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ABACA

Improvement of Fiber Extraction and Identification of


Higher Yielding Varieties
Final Technical Report
CFC/FIGHF/09

Activities in the Philippines

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

PROJECT SUMMARY
Name of Project: Abaca: Improvement of Fiber Extraction and Identification of Higher Yielding
Varieties (CFC/FIGHF/09)
Objectives: The central objective of the project is to contribute to a more stable relationship
between demand and production of abaca fiber, by improving fiber quality, farm productivity and output.
Brief Project Description: The project was designed to develop efficient abaca extraction tools and
machinery and to identify high yielding and disease-resistant varieties selected from existing collections in
the Philippines and field test them for regional adaptability. Activities under the Component A focused on the
evaluation of existing extraction tools and machinery for possible design modifications or development of
completely new designs, the production of test models and eventually, the fabrication of pilot models and
field testing for efficiency. Component B focused on the identification and selection of high yielding and
disease resistant abaca varieties in Bicol, Visayas and Mindanao. The selected abaca varieties in each region
were exchanged for performance/regional adaptability trial. Their fiber characteristics were evaluated for
present and future uses. Component C was responsible for the dissemination of the project results at the
completion of the project.
Benefits to be derived from the project: Component A of the project was designed to result on the
improvement/ development of extraction tools/machinery that will ensure higher level of efficiency while
maintaining or possibly improving fiber quality. Component B was aimed at identifying higher yielding,
disease-resistant abaca varieties. The results are expected to increased farm productivity and production,
thereby, increasing farmers income.
Main achievements of the project: Under the project, a mechanical tuxer and an auto-fed
decorticating machine that can extract abaca fiber from the whole abaca leaf sheaths, instead of tuxies, which
is the traditional method, have been developed. Likewise, abaca varieties that are disease-resistant and those
performing well in terms of fiber yield in Bicol, Visayas and Mindanao, have been identified. A Farmers
Manual on Abaca has been prepared for publication in English and Philippino and in two local dialects (Bikol
and Cebuano) for distribution to abaca farmers. An international and three regional dissemination seminars
were conducted to present the results of the project.
Beneficiaries: The primary beneficiaries of the project are the abaca industry in general and the
abaca farmers, in particular. The introduction and adoption of improved extraction machines and
recommended higher yielding abaca varieties are expected to increase abaca production and generate
additional employment in the countryside, and therefore prevent rural migration. Local abaca processors and
manufacturers and foreign buyers will likewise benefit from the project with the expected increase in fiber
production and the stabilization of supply. The countrys gain will be in the form of increased export revenues
as abaca, both in raw and processed forms, are generally for export.
Institutions involved:
Supervisory Body:

FAO-Intergovernmental Group on Hard Fibers

Project Executing Agency:

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

Implementing Agency:

Fiber Industry Development Authority

Starting Date:

July 1998

Completion Date:

October 2004

Financing:

Total Project Budget


CFC contribution GOP

US$1,456,134
US$ 841,240
US$ 614,894

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

I.

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

INTRODUCTION
Abaca (Musa textilis Nee), is indigenous to the Philippines and its fiber is known
worldwide as Manila hemp. The fiber is obtained from the leaf sheaths of the abaca plant which is
similar to banana in appearance. At present, there are only two countries commercially producing
abaca fiber, the Philippines and Ecuador. The abaca varieties in Ecuador originally came from the
Philippines, particularly from Mindanao.
Abaca fiber is considered the strongest among natural fibers and is used as raw material for
cordage, fibercrafts and pulp for the production of specialty paper products like security papers, tea
bags, cigarette papers, meat and sausage casings, non-woven and other thin printing papers.
Specialty paper products account for about 80% of global abaca consumption, 14% by cordage
products and the rest, by fibercrafts and other usage.
Abaca is grown practically all over the Philippines, except in the northernmost part of the
country. At present, some 121,400 hectares are planted to abaca in the country involving 76,100
farmers. The abaca areas are mostly located in Bicol, Eastern Visayas, Southern and Western
Mindanao and Caraga.
The Philippines supplies about 84% of the world abaca fiber requirements while Ecuador
supplies about 16%. During the last five years, the Philippines produced an annual average of about
68,000 metric tons of abaca fiber. Of the total, 76% were processed locally into pulp, cordage and
fibercrafts, mostly for export. The remaining 24% were exported in raw form.
Demand for abaca, particularly in pulp form has been increasing due to the growing
concern for environmental protection and forest conservation which provided more opportunities for
natural fibers, like abaca. It is expected that demand for abaca fiber, particularly by local pulp
processors will continue to expand as world demand for abaca pulp continued to grow.
In spite of high demand for abaca and high abaca prices, local production has not kept pace
with demand. Owing to low income derived from abaca farming and the tedious process of
extracting the fiber, farmers especially the younger ones shy away from abaca farming and look for
other jobs in the urban areas. Also, because most of the abaca plantations are already old, typhoondamaged and infected with viral diseases, productivity is very low. The national average yield is
about 650 kg/ha/year. In Ecuador, the average yield is reportedly about 1,800 kg/ha/year and has
only three abaca varieties Tangongon, Bongolanon and Maguindanao -- which are Maguindanao
varieties are being cultivated. There are about 200 varieties existing in the Philippines.

II.

PROJECT BACKGROUND
The Project was considered for funding by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC)
because it initially involved two countries: the Philippines and Ecuador. However, after CFC has
approved the project for funding, Ecuador, then represented by a private company, decided to
withdraw from the project. The case was presented before the meeting of the Intergovernmental
Group on Hard Fibers (IGGHF) in October 1996 held in Manila, Philippines. It was decided to
proceed with the implementation of the project without Ecuador with the condition that if ever that
country would decide to join the project later, it would be accepted to participate in the project
activities.
The project started in July 1998 in the Philippines without the participation of Ecuador.
During the IGGHF meeting in Salvador, Brazil in July 2003, Ecuador through its Ministry of
Agriculture expressed its intention to rejoin the project, which was accepted.
The Intergovernmental Group on Hard Fibers of the Food and Agriculture Organization
(IGHF-FAO) is the Supervisory Body while the United Nations Industrial Development
Organization (UNIDO) is the Project Executing Agency (PEA), with the Fiber Industry
Development Authority (FIDA) as the Implementing Agency.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

The project has three components, namely: Component A Improvement of Abaca Fiber
Extraction and Processing Tools/Machinery, Component B- Identification and Field Testing of High
Yielding, Disease Resistant Varieties Selected from Existing Collections in the Philippines, and
Component C- Technical Assistance Support and Dissemination of Results.
The first component focuses on the development a tuxying tool/machine and a decorticating
machine for the extraction of abaca fiber.
The activities under the second component are concerned with the identification and
selection of high yielding, disease resistant abaca varieties which can be cultivated/grown in Bicol,
Visayas and Mindanao.
The last component primarily deals with the documentation of the progress of the activities
of the project, the preparation of annual work plan and regular progress reports.
The project hired international expert on agricultural/mechanical engineering and national
experts on plant epidemiology, virology, plant breeding, agricultural/mechanical engineering and
techno-economic evaluation to set the direction for the conduct of project activities relative to their
respective fields of interests.

III.

PROJECT OBJECTIVES
The main objective of the project is to contribute to a more stable relationship between
demand and production of abaca fiber by improving fiber quality, farm productivity and output
through the mechanization of extraction process and identification, selection, exchange and field
trials of disease-resistant and higher yielding abaca varieties.
The project has three components: Component A -Improvement of abaca fiber extraction
and processing tools/machinery; Component B - Identification and field testing of higher yielding,
disease-resistant varieties selected from existing collections in the Philippines; and Component C Technical assistance support and dissemination of the results through publications and presentations
at both the national and international level, including one final project workshop.
The following are the main activities of the project:
1.

Evaluation, testing and improvement of the decortication process of extracting abaca


fiber;

2.

Development of a mechanical process of tuxying abaca leaf sheaths; and

3.

Evaluation, selection, regional exchange and field trials of disease-resistant and higher
yielding varieties.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND PROJECT RESULTS

A. Component A - Abaca Fiber Extraction and Processing Tools/Machinery


1. Introduction
Abaca (Musa textilis Nee) is a superior fiber with its high tensile and folding strength,
lustrous color, and high porosity. It is used as raw material for cordage, fibercrafts, and pulp for the
production of specialty paper products like security papers, tea bags, meat casings, nonwoven
materials, and cigarette papers.
In the Philippines, which supplies 84% of the world production of abaca fiber, this crop
provides livelihood to 215,130 farm households and thousands of workers employed in trading
companies and processing plants. The 121,198 hectares planted to abaca are found mostly in the Bicol
Region, Eastern Visayas, Caraga, and Western Mindanao. Production averaged to 65,000 mt a year.
Abaca fiber is extracted from the leaf sheath traditionally by stripping using either manual or
mechanical process. When either of the process is used, tuxying is employed. Tuxying is the process
of separating the outer leaf sheath, which contains primary fibers, from the inner leaf sheath, where
secondary fibers are found. The separated outer leaf sheath is called tuxy.
An alternative method of extracting abaca fiber is by decortication. In this process, the whole
leaf sheath is used to extract the fiber, thereby, recovering both the primary and the secondary fibers.
As such, production is higher compared to the traditional handstripping and spindle stripping methods.
Studies show that the decortication method yields from 3.0 to 3.5% fiber. With the manual extraction
process, fiber recovery is at 1.0%. The spindle stripping process yields from 1.5 to 2.0% fiber.
2. Objectives and expected outputs
The general objective of this Component is to increase the efficiency of fiber extraction
process while maintaining or possibly improving fiber quality. The specific objectives are:
review existing fiber extraction machines and tools
develop an efficient tuxying machine/tool
improve the existing decorticating machine
The expected outputs are:
Output 1.1

An assessment report on the efficiency of existing fiber extraction


equipment including recommendation for possible improvement of existing
equipment/methods

Output 1.2

A more efficient tuxying machine/tool designed, produced and tested

Output 1.3

An improved decortication machine designed, produced and tested.

3. Materials and methods


3.1 Assessment of the efficiency of existing fiber extraction equipment and tools
This was undertaken through interviews of abaca farmers, workers, and
traders; conduct of time and motion study, and measurement of relevant parameters. The
results in the time and motion study appeared exaggerated compared with the interviews.
Therefore, the results in the time and motion study were used in obtaining relationship
expressed in percentage. For others, adjustments in figures were made taking account the

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

result of interviews. The study was done in three abaca production areas: Sorsogon in Bicol,
Leyte in Eastern Visayas and Davao in Mindanao.
3.2 Development of abaca tuxer
3.2.1 .Evaluation of current practices
This was done through: a) review of literatures and existing patents; b)
observation of practices in tuxying; c) interview of tuxeros; and, d) measurement of
parameters in tuxying abaca leaf sheaths.
3.2.2 Preparation of design
This activity was undertaken with the guidance of international expert,
Andrew Metianu, and national expert, Eugene Castro. Based on the results of the
study on the efficiency of existing fiber extraction tools and evaluation of current
practices in tuxying, the design of abaca tuxer was prepared. In the preparation of
design, separate criteria was set for the development of tuxying tools and mechanical
tuxer.
Criteria for tuxying tools:
Efficient in terms of higher recovery of tuxy and bigger production per
unit of time compared with the existing tuxying process
Skill not necessary, that is; a new labor entrant can use the tool with ease
and efficiency
User-friendly, that is; easy to handle
Criteria for mechanical tuxer:
maximum capacity of 500 kgs of tuxies to serve 13 has of abaca
plantation
easy to operate and maintain
can be pulled by a carabao
low cost, affordable to a middle income farmer or a small abaca farmers
association
3.2.3 Fabrication of prototypes
Guided by the above criteria, designs were prepared, prototypes of the tools
were produced in the Fiber Processing and Utilization Laboratory of Fiber Industry
Development Authority (FIDA) while prototypes of the machine were subcontracted
to the Metals Industry Research and Development Center (MIRDC). The prototypes
of the machines and tools were evaluated for functionality and then field tested.
Three levels of design production and fabrication were done: study, working and a
final model. Based on the results of tests in each level, modifications were done and
applied to the subsequent level. For the tuxying tool, performance test was conducted
in Sorsogon, Leyte and Davao.
Evaluation of the study model of the mechanical tuxer was confined in the
laboratory. For the working model, field testing was done in Malinao, Albay. The
field test for the final model was held in Sitio Lip-ac, Bgy. Catagbacan, Goa,
Camarines Sur.
The abaca variety planted in the test area was Bagacayan interspersed with
negligible quantities of T. Pula and T. Puti. The site is infected with bunchy-top
disease. For the test of mechanical tuxer, apparently healthy abaca plant was used.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

Three experienced tuxeros were employed. Since fiber extraction in the


area is done manually, all the tuxeros were trained in operating the mechanical tuxer
and the spindle stripping machine. They were then asked to manually tuxy a total of
300 kgs of abaca stalks equivalent to about 21 stalks. The same volume of stalks
was used in tuxying employing the mechanical tuxer. For verification purposes, both
tests were repeated.
3.3 Development of abaca decorticating machine
3.3.1 Evaluation of ramie decorticator
Extraction of ramie fiber using a decortication machine was observed and
performance parameters were measured.
3.3.2 Preparation of design
As in mechanical tuxer, the preparation of design for the abaca decorticating
machine was guided by international expert, Andrew Metianu, and national expert,
Eugene Castro.
3.3.3 Fabrication of prototypes
Guided by the design criteria, three models of abaca decorticating machine
were prepared: study, working and final models. Fabrication was subcontracted to
MIRDC. The study model after fabrication was subjected to functionality test in the
laboratory. Based on the results of the test, a working model was designed,
fabricated, tested in the laboratory, modified as necessary, and tested in the field.
The final model incorporated the modifications observed as needed based on the
field evaluation of the working model. It, likewise, underwent similar process, that
is; from the preparation of design to fabrication, laboratory testing, modification, and
field testing. The field testing of the working model was done in the FIDA abaca
seedbank in Casiguran, Sorsogon. Sixty abaca stalks of the variety Musa Tex 51
were used. For the final model, field testing was conducted in Sitio Lip-ac,
Barangay Catagbacan, Goa, Camarines Sur.
The machine was set up and several feeding tests were conducted. When
the machine appeared to be ready, test runs were undertaken. The test runs were
done in three sets. In each set, 400 abaca stalks were used. The duration and reason
for stoppages in each run were recorded. The weight of the fiber produced was taken
the following day after drying.
3.4 Characteristics of decorticated abaca fiber
3.4.1 Gathering of samples
All the fibers used in the characterization analyses were produced during
the testing of the working model of the decorticating machine in Sorsogon.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

3.4.2 SEM photography


This was done by the Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI).
The laboratory of this agency took photomicrographs of the samples using JBOL
JSM 7330A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at 20 KV accelerating voltage
and at 75 and 500x magnifications.
3.4.3 Morphological analysis
The method of Jensen (1960) Histological Procedures in Botanical
Microtechnique was used in the preparation of samples.
The fiber cell dimensions such as length, diameter, lumen width and cell
wall thickness were determined using the stereomicroscope and compound
microscope attached with stage and ocular eyepiece micrometer, respectively.
3.4.4 Physical analysis
About 5 cm length of fiber samples were cut from the butt, middle, and tip
portions of the strand and were made into ringlets, which were individually weighed.
The tensile strength and elongation were taken using the Lloyds tensile strength
tester.
3.4.5 Chemical analysis
The fiber chemical composition such as lignin, solubilities in alcoholbenzene, hot water and 1% NaOH were determined following the TAPPI
recommended methods. Determination of cellulose was done following the method
of Stewart Allen (1974) Chemical Analysis of Ecological Material. The ash
content was analyzed following the manual for the purpose published by the
Association of Agricultural Chemists.
3.4.6 Statistical analysis
For the chemico-physico-chemical analyses, comparison of means was done
using DMRT at 5% level of significance.
3.4.7 Determination of the amount of helices
A pinch of macerated fiber sample was stained with safranin-O and
distributed well in an area of the slide measuring 22 mm x 40 mm (size of the cover
glass). A compound microscope was used to count the helix strands, vertically from
top to bottom and horizontally from left to right of the slide.
Three replications were used. Each replication consisted of four trials and
each trial was represented by a slide.
3.5

Uses of decorticated abaca fiber


3.5.1 Pulp
The fiber was pulped in a 6-cylinder multi-air heated.autoclave using the
following conditions:
Chemical charged
Liquor to Fiber Ratio
Maximum Temperature

: 16%NaOH
: 4:1
: 170C

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

Time to Tmax
Time at Tmax

8
: 1.5 hrs
: 3.0 hrs

Analyses were done on spent liquor, yield, and Kappa number. Initial
strength properties such as tensile, burst and tear were determined.
For comparative evaluation, spindle stripped abaca of grades S2, G and JK,
which were taken also from Sitio Lip-ac, Barangay Catagbacan, Goa, Camarines Sur
were pulped employing the same conditions.
3.5.2 Textile
The test was conducted by the Philippine Textile Research Institute (PTRI)
employing the following methodologies: for moisture content the PTRI Standard
Method of Test No. 37-1992/PNS 433 1992 was used; for residual gum content, the
method of Jute Technological Research Laboratories (JRTL), India was applied.
3.5.3 Wastes utilization
Uses for animal feeds and soil conditioning of the wastes from decortication
were determined.
3.5.3.1

Fertilizer/Soil conditioner
Decorticated abaca wastes were composted following the
composting procedure provided by the Bureau of Soils and Water
Management (BSWM). The composted materials were then analysed for
their nutrient contents.

