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Chapter 1
Educators play an absolutely vital role in the learning development and
performance of a child. Teachers serve as the second parents of children in school, their
second home.
Teaching, being the noblest profession, is not as simple as it is. This
profession engages great responsibilities. Being a teacher requires not just imparting skills of
reading, writing, and arithmetic. Rather, it goes the broader horizon, a deeper scope of the
task itself. Teaching is even more than just surrogating. If you are teacher, you do not just
teach about life; you touch lives.
On the other hand, parenthood weighs equal to teaching. Profound parental
involvement on their childrens education is strongly instrumental on the latters development
of educational competencies. As we all know, children are considered the richest human
resource of our society.
Teaching is considerably a specialized career. It entails serious preparation and
know-how of rearing a child and making them learn. Children are perceived to be
investments in the future therefore they should be equipped enough today.
In spite of still seeming to be a burden of securing that learning takes place in
certain, various strategies and approaches are utilized by instructors of today. One of which is
the 5Es Teaching Approach. 5Es stand for five sequential phases of learning which are
Engaging, Exploring, Explaining, Elaborating and Evaluating. This science teaching
approach focuses on inquiry and discovery; it is an ongoing method of instruction that is

developed and refined by science teachers as they honed their teaching and learning skills.
Additionally, students develop these same powerful strategies of inquiry as they learn through
this discovery approach.
Inquiry-based learning promotes a process of educational discovery. They are
meant to discover issues, encourage participants to ask meaningful questions, and decide how
to answer those questions. Research shows that an inquiry approach in teaching science
motivates and engages every type of student, helping them understand science's relevance to
life, as well as the nature of science itself.
Elements of the 5E Model can be traced back to the works of Johann
Herbart in the early 20th century. His work was based on using students
prior experiences, as well as their current knowledge, which is evident in
the engagement phase. Further, elements of John Deweys teaching
models can be mirrored in the elaboration and evaluation phases. The
model started in the 1960s with three phases (i.e., exploration, invention,
and discovery). Afterwards, engagement and evaluation are added
respectively. According to Bybee et al.,(2006), the model has been used in
biology and integrated science programs way back 1980s.
The following sections discusses on a brief description of each of the
five sequential phases of the 5E Model.
The engagement phase of the 5E Model involves eliciting the students attention to the
tasks, concepts, or skills included in the given lesson. The instructors or lessons focal point
should connect the new lesson with students prior knowledge, while also providing activities
that stimulate the interest of students and bring forth learner engagement.

The exploration phase typically involves providing students with a common set of
activities in order to encourage them to focus energies on the identification and development
of various concepts, processes, and skills. The instructor facilitates the process and creates a
challenging, learning-enriched environment. Further, the instructor encourages the students to
explore this environment with confidence and without apprehension. Problem solving is
promoted and students approach lesson plans as opportunities for growth.
The explanation phase of the 5E Model provides an opportunity for learners to exhibit
their knowledge of the concepts, processes, and skills acquired in the engagement and
exploration phases. Students may access prior knowledge and previous learning experiences,
those which include what has taken place in the engagement and exploration phases, thus, can
explain or illustrate their understanding of a given concept or skill. As the students leave this
phase, it has to be ensured that a profound understanding of the concepts, processes, and
skills covered is the key outcome.
The elaboration phase shows that the learning that has taken place
during the first three phases is expanded upon. Students are challenged
with new experiences and opportunities that provide further
understanding of concepts, processes, and skills to the learners.
Facilitation of this stage brings down opportunities and activities, as well
as ample explanation that serve to elaborate on the students existing
knowledge and skills. Accordingly, students are expected to develop a
broad and deep understanding of important concepts and skills through
additional experiences and activities.
The final phase in the 5E Model is evaluation. This phase refers to engaging the
students in self-assessments of their learning, of their understanding of important concepts,
and of their development of relevant skills. The learning that took place during the

engagement, exploration, explanation, and elaboration phases are assessed. Guidance to the
evaluative thought processes of the students, as well as endowing with their own evaluative
feedback materializes this phase.
Considering these prerequisites of utilizing 5Es approach in spite of lack or resources,
this poses a challenge to someone who wears the shoes of a teacher. However, the progress of
a country depends upon the quality of its young citizens. One of the numerous ways to gauge
pupil performance is the National Achievement Test. Relatively, the NAT performance of the
pupils at Salong Elementary School, Science subject, in particular, may seemly be not very
satisfactory and for this reason, the researcher is eager to conduct this particular study.
Being one of the numerous Science teachers in the public school, this challenge makes her
directly concerned.
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
Teachers are an essential link in the transmission of educational opportunity to poor
children. Teacher commitment may also be an important factor determining the successful
implementation of educational reforms in schools.
Self-interest and motivation possessed by teacher is necessary in the successful
implementation of the 5Es approach in teaching Science in schools. Using this model,
learners are actively engaged in the teaching-learning process. The five successive phases
comprise an instructional sequence that encourages students to work through problem-solving
situations. Through this, a useful framework for designing, developing, and implementing
lesson plans and curriculum materials will be offered.
Keeping learners engaged to discussions has never been an easy job. By means of
providing varied activities, a teacher holds the opportunities to have control over the pupils
against time. Discovery by themselves will likewise lead them to understand concepts,

