closed loop system
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Zero placement I
Consider a system
Y
p(s)
= n+1
n
n1
R
s
+ an s + an1 s
+ + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
If we choose p(s) = a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 , then the steady state error will be
zero for step, ramp, and acceleration input.
Define E (s) = R(s) Y (s), then
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
R(s)
E (s) = R(s) n+1
s
+ an s n + an1 s n1 + + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
[
]
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
= 1 n+1
R(s)
s
+ an s n + an1 s n1 + + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0

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Zero placement II

For R(s) =

1
s

: step input

E () = lim [sE (s)]


s0
[
]
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
1
= lim s 1 n+1
2
s0
s
+ + a2 s + a1 s + a0 s
[
]
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
1
= lim s 1 n+1
s0
s
+ + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 s
=0

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Zero placement III


For R(s) =

1
s2

: Ramp input

E () = lim [sE (s)]


s0
[
]
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
1
= lim s 1 n+1
s0
s
+ + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 s 2
]
[
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
1
= lim 1 n+1
2
s0
s
+ + a2 s + a1 s + a0 s
[
]
n+1
s
+ + s3
1
= lim n+1
2
s0 s
+ + a2 s + a1 s + a0 s
]
[
1
sn + + s2
= lim s n+1
2
s0
s
+ + a2 s + a1 s + a0 s
[
]
sn + + s2
1
= lim s n+1
s0
s
+ + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 s
=0
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Zero placement IV
For R(s) =

1
s3

: Acceleration input

E () = lim [sE (s)]


s0
[
]
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
1
= lim s 1 n+1
2
s0
s
+ + a2 s + a1 s + a0 s 3
]
[
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
1
= lim 1 n+1
s0
s
+ + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 s 2
[
]
s n+1 + + s 3
1
= lim n+1
2
s0 s
+ + a2 s + a1 s + a0 s 2
]
[
1
s n1 + + s
2
= lim s
n+1
2
s0
s
+ + a2 s + a1 s + a0 s 2
=0
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Zero placement V
Determination of Gc1
Consider again
Y (s)
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
= n+1
R(s)
s
+ an s n + an1 s n1 + + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
As we have
Y (s)
Y (s)
= Gc1
R(s)
D(s)
sGc1 KdA(s)
=
sB(s) + K (s 2 + s + )
sGc1 KdA(s)
= n+1
n
s
+ an s + an1 s n1 + + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
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34 / 46

Zero placement VI
Since Gc1 is PID controller and is given by
Gc1 =

1 s 2 + 1 s + 1 1
s
A(s)

Now
(
)
K 1 s 2 + 1 s + 1
Y (s)
= n+1
R(s)
s
+ an s n + an1 s n1 + + a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0
Therefore we choose K 1 = a2 , K 1 = a1 , K 1 = a0 , so that
Gc1 =

a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 1
Ks
A(s)
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Zero placement VII

Determination of Gc2 :
As
s 2 + s + 1
s
A(s)
2
s + s + 1
a2 s 2 + a1 s + a0 1
=

s
A(s)
Ks
A(s)
2
(K a2 ) s + (K a1 ) s + (K a0 ) 1
=
Ks
A(s)

Gc1 + Gc2 =
Gc2

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36 / 46

Design Problem I

Consider two degrees of freedom control system shown in Figure. The


plant transfer function is
Gp (s) =

10
s(s + 1)

Design controllers Gcl (s) and Gc2 (s) such that the maximum overshoot in
the response to the unit-step reference input be less than 19%, but more
than 2%, and the settling time be less than 1 sec. It is desired that the
steady-state errors in following the ramp reference input and acceleration
reference input be zero.The response to the unit-step disturbance input
should have a small amplitude and settle to zero quickly.

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Design Problem II

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Design Problem III

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39 / 46

Design Problem IV
Steady State Error
1
Acceleration
Ramp
step

0.8

0.6

SSE

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4
0

10

Time [second]

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Design Problem V

Step Response
1.4

1.2

System: sys
Peak amplitude: 1.18
Overshoot (%): 17.9
At time (seconds): 0.106

Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (seconds)

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.. ..

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Design Problem I
Consider two degrees of freedom control system shown in Figure. The
plant transfer function is
Gp (s) =

5
(s + 1)(s + 5)

Design controllers Gcl (s) and Gc2 (s) such that


The maximum overshoot in the response to the unit-step reference
input be less than 25% and the settling time be less than 2 sec.
It is desired that the steady-state errors in following the ramp
reference input and acceleration reference input be zero.
The response to the unit-step disturbance input should have a small
amplitude and settle to zero eventually.
.
.. ..

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..

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Design Problem II

.
.. ..

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.
..

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Design Problem III


SSE

1.2

Step
Ramp
Acceleration

1
0.8

SSE

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0

0.5

1.5
Time [Seconds]

.
.. ..

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2.5

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Design Problem IV
Step Reference input Response
1.2

Output

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

5
6
Time[Seconds]

.
.. ..

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10

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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.
..

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Design Problem V
Response to Step Disturbance
0.03
0.025

Response

0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0.005
0

5
6
Time [Second]

.
.. ..

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10

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.
..

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46 / 46