3.5.3.2 Animal feeds


Wastes from decortication of abaca fiber were gathered and dried
for proximate analyses.
Dried samples were first cut into one (1) inch long and then ground
in a Wiley mill using 1 mm mesh. About 500 grams ground sample were
submitted to BAI Laboratory Services Division for proximate analyses
following AOAC Method (Association of Official Analytical Chemists).
The samples were analyzed and the percentage values for fiber, protein, fat,
moisture, ash, nitrogen-free-extract (NFE) and gross energy content were
taken.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

4.0 Results and discussions


4.1 Assessment of the efficiency of existing fiber extraction machines and tools
Production of abaca fiber involves the following step:

fiber recovered
manual
(handstripping)

(29%)

manual
(handstripping)

(43%)

decortication

(95%)

tuxy
tumble
stalk
leafsheaths are
separated

Figure 1. Abaca fiber production flow

It starts with the tumbling of the stalk, which leaf sheaths are either tuxied or
separated depending on the extraction process employed. If the process is stripping, tuxies
are used; if decortication, the raw materials are leaf sheaths.
A stalk of abaca contains fiber equivalent to 3-4% of its weight depending on
variety, maturity, and source of the plant. The method of extraction influences fiber recovery.
At 3.5% fiber content of abaca stalks, manual stripping yields 1% fiber or 28% of the
recoverable fiber; spindle stripping recovers 1.5% or 43% of the total fiber content while the
decortication process produces 3.34% fiber by weight of the stalk or 95% of the total
recoverable fiber.
An assessment was, likewise, conducted on the cost of labor involved in fiber
production.
Based on the amount of time spent to undertake an activity, tuxying comes out as
the highest cost in fiber production, accounting for 45.79% of the total cost. The second most
expensive labor is stripping or fiber extraction with 19.87% share of the total fiber production
cost. Similar situation was observed in Sorsogon and Davao, where the highest cost is in
tuxying followed by stripping. In Leyte, the high cost of tuxying is followed by hauling,
which takes 22.47% of the total cost. Stripping comes third as the most expensive labor.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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10

Table 1. Comparative cost of labor to produce 1 kg of abaca fiber


Particulars
Sorsogon
%
Leyte
%
Dist
Dist

Davao

%
Dist

Average

% Cost
Dist

Time to produce 1 kg
fibers, min

30.17

29.67

23.11

27.65

Average wt of stalk, kg

14.26

25.92

29.72

23.33

Underbrushing/Tumbling*, P

1.51

17.76

1.86

15.54

1.48

12.02

1.62

14.83

Tuxying*, P

3.67

43.18

5.15

43.02

6.20

50.37

5.00

45.79

Hauling*, P

0.35

4.12

2.69

22.47

1.31

10.64

1.45

13.28

Stripping*, P

2.57

30.24

1.67

13.96

2.27

18.44

2.17

19.87

Drying*, P

0.40

4.70

0.60

5.01

1.05

8.53

0.68

6.23

Cost of 1 kg fiber, P
share of the workers

8.50

Stripping process

11.97

manual
Total

12.31

spindle
100.00

10.92

spindle
100.00

100.00

100.00

4.1.1 Tuxying tools

pointed blade

Figure 2. Existing tuxying knife


The tuxying knife is made of a straight pointed blade of about 150-200 mm
in length. In tuxying, the knife is thrust to one side of the leaf sheath to make a cut
between the upper and the inner portions of the material. The exposed part is then
pulled out to detach the tuxy from the leaf sheath while it is still adhering to the
stalk. The area pierced by the knife covers 6-9 cm width and a depth of 1-3mm.
Based on the fresh weight of the stalk, tuxeros in Davao recover more tuxy,
at 20.1% and produce more with 36.3kgs/hr of tuxying. Those in Leyte recover least
tuxy with 14.1% but more efficient with 29.9 kgs/hr production compared to 17.5
kgs/hr output in Sorsogon. The tuxeros in these provinces produce thicker tuxy at
18.4% recovery but are slower in tuxying at 17.5 kgs/hr.

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According to tuxeros, tuxying induces back pain that they need to rest after
an hour of work.
Table 2. Efficiency in tuxying, by selected province
Particular
Sorsogon
Leyte
Recovered tuxy
(% of stalk)

18.4

Davao

14.1

20.1

Time to tuxy, kg/hr


17.5
29.9
Common complaint: backache after an hour of tuxying

36.3

Lessons learned:
The amount of tuxy recovered by weight of the stalk and the quantity
produced per unit of time are dependent on the skill of the tuxeros.
The use of existing tuxying knife is not user-friendly.
4.1.2 Decorticating machines
There are two types of decorticating machines available in the country. The
difference between the two is in the size of output. A 40 kg/day decorticating
machine is in operation in a number of abaca producing provinces. It was produced
by a private entrepreneur and patterned after the multifiber decorticating machine,
which is an improvement of the raspador, a decorticator for ramie. The multifiber
decorticating machine has a capacity of 80 kgs/8hrs and was developed by the Fiber
Industry Development Authority.

Figure 3. Multifiber decorticating machine


The major parts of the multifiber decorticating machine are the extracting cylinder, the
breastplate and feeding chute. The machine is mounted on a chassis with pneumatic tires and is powered by a
5hp diesel engine. To operate the machine, about half of the leaf sheaths are fed to the extracting chamber
where beating and partial scraping takes place. Complete scraping of non-fibrous materials takes place as the
leaf sheaths are being pulled out. The other half of the leaf sheaths are fed and undergo the same process.
4.2 Development of abaca tuxer

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4.2.1 Tuxying tools


The following tools were developed: knife with roller guide; knife with blade guide;
roller support for stalk
4.2.1.1 Knife with roller guide

Roller
arm

Roller

Straight
pointed
blade

handle

Figure 4. Knife with roller guide


It is made of a straight pointed blade, which is similar to the traditional
tuxying knife; a roller, a roller arm and a handle. The roller guide is
attached to the curved arm to act as a point allowing the knife to penetrate
the leaf sheath from the side at a predetermined depth of 2 mm. The
material used for this tool is mild steel with wooden handle. The same
process of tuxying as in using the traditional knife is employed.

curved guide
4.2.1.2 Knife with blade guide

blade

handle

It has
a sharp
curvedwith
blade,
a handle
Figure
5. Knife
blade
guide and a curved guide. The guide
and handle are made of wood and the blade is of steel plate. The blade is
mounted at 25 degrees angle for easy pushing of the tool and curved for
effective cut.

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13

Cutting starts at the base of the stalk. The guide, which acts over
the length of the tuxying blade, limits the depth of the blade to 3 mm. The
tool is pushed into the leaf sheath to start the tuxying process.
4.2.1.3 Roller support for stalk

roller
roller arm
stand

Figure 6. Roller support for stalk


It is made of a stand with support legs, roller arm, and three
wooden rollers. The rollers are attached to the revolving stand to keep the
stalks aligned during turning. The support legs stand and roller arm are
made of steel pipe welded together.
The set consists of two pairs of stand. They are placed about a
meter apart such that the base of the abaca stalk is supported by one stand
and the top by another. This enables the tuxero to rotate the stalk freely
during the tuxying process especially when tuxying larger and heavier
stalks.
4.2.1.4 Performance of tuxying tools
The performance of these tools were tested by experienced tuxeros
in Sorsogon, Leyte, and Davao. The results show more tuxies are recovered
using the knife with blade guide. This is the situation in all the three
provinces. Based on output per unit of time, the knife with roller guide
shows higher production in Sorsogon. It is the traditional knife that
produced the highest output in Leyte, and it was the use of roller support in
Davao.

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Table 3. Comparative performance of tuxying tools


Tools

Sorsogon
% tuxy
Qty.
recovery
Kg/hr
Output/
time

Leyte
% tuxy
recovery

Qty
Kg/hr
Output/
time

Davao
% tuxy
Qty
recovery
Kg/hr
Output/
Time

Knife with
roller guide

19.03

20.08

12.14

21.07

18.50

37.46

Knife with
blade guide

21.03

16.14

15.50

25.79

19.69

38.73

Roller support
for stalks

Traditional
tuxying knife

19.33

18.40

17.50

14.14

29.41
29.90

18.10

42.64
36.30

4.2.1.5 Conclusion
Because the developed tools have set the size of tuxy, the tuxero
produces uniform size of tuxy resulting to higher recovery and
bigger production per unit of time
The developed tools are user-friendly
- the component guides made tuxying easy
- the roller support made tuxying or heavy stalks lighter

4.2.2 Mechanical tuxer


4.2.2.1 Conceptual design
To guide in the development of a mechanical tuxer, a conceptual
design was developed.

With the results obtained in the performance test of tuxying tools, a tuxying
machine was developed. But before design specifications were made, a conceptual
design of a mechanical tuxer was prepared.

There are two pairs of rollers. One pair has a larger diameter than
Conceptual
of a mechanical
tuxer
the other.Figure
Each7.pair
of roller design
is pressed
together. The
first pair acts as

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

15

flattener while the second pair is used to pull the tuxies. This is how it
operates: the leaf sheath inserted between the first two rollers passes
through a knife which separates the outer from the inner part of the leaf
sheath. The second pair of roller pulls out the tuxy.
4.2.2.2 Study model
Based on the concept of a mechanical tuxer, a detailed design
specifications was prepared and fabricated. In this model, only one of the
rollers was used. Here is how the machine operated: the leaf sheaths were
fed to the feed rollers which gripped and flattened the leaf sheaths then
pushed towards the blade. The leaf sheaths hit the blade causing the
separation of the inner and outer layers of the leaf sheaths. Tuxies were
collected and separated from waste materials at the discharge end.

Figure 8. Study model of


mechanical tuxer

The problems encountered in this model were inability to tuxy the


edges of the leaf sheaths and the accumulation of materials on the edge of
the blade.
4.2.2.3 Working model
To address the problems identified in the earlier model, two pairs
of rollers with drives were added. The first pair of rollers flattened and
pushed the leaf sheath to the second pair of rollers. These rollers directed
the leaf sheath to the knife. The third pair of rollers pulled the tuxy. An
adjuster for the blade assembly was also provided so that the knife could be
moved in any direction. This was done to establish an effective set-up for
producing the tuxy over the full length of abaca leaf sheaths.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

16

Figure 9. Working model of mechanical tuxer


After thorough and continuous testing, it was observed that the
design improvements did not function effectively as expected.
The tuxying capability of the machine was limited to softer and
thinner leaf sheaths. Tougher and thicker leaf sheaths are either stuck-up
between the flattener and blade mounting or passed through the knife
without recovering the full width of the leaf sheaths. Difficulty in removing
the short fibers accumulated at the blade was also experienced. Tuxies and
waste materials mixed up at the discharge end and needed additional
manpower to recover and arrange the tuxies produced.
4.2.2.4 Final model
Based on the results of the test on the working model, changes
were made on the final model.
The machine now consists of a feeding table, guide roller, knife
assembly, presser, puller, power drive, pedal, and frame assembly. A set of
rollers is mounted in the feeding table to allow the leaf sheath to move
freely towards the knife. This is followed by a guide roller which directs the
leaf sheath to the blade assembly. A roller is mounted and pressed on top of
the knife assembly. It flattens the leaf sheath as it goes through the knife.
The knife then cuts and separates the outer from the inner portions of the
leaf sheath as it is pulled out by two contra-rotating rollers. The whole
assembly is mounted on a frame with two wheels and handle for easy
transport. In operating the machine, the foot pedal is pressed down to create
an opening between the presser and the puller. The leaf sheath is then
inserted in the opening between the two rollers. The foot pedal is released
and the tuxy is manually pulled. A 4Hp gasoline engine is used to power the
machine.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

puller

knife assembly

17

guide roller

feeding table

presser

frame assembly

pedal

power drive

Figure 10. Final model of mechanical tuxer

Figure 11. Final model of the


mechanical tuxer
and its mobility

The final model produces tuxies that are thicker with wider ends compared
to tuxies produced by the traditional method. These tuxies are thinner and
taper towards the end.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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18

Figure 12. Tuxies produced by (L) traditional method and (R) mechanical tuxer
4.2.2.5 Comparative performance of mechanical and manual tuxying
Since leaf sheathing is included in the work flow in mechanical
tuxying, total manhour spent is higher, that is; 3:37 compared to 1:28
employing the manual process. An advantage of the mechanical tuxer is
that it produces more tuxies, with 78.12 kgs and, therefore, higher fiber
yield, by 22.75%.
Table 4. Comparative performance of mechanical and manual tuxying,
300 kgs of abaca stalks
Particulars

Manual

Mechanical
0:46
2:51
78.12
4.64
21.84

1:28
59.04
3.78
4.86

Leafsheating, mh
Tuxying, mh
Wt. Of tuxy, kg
Fiberyield, kg
Cost to tuxy 1 kg of fiber

Difference
199.17
32.32
22.75
349.38

With fuel and depreciation added to the cost of production, the use of
mechanical tuxer shows to be expensive.
Table 5. Comparative cost to tuxy using manual and mechanical
method, 300 kgs abaca stalks, P
Manual
Mechanical
Particulars
tuxying
tuxer
Labor
Fuel
Depreciation cost
Tools
machine
Total

18.38
-

45.25
51.21

4.87

18.38

101.33

%
difference
146.19

451.31

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

19

Using the spindle stripping machine, S2 and S3 grades of abaca


fiber were produced. Since the tuxies produced by the manual method are
made almost all of primary fibers, the amount of S2, which is 91.25%, is
slightly higher than the 90.73% produced from the mechanical tuxer. But
because the mechanical process produces more fiber, income is higher with
Php181.64 compared to Php148.80 from the traditional method. However,
the high cost involved in mechanical tuxying made the use of the manual
process more profitable.
Table 6. Comparative quality of abaca fiber and income advantage,
by tuxying method, 300 kgs abaca stalks
Particulars
Quality of fiber
S2, kg/%
S3, kg/%
Total
Worth of fiber produced
S2 @ P41/kg
S3 @ P21/kg
Total
Less: cost of tuxying
Earning
Income advantage
Manual/Mechanical, %

Manual

Mechanical

3.45/91.25
0.35/8.75
3.78/100

4.21/90.73
0.43/9.27
4.64/100

141.45
7.35
148.80
18.38
130.42

172.61
9.03
181.64
101.33
80.13

62.40

4.2.2.6 Conclusion
In its present stage, the mechanical tuxer can effectively tuxy
abaca leaf sheaths. The tuxy produced covers the full width of the
halved leaf sheaths and runs through its entire length. Thus, the fiber
produced is 22.75% more than from the manually tuxied leaf sheaths.
However, manual tuxying proves to be more efficient. A tuxero
needs to spend only 1/3 of his time to equal the production of a mechanical
tuxer. Because his only tool is a stripping knife, which is decades old, the
cost to tuxy abaca is only his time spent. Thus, the cost to tuxy a kilogram
of fiber using the labor of a tuxero is only Php4.86 compared to Php21.84
using a mechanical tuxer.
To beat the pace of manual tuxying, the mechanical tuxer should
have an effective mechanism in pulling the tuxies, that is: manual labor
should be engaged only in feeding the leaf sheaths and gathering the tuxies.
The working model has this feature but somehow was set aside in the
development of the final model.
4.2.2.7 Recommendation
Improve the efficiency of the mechanical tuxer by working on the
following areas:
- automatic pulling of materials
- quality and size of materials of rollers and puller

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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20

4.3 Development of abaca decorticating machine


4.3.1 Study model
It was made of a single decorticating chamber with 400 mm diameter decorticating
drum and a concave anvil; feed conveyor consisting of 3 pieces double V-belts pressed on a
1000 mm diameter 3 grooves V-pulley, and two prime movers of 10 hp diesel engine for the
extracting drum and 10 hp electric motor for the feed conveyor. This is how the machine was
operated: the leaf sheaths were laid down in the feed conveyor. One at a time, the leaf sheath
was caught by the decorticating drum. Since the machine had only one decorticating drum
only half of the leaf sheath could be defibered. The leaf sheath had to be refed to the machine
with the undefibered half laid to the side of the decorticating chamber.