However, mastery over these strategies may cause a heavy yoke to teachers,
particularly those who are neophytes. Certain factors in relation to this may affect a teachers
motivation toward work performance, and capabilities of extending knowledge to children.
Hence the following conceptual paradigm has been designed with reference to this study.




Higher Level of

Demographic profile

Assessment of the

a. age

Effects the 5Es Approach


b. length of service

and Its Relationship to

Leading to Above-

c. grade level

NAT Performance of the

average Performance

School as Utilized by

of pupils in Science

being taught
d. work load
e. degree earned
Five Successive
Phases in Using 5Es
Model / Approach

Science teachers at
Salong Elementary
School, Calaca District.

subject of NAT
Strengthened and
deepened work
motivation and

a. Engage

eagerness of Science

b. Explore

teachers at Salong

c. Explain

Elementary School,

d. Elaborate

Calaca District

e. Evaluate
NAT Results

Figure 1
Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

Statement of the Problem

This study is designed to find out the effects of implementing 5Es approach in
teaching science and its relationship to NAT performance of pupils at Salong Elementary
School at Calaca District, Division of Batangas, during the school year 2013-2014.
It aims to answer the following questions:
1. What is 5E Teaching Approach? What are the steps that this model presents as
utilized in teaching Science subject?
2. What are the problems encountered by Science teachers at Salong Elementary
School, Calaca District, Division of Batangas, during the school year 2013-2014
with regards to implementing 5Es approach?
3. To what extent is the use of 5Es effective to teaching science concept and skills?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the utilization of 5Es approach and its
effects to the performance of the pupils in the National Achievement Test, Science

There is no significant relationship between the utilization of 5Es approach and its
effects to the National Achievement Test, Science subject performance of the pupils at
Salong Elementary School, Calaca District, Division of Batangas, during the school year
Significance of the Study

The primary significance of this study is to determine the effects of

implementing the 5Es model and its relationship to the National Achievement Test, Science
subject performance of the pupils, hence gather data for further enhancement. Specifically,
the following people may utilize these set of information.
To District Supervisors and School Heads. Results acquired from this study provide would
serve as guide in adopting important school guidelines, rules and policies that would help all
teachers specially those handling Science subjects to discharge duties as managers of learning
To Teachers. Information gleaned from this study will benefit the teachers by serving as eye
opener in realizing the importance of implementing the 5Es model in ones work especially
as facilitators of learning and measures of achieving higher level pupil achievement.
To Pupils. Being the major beneficiaries, the results of this study will be a great help to the
pupils because if the members of academic force are more eager to adapt new approaches in
delivering lessons and ensuring 100% pupil participation in the teaching process, next in line
is an effective and excellent instruction which facilitates higher level of performance.
To parents. The results offered by this study will play significant roles in motivating and
challenging parents to provide a deeper understanding to the efforts given by the teachers and
schools in educating their children.
Future Researchers. This study would be instrumental to future researchers who would take
the same nature of undertaking.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study will be conducted during the school 2013-2014. It will focus on the
effects of implementing 5Es approach in instruction. The significant relationship between
these effects and the Science subject performance in the National Achievement Test of the
pupils at Salong Elementary School, Calaca District, Division of Batangas will also be
included in this study.

A program of enhancement will also be pursued as suggestions to improve

pupil achievement. The researcher will apply the descriptive correlation and descriptive
research design with questionnaire as major data gathering instrument.

Definition of Terms
The following terms are hereby operationally defined for clarification

is something which someone has succeeded in doing especially after a

lot of effort.
In this study, achievement refers to the work accomplished by the

5Es Approach -

in this study, it is referred to as a teaching approach used by science

teachers in teaching science which deals with five successive areas:
Engaging, Exploring, Explaining, Elaborating, and Evaluating.

Science Teachers - In this study, they are referred as science teachers in Sallong Elementary
School, Calaca District who delivers instruction in 5Es approach.
Work Motivation

-In this study, it refers to physical and psychological energy sense of a

teacher to perform her job.

NAT performance -as used in this study, it deals with the performance of the Grade six
pupils at Salong Elementary School in the National Achievement Test.

