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Concrete and Concrete

Equipment

FRESH CONCRETE
To the designer, fresh concrete
is of little importance. To the
constructor, fresh concrete is
all-important, because it must
be mixed, transported, placed,
supported, consolidated,
finished, and cured.

FRESH CONCRETE

CEMENT
TRUCK

Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
Specifications may simply
define strength:
28 day strength
(i.e. 2,500, 3,000 or 6,000 psi,
25N/mm2, 30N/mm2)

MIXTURE
PROPORTIONS
The higher the water-cement ratio, the lower
the resulting strength and durability
The more water that is used (which is not to
be confused with the water-cement ratio), the
higher will be the slump
The more aggregate that is used, the lower
the cost of the concrete

MIXTURE
PROPORTIONS

The larger the maximum size of coarse


aggregate, the less the amount of
cement paste that will be needed to coat
all the particles and to provide
necessary workability.

Adequate consolidation produces


stronger and more durable concrete.

MIXTURE
PROPORTIONS

The use of properly entrained air


enhances almost all concrete properties
with little or no decrease in strength if the
mix proportions are adjusted for the air.

The surface abrasion resistance of the


concrete is almost entirely a function of
the properties of the fine aggregate.

Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
Specs may define other requirements:
Maximum size aggregate (i. e. 40mm.)
Minimum cement content (sacks per cy
or lb/cy)
Maximum water cement ratio by weight
or in gallons per sack of cement)

Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
One sack of cement weighs 50kg
One barrel of cement contains
four sacks
Specific gravity of cement, 3.15

Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
Specific gravity (average) of course
or fine aggregate, 2.65
Water weighs 62.4 lb/cf
One cf of water = 7.48 U.S. gal
One gallon of water weighs 8.33 lb

Quantities of Cement,
Aggregate and Water
Usually the proportion of fine
aggregate varies between 25 and 45%
of total aggregate volume.
Absolute volume of any ingredient in
cubic feet equals:

Wt of the ingredient ( lb )
Specific gravity ingredient 62.4 lb / cf

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Max. size aggregate 1 in.
Min. cement content 6.0 sacks/cy

Max. water/cement ratio 0.65

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Cement/cubic yard 6.0 sacks
6 sacks 94 lb/sack = 564 lb
Absolute volume of cement

564 lb
2.87 cf
3.15 62.4

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Water/cubic yard
564 lb 0.65 = 366.6 lb
Absolute volume of water

366.6 lb
5.88 cf
1.0 62.4

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Absolute volume of 1 cy of
concrete = 27.0 cf
Assume 6% air voids

27.0 0.06 1.62 cf

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Absolute volume of aggregate

27.0 2.87 5.88 1.62


=16.63 cf

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Absolute volume of sand
Assume fine aggregate 35%

0.35 16.63 5.82 cf

Weight fine aggregate

5.82 cf 2.65 62.4


= 962.4 lb/cy

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Absolute volume of coarse
aggregate

16.63 5.82 10.81 cf


Weight course aggregate

10.81 cf 2.65 62.4


= 1,787.5 lb/cy

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Assume a 700 cy placement.
Cement required

564.0 #/ cy 700 cy 394,800 lb

197.4 tn

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Assume a 700 cy placement.
Water required
366.6 #/ cy 700 cy 256,620 lb

256,620 lb
30,807 gallons
8.33 #/ gal

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Assume a 6 hours for the
placement.

30,807 gal
5,134 gal / hr
6 hours
Or 86 gallons/minute

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Assume a 700 cy placement.
Sand required

962.4 #/ cy 700 cy 673,680 lb

337 tn

QUANITY EXAMPLE
Assume a 700 cy placement.
Course aggregate required

1,787.5 #/ cy 700 cy 1, 251, 250 lb

626 tn

QUANITY
EXAMPLE
Assume a 700 cy placement.

How much for waste??

MIXING
TECHNIQUES

Transit-mixed

BATCH PLANT
Accurately proportions
aggregate and cement.
Water is measured in
the truck mixer.

CENTRAL-MIXED
Mixer

CONCRETE PLANT
STANDARDS
Cement of cementitious

materials shall be batched by


weight.

Aggregates shall be batched


by weight.

Water shall be batched by


weight or volume.

MIXER TYPES
Freefall mixers
Tilting mixers
Reversible mixers
Power mixers
Pan mixers
Trough mixers

MIXER
TYPES
Tilting
mixer
(drum) in
a centralmix plant

MIXER TYPES
Reversible concrete mixer with a skip
and tilting hopper.