Figure 13. Study model of abaca decorticating machine


The test results show the machine could not extract the materials
effectively. The gripping pressure of the conveyor belts was not sufficient to hold the
material as it was being defibered at the decorticating chamber. Thus, the material is
thrown out of the machine without defibering.
4.3.2

Working model
The working model was designed guided by the objective to complete the
decortication process, that is; the whole fed leaf sheath should be decorticated when
the machine releases the material. Thus, the working model consisted of two
decorticating chambers, two sets of feed conveyors made of steel chains and
sprockets with presser, and driven by two 8 hp diesel engines. The machine is
mounted on chassis with pneumatic tires.

Figure 14. Working


model of autofed
decorticating machine

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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21

The machine could extract good cleaned fiber with a recovery of 3.34%.
However, there was difficulty in transferring the materials from the first to the
second conveyor. To effect the proper transferring of material, it has to be guided
manually. The steel chains caused the staining of the fiber (blackening of the portion
gripped by the chain), particularly in the second conveyor where the material being
gripped was already defibered.
4.3.3 Final model

Back View

Figure 15. Final model of autofed decorticating machine

Side View

With the problems encountered in the working model, the machine was
redesigned and the final model was fabricated. The machine is similar to the working
model. It has two decorticating chambers to effect the complete decortication of the whole
length of the material. The other components are two sets of conveyors made of flat rubber
belts; roller presser to grip and convey the materials effectively while being decorticated;
and a prime mover - a 35hp diesel engine. Conveyor belts are also laid out to effectively
transfer the materials from the first to the second conveyor. The structure was also
redesigned for rigidity and ease of fabrication and assembly. Like the working model, the
machine is mounted on a chassis with pneumatic tire.
4.3.4 Work flow

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

22

The extraction of abaca fiber using the autofed decorticating machine


observed the following work flow:

3
hauling of
stalks
2
drying of
fiber

4
splitting of
leafsheaths

2
feeding of
materials

1
delivery of
fiber for
drying

1
gathering of
fiber

Figure 16. Work flow in the extraction of abaca fiber using autofed decorticating machine
The figure above each work unit represents the number of laborers needed for each
phase. As such, a total of 13 laborers will be employed to operate the autofed
decorticating machine continuously for 8 hours.

Figure 17. Decorticated abaca fiber (L) being dried under the sun and (R) in hanks
4.3.5

Performance of autofed decorticating machine


For the first set of 400 stalks, 9.5 days were spent to decorticate 5.600 kgs
of abaca stalk. On the first day (September 03), stoppages were experienced due to
slippage of materials and too much wetting of the belt from abaca sap, which
resulted to very low production of 2.85 kgs. In an effort to correct the slippage of
material, the existing drive pulley was dismantled and sent to machine shop for
modification. Grooves were added to control the wetting of and add traction to the
belt and thus improve conveyance of materials to the second drum. This
modification reduces the slippage of materials. On September 07, spur gear broke
down. It was replaced the following day. On Sunday, September 12, auxiliary drive
was installed and this prevented the stoppage of the machine due to the wetting of
the conveyor belt.
Set 2 took 2 days and an hour to decorticate 4,920 kgs of abaca stalks.
Higher speed was tried on the first day, when the highest production of 404.7

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

23

gm/min was achieved. This caused the winding of fibers in the shaftings and rollers
that they had to be dismantled and cleaned the following day.
The third set completed the 400 stalks of 5,840 kgs in one day and 6 hrs.
Moderate increase in production was observed. (Table 6, Figure 17)

Table 7. Performance of autofed decorticating machine


Set 1
Date

400 stalks; 5,600 kgs; ave. wt. = 14 kgs


Time
Average (gm/min)
(min)
Kgs

Total
400 stalks; 4,920 kgs; ave. wt. =
12.3 kgs
Time
Date
(min)
Kgs

654

Set 2

Sept 13
Sept 14
Sept 15
Total

63
237
97
397

25.5
42.8
22.05
90.35

46.72
138.71
85.21
135.29
119.83
198.9

2.85
8.50
6.05
18.40
29.00
15.90

61
62
71
136
242
42

Sept 3
Sept 6
Sept 9
Sept 10
Sept 11
Sept 13

80.80

123.5

Set 3
Average
(gm/min)
404.7
6.0
180.5
227.58

400 stalks; 5,840 kgs; ave. wt. =


14.6 kgs
Time
Average
Date
(min)
Kgs
(gm/min)

Sept 15
Sept 16
Sept 17
Total

41
254
137
432

9.0
57.6
35.75
102.35

219.5
226.7
7.0
236.92

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

24

450
Production

400

350
300

350
Time

300

250

250

200

200

150

150

100

100

50

50

0
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

13 14 15

15 16 17

S
Figure 18. Performance of autofed decorticating machine
4.3.6

Economic viability of the autofed decorticating machine


Table 6 and Figure 17 demonstrated that the production of 300 kgs/day is
attainable. Likewise, the working model showed a fiber recovery of 3.34%. With
this information, an estimate of the profit and loss statement was prepared. As shown
in the following table, an ROI of 6.18% is attainable.

Table 8. Estimated profit and loss statement


Assumptions:
Fiber production, kgs
Fiber recovery, %
Stalks, kgs
Sales, 300 kgs x Php20/kg
Less expenses:
Cost of stalk, Php0.30/kg
Cost of hauling, Php0.1/kg
Labor: 13 x Php100
Fuel, 20 li x Php22/li
Repair, Php550,000 x 10%/288 days
Depreciation cost, Php550,000/15years/
288 days
Total cost
Profit
ROI

300
3.34
8,982
6,000
2,695
898
1,300
440
191
127
5,651
349
6.18%

Ave. production,
gms/min

400

450

Ti

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

4.3.7

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

25

Conclusion:
The autofed decorticating machine can extract quality fiber from abaca.
However, due to the fact that the machine was sent to the field for testing
direct from fabrication and without sufficient laboratory test, the performance test
was besieged with problems due to construction and design.
Stoppages were experienced due to:

slippage of materials
slippage of drive and conveyor
winding of fiber in the shaftings and rollers
too much wetting of the belt
misalignments of sprockets
loosening of belts
Corrections were being made as the performance test was being carried out.

Deficiencies in the construction and design were corrected during Set I;


adjustments in inputs were made in Set 2; and in Set 3, a trend of moderate increases
in production was achieved.
However, the field test failed to obtain the optimum capacity of the
machine. Theoretically, based on the speed of the conveyor, fiber recovery and
feeding capacity, the autofed decorticating machine can extract a ton of abaca fiber a
day. The machine is still a work in progress needing improvements to attain
optimum capacity.
4.3.8 Recommendation
Continue to work on the refinements of the machine particularly in
providing solutions to the following problems:
-

too much wetting of the belt


misalignments of sprocket
loosening of belts
slippage of materials
slippage of drive and conveyor
winding of fiber in the shaftings and rollers

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

26

4.4 Quality of decorticated abaca fiber


4.4.1 SEM photography
At 500x magnification, decorticated abaca fiber using the autofed
decorticating machine is comparable to handstripped S2.

H-S2

Deco

4.4.2
Physical properties
Figure 19. Comparative SEM photographs of H-S2 and fiber produced from autofed decorticating machine
4.4.2 Physical Properties
Decorticated abaca fiber is comparable in tensile strength with spindle
stripped JK and handstripped G. However, it has the lowest elongation compared to
JK, G, and S2 of both cleaning.
Table 9. Comparative physical properties of decorticated abaca, HS-JK and SS-JK

Method of extraction/
grade
Decorticated abaca
Hand stripped - JK
Hand stripped - G
Hand stripped - S2
Spindle stripped - JK
Spindle stripped - G
Spindle stripped - S2

Tensile strength
(kg/g.m.)
32.58
49.05
33.94
51.95
43.37
48.34
50.98

bc
a
c
a
b
ab
a

Elongation
(%)
3.08
4.06
2.39
3.66
3.90
5.39
3.84

c
b
d
b
b
a
b

Note: Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 5%
level.
4.4.3

Morphological properties
Statistically, the fiber length of decorticated abaca fiber is not significantly
different from JK, G, and S2. It has wider diameter and lumen and thicker cell wall.
Nonetheless, the figures are within the desired limits (fiber length: 4-6 mm;
diameter: 17-21 ).

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

27

Table 10. Comparative morphological properties of selected grades of abaca fiber,


by method of extraction
Fiber length
Diameter
Lumen width
Cell wall
Method of extraction/
Thickness
grade
()
()
()
(mm)
Decorticated abaca
Hand stripped - JK
Hand stripped - G
Hand stripped - S2
Spindle stripped - JK
Spindle stripped - G
Spindle stripped - S2

4.45
4.28
4.95
4.99
4.14
5.05
4.72

ab
b
a
a
b
a
ab

21.69
20.28
19.27
19.93
19.55
18.56
18.81

a
ab
b
ab
ab
b
b

13.21
11.40
12.72
9.71
10.05
10.26
9.46

a
ab
a
bc
bc
bc
c

4.07
4.44
3.28
5.11
4.75
4.15
4.67

Note: Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level.
4.4.4 Helices
Helical xylem, which is coil like in structure, is a water-conducting tissue that provides
strength to the abaca plant. When pulped, it is thread-like in appearance. The presence of too
many helices block the entry of water and air. As such, it is not recommended for pulp production
if the intended use requires high porosity like tea bags and non-wovens unless special process is
applied.

Table 11. Average number of helix strands


Method of extraction/
Average number of
grade
helix strands
per slide

Decorticated abaca
Hand stripped - S2
Hand stripped - G
Hand stripped - JK
Spindle stripped - S2
Spindle stripped - G
Spindle stripped -JK

173.50
91.33
84.00
77.67
41.33
37.83
31.92

a
b
b
b
c
c
c

Note: Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level
fiber cells

helices

parenchyma

fiber cells

parenchyma

Figure 20. Photomicrographs of (L) decorticated abaca fiber showing cells, helices, and parenchyma;
and (R) handstripped JK grade showing cells and parenchyma.

b
ab
c
a
ab
b
ab

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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28

In hand- and spindle stripping method, the leaf sheath is tuxied prior to
extraction to separate the primary from the secondary fiber, where the helices are
concentrated. In decortication, the whole leaf sheath is extracted, thereby, higher
amount of helices remain in the fiber.
As shown in Table 10, higher number of helices are found in decorticated
abaca fiber.
4.4.5 Chemical properties
Decorticated abaca fiber is lower in ash, solubilities, and lignin content and
is high in cellulose. This confirms the SEM photography, which shows the
decorticated abaca fiber comparable in cleanliness with S2.

Table 12. Comparative chemical properties of selected grades of abaca fiber, by method of cleaning
Solubilities in:
Cellulose
Ash
Alc-ben 1% NaOH Hot water Lignin
Holo
Alpha
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
Hand stripped JK
1.83 a
3.05 a
21.33 b
2.05 a
9.86 a
Spindle stripped JK 1.28 bc 1.71 bc
16.11 c
1.71 ab 9.45 b
Hand stripped G
1.49 b
1.87 b
22.40 a
1.62 abc 9.34 b
Spindle stripped G
1.16 c
1.26 de
14.38 g
1.54 abc 9.08 c
Hand stripped S2
1.31 bc 1.04 e
17.84 d
1.35 bc 8.86 d
Spindle stripped S2 0.85 d
0.72 f
15.78 f
1.14 c
8.44 e
Decorticated fiber
1.33 bc 1.47 cd
20.37 c
1.80 ab 8.56 e
Note: Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level
5.0

83.37
86.34
86.54
87.03
87.89
88.92
87.50

e
d
d
c
b
a
b

61.95
62.19
63.79
63.91
64.12
64.69
63.97

c
c
b
b
ab
a
ab

Hemi
(%)
14.94
15.50
14.78
15.72
14.49
15.49
17.64

Utilization of Abaca Fiber


5.1 Pulp
Decorticated abaca fiber shows lower pulp yield of 63.91% and comparatively
higher rejects of 0.35%. Because of the presence of higher number of helices and
parenchyma, chemical consumption is high at 90.78. Kappa number is highest at 9.68 but still
within the range of easy bleaching.

cd
bc
d
b
d
bc
a

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

29

T able 13. Pulping analysis o f deco rticated and spindle stripped abaca fibers
D eco Abaca S pindle Stripped Abaca Fibers
Fiber
S2
G
JK
% Pulp yield
% Accepts
% R ejects
T o tal
% C hemical C o nsumptio n
B ased o n chemical charged
Kappa N umber

63.56
0.35
63.91

70.75
0.27
71.02

65.44
0.24
65.68

66.52
0.27
66.79

90.78

88.02

88.11

88.45

9.68

7.52

8.60

9.31

At zero beating, the freeness value of decorticated abaca pulp is relatively low at 520
CSF. Its tear index is lower at 7.88 mN-m2/g, but tensile index is highest at 142.541. Air
permeability is high or less porous compared with the spindle stripped S2, G and JK abaca
grades.

