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Development of the Police in the United States

• American Policing lie in the English legal tradition American policing evolved

§ Limited authority

§ Local control

§ Fragmented organization

• United states have limited authority

• Power are limited by the law

• System to protect citizen and property existed before 13 century Frankpledge

§ Group of 10 families called tithing

§ Agree to uphold the law, keep order, and bring violators to court

§ Tithing was fine if member did not perform their duties Status of Winchester, enacted in 1285
and stablished the Constable-watch system

• Community member were required to pursue criminals

• Man chosen to server without pay

• Had the power to call al the community when disturbance

§ Police force evolved in England

• Henry fielding and Sir John Fielding improve law enforcement

18th Centuty created an Organized Police Force

Organized group called thief-takers to pursue lawbreakers

§ Metropolitan Police Act wich created a alondon police force

• Agency that organized like a military unit

•Officer were called Bobbies, magistrate commissioner

four mandates for police

prevent crime without using represive force

maintain order by nonviolent means

reduce conflict between police and public

Policing in the United States (Colonial Era $ Early Republic)

Cities began to have day time watchmen, and over time hire and pay

• USA had to deal with ethnic diversity, and regional differences

• Patrols had full power to break into home of slaves

Political Era (1840-1920)

• Close ties between police and local political leader at hat time

police seemed to work for Political party rather than for the citizens

New York city established the first full time paid police force

Prevent crimes and keep order thought the use of Foot patrol

U.S cities had created police departements Organized of the English Model.

Police forces sought to prevent crime and keep order throutth the use of foot patrols

Police performed service functions; caring for derelicts, social emer

Positions created in rural area were sheriff – with broad powers to enforce laws

Posse comitatus (power of the county)- depended of men of community for assitance

Local men above age 15 wer required to respond to the sheriff for assistance

After Civil war marshal to help enforce law in the western territories

Professional Era (1920-1970)

• Influenced by the progressive movement – upper middle class

§ More efficient government

§ More government service to assist the less fortunate

Saw a need to use modern technology to benefit society

the key of progrcive concept of professional law is « Plice have to get our of policits and politics
have to get out of police

August Vollmer advocate of profecional policing

§ End of WW1 police department had reduced involvement in Social service

– police became known as crime fighters then.

O.W. Wilson would rotate officers to retude corruption

§ Formation f International Association of chief of police (IACP)

§ Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) in 1915

§ Both organization promoted the use of new technology and code of ethics

Community Policing Era (1970- Present)

• Emphasis on keeping order and providing services to the community

• Police officer in a neighbor had little effect on the crime rate

• Reforms hope close contact with citizens would not only permit the police help them in new
way but also make them feel safe.

• Advocates urge the use of foot patrol , so officer will become known to citizens

• Closer contact between reduce the hostility that has developed between officers and

Reformers want to shift to put more emphasis to community needs

Federal Goverment created Office of Community Oritented Policing services ---COPS Office

Next Era or Policing

Integrated Emergency Management

training for rapid responce during emergencies was acredited minnesota.

Law Enforcement Agencies

police agencies at the natioanl , stat, coutny and municipa levels are responsible for carying out
three functions:
Maintaining Oerder , Enforcing the law , Providing service to community

each fuction contribute towards preveting crime or crime prevention

Each level of the system has diferent responsabilities

Federal Agencies

Federal law enforcement agencies arae part of the executive btand of the nation goverment
FBI has the poer to investigag all federal crimes not placed under Jurisdition of other agencies
Fbi agents that are out of field offices are know as -Resident Agencies-
Fbi has signifacnt responsablities for fight terroris and espionage agains to US

provides valuabe assistance to stat and local law enformce throuht its crime laboratoy

America Law are being exported i responde to increase of terrorism

Office of FBI overseas are know as Legal Attaches or Legats

States Agencies

Each state has its own law enforcement agency with state wide jurisdition
state police agencies raccy out a wide range of law enforcement task
state highways patrols with limited authority ..task of enforcin traffic lasw.

County Agencies

Sheiff's departements are repsonsible for policing rural areas

have are elected and hold the position of chief law enforcemnte officer in the county
it may lack jurisdition over cities and towns
sherifs often serves as an officer of the courts

Municipal Agencies

Police departements of cities and towns have general law enforcemtn authority
USA is a nation of a small police forces, each of which is authorized & withing limits of its own
because police Fragmentation, each jurisdition develpps its own enforcement goald and policies

Police Function

police are expected to maitain order, enforce the law and provide service as they seek to prvent
America Bar Association has list of Police Goalds
Prevent and control conduct
aid pleaser who are in danger
protect consitutional rights
create a feeling of security in the community
police function contribure to crime prevention as following
Order Maintainance
deal mainly with behaviour that either disturbs to the peace
Police Officer have higher degree of Discreation and contrl how such situation will devellop.
Patrol officer is normally expected to handle a situation rather to enforce the lawb
police officer must make decision fairly and within the boundaries of theri authority
law Enforcement
applies to situation in which the law has been violated and the offender need to be identified
Crime prevention has become a major component of police wervice to the community, besied
performing broad services
Implementing the Mandate
Catching lawbreakers is the most important function
public seen police as Crime Fithers scince the roots of police
modern strategies has no effect or little on crime – David Bayley

Oraganization of The Police

most police agencies are organized in a military manner with a structure of rand and
Bareaucracies are characterized by a division of labor, chain of command with clear line of
authority and rules to guide the activities of staff.
Beraucratic Elements
Chain and Unity of Command
Each officer has an immediate supervisor who has authority and responsability for the action of
those below
departs depend on clearly stated rules and procedures to guire officers
Operational Units
police departements assign officer to operationa units that focus on specific fuctions
the investigation unit identifies and aprehends and collect evidence againts lawbreakers who
commit serious crimes

Police Bureaucracy and The CJS

police are the gateway throught wich information and individuals enter into the justice system
police have the discreiton to determine which suspect will be arrested
police administration is influenced by the fact that the aoutcome of a sase is larlty in hands of
police can't control the decisions of prosecutors and judges
police are expected to observe rules and follow the order of superios while at same time making
independent discreationay judgement
Police Policy
legal rules limit the ways officers can investigate and pursue offenders
policies guide officers in deciding which offences to addess most and which tactics to use
ethic, racial, economic and government characters can effect the style of policing expected by the
Service styles

Encouters Between police and Citizens

police must learn to trust the community for better policing in order to decrese crime by
developing trust with community
low income neightborhood are reluctant to assit the police due to past experiences
Citizen expect police to act effectively and fairly