MIXER TYPES
Large
pan
mixer

MIXER
TYPES
Large
pan
mixer

MIXER TYPES
Singleshaft
trough
mixer

MIXER TYPES
Twin-shaft
trough
mixer

HAULING CONCRETE
Transit-mix truck (truck mixer)
Maximum duration 1 hr or
300 drum revolutions from
introduction of water until

placement.

TRUCK MIXER

Rear-discharge
mixer

TRUCK MIXER
Front-discharge
mixer

TRUCK MIXER
Trailer truck mixer

MIXER DRUM

MIXER DRUM

HAULING CONCRETE
Wet Central Mix Concrete
Using dump or agitator
trucks, 30 minute maximum
haul at 70 to 90 degrees.

CENTRAL
MIX PLANT

CENTRAL MIX PLANT


Accurately proportions
aggregate, cement and
water, and mixes these
materials automatically.

CENTRAL MIX PLANT


On-site
plant for
large
concrete
quantities

Compact
mobile plant
for small site

CABLE & BUCKET


SYSTEM

CABLE & BUCKET


SYSTEM

CABLE &
BUCKET
SYSTEM
A Giant 13-cy
bucket used for
the construction
of Glenn Canyon
Dam in the 1960s

CRANE &
BUCKET
SYSTEM

CRANE &
BUCKET
SYSTEM
Bucket for
wall
concreting

CRANE & BUCKET


SYSTEM

CRANE & BUCKET


SYSTEM
Slab
concreting

CONVEYOR SYSTEM

CONVEYOR SYSTEM

Truck-mixer-mounted
belt conveyor

Truck-Mounted
Pump

PUMPING

Truck-Mounted Pump

Max. horizontal reach


nominal reach 12 ft

12 ft

PUMPING
Truck-Mounted Pump

PUMPING
Truck-Mounted
Pump

Consider space
allowance for
outriggers

PUMPING

Two stationary
pumps used on a
bridge project.

PUMPING

Trailer Pump

PUMPING

Pump with Pipeline and


Tower-Mounted Boom

Boom
climbing
inside core
of structure

Pump with Pipeline


and Tower-Mounted
Boom

PUMPING
Pump with
Pipeline and
Tower-Mounted
Boom
External towermounted boom

PUMPING
Pump
with
pipeline
and towermounted
boom

PUMPING
Pump with

pipeline
and towermounted
boom

PUMPING
Pump with

pipeline
and towermounted
boom

PUMPING
Pump with
pipeline
and towermounted
boom

PUMPING OUTPUTS
Maximum theoretical outputs
of up to 300 cy per hr
Common building elements of
regular dimensions
40 cy per hr

PUMPING OUTPUTS
Thick slabs (in excess of 20 in.)
and similar elements
60 cy per hr

Mass concreting of large elements


(i.e. dams, raft foundations)
80 cy per hr

SHOTCRETING

CONCRETE
PLACEMENT
Very important to
prevent
segregation of the
coarse aggregate
during
placement.

CONSOLIDATION
Consolidation
is normally
achieved
through the
use of
mechanical
vibrators.

SCREED

TROWELING
Walk-behind
single-rotor
power trowels

TROWELING
Ride-on
double-rotor
power trowel

TEMPERATURE
When the temperature of
fresh concrete exceeds 85
or 90F, the resulting
strength and durability of
the concrete can be
reduced.

TEMPERATURE
Most specifications require
that concrete be placed at a
temperature of less than
90F. In hot weather it may
be necessary to cool the
ingredients before mixing

CURING

Do not forget
about the curing
requirements.

SLIPFORM PAVER

SLIPFORM PAVER

PAVING OVER DOWELS

PAVING OVER REBAR

SIDE FEEDER
Side feeder when paving over
dowels or rebar.

PAVING THE
MIDDLE LANE

CONCRETE

SMOOTHNESS
Specifications require smoothness.

A Profileometer. is used to measure


smoothness.

SMOOTHNESS

Monitor supply of concrete.

Mix design is but a prerequisite.

Many of the problems occurring


in pavements concern what is
done with the mix.

SMOOTHNESS

Control
density.
Vibration is a
vital part of the
paving process.
Paver Vibrators

SMOOTHNESS

Weight & Traction

The principle which makes a


slipform paver work is the
consolidation of the concrete
in a confined space.

SMOOTHNESS

Paver attitude.
The paver attitude is
the attack angle in
relation to the concrete.

SAWING
JOINTS

SAWING JOINTS

Saw depth

Resulting
crack

BRIDGE DECK

LABOR

Carpenters
Labors
Cement masons
Ironworkers
Teamsters
Operating engineers

SAFETY

Placing of concrete,
placing by pumping
requires particular
caution!