Table 14. Properties of decorticated and spindle stripped abaca pulp


Particulars
Deco
S2
G
Freeness
Basis Weight, gsm
as tested
oven dried
Thickness, mm
Density, g/ml
Tear Index, mN-m2/g
Tensile Index N-m/g
Air Permeability, GuS

JK

520

665

647

620

65.79
60.004
0.1054
0.5693

66.99
61.681
0.1254
0.4919

66.90
61.307
0.1254
0.4889

66.27
60.723
0.1218
0.4985

7.88
142.541
15.86

12.37
120.222
1.29

12.85
112.624
1.42

11.77
127.965
1.81

5.2 Textile
Preliminary results of the test on the use of decorticated abaca fiber for textile show
this fiber to have passed initial quality requirement tests, but needs machine run test for
confirmation.
Table 15. Laboratory test results for textile use*
Property

S2

Moisture content, %
10.80
Residual gum content, %
28.70
Tensile strength
40.80
*Analysis was done by the Philippine Textile Research Institute

Deco
9.81
38.40
42.15

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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30

6.0 Utilization of wastes from decortication of abaca fiber


6.1 Fertilizer/soil conditioner
Organic fertilizer must contain a minimum of 7% nitrogen. Because of the very low
nitrogen level of only 0.66%, wastes from decortication of abaca fiber can be used best as soil
conditioner. It can help aggregate soil particles, add some nutrients and increase water
holding capacity.
Table 16. Analysis of composted wastes from decortication of abaca*
Content

Nitrogen
0.66
Phosphorus
0.32
Potassium
0.21
Organic carbon
12.77
* Analysis was done by the Bureau of Soils and Water Management
6.2

Feeds
Wastes from decortication of abaca fiber contain low protein. Feed maintenance
requirements for ruminant animals should contain at least 8% crude protein; lower than this
value will depress rumen micro-organisms resulting to loss in weight of the animal. Also, the
high fiber content of the material will result to lower digestibility of the animal.
Table 17. Complete proximate analysis of wastes from decortication of abaca*
Content
Protein
Fat
Fiber
Moisture
Ash
Nitrogen
free extract
Gross energy

%
2.44
1.19
36.95
9.66
11.04
38.72
3491.17

*Analysis was done by the Bureau of Animal Industry

cal/g

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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B. Component B Identification of Field Testing oh Higher Yielding, Disease-Resistant


Varieties
B.1 Search for Abaca Varieties Resistant to Bunchy-Top and Mosaic Viral Diseases in
the Philippines1
ABSTRACT
Field screening of eight selected abaca varieties for resistance to bunchy-top and mosaic diseases
was undertaken in three abaca-growing areas in the Philippines specifically in Albay, Leyte and Davao. The
varieties were selected based on their reactions to bunchy-top and mosaic diseases among forty (40) abaca
high yielding cultivars/strains commonly planted in the regions evaluated during the regional field screening
done in 1998 until 2001in the same locations. Musa tex 51, Lausigon and Abuab are the varieties
recommended for Luzon; Laguis, Linawaan and Inosa for the Visayas while Tangongon and Maguindanao
were recommended for Mindanao. Evaluation was done based on the reactions of the varieties to the disease
in the area where they are commonly planted with respect to percent disease incidence, infection rate and the
area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). The eight selected varieties representing regional
recommendations were further evaluated for resistance to the disease prevalent in the area through
simultaneous planting in Albay, Leyte and Davao from 2001 until 2003. General model of disease incidence
as affected by infection rate, incubation time and AUDPC was developed from data obtained from the
experiments. The selection index used in ranking the varieties for their resistance to bunchy-top disease is
expressed through the following equation Y = a + bx1 + b x 2 + bx3 where Y represents disease incidence
of the variety, a is regression constant; b = coefficient values; bx1 is mean incubation time after emergence;
bx2 is mean infection rate after 30 months after planting; and bx3 is mean AUDPC after 30 months after
planting. Regression coefficient for all the varieties were all significant in the three experimental setups.
Based on the selection index, ranking of the varieties for their resistance to bunchy-top and mosaic differed in
each regional location.

Keywords: screening for resistance of abaca varieties, abaca bunchy-top, abaca mosaic

Paper presented in the International Dissemination Seminar on Abaca: Improvement of Fiber Extraction
and Identification of Higher Yielding Varieties held on October 19, 2004 at NewWorld Renaissance Hotel,
Makati City, Philippines. CFC-UNIDO-FIDA funded-project (FC/INT/97/021).

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1. Rationale
Abaca (Musa textilis Nee) of the family Musaceae is indigenous to the Philippines. It is planted
mainly as a source of fiber either raw, pulp or use for cordage and fibercraft. The Philippines supplies about
84% of the world requirement while Ecuador supplies 16% (FIDA, 2003). This major agricultural crop is
planted to 121, 839 hectares with a production of 62,796 metric tons on which more than 1.5 million
Filipinos, with an average of 2.5 hectares farm size, depend for a living, both directly and indirectly (FIDA,
2002). The recent fiber production has declined from year 2000 which could be attributed to the prevalence of
the viral diseases which affected major abaca-growing areas. As of February 2003, a total of 22,518 hectares
are affected by the disease with a slight to severe disease incidence.
Bunchy-top was first reported in 1915 in Silang, Cavite (Ocfemia, 1924). It wiped out a total of
12,000 hectares in the provinces of Laguna, Batangas and Cavite and spread to nearby towns in the Bicol
Region until Sorsogon Province. Bunchy-top was reported existing in Davao area in 1937 at a time when
large plantations of abaca were under the control of the Japanese. It had slowly reached the areas of Eastern
Visayas and affected several barangays. It was undoubtedly the most important disease which affected abaca
from the time it was reported until now. Similar scenario was observed for abaca mosaic and bract mosaic
diseases which also affected several farms in Albay, Sorsogon, Leyte and Samar areas and reached until
Agusar Sur.
Unless a new abaca variety is developed through unconventional means like genetic engineering and
become available, it is important and practical alternative to identify which among our present varieties can
continuously produce a profitable harvest even in the presence of these diseases. Thus, the Fiber Industry
Development Authority (FIDA) with the additional financial support from the Common Fund for
Commodities (CFC) through United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) implemented
this project to address this problem.
2. Objectives
To identify which among the high-yielding abaca varieties possess some degree of resistance to
abaca bunchy-top and abaca mosaic diseases and to determine the stability of resistance when planted in three
different locations
3. Methodology
Selection of Varieties
All varieties deemed suited for commercial planting were identified but only 40 varieties
passed the high yield criteria of 800 kg/hectare/year. The performance of the 40 varieties were
evaluated based on the primary data generated in previously conducted agronomic trials (Catiempo
& Macarayan, 2000; Lomerio & Oloteo, 2000; Romero et al. 2000).
Field Testing of Varieties
The protocol followed in the screening trials developed by Dr. Avelino D. Raymundo is an
alternative methodology of screening for reaction of abaca germplasm to bunchy-top and mosaic
viruses (1998). It is a quantitative approach to screening in a system where the disease is systemic
and where resistance appears elusive and seemingly non-existent, as in abaca bunchy-top top
disease.
3.1 Regional screening trials
Selection of sites
The trials were undertaken in the field where hot spot was well-chosen. A hot spot is a
concentration of high inoculum which should sustain at least 50% disease incidence. Diseased plants were
transferred to the area when needed. When the incidence was above 50%, the population of the diseased

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plants were reduced in order to maintain uniformity of the inoculum throughout the area. The test sites for the
regional screening trials are abaca-growing areas in Albay where two sites were chosen, one for bunchy-top
and one for mosaic; in Leyte, one site for mosaic only while in Davao, two sites, one for bunchy-top and one
for mosaic.
The experiment was laid-out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications,
planted at a distance of 1 m x 1 m. Data were gathered from 20 samples from each replicate. Good
agronomic practices, such as fertilization and ringweeding were followed except spraying of insecticide. As
soon as shoots/suckers were observed, it was made sure that vectors were present in the infected sources of
inoculum and the area was disturbed from time to time to induce movement of vectors.
Disease measurement
The varieties were assessed based on the following parameters observed and measured for a period
of 815 months from emergence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Incubation time the time from estimated transfer of inoculum by vector to appearance of visual
disease symptoms
Kinds of symptoms yellowing, stunting, bunching top, leaf curling, etc.
Stage of plant growth when specific symptoms appeared developmental stages of the abaca plant
will be monitored
Percentage disease incidence at weekly interval the number of diseased plant relative to the total
number of plants being tested
Area under the disease-progress-curve representing the cumulative amount of disease at the end
of a specified period computed as: A = 1/2 (X1 Xi-1) where Xi = amount of disease at one
point
Infection rate estimated by the equation r = (1/t2 t1) (1n(x2/1- x2)- (1n(x1/1- x1); it is an
indication of the speed of disease development

The varieties were rated based on the analyses. In general, a variety with lower infection rate,
smaller AUDPC, flatter disease progress curve, longer incubation time was considered more resistant.
Virus indexing of selected varieties for the national screening
Indexing of selected entries by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in FIDA diagnostic
laboratories in Albay, Leyte and Davao was undertaken before "exchange of planting materials" and
transporting them to respective regions. Entries were indexed for the three viruses specifically bunchy-top
virus (BTV in abaca), abaca mosaic virus (AbaMV) and bract mosaic virus (BrMV in abaca).
3.2

National Screening Trials

Based on the results of the regional screening, the top three to four varieties per region were
identified and subjected to national screening to determine the stability of the resistant varieties. It was also
assumed that different virus strain might exist in each test location. Three varieties were identified for the
Bicol Region namely Abuab, Lausigon and Musa tex 51; three for the Visayas namely Linawaan, Laguis and
Inosa; and four for the Mindanao area namely Tangongon, Maguindanao, Kaunayan and Kutay-kutay.
Unfortunately, varieties Kaunayan and Kutay-kutay were not included in the trial due to political crisis in the
area during the time of exchange, thus only eight varieties were multiplied, indexed by enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and included in the regional exchange.
The national screening trials were located in a hotspot area as earlier defined also established in
similar locations; Albay : two sites, one for bunchy-top and one for mosaic; Leyte: one site for mosaic;
Davao: two sites, one for bunchy-top and one for mosaic. The experiments were laid out in RCBD with 4
replications, planted at 2.5 x 2.5 distance between hills and observed 20 samples per replicate. Initial disease
observation was undertaken as in regional screening and continuously done at monthly intervals to ascertain
the tolerance/resistance of the varieties based on their reaction to the virus. In addition, the following
parameters were also considered;

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2.

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Fiber yield, biomass measured by weight per unit area


Loss in yield as a measure of host resistance estimated based on a control which could be obtained
from agronomic evaluation trial. Compute losses in yield due to diseases. Use the equation, %
Loss = (Yield of healthy plants - yield of diseased plants)/ Yield of healthy plants x 100. Yield of
healthy plants can be from agronomic trials. Loss is an indication of tolerance. When two
varieties have the same amount of disease but different losses in yield, it means that the one with
the lower loss is more tolerant/resistant.

Analysis of data
Disease incidence on the selected varieties were observed through qualitative description of the kind
of symptoms manifested on 20 samples in each replication from the time of planting. The percentage disease
incidence were statistically analyzed particularly analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare possible
tolerance/resistance of the varieties. The rate of disease development and areas under the disease progress
curve to determine quantitative differences brought about by the different types of resistance was also done
and to ascertain the relationship between disease incidence and plant growth development, regression and
correlation analyses were undertaken. The regressions were performed on means of infection rate, AUDPC,
incubation time over four replications with the disease incidence as the dependent variable. Regression
model with predetermined combination of predictors was tested. The resulting equation:
Ydisease incidence = a + b x1 + b x 2 + b x 3
where

a = intercept or constant
b = coefficient value
x1 = mean incubation period
x2 = mean infection rate
x3 = mean AUDPC

The resulting analysis was assessed by aptness of residual plot, coefficient of determination and F test.
Multiple regression analysis was also done to determine the effect of independent variables (incubation time,
infection rate and AUDPC) on the expression of the disease (bunchy-top and mosaic) manifested on the eight
varieties. Yield loss relative to the degree of host tolerance to the virus was also analyzed.
Ranking of entries
Resistance analysis was used to rate the varieties. Lower infection rate, smaller AUDPC, flatter
disease progress curve, longer incubation time were considered as the criteria in evaluating varieties for
resistance. When resistance was observed, it was considered as the primary parameter in varietal selection.
The varieties were evaluated based on a Selection Index = (fiber yield, Ydisease incidence) where resistance to the
viruses and good agronomic characteristics are given relative weights. Since viral diseases constitute the
current problem, more weights were put on resistance.

4. Results and Discussion


4.1 Result of evaluation of varieties used for the regional screening
There are about 200 abaca varieties/accessions widely planted in the different parts of the
country in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao where the prevailing conditions suit abaca production.
These varieties are characterized and maintained in FIDA seedbanks and experiment stations in
Sorsogon (Luzon varieties), Leyte (Visayas varieties) and Davao City (Mindanao varieties). Same
germplasm are kept in genebank collection of the National Abaca Research Center in Leyte State
University and Abaca Seedbank Collection in the College of Forestry, University of the Philippines
Los Baos (UPLB). Together with a plant breeder from the Institute of Plant Breeding in UPLB,
primary data on the agronomic characteristics of the varieties/accessions generated by FIDA
seedbanks were used to select varieties used for the regional screening. Among the collection, 40

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varieties/hybrids/accessions were chosen based on the average yield of 800 kg/harvest/year and the
varieties are listed as follows;

Luzon varieties
1.
2.
3.
4.

Musa tex 50 (Lausigon x Maguindanao)


Musa tex 51 (Itom x Lausigon 45)
Musa tex 52 (Itom x Lausigon 39)
Abuab

5. Tinawagan pula
6. Tinawagan puti
7. Lausigon

8. Luno
9. Socorro
10. Lagonoyon

Visayas varieties
1.
2.
3.
4.

Inosa
Itisog
Laguis
Layahon

5. Lagurhuan
6. Linawaan
7. Laylay
8. Minenonga

9. Musa tex 80 (Linawaan x Linino)


10. Musa tex 81 (Linawaan x Laylay
11. Soglagur (Sogmin x Lagurhuan)
12. Tangongon-visayan.

13. Sogmin
14..Soglin
15. Sinamoro
16. Putian

Mindanao varieties
1.
2.
3.
4.

Bongolanon
Bontang (Bongolanon x Tangongon)
Maguindanao
Maguino (Maguindanao x Inosa)

5. Tangongon
6. Tange
7. Puti
8. Pula

9. Kutay-kutay
10. Kaunayan
11. Igit
12. Parang

13. Putian-Jolo
14. Kutay-kutay-Jolo

4.2 Result of evaluation of varieties in the regional screening trials


Out of the 40 varieties evaluated based on high yield for the regional screening, only 38 varieties
were evaluated of which ten (10) varieties were screened in Albay, 16 varieties in Leyte and 12 varieties in
Davao due to difficulty in propagating the planting materials needed for the trial. All the varieties identified
were observed for tolerance/resistance to the diseases and those which really showed relatively high degree of
severity were completely eliminated. The experimental plants were observed and infection rate, incubation
time and disease incidence were noted and computed. An abaca plant grown in Albay, infected with bunchytop disease (BTD) caused by BTV showed stunted growth, rosette arrangement of stiff narrow, erect leaves
emanating from the upper end of the pseudostem and the leaves are starting to show abnormal color (darkgreen or uneven distribution of green leaf color) (Fig. 1).
4.2.1 For the bunchy-top trial
4.2.1a Albay
The bunchy-top trial for Luzon varieties
was conducted in Tabiguian, Tabaco, Albay. Out
of eight Luzon varieties planted, only five were
included in the analysis and these are: Musa tex 50,
Musa tex 51, Lausigon and Abuab. Luno,
Lagonoyon and Socorro were not included because
of low survival rate. Figure 4 shows the
constructed disease progress curve for bunchy-top
infection in abaca varities in Albay. The computed
percent infection are as follows; Musa tex 50,
31.90%; Lausigon, 25.80%;

Fig. 1. Stunted abaca plant showing rosette arrangement


of stiff, narrow erect leaves and abnormal leaf color
during early stages of growth.

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Fig 2. Disease progress curve for bunchy-top


infection in Albay

Musa tex 51, 28.30%; Abuab, 20.4% and the


lowest was Musa tex 52, 17.7%. Based on the
constructed disease progress curve, it was Abuab which
showed a flatter progress curve, hence, had the highest degree of resistance.
In terms of infection rate, Lausigon had the lowest at 0.178 rate, thus had the highest degree of
resistance while Abuab showed the highest infection rate and therefore considered having the least degree of
resistance. However, the appearance of bunchy-top symptoms slowly developed in Abuab and the degree of
severity was least from 34 to 60 weeks from planting. Thus, the computed AUDPC of Abuab in terms of area
during the progress of the disease was the smallest while Musa tex 50 having the largest AUDPC (154.00)
had the least degree of resistance (Table 1).
After ranking, the Luzon varieties with regard to their reaction to the bunchy-top disease, Abuab,
Lausigon and Musa tex 52 were the top three varieties selected for the national screening. However, Musa
tex 52 had poor acceptability to abaca farmers, thus Musa tex 51 was used instead (Table 1)
Table 1. Selection of top three Luzon abaca varieties grown in Albay based on their reaction to bunchy-top
disease
VARIETIES
INFECTION
AUDPC
DISEASE
OVER-ALL
RATE
INCIDENCE(%)
RANKING
Musa tex 50
Musa tex 51
Musa tex 52
Lausigon
Abuab

0.218
0.249
0.223
0.178
0.318

(2)
(4)
(3)
(1)
(5)

154.00
99.04
89.18
128.21
60.50

(5)
(3)
(2)
(4)
(1)

31.90
28.30
17.7
25.80
20.4

(5)
(4)
(1)
(3)
(2)

12
11
6
8
8

(5)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(2)

4.2.1b Davao
In Mindanao, early bunchy-top symptoms observed
were vein clearing and slight yellowing of the margin of the
youngest opened leaf. As the disease progressed, succeeding
leaves became narrower and smaller, and yellowing of leaf
margins progressed towards the midrib. Also, petioles were
observed to be shorter resulting to clustering of leaves
forming a rosette (Fig 3).

Fig. 3. Bunchy-top symptom in abaca in


Davao
For the Mindanao varieties, infection rate of bunchy-top ranged from 0.30 to 0.119 per unit per week
with Maguino having the lowest rate of infection followed by Maguindanao and Kutay-kutay. The highest
infection rate was registered by Igit with 0.119 (Table 2). The plotted area under the disease progress curve

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showed that Maguino, Kutay-kutay and Kaunayan showed smaller AUDPC and a flatter disease progress
curve as a result of lower percent infection or disease incidence indicating that these two varieties are
showing degree of resistance in terms of their reaction to the bunchy-top disease (Fig 4).
Disease incidence (%)

16

Bongolanon
Bontang
Igit
Kaunayan
Kutay-kutay
M aguindanao
M aguino
Parang
Pula
Puti
Tange
Tangongon

14
12
10
8
6
4

Fig 4. Disease progress curve of


bunchy-top infection in
Davao

2
0
14

18

22

26

30

34

38

42

Weeks after Planting

Based on overall ranking of the Mindanao varieties, the top three varieties recommended for the
national screening are Maguino, Maguindanao and Kutay-kutay. However, Maguino is considered a hybrid
of Maguindanao and Inosa and the resistance genes could already be present in the parental lines. Through
proper consultation, Maguino was replaced by a variety in the next rank which is Bontang but since it is also
a hybrid with parental lines of Bongolanon and Tangongon, it was decided that the Maguino be replaced by
Kaunayan, which ranked fifth among the 12 varieties evaluated (Table 2).
Table 2. Selection of top three Mindanao abaca varieties grown in Davao based on their reaction
to bunchy-top disease
VARIETIES
INFECTION
AUDPC
DISEASE
OVER-ALL
RATE
INCIDENCE(%)
RANKING
Bongolanon
Bontang
Igit
Kaunayan
Kutay-kutay
Maguindanao

0.080
0.070
0.119
0.079
0.069
0.058

(7)
(4)
(11)
(6)
(3)
(2)

33.13
19.65
58.27
17.09
16.88
17.46

(9)
(5)
(11)
(3)
(2)
(4)

Maguino
Parang
Pula
Puti
Tange
Tangongon

0.031
0.094
0.077
0.091
0.077
0.082

(1)
(10)
(5)
(9)
(5)
(8)

10.11
30.91
26.25
43.75
26.25
26.95

(1)
(8)
(6)
(10)
(6)
(7)

7.98
5.20
14.81
6.32
6.25
3.88

(8)
(3)
(11)
(5)
(4)
(2)

2.56
(1)
8.82
(9)
7.50
(7)
10.0
(10)
7.50
(7)
6.69
(6)

24
12
33
14
9
8

(8)
(4)
(11)
(5)
(3)
(2)

3
27
18
29
18
21

(1)
(9)
(6)
(10)
(6)
(7)

4.2.2 For the Mosaic Trial


4.2.2a .Albay
Manifestations of Abaca Mosaic Disease (AMD) caused by abaca mosaic virus (AbaMV) in the
Bicol Region is characterized by the presence of light yellowish streaks on petioles which come in various
shapes and sizes. The pseudostem show mottling, and are usually thin and slender and the number of suckers
are reduced. Alternate greenish and yellowish streaks appears in young and older leaves (Fig 5).

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Fig. 5. Typical symptoms of the abaca mosaic disease in Albay


The mosaic trial for Luzon varieties was also held in Tabiguian, Tabaco, Albay since the location is
also identified as a hotspot for abaca and bract mosaic diseases. Results of screening of five varieties (Musa
tex 50, Musa tex 51, Musa tex 52, Lausigon and Abuab) for resistance to mosaic as shown by disease
progress curve indicated Lausigon having the lowest percentage of infection and flatter curve while Musa tex
50 had the highest percentage of infection (Fig 6). With regards to infection rate, AUDPC and disease
incidence, Abuab, Lausigon and Musa tex 51 ranked 1, 2 and 3 interchangeably (Table 3).

Fig 6. Disease progress curve of the mosaic infection in Albay


Based on overall ranking of Luzon varieties with regard to their reaction to abaca mosaic and bract
mosaic diseases, the top three varieties are Lausigon, Abuab and Musa tex 51.
Table 3. Selection of top three Luzon abaca varieties grown in Albay based on their reaction to
abaca mosaic and bract mosaic diseases
VARIETIES
INFECTION
AUDPC
DISEASE
OVER-ALL
RATE
INCIDENCE(%)
RANKING
Musa tex 50
Musa tex 51
Musa tex 52
Lausigon
Abuab

0.4149
-0.3317
0.0206
-0.4030
-0.3279

(5)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)

120.8470
32.5200
41.0940
30.0000
29.1600

(5)
(3)
(4)
(2)
(1)

36.3
11.4
15.2
8.9
12.3

(5)
(2)
(4)
(1)
(3)

15
8
12
4
6

(5)
(3)
(4)
(1)
(2)

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4.2.2b Leyte
In the Visayas, field screening of sixteen (16) abaca varieties for abaca mosaic resistance was
conducted in Barangay Liberty in Hilongos, Leyte from April to December 1999. But frequent flooding
occurred in the area causing high mortality in some experimental plants which resulted to high variability in
observations among the varieties as reflected in the 44.32% coefficient of variation although replanting was
done. The results were found unreliable, thus, the conduct of another trial was recommended. Due to time
constraint, a greenhouse screening was undertaken on varieties which showed possible resistance to the
disease. Among the 16 varieties, the following seven varieties were chosen for the pot experiment; Musa Tex
80, Musa Tex 81, Laylay, Laguis, Lagurhuan, Soglagur, and Inosa. However, the planting materials of Musa
Tex 81 were not sufficient for the designed experiment, thus Minenonga, which ranked fifth was chosen.
The screening was undertaken in March 2000 at EVIRFES, Abuyog, Leyte wherein 30 suckers for
each variety were planted in plastic bags kept in a screenhouse. Mosaic-infected plants were, likewise,
maintained in a separate screenhouse from which aphid vector of the AbaMV were allowed to feed for
transmission of the virus. A protocol was followed in performing virus transmission by aphid and
maintenance of the experimental setup from which the number of plants and percent mosaic infection were
gathered at four observation dates. To determine the reactions of the varieties to mosaic infection, a measure
of their resistance was necessary. This was done through virus-indexing using ELISA of every test plants for
each variety. Leaf samples were collected starting at 30 days post-inoculation (dpi) and repeated sampling
was done at 45, 60, 75 dpi. Selection of the top three varieties was based on the manifestation of the disease
through percent mosaic infection and the results of ELISA through the mean absorbance values read at 405
nm using microplate reader (BIORAD, USA) of the Plant Virology Laboratory of the Department of Plant
Pathology in UPLB.
In the field screening conducted in Hilongos, Leyte appearance of the initial symptoms such as
whitish streaks along leaf veins from midrib of the leaf margin was observed on the third week from planting
while in the greenhouse screening, the first symptoms appeared 100 days after inoculation. This explains the
relative importance of the inoculum pressure that exist under the natural condition wherein the abaca actually
exist. However, symptom appearance in both experiments which appeared in succeeding days were similar.
Manifestation of the disease is more pronounced and diverse. In Linawaan, leaf curling was observed while
in Lagurhuan, whitish streaks were smaller. In Laylay, white band chlorosis which run across the midrib was
evident. In Laguis, yellow to bright orange streaks which run parallel to the vein appeared on younger leaves.
Necrotic lesions appeared on petioles in all varieties (Fig. 7).

Fig 7. Symptoms of abaca mosaic disease on abaca plants grown in Leyte


Results of greenhouse screening and absorbance values obtained by ELISA showed that Inosa,
Lagurhuan, Linawaan and Laguis showed degree of resistance to abaca mosaic disease than Laylay,
Minenonga and Musa Tex 80 (Table 4). Based on the results of greenhouse experiment, the top three selected
Visayan varieties to be included in the national screening are Inosa, Linawaan and Laguis. Lagurhuan was
not chosen because it is not commonly planted in the region.

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Table 4. Results of greenhouse screening of seven Visayan varieties for their


resistance to abaca mosaic disease
OVERALL
VARIETIES
PERCENT
MEAN
RANKING
MOSAIC
ABSORBANCE2
INFECTION1
(5 Sampling Dates)
Inosa
6.25
(1)
0.296
(1)
2
(1)
Laguis
12.5
(2)
0.336
(4)
6
(3)
Lagurhuan
25.0
(4)
0.309
(2)
6
(3)
Laylay
25.0
(4)
0.403
(5)
9
(5)
Linawaan
12.5
(2)
0.319
(3)
5
(2)
Minenonga
12.5
(2)
0.412
(6)
8
(4)
Musa Tex 80
18.75 (3)
0.430
(7)
10
(6)
1
Obtained from experimental plants inoculated in November 2000 and observed
until June 2001. 2Mean of five samplings from January to June 2001.
4.2.2c

Davao

In Mindanao, early symptoms of mosaic infection on varieties were small yellowish streaks which
ran parallel to the midrib until they became pronounced. In some plants, the streaks became numerous on
newly opened leaves and on petioles giving rise to alternate dark and yellow bands which run across the
midrib and showed a mottled appearance.

Fig 8.

Mosaic symptoms on Mindanao abaca varieties

In Davao, all the 12 abaca varieties tested were infected with the disease. Among the varieties,
Bontang, Tangongon, Maguino and Maguindanao showed some degree of resistance to mosaic infection.
Bontang had the lowest percentage infection of mosaic virus at 34 weeks after planting with a mean of 33.8%
followed by Tangongon, Maguino and Maguindanao with a mean of 50%, 51.5%, and 68.6%, respectively
(Table 5).
Rate of mosaic infection ranged from 0.1958 to 0.3428 per unit per week with Bontang having the
slowest rate followed by Maguino and Tangongon. Parang recorded the highest infection rate (Table 5). In
addition, Bontang, Tangongon and Maguino showed flatter disease progress curves than the rest of the abaca
varieties. Correspondingly, Bontang, Tangongon and Maguino had smaller values for their computed area
under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) than the rest of the varieties (Fig 9).

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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41

Disease incidence (%)

100
Bongolanon
Bont ang
Igit
Kaunayan
Kut ay-kut ay
M aguindanao
M aguino
Parang
Pula
Put i
Tange
Tangongon

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
14

18

22

26

30

34

Weeks after Planting

Fig 9 . Disease progress curve for mosaic infection in Davao


Based on overall ranking of Mindanao varieties with regard to their reaction to abaca mosaic and
bract mosaic diseases, the top five (5) varieties are Bontang, Tangongon, Maguino, Bongolanon and
Maguindanao. Since Bontang and Maguino were considered as hybrid, Tangongon, Bongolanon and
Maguindanao were chosen. But because disease-free planting materials for Bongolanon were not enough,
Kaunayan was used instead. Since the objective of the study is to come up with ten (10) varieties for the
national screening, Kutay-kutay was added instead of Parang because of its acceptability by abaca farmers in
Jolo.
Table 5. Selection of top three Mindanao abaca varieties grown in Davao based on their reaction to abaca
mosaic and bract mosaic diseases
VARIETIES
INFECTION
AUDPC
DISEASE
OVER-ALL
RATE
INCIDENCE(%)
RANKING
Bongolanon
Bontang
Igit
Kaunayan
Kutay-kutay
Maguindanao
Maguino
Parang
Pula
Puti
Tange
Tangongon

0.2454
0.1958
0.3144
0.2487
0.2388
0.2685
0.2212
0.3428
0.2551
0.2823
0.2646
0.2294

(5)
(1)
(11)
(6)
(4)
(9)
(2)
(12)
(7)
(10)
(8)
(3)

200.950 (5)
84.375
(1)
210.510 (7)
201.250 (6)
238.525 (11)
153.315 (4)
134.965 (3)
232.625 (10)
219.470 (8)
256.250 (12)
229.680 (9)
123.735 (2)

78.60
33.80
87.30
85.00
86.30
68.60
51.50
92.40
80.90
95.00
81.20
50.00

(5)
(1)
(10)
(8)
(9)
(4)
(3)
(11)
(7)
(12)
(6)
(2)

15
3
28
20
24
17
8
33
22
34
23
7

(4)
(1)
(10)
(6)
(9)
(5)
(3)
(11)
(7)
(12)
(8)
(2)

4.3 Results of the evaluation of varieties in the national screening trials


The national screening trials were established in the same locations where the regional screening
were undertaken. Among the top ten (10) abaca varieties selected from the three regional trials, only eight (8)
varieties were considered for exchange because of the failure to get the planting materials of Kaunayan and
Kutay-kutay from the seaport of Zamboanga City due to peace and political crisis in the area during the time
of exchange. The eight (8) selected disease-free varieties were successfully planted in Albay, Leyte and
Davao observed for their reaction to disease and allowed to mature to get fiber yield. Similar to the regional
trials, two (2) sites were selected for the national screening of the selected varieties for their reaction to
bunchy-top and mosaic diseases. In Leyte, one site was chosen for the mosaic trial and in Davao, 2 sites for
bunch-top and mosaic trial were also established.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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42

4.3.1 For the bunchy-top trial


In Albay, results of the screening trial showed that all the varieties had very low disease incidence
during the first nine (9) months and slowly increased 14 months after. Tangongon has the highest disease
incidence followed by Lausigon and Laguis. Maguindanao was the last variety which succumbed to the
disease and had the least AUDPC while the rest of the varieties exhibited varying degrees of infection. The
growth stage of the abaca plant was severely affected by bunchy-top infection as shown by the delayed sword
sucker stage on the 9th month instead of maiden to palm sucker stage (Fig 10).

Fig 10. Disease progress curve of bunchy-top infection on


eight selected varieties 31 MAP screened in Albay
In Davao, although eight (8) varieties were planted in Bago-Oshiro, survival rate of the Bicol
varieties were low which resulted to high mortality. Thus, the trial proceeded with six varities only namely,
Linawaan, Laguis, Inosa, Maguindanao, Tangongon and Musa tex 51. Unlike in Albay, the eight varieties
varied in their reaction to bunchy-top disease. Symptom appearance was delayed for almost nine months from
which disease incidence occurred only on the 14th month. However, the infection in Davao was almost similar
to Albay with Musa Tex 51 having 41.35% infection while Tangongon in Albay had 45.66% (Fig. 11).

Fig. 11. Disease progress curve of bunchy-top infection on


six (6) selected varieties screened in Davao
Incidence of bunchy-top on eight (8) varieties and the factors which contributed to the severity of
infection 31 months after planting were analyzed with regression analysis. Computed r2 for the factors which
determined percent disease incidence such as infection rate, AUDPC, incubation time in both location were

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43

significant contributing 69.82% and 89.86% in Albay and Davao, respectively. High correlation of 83.56 %
and 94.79% between the three factors and disease incidence in both locations were also observed (Table 6).
Table 6. Regression statistics for the factors involved in the development of
bunchy-top disease in selected abaca varieties in Albay and Davao
Parameter estimates
Albay
Davao
Multiple R
0.8356
0.9479
R square
0.6982
0.8986
Intercept
-20.1893
5.8687
Incubation period
0.0800
-0.0704
Infection rate
247.7716
85.8492
AUDPC
0.0441
0.0505
Observations
31
24
To assess the direct and indirect contributions of multiple, often correlated factors such as infection
rate, AUDPC and incubation time on disease incidence, correlation analysis was done which indicated
colinearity among predictors which is expressed in the equation Y = a + bx1 + b x 2 + bx3 where Y
represents disease incidence of the variety, a is regression coefficient; bx1 is mean incubation time after after
emergence; bx2 is mean infection rate after 30 months after planting; and bx3 is mean AUDPC after 30
months after planting. The results were used to rank the varieties for their degree of resistance. In Albay,
Maguindanao, Inosa and Abuab ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd respectively, in their degree of resistance to the
bunchy-top infection while Maguindanao, Laguis and Linawaan ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd in Davao (Table 7 &
8).
Table 7. Selection of varieties for degree of resistance to bunchy-top disease in Albay
Variety
Intercep X1
Mean
X2
Mean
X3
Mean
t
Incubation
Infectio
AUDPC
n rate
Lausigon
0.08
40
247.77 0.1716
0.0441
494.805
3.2
42.517
21.8209
20.1893
4
Abuab
0.08
25
247.77 0.1259
0.0441
343.71
31.194
15.1576
20.1893
2
MT51
0.08
17
247.77 0.1091
0.0441
533.74
27.031
23.5379
20.1893
Inosa
0.08
27
247.77 0.0933
0.0441
433.32
23.116
19.1094
20.1893
9
Laguis
0.08
19
247.77 0.1618
0.0441
487.69
40.089
21.5071
20.1893
2
Linawaan
0.08
23
247.77 0.1198
0.0441
422.63
29.682
18.637
20.1893
8
Tangongon
0.08
36.75
247.77 0.1082
0.0441
707.98
26.808
31.2219
20.1893
7
Maguindanao
0.08
33.5
247.77 0.0897
0.0441
342.87
22.237
15.1205
20.1893
3

Ran
k

47.3489

28.1625

31.7403

24.1970

42.9270

29.9715

40.7813

19.8486

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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44

Table 8. Selection of varieties for degree of resistance to bunchy-top disease in Davao


X3
Variety
Intercept X1
Mean
X2
Mean
Mean
Incubation
Infection
AUDPC
rate
Musa Tex 51
36
85.8492 0.1
0.0506
592.74
0.0704
5.8687
8.5849
29.9834
2.5373
Linawaan
58
85.8492 0.13
0.0506
167.06
0.0705
5.8687
11.1604
8.450
4.0878
Laguis
50
85.8492 0.062
0.0506
266.58
0.0705
5.8687
5.3226
13.4848
3.5239
Inosa
67
85.8492 0.142
0.0506
207.79
0.0705
5.8687
12.1905
10.5109
4.7221
Maguindanao
48
85.8492 0.064
0.0506
212.31
0.0704
5.8687
5.4943
10.7395
3.3830
Tangongon
39
85.8492 0.101
0.0506
386.03
0.0705
8.6707
19.5271
2.7487

Rank

41.8998

21.3919

21.1522

23.8481

18.7196

31.3179

50

Ydisease incidence

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Albay

Davao

Location
M T51

Inosa

Linawaan

Laguis

M aguindanao

Tangongon

Fig 12.

Reaction of six selected abaca varieties to


bunchy-top infection in two locations

Among the six (6) varieties planted in Albay and Davao, Maguindanao possessed a more stable
degree of resistance to bunchy-top infection as shown by computed Ydisease incidence equation which was
considered as the selection index. It ranked 1st in both location having the least value of 19.848 and 18.719
for Albay and Davao respectively. The reactions of Musa Tex and Tangongon were also consistent having
less degree of resistance when planted in both locations while the Visayan varieties, Linawaan, Laguis and
Inosa had varying reaction (Fig 12).

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45

4.3.2 For the mosaic trial


Similar symptoms of the mosaic infection which appeared in the regional screening were observed
on the eight varieties screened in the national trial. However, with the new information gathered in year 2000
with regard to the emergence of the bract mosaic disease in abaca (BrMD) caused by bract mosaic potyvirus
(BrMV), data on the symptomatology were additionally observed and documented (Sharman et al. 2000;
Villajuan-Abgona et al., 2000). Detection by virus-indexing of the said disease by ELISA was also
undertaken using the available BBrMV antiserum to the disease. The disease is associated with alternate
green and yellowish dots and dashes along minor veins; the older leaves show alternate green and yellow
streaks or spindle-shaped lesions; leaves may show broad chlorotic stripes where bases have necrotic edges
which are usually torn; young leaves may show stringing and deformation with raised leaf veins (Fig.13).

Deformed leaves

Alternate
dots and dashes
Fig. 13. Mosaic symptoms
associated with
bract mosaic virus
(BrMV).

Chlorotic streaks on
petioles

Raised veins

In Albay, results of the screening trial showed that Abuab had the least percent mosaic infection at
18.42% followed by Linawaan (19.59%) and Musa Tex 51 (21.19%). Likewise, Abuab had the smallest
AUDPC compared to Linawaan and Musa tex 51 (Fig 14.)

Fig 14. Disease progress curve for mosaic infection


in abaca varieties grown in Albay.

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46

Screening trial in Leyte showed that varieties Laguis, Inosa and Tangongon were least affected by mosaic
infection recorded as 18.3%, 23.3% and 30%, respectively. The result was in correlation with their reaction
to the disease based on infection rate, incubation period and AUDPC (Fig 15).

Fig 15. Disease progress curve for mosaic infection


in abaca varieties grown in Leyte.

In Davao, Tangongon was least affected by the disease having 65.48% followed by Inosa (77.01%)
and Laguis (77.15%) among the varieties which succumbed to the disease at a much earlier period (14MAP).
The highest percent mosaic infection was exhibited by Musa Tex 51 at 86.36% as well as the biggest
AUDPC (Fig 16).

Fig 16. Disease progress curve for mosaic infection


in abaca varieties grown in Davao.
Results of the ANOVA for the varieties screened in Albay showed that infection rate, incubation
period and AUDPC significantly contributed to the incidence of the mosaic infection based on the result of
regression analysis. The computed coefficient of determination (r2) also indicated 81.93%, 65.49% and
63.83% contribution of the factors which affected disease incidence in Albay , Leyte and Davao (Table 9).

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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Table 9 . Regression statistics for the factors involved in the development of mosaic diseases
in selected abaca varieties planted in Albay, Leyte and Davao
Parameter estimates
Albay
Leyte
Davao
Multiple R
0.9052
0.80927
0.7989
R square
0.8193
0.65492
0.6383
Intercept
-13.6544
-12.8776
44.8567
Incubation period
0.1306
0.2589
-0.3411
Infection rate
330.7603
246.8405
33.5568
AUDPC
0.0051
0.0823
0.05868
Observations
31
31
24

Table 10. Selection of varieties for degree of resistance to mosaic diseases in Albay,
Leyte and Davao based on the computed Y disease incidence.
Variety
Lausigon
Abuab
MT51
Inosa
Laguis
Linawaan
Tangongon
Maguindanao

Albay
30.8962
(6)
17.2462
(1)
20.5395
(3)
34.7080
(7)
27.7080
(5)
17.9872
(2)
35.7445
(8)
26.5756 (4)

Leyte
35.2844 (6)
28.8193 (2)
50.4519 (8)
30.7355 (3)
20.9717 (1)
33.1844 (4)
33.9737 (5)
41.8678 (70

Davao
85.3640
75.2018
75.6789
79.4187
70.5298
79.2397

(6)
(2)
(3)
(5)
(1)
(4)

%YL = Yield of healthy plants (fiber yield in agronomic trial) yield of


diseased plants/ Yield of healthy plants x 100
Among the varieties grown in Albay, the least yield loss due to bunchy-top was obtained by Laguis
having 48.15% , followed by Linawaan and Musa Tex having 52.3% and 57.06%, respectively(Table 11).
For the mosaic infection, varieties Laguis, Inosa and Tangongon ranked first, second and third having
48.15%, 50.05% and 58.85%, respectively (Table 12).
Table 11. Bunchy-top infection versus yield loss (Albay)
Variety

Potential yield
(kg/Ha/yr)1

Computed yield
(kg/Ha/yr)

Bunchy-top
incidence (%)2

Yield loss (%)

Lausigon

1,803

242.16

42.93

86.57

Abuab

1,723

538.88

30.00

68.72

Musa tex 51

2,084

819.84

29.18

57.06

Inosa

1,320

509.17

24.01

59.91

Laguis

1,075

557.36

44.06

48.15

Linawaan

1,270

629.69

31.55

52.30

Tangongon

1,590

541.13

43.94

65.97

Maguindanao
2,100
729.88
Results of several agronomic trials using the specified varieties.

20.06
Data taken 30 MAP

62.14

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

Table 12.

48

Mosaic infection versus yield loss (Albay)


Variety

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

Potential yield
(kg/Ha/yr)*

Computed yield
(kg/Ha/yr)

Mosaic incidence
(%)

Yield loss (%)

Lausigon

1,803

630.13

31.54

65.05

Abuab

1,723

436.88

18.42

74.64

Musa tex 51

2,084

353.94

21.19

82.57

Inosa

1,320

634.40

40.57

50.05

Laguis

1,075

572.75

21.92

46.72

Linawaan

1,270

539.89

19.59

59.10

Tangongon

1,590

654.20

34.57

58.85

Maguindanao

2,100

639.21

26.82

69.56

Results of several agronomic trials using the specified varieties.

Data taken 30 MAP

Table 13. Mosaic infection versus yield loss (Leyte)


Variety

Potential yield
(kg/Ha/yr)*

Computed yield
(kg/Ha/yr)

Mosaic incidence
(%)

Yield loss (%)

Lausigon

1,803

174.6

41.7

90.3

Abuab

1,723

243.0

37.4

85.9

Musa tex 51

2,084

140.4

45.0

93.3

Inosa

1,320

571.2

23.3

56.7

Laguis

1,075

372.2

18.3

65.4

Linawaan

1,270

845.9

38.0

33.4

Tangongon

1,590

667.8

30.0

86.3

Maguindanao
2,100
288.3
41.6
58.0
Results of several agronomic trials using the specified varieties. 2Data taken 31 MAP
For the abaca varieties grown in Leyte, computation of yield loss due to mosaic infection showed
Linawaan, Inosa and Laguis having 33.4% to 65.4%. Though the three varieties were indigenous in the
location, resistance to the disease was relatively low (Table 13).
1

High mosaic infection in the six (6) varieties planted in Davao resulted to a complete loss in
experimental plants thus unable to get matured plants that will yield the fiber. This phenomenon could be a
result of a virulent strain of abaca mosaic and bract mosaic viruses which caused the disease. Not even the
Mindanao varieties were able to withstand the inoculum pressure, although Tangongon which had 65.48%
infection was the least affected among the varieties (Table 14).
Table 14. Bunchy-top infection versus yield loss (Davao)
Potential yield
(kg/Ha/yr)1

Computed yield
(kg/Ha/yr)

Bunchy-top
incidence (%)2

Yield loss (%)

Musa tex 51

2,084

252.8

38.57

87.87

Inosa

1,320

523.6

17.83

58.8

Laguis

1,075

440.0

16.78

59.07

Linawaan

1,270

564.8

13.94

57.21

Tangongon

1,500

380.8

27.57

76.05

Maguindanao

2,100

723.2

16.43

65.56

Variety

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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49

Results of several agronomic trials using the specified varieties.


Data taken 27 MAP

Table 15. Mosaic infection versus yield loss (Davao)


Variety

Potential yield
(kg/Ha/yr)1

Computed
yield
(kg/Ha/yr)

Mosaic
incidence
(%)2

Yield loss (%)

Musa tex 51

2,084

86.36

Inosa

1,320

Laguis

1,075

No fiber yield
since all the
varieties
succumbed to

100% yield loss


since no
harvestable stalk
remained. Disease

Linawaan

1,270

the disease.

78.40

Tangongon

1,500

65.48

Maguindanao

2,100

84.42

77.01
77.15

incidence was high


even at an early
stage of growth
(14MAP)

Results of several agronomic trials using the specified varieties.


Data taken 14 MAP

5. Conclusion and Recommendations


There was no extensive field screening of indigenous abaca varieties/strain that had been conducted
to determine their resistance to the viral diseases. The activities undertaken in this project resulted to
assessment of field reactions of varieties to the bunchy-top and mosaic infection which were the basis for
their selection to be adopted/recommended to the farmers. The abaca varieties which possessed relative
degree of resistance were identified either to be planted in specific location or be adapted in other abacagrowing areas. For instance, the Abuab variety which is a Bicol variety can be planted in the Visayas since it
possesses degree of resistance to mosaic both in Bicol and Leyte. It is also true for other varieties such as
Laguis, Linawaan, Inosa and Maguindanao. The regresssion and correlation analysis which supported the
symptomatology method of disease assessment had validated the reactions of the varieties to the two viral
diseases of great importance. Although, yield loss estimates can also be useful in measuring the degree of
resistance, this was not considered in the selection index, but utilized in correlating the disease incidence as a
predictor of yield loss. It was also a known fact that agro-climatic conditions are contributory factors to yield
loss. The following varieties with resistance to mosaic which can be recommended for commercial planting
are as follows:
Region V- Abuab, Linawaan, Musa Tex 51
Region VIII Laguis, Abuab and Inosa
Region XI - Tangongon, Inosa and Laguis
While those varieties with resistance to bunchy-top which can be recommended for commercial planting are:
Region V - Maguindanao, Inosa, Musa Tex 51
Region XI Maguindanao, Laguis and Linawaan

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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50

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

51

B.2 Adaptability of Selected Abaca (Musa textilis nee) Varieties Under Different
Agro-climatic Conditions in the Philippines2

ABSTRACT
Eight (8) selected abaca varieties were assessed for their adaptability
in three (3) locations in the Philippines. The entries were. Musa tex 51, Abuab
and Lausigon from Bicol, Inosa, Linawaan and Laguis from Visayas,
Maguindanao and Tangongon from Mindanao. These were grown in Labo,
Camarines Norte, in Abuyog, Leyte and in Mawab, Compostela Valley.
The interaction effect of location and entry on fiber yield was
significant. The varieties responded differently to location;. In Bicol, Inosa was
the top yielder while in Leyte, it was Maguindanao. If the trend on harvest
would continue in the succeeding harvests, Inosa and Maguindanao shall be
recommended for Bicol and Leyte, respectively.
A significant linear correlation was observed between number of
harvestable stalks and the following agronomic characters: number of stalks,
number of leafsheaths and stalk base & middle diameter. It also revealed that
with respect to dry fiber content, stalk length had positive effect as opposed to
number of stalks per hill and stalk top diameter which had both inverse effect.

Key words: adaptability, abaca, Musa textilis Nee, Manila hemp, agro-climatic conditions, Philippines

Paper presented during the International Dissemination Seminar of the CFC-UNIDO assisted
project AbacaImprovement of Fiber Extraction and Identification of Higher Yielding Varieties
held on 19 October 2004 at Renaissance New World Hotel, Makati City, Philippines.
2

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52

1. Introduction
The Philippines is located southeast of Asia with an almost north to south orientation extending over
13 (4.07 N to 21.5 N from 117 E to 127 E longitude). Its humid and tropical climate provides an
environment much favored by abaca (Figure 1). Although the countrys climate can be generally classified
as wet and dry, the climate over any particular locality varies due to climatic controls such as topography,
geography, prevailing wind regimes, northeast and southeast monsoons and North Pacific trade acting with
various intensities (PAG-ASA, 1992).
Being indigenous to the Philippines, abaca has been found growing in all types of soil and climates
of the country although it has been observed to be most productive and commercially grown in only three
regions of the country: the Bicol Peninsula, the Eastern Visayan Islands of Leyte and Samar and the
peripheral and Eastern areas of the Mindanao Island (Tabora and Santos, 1978). This led observers to
conclude that abaca grows best under certain types of soils and climates.

Figure 1. An abaca plant and fiber


Abaca is endemic to the Philippines. Being so, the country holds the largest number of abaca
germplasm, perhaps, as many as 200 varieties, of which about 20 are cultivated commercially. Owing to the
wide range of climates existing in the country, adaptation of abaca has always been believed to be locationspecific. For instance, Bicol varieties are observed to have shorter and slimmer stalks and better anchorage
and therefore, more typhoon resistant than varieties found in Mindanao.
The Philippine government is currently undertaking a program on the rehabilitation and expansion of
abaca areas in all abaca producing regions. However, the continued presence of viral diseases in almost all
growing areas and the difficulty of eradicating them casts doubts over the possibility of ever achieving the
objectives of the program. An option being considered seriously is implementing the program in nontraditional areas where the diseases are absent. A constraint that this option will likely face would be the
identification of suitable varieties considering the observed specificity to location. Hence, information on the
adaptability of high yielding varieties to different locations would provide a sound basis for recommendation.
2. Objectives
a.

To determine the relative performance in terms of fiber yield of high yielding abaca varieties
identified from three abaca-growing regions in the country; and

b.

To provide a basis for making sound variety recommendations for the country or for specific
regions.

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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53

3. Methodology
This research project evaluated the performance of 8 abaca varieties in three growing regions in the
Philippines (Figure 2 & 3). These were:
Location
Bicol (Masalong, Labo, Camarines
Norte)

Leyte (Lourdes, Balinsasayao,


Abuyog, Leyte)

Mindanao (Nueva Visaya, Mawab,


Compostela Valley)

Entry
Abuab (Check variety)
Musa tex 51 (Bicol entry)
Lausigon (Bicol entry)
Inosa (Visayan entry)
Linawaan (Visayan entry)
Laguis (Visayan entry)
Maguindanao (Mindanao entry)
Tangongon (Mindanao entry)
Abuab
Musa tex 51
Lausigon
Inosa (Check variety)
Linawaan
Laguis
Maguindanao
Tangongon
Inosa
Linawaan
Laguis
Maguindanao
Tangongon (Check variety)

Figure 2. Location map of the test sites

C
Figure 3. Experimental sites: ALabo;
BAbuyog; C Mawab

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54

These entries (Figure 4) were selected following the protocol described in the study conducted by VillaJuanAbgona, et al. (2004) which screened varieties from major abaca producing regions for yields and reaction to
diseases.

Figure 4. Test entries: A Abuab; B Musa tex 51; C Lausigon; D Inosa; E


Linawaan; F Laguis; G Tangongon; H Maguindanao

The experiments in Labo, Camarines Norte and Abuyog, Leyte were established in December 2001, while the
one in Compostela Valley was established in December 2002. Virus-free abaca seedpieces containing 2-3
eyebuds were used as planting materials in Labo and Abuyog whilst 3-month old bagged abaca plants grown
from virus-free seedpieces were used in Mawab.
Good agricultural practices were applied uniformly in all experimental sites (Annex A).
The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications.
An experimental plot consisted of 6 7-hill rows, spaced at 2.5 m between rows and 2.0 m between hills.
Data on number of stalks per hill, number of stalks harvested, stalk dimension, number of leaf
sheaths and dry fiber yield were gathered from 20 completely bordered abaca hills in a plot. The fiber yield
per hectare and per cent fiber recovery were also computed (Annex B). These data were taken at harvest, and
currently, Labo had undertaken 3 harvests, Abuyog had 2 and Mawab had 1.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Description of location
Masalong, Labo, Camarines Norte
The area was plain to slightly rolling with a soil that was clayey loam, rich in phosphorus, deficient
in both nitrogen and potassium (K), and slightly acidic (pH of 6.5). Belonging to Type II Climate and having
a monthly average rainfall of 224.2 mm, it had no dry season but with a very pronounced maximum rain from
November to February.
Sitio Lourdes, Balinsasayao, Abuyog, Leyte
The area was hilly and undulating. Its soil was silt loam, having a pH of 6.0, and containing 3%
organic matter (OM), 43 ppm phosphorus (P) and a sufficient level of K. Like Labo, it belonged to Type II
Climate with a monthly average rainfall of 250.0 mm.

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Nueva Visaya, Mawab, Compostela Valley


Situated near the foot of extremely undulating Mount Oro, the experimental area was generally plain
with a soil that was heavy and silty clay, slightly acidic (pH of 5.8) and containing 1.25% OM, 6 ppm P and
576.42 ppm K. Its climate, classified under Type IV had neither dry season nor a very pronounced rainy
period. For the period December 2001 to July 2004, the area had a monthly average rainfall of 533.9 mm.
4.2 Effect of variety x location on fiber yield
To determine whether the varieties responded differentially to the locations, a combined analysis
was conducted. Prior to this, a Levenes test was done to ascertain the homogeneity of the error variances of
the locations.
The Levenes test showed that adequate homogeneity was obtained for fiber yield (see Table 1) thus,
a combined analysis of variance would be valid. The combined analysis of variance for yield is presented in
Table 2.
A combined analysis of location and variety was done which involved Labo and Abuyog as the
locations and Abuab, Musa tex 51, Lausigon, Inosa, Linawaan, Laguis, Maguindanao and Tangongon as the
varieties.
It should be noted that the Mawab experiment was excluded from the combined analysis of variance
because the results were too inadequate from which to derive valid conclusions as the experiment was still at
its early stage. In fact, too early to discriminate among the varieties. With only a single harvest, results
showed no significant difference among varieties.

Source of
Variations
Location
Error

Table 1 . Levenes test for homogeneity of yield variance.


Degrees of
Mean
F value
Freedom
Square
2
1.9888
0.26
89
7.6019

Pr > F
0.7704

Table 2. Combined analysis of variance for Abuyog and Labo.


Source of Variations
Degree of Freedom
Mean Squares
Location
1
9920.08
Block (Location)
6
27243.90
Variety
7
81272.62*
Location * Variety
7
29502.66**
Error
38
28330.20
The interaction effect of location and entry on fiber yield was highly significant (Figure 5). This
could be gleaned from the intersecting lines of responses for Inosa and Maguindanao. Significant interaction
effect was also observed in Laguis. On the other hand, no interaction with location was demonstrated by
Abuab, Tangongon and Linawaan as shown by the three parallel lines corresponding to these varieties.
This significant interaction effect would imply that the varieties responded differently to the two
locations; some varieties performed better in one location than in the other location.
In Labo, the Visayan variety Inosa (Figure 6) was the top yielder (846 kg/ha/harvest) followed by
the Bicol entry, Musa tex 51 (545 kg/ha/harvest) and another Visayan variety, Linawaan (544 kg/ha/harvest).
Compared with the check variety Abuab, the yield of Inosa was more than two-fold. The high yield of these
3 varieties could be attributed to their number of harvestable stalks per hill (Table 3); all of them had 1.5
harvestable stalks which were significantly more than the rest of the entries.

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Figure 6. Inosa, a Visayan variety,


grown in Labo, Cams. Norte

Variety x Location Interaction for Yield


900

846
804

800

Abuab
Inosa

Estim ated Mean


Yield/Harvest, kg/ha

700

600

576
544
511
474

500

400

423

406
363

351
333
300

Laguis
Lausigon
Linawaan
Musa tex 51
Maguindanao
Tangongon

317

276

200

100

Labo

Location

Abuyog

Figure 5. Differential responses of varieties in Labo and Abuyog.


Note: CV = 35.22%; F test = Highly significant; R-square = 0.6149; Data were derived from
the means of 3 harvests in Labo, and of 2 harvests in Abuyog.

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Table 3. Combined analysis of 2 locations and 8 entries on number of harvested stalks.


Number of Harvestable Stalks
Entry
Labo
Abuyog
Abuab
1.2 b
1.0 a
Inosa
1.5 a
1.0 a
Laguis
1.2 b
1.2 a
Lausigon
1.1 b
1.1 a
Linawaan
1.4 a
1.0 a
Musa tex 51
1.5 a
1.0 a
Maguindanao
1.0 b
1.0 a
Tangongon
1.0 b
1.0 a
Locn
*
Entry
*
Locn * Entry
*
CV (%)
12.26
In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at LSD 5% level
On the other hand, the low yielders were the Mindanao varieties Maguindanao (351 kg/ha/harvest)
and Tangongon (423 kg/ha/harvest), Abuab (357 kg/ha/harvest) and the Visayan Laguis (276 kg/ha/harvest).
Meanwhile, the two poor performers in Labo were, however, the top yielders in Abuyog;
Maguindanao (Figure 7), a Mindanao variety, adapted well to Abuyog and significantly gave the highest fiber
yield (804 kg/ha/harvest), which was comparable to Laguis (511 kg/ha/harvest). The yield of Maguindanao
was actually more than twice the yield of Inosa , the check variety for the region. The high yield of
Maguindanao could be attributed to its high dry fiber content of 393 g/stalk (Table 4) owing to its long stalks
measuring 305 cm (Table 5). If the trend would continue in the succeeding harvests, Inosa and Maguindanao
shall be recommended for Bicol and Leyte, respectively.

Table 4. Combined analysis of 2


locations and 8 entries on dry fiber content (g).
Dry fiber stalk, g
Entry
Labo
Abuyog
Abuab
Inosa
Laguis
Lausigon
Linawaan
Musa Tex 51
Maguindanao
Tangongon

Figure 7. Maguindanao, a Mindanao variety and a


top yielder in Abuyog.

120
166
124
137
146
124
173
190

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

198
159
213
166
273
213
393
255

bc
c
bc
c
b
bc
a
b

Locn
Entry
Locn * Entry
CV (%)
In a column, means followed by a common letter
are not significantly different at LSD 5% level.

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Table 5. Combined analysis of 2 locations and 8 entries on stalk length (cm).

Entry
Abuab
Inosa
Laguis
Lausigon
Linawaan
Musa Tex 51
Maguindanao
Tangongon
Locn
Entry
Locn * Entry
CV (%)

Labo
198
257
242
249
268
243
248
238

b
a
ab
a
a
a
a
ab
NS
*
*
11.73

Stalk length (cm)


Abuyog
252
213
240
241
278
246
305
222

bc
c
bc
bc
ab
bc
a
c

In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at LSD 5%
level.

4.3 Relationship of yield components


The estimated fiber yield per hectare was computed from the number of harvestable stalks and dry
fiber content. To better understand the relationship of these yield determinants among agronomic and plant
characters, correlation and regression analysis was conducted. The variables used for this analysis were
limited to observations that were independently observed to ensure statistical validity of the results. The
relationship among variables, while they may not be directly useful to the farmers, could be of interest to
abaca researchers.
Number of harvestable stalks
Number of harvestable stalks had positive correlation with number of stalks (r=0.49457) while a
negative correlation was observed with number of leaf sheaths (r=-0.32975), stalk base diameter (r=-0.40368)
and stalk middle diameter
(r= -0.2438) (Table 6). This would suggest that as the number of stalks in a
hill increases, the number of harvestable stalks likewise increases. On the other hand, as the stalk girth
increases, the number of harvestable stalks decreases.
Table 6. Correlation of harvestable stalks with other agronomic characters.
Characters
Correlation
Probability
Coefficient (r)
P > [t]
Number of Stalks
0.49
<0.0001
Stalk Weight
-0.14
0.1753
Number of Leaf sheaths
0.33
0.0013
Stalk Length
-0.07
0.4913
Stalk base diameter
-0.40
0.0014
Stalk middle diameter
-0.24
0.0192
Stalk top diameter
-0.08
0.5342
Dry fiber content
-0.16
0.1270

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Dry fiber content


Multiple regression analysis showed the linear dependency of dry fiber content with stalks characters
(Table 7).
Number of stalks, stalk weight and stalk length were the significant factors determined dry fiber
content. The R2 of the regression equation was 70% indicating a substantial proportion of the variation in
the dry fiber content that could be explained by the three yield components. The values of the partial
regression coefficients showed that number of stalks has an inverse effect on dry fiber content, b= - 9.57 as
opposed to stalk length, b= 6.12, and stalk weight, b= 1.16. These would imply that increase in the number of
stalks generally results to a 9.57 reduction in fiber content while a unit increase in each of stalk length and
stalk weight results to increase in fiber content by as much as 6.12 and 1.16, respectively. This would also
suggest that too many stalks may not be advantageous as the stalks tend to be smaller, slimmer and shorter
with less fiber.
Table 7. Regression analysis of dry fiber content with other agronomic characters.
Variable
Partial regression coefficient
Probability
(b)
Pr > [t]
Intercept
Number of stalks
Number of harvested stalks
Stalk weight
Number of leaf sheaths
Stalk length
Stalk middle diameter

-291.82637
-9.57364
23.84251
6.72654
5.9987
1.15612
6.6481

<0.0001
0.0026
0.2627
0.0078
0.1870
<0.0001
0.3210

5. Summary
The interaction effect of location and entry on fiber yield was significant. Varietal performance varied
from one location to another. In Labo, Inosa had the highest yield (846 kg/ha/harvest) which was
more than twice the check variety Abuab (357 kg/ha/harvest). In Abuyog, the top yielder was
Maguindanao (804 kg/ha/harvest) whose yield was more than twice that of check variety Inosa (363
kg/ha/harvest). In Mawab, the results were still inadequate from which to derive valid conclusions.
2.

Number of harvestable stalks was observed to have significant linear correlation with the following
agronomic characters: number of leaf sheaths (r= -0.33), stalk base diameter (-0.40), stalk middle
diameter (r= -0.24), and number of stalks (r= 0.49).

3.

Number of stalks, stalk weight and stalk length were the significant factors determining dry fiber
content. Number of stalks had an inverse effect on dry fiber content, b= - 9.57, as opposed to stalk
length, b= 6.12 and stalk weight, b= 1.16.

6. Conclusion

In Bicol, the Visayan Inosa adapted well and gave the highest fiber yield. Likewise, in Leyte, the
Mindanao variety Maguindanao performed outstandingly.

No specific variety could be recommended for planting in all three regions; only regional. If the
trend in yield would continue in the succeeding harvests, the following varietal recommendations
shall be made: for Bicol Inosa and for Leyte Maguindanao.

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60

Dissemination of Project Results


The main objective of Component C is the dissemination of the results of the project
through the holding of regional and international dissemination seminars and the production of the
Farmers Manual on Abaca.
1.

Production of Farmers Manual on Abaca


The Manual is envisioned to serve as a guide for farmers on how to obtain higher
fiber yield in their abaca plantations to increase their farm income. The Manual contains
information on the proper establishment and maintenance of abaca plantations,
recommended high yielding abaca varieties, detection and control of pests and diseases,
proper harvesting methods and different methods of extracting abaca fiber.
The Manual will be in English and in Filipino and in two (2) local dialects (Bikol
and Cebuano). The drafts have already been presented to the farmers during the regional
seminars and subsequently revised to incorporate the suggestions made on how best to
improve the contents of the Manual.
Printing of the Manual is financed by the Project fund and is expected to be
completed before the end of 2004. The Manual will be distributed to abaca farmers in
Bicol, Visayas and Mindanao.

2.

Dissemination Seminars
The organization of an international dissemination seminar to present the results of
Components A and B was one of the main objectives of Component C. To reach a much
larger number of abaca farmers who are the ultimate beneficiaries, regional dissemination
seminars were also held in three major producing provinces in Bicol, Visayas and
Mindanao. The following were the results of the seminars:
2.1 Regional Dissemination Seminars
The regional dissemination seminars were held in Legaspi City, Albay on
September 21, 2004; Sogod, Southern Leyte on September 29, 2004; and Davao City on
October 4, 2004.
Participants to the regional seminars were mostly abaca farmers and
representatives from the local government units who are supportive of the abaca industry in
their respective regions. A total of 379 participants attended the regional disseminations
seminars 103 in Legaspi City, 135 in Sogod, Southern Leyte and 141 in Davao City. The
abaca farmers actively participated during the open forum and showed great interest in the
developed machines and the recommended abaca varieties. Actual demonstrations on the
use of the decorticating machine were made during the seminars. The following were their
general comments suggestions on the topics presented:

Mechanical tuxer. The machine is good as it eases the tuxying process and there is no need for
more workers. However, the cost of the machine is high and because it is big, it is only good in flat
areas and not suitable in the mountainous areas where most of the abaca plantations are located.
They suggested that the tuxer be made smaller, to make it lighter and cheaper and to make it fuelefficient.
Auto-fed decorticating machine. The machine is good, safe to use, production capacity is high as
more abaca fiber can be stripped compared to the traditional stripping machine. The resultant fibers,
although good in terms of quality, are however short. The machine is big and very expensive and
can be used only in plantation-type abaca farms and not in small abaca farms in the mountains.

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Suggestions were made to make the machine smaller or portable that the farmers could bring them to
the mountains and to develop machines that are affordable to farmers.
Screening of varieties for resistance to virus diseases. The research results are very helpful to the
farmers as they gave them information on what abaca varieties they will have to plant in their
respective areas that will reduce if not solve the problem of abaca diseases. Some farmers however,
showed reluctance to change the varieties already planted in their farms. Recommendations were
made to continue the research to include other varieties in their localities that might also be diseaseresistant and to develop varieties that are not only disease-resistant but also high-yielding.
Yield trial of selected higher yielding varieties. The results also proved useful to the farmers as they
provided them knowledge on which abaca varieties are high-yielding and could help increase their
income from abaca farming. The farmers expressed their thanks for the researches that were
conducted and for conducting the dissemination seminar for them. Suggestions were also made to
continue the research to include other abaca varieties in their localities. The also requested that
FIDA provide them with planting materials that are disease-free, disease-resistant and are highyielding.
2.2 International Dissemination Seminar
The international dissemination seminar was held on October 19, 200 in Makati
City, Philippines. It was attended by 149 participants representing the abaca industry sectors
involved in abaca fiber processing, manufacturing and marketing, research institutions,
international development organizations, government agencies, international and local
financing institutions, policy-making bodies, interested investors including machine
manufacturers and delegates from Ecuador, the only other abaca producing country.
During the seminar, the results of Component A and Component B were presented
by the respective researchers as well as the problems encountered in the course of their
implementation. The representative of Corporacion de Abacaleros de Ecuador (CADE), the
projects collaborating company in Ecuador, which joined the project in only in July 2003,
presented the results of the auto-fed decorticating machine shipped to Ecuador in May 2004.
Resource persons from other agencies that are also implementing projects on abaca
also presented the results of their projects on abaca, such as the R & D on abaca fiber for
textile for which a breakthrough has been made for the use of abaca for tropical fabrics.
Another representative from Ecuador presented an overview of the abaca industry in that
country.
The outputs of the regional seminars were likewise presented during in the
international dissemination seminar as well as a brief summary of the contents of the Farmers
Manual on Abaca. Actual demonstrations on the operations of the mechanical tuxer and the
auto-fed decorticating machine were shown during the seminar.
Some key questions and issues were raised during the open forums on the results of the
project that were presented. Suggestions were also made on the future directions of research
to be made. These include the following:
Mechanical tuxer. Although the field test indicated that the tuxer can produces more tuxies
than the traditional tuxying tools, it requires more man-hour and appears to be more
expensive with the added cost of fuel and depreciation. Future research must be focused on
developing a machine that is more efficient and affordable to farmers.
Auto-fed decorticating machine. The machine lacks portability as it is too large for the
small farmers. Although it has profit advantage because of higher fiber recovery of 3.3%
compared to the use of the stripping machine, it is not easily affordable to small farmers as
the cost is too expensive. The labor requirement to run the machine is too high and this

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62

increases the labor cost. The after sales service and maintenance of the machine is also too
expensive.
There is, however, room for improvement in terms of design and construction of
the machine which will allow for longer fibers to be produced, at the same time, providing
an effective mechanism in separating the different grades/layers of decorticated fiber.
Researches could be made to develop a simple to operate, low-cost, portable machine and
to look into ways of harnessing alternative power sources. Investors and large farm owners
should be encouraged to invest in the industry, especially in the fabrication of better
designed, more efficient machines.
Identification and field-testing of varieties. In the analysis of data, site specificity of
disease incidence and agro-economic characteristics should be taken into account for better
comparison across location. The presentation of data should include footnotes that would
clearly explain the context of the data being presented, as in the case of number of harvests.
Suggestions were made that subsequent researches should focus on a limited
number of varieties to be considered in a specific area for better analysis, and therefore,
better recommendation.
Screening of various agronomic and disease-resistance
characteristics of the hundreds of varieties should be continued. Also, an active breeding
program that aims to combine as many desirable traits from many varieties must be done as
well as intensive study of the behavior of viruses, with particular focus on their ability to
quickly mutate.
From the presentations, the following lessons can be learned:
Philippine experience

If the goal were to improve efficiency, then attention should be directed at


improving the technical design and performance reliability of the machines.

Potential high yielding as well as disease-resistant abaca varieties are locationspecific.

Farmers generally prefer the machines to be portable, fuel


affordable.

efficient and

Ecuador experience

There is promise in the use of the auto-fed decorticating machine in the field
especially by middle-size and large farms, although further improvements in the
design is required to guarantee consistency in production output.
The machine can be used as well in other potential fiber sources such as green,
baby and mature bananas.
There is a possibility in the use of decorticated fiber in the industrial and artesanal
processes.
The fiber extraction efficiency can be improved by processes already introduced in
the traditional machines in Ecuador, like the use of mechanical squeezing rollers.
There should be a continued exchange of ideas and technology between the
Philippines and Ecuador.

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Annex A. Inputs Received from CFC


1.

Services of Experts

2.

Engr. Andrew Metianu, international expert on mechanical


two months (June-July 1999 and August 2001)

Engr. Eugene C. Castro, Jr., national expert on mechanical extraction of fiber, for
eleven months (May, June, August and September, 1999 and JuneDecember 2000)

Dr. Narceo B. Bajet, national expert on plant virology, for four


and a half months (April to September 1999 1.0 month; May 2000 to January 2001
1.5 months; July 2001 to January 2002 1.5 months; April to November 2002 0.4
month)

Dr. Avelino D. Raymundo, national expert on plant epidemiology, for four and a half
months (April to September 1999 1.0 month; May 2000 to January 2001 1.5
months; July 2001 to January 2002 1.5 months; April to November 2002 1.7
months)

Proceso Manguiat, national expert on plant breeding, for three months (March
November 1999)

Dr. Consorcia E. Reao, national expert on plant breeding, for three and a half
months (May 2000 to January 2001 2.0 months; September to December 2001 1
month; April to November 2002 0.5 month)

Prof. Romeo F. Huelgas, national expert on techno-economic evaluation, for two


months (May 1999 and September 2001)

extraction of fiber, for

Trainings/study tour for the project staff

3.

Engr. Petronilo B. Jabay and Edgar A. Abriol, on AutoCad


and Mechanical Desktop, in Australia (August 16-27, 1999)

Dr. Remedios VJ. Abgona and Emma O. Oloteo, on Plant Virus Identification,
Detection, Purification and Ellimination, in Australia (May 8-24, 1999)

Porfirio B. Tafalla, Jr. and Mamerto H. Catiempo, Jr., on Documentation and


Information Management of Plant Genetic Resources, at SEARCA, Los Baos, Laguna
(September 6-10, 1999), in China (September 11-24, 2000) and in New Delhi, India
(February5-13, 2001)

Dr. Aurora G. Peralta, Engr. Petronilo B. Jabay and Fidel S. Josol, study tour in
Tanzania (November 19-29, 2000)

Equipment and their location


Description

Location 1/

International Purchase
1 unit Fiber length analyzer, Kajaani FS
1 unit Torque transducer
2 units Microplate reader, Multiskan plus 220
v50/60 Hz with Hp printer 840C

Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
LDL, DDL

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

2 units Micropipettes
2 units Homogenizer/blendor
3 units Digital stirrer, Mirak hotplate
2 units Sterilizer
1 unit pH meter (Benchtop 11)
3 units Titermate multichannel pipette

64

LDL, DDL
LDL, DDL
ADL, LDL, DDL
LDL, DDL
DDL
ADL, LDL, DDL

Local Purchase
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
1 unit
2 units
2 units
4 units
1 unit

Desktop computer with monochrome


plotter and AutoCad software
Digital sound level meter
RK-60 diesel engine, Kubota, 5 hp
RK-70 diesel engine, Kubota, 7 hp
RK-105 diesel engine, Kubota, 10 hp
D 1703-BBS, Kubota, 37 hp
V 1903 BBS, Kubota, 42 hp
Optical tachometer
Plain paper copier
Air-conditioner, Koppel, split type
Refrigerator
Computer, with HP printer
Digital camera, Sony Mavica

Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
Fiber Lab
LDL, DDL
LDL, DDL
ADL,LDL,DDL,CRD
IPS

4.

Vehicle, Toyota Land Cruiser, diesel hardtop


with 44 pcs Toyota spare parts

Fber Lab

5.

Fabricated Machines

Fber Lab

Auto-fed Decorticator
1 unit
Study model
2 units Working models
1 unit Commercial model
1 unit Replacement unit (of the unit
shipped to Ecuador)
Mechanical Tuxer
1 unit Study model
2 units Working models
2 units Commercial models
6.

Equipment & Spare Parts Sent to Ecuador


1 unit

Auto-fed decorticating machine


with 37 hp Kubota engine (D1703-BBS)

Spare Parts of decorticating machine


4 pcs
Pillow block bearing, 20 mm diameter
4 pcs
Pillow block bearing, 25 mm diameter
4 pcs
Pillow block bearing, 30 mm diameter
8 pcs
Pillow block bearing, 40 mm diameter
4 pcs
Pillow block bearing, 50 mm diameter
2 pcs
V-Belt, B60
2 pcs
V-Belt, B52
2 pcs
V-belt, B48

Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

2 pcs
12 pcs
8 mtrs
18 mtrs
1 mtr
2 pcs
70 pcs
1 pc

CFC/UNIDO/FIDA

V-belt, B-30
Sprocket#40, 16 teeth, 25 mm bore
Roller chain, # 40
Flat belt, 100 mm width x 6mm thick
Belt connector, Flat belt
Flexible coupling, 12 mm diameter
Roller bearings, 6202 & 6203
Gear box, Bell pony PA 18, Ratio 1:20

Legend 1/
ADL LDL DDL CRD Fiber Lab IPS -

Albay Diagnostic Laboratory, FIDA, Legaspi City


Leyte Diagnostic Laboratory, FIDA, Abuyog, Leyte
Davao Diagnostic Laboratory, FIDA, Davao City
Crop Research Division, FIDA, Quezon City
Fiber Laboratory, Quezon City
Information and Publication Staff, FIDA, Quezon City

65

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Ref. No. CFC/FIGHF/09

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Annex B. FIDA personnel involved in the project


Component A
Component Leader
Staff Members

:
:

Dr. Aurora G. Peralta


Engr. Adriano C. Valenzuela
Engr. Petronilo B. Jabay
Engr. Fidel S. Josol
Engr. Warrior Catbagan
Edgar A. Abriol
Romeo de Vera
Epifania VJ. Dalen

:
:

Josephine B. Regalado
Dr. Remedios VJ. Abgona
Gregorio S. Antaran
Jose L. Catalla

:
:

Ramon T. Borromeo
Emma O. Oloteo
Edgardo B. Infante

:
:

Porfirio B. Tafalla, Jr.


Victor A. Romero
Agapito Cagabhion
Venerando P. Dadios
Telesforo T. Boyboy
Fe C. Espea

:
:

Victorino Q. Agnes
Dr. Olympio B. Macarayan
Mamerto H. Catiempo
Analyn D. Bolivar
Edgar G. Festin

Component Leader
Staff Members

:
:

Mystic T. Pelayo
Nini P. Clemente
Alexander B. Abes

Project Coordinator
Project Director

:
:

Danilo E. Ocayo
Administrator Cecilia Gloria J. Soriano

Component B
Component Leader
Staff Members

Regional Staff:
Region V
Coordinator
Research Staff
Region VIII
Coordinator
Research Staff

Region XI
Coordinator
Research Staff

Component C

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REFERENCES:
(Component A)
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ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS, Procedure for Fiber Protein, Fat, Moisture,
Ash, Nitrogen-Free Extract and Gross Energy Content.
BAWAGAN, V.P. (1973) Processing and Utilization of Perennial Crop Fibers, Presented during the
PCARR Workshop on Abaca and Other Perennial Crops, Sept. 24-29, 1973 at UPLB College,
Laguna.
CASEY, James P. (1960) Pulp and Paper, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Volume 1, 2nd edition.
ESAU, K. (1965). Plant Anatomy, 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 767 pp.
FIBER INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (1992). The Philippine Abaca Industry Report. FIDA,
Makati, Metro Manila
JARMAN, C.G. TABB; C.B. and CANNING, A.J. (1970). Causes and Prevention of Knots in tissues made
from decorticated abaca. The Paper Maker. February, 1970.
JENSEN (1960) Histological Procedures in Botanical Microtechnique.
JOHANSEN, D.A. (1940). Plant Microtechnique, 1st edition, New York and London: Mcgraw-Hill, 523 pp.
JUTE TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES, India: Procedure for Residual Gum Content.
PERALTA, A.G. (1996). Pulp Produced from Decorticated Abaca Fiber. TAPPI JOURNAL. Vol 79: No. 3
263p
TAPPI TEST METHOD 2000-2001. Kappa Number of Pulp, Laboratory Processing of Pulp, Physical
Testing of Pulp Handsheets. TAPPI PRESS. 2001 edition.
TOMLINSON, P.B. (1969). Anatomy of the Monocotyledons (Ed. C.R. Metcalfe).
Commehinales-Zingiberales, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 446 pp.

Volume 3,

(Component B)
PAG-ASA. 1992. The climate of the Philippines. Quezon City, Philippines.
TABORA, P.C. JR. and R. SANTOS. 1978. Soil and climate for abaca production. In: International
Documentation Center on Abaca (ed.) The abaca. UPLB, College, Laguna, Philippines. pp 60-64.
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2004. Search for abaca varieties resistant to bunchy-top and mosaic virus disease in the Philippines.
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