Chapter 3

This chapter presents the methods used in the investigation of the respondents and the
questionnaire and its description as instrument utilized in gathering data.
Research Design
This study will make use of the descriptive type of research as it attempts to describe
what are and to what extent is the effectiveness of 5Es approach as used by the
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of this study will be consisted of all the Science teachers at Salong
Elementary School, Calaca District, Division of Batangas, during the school year 2013-2014.
Research Instrument
The questionnaire will be utilized as the major tool in gathering the data needed in
accomplishing this research.
Scoring Procedure
The following scale with the corresponding description or interpretation will be used.



Highly Effective

4.0 4.9

Moderately Effective

3.0 3.9

Fairly Effective

2.0 2.9

Lowly Effective

1.0 1.9


Chapter 2
This chapter presents the research literature and studies, both foreign and
local, relevant to the development of the present study.
Foreign and Local Literature
The 5E Instructional Model, developed by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study,
provides a useful framework for designing, developing, and implementing lesson plans and
curriculum materials. Further, it is well grounded in the research of instructional theorists and
provides a framework for which to build knowledge and skills in the next generation of
problem solvers. 5E Model has five successive phases with unique instructional emphases:
engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration, and evaluation. Together, these five
phases comprise an instructional sequence that encourages students to work through problemsolving situations as actively engaged learners. This model provides a useful framework for
designing, developing, and implementing lesson plans and curriculum materials. (Nielsen,
The 5 E's model is based on the constructivist approach to learning, which states that
learners construct new ideas on top of their schema. The 5 E's can be used with students of all
ages, even adults. Each of the 5 E's describes a phase of learning, which begins with the letter
"E": Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. The 5 E's allows students and
teachers to experience common activities, to use and build on prior knowledge and

experience, to construct meaning, and to continually assess their understanding of a concept.

(Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 2002)

. Regarding research results from Pakistan Journal of Sciences (2009), the possible
factors to learner achievement include: the style of teaching learning cycle which concern
about improving students intelligence using flame work from Piagets development theory
about the assimilation, accommodation and organization use that exploration phase,
explanation phase and expansion phase, respectively. It makes the students adapt themselves.
On the other hand, inquiry learning is an approach which helps students to create knowledge
streamlining by using their own thought, the learning activities which encourage students
using science process skills (intellectual abilities) by the use of basic and integrate science
process skills, such as observation, measurement, calculation, collecting and interpreting data
that could increase students abilities if they practice consistently. These techniques are
associated with law of exercise and during learning activity the students were using the 5Eslearning cycle approach which aids learners to link them to learning, knowledge and thinking.
These concepts are mentioned in the social constructivism theory which takes an important
part in term of improving learners to have an opportunity to share their ideas, argument,
critique between the groups in order to get consensus for new knowledge (Hogan, It opens
students to conceptual change, durability, connection development, higher-ordered thinking
and self determination, which help them to develop shown gains in learning achievement
through integrated science process skill and critical thinking appropriately.
As mirrored in The Connecting Link (2010), this approach deals with designing
inquiry-oriented science lessons and implementation. Classrooms are designed to facilitate
inquiry, such as centers, grouping, discipline and safety issues. Participants will look at the

phases of implementing a learning activity such as through reading and video case study.
Teacher/student preparation, pre-activity teacher/ student discussion, distribution and
collection of science materials, beginning the activity, during the activity, after the activity is
involved. It promotes integration of science with other subjects.
Foreign Studies
According to Bybee, et.al, (2006), 5E model typically involves providing students
with a common set of activities in order to encourage them to focus energies on the
identification and development of various concepts, processes, and skills. The instructor
facilitates the process and creates a challenging, learning-enriched environment.
However, as evident in the result of the study by Taylor et.al, (2007), it is interesting
to speculate about why extensive use of the 5Es did not yield student achievement that shows
a significant difference from basic use of the instructional model. It opens the possibility that
the instructional materials, which make the 5Es explicit for both teachers and students, are
fidelity-resilient (within limits). That means that even when a teacher implements the material
with only medium fidelity or dependability on 5E model, the inherent design of the
instructional materials likely contributes to enhanced understanding and thus achievement for
These studies reveal that there is a relationship with the use of 5Es approach by a
teacher in teaching Science in improving pupil achievement. Furthermore, the scientific
creativity and resourcefulness of a Science teacher and personal involvement of the learners
add a bonus point to more comprehensive teaching-learning process.
Though eagerly looking forward to more researches and studies that have relevance to
the present study, the researcher had found few nevertheless content-substantial ones.

The 5Es approach exhibits the use of constructivism which is a learning strategy that
draws on students' existing knowledge, beliefs, and skills. With a constructivist approach,
learners can synthesize new understanding from prior learning and new information.
This study is intended to determine the effects of implementing 5Es approach in
teaching Science and find out if it has a relationship with the degree of performance in the
National Achievement Test of the Grade VI pupils at Salong Elementary School, Calaca
District. In view of the results which this study may direct to, the researcher is willing to use
the research itself as a tool to administer improvements in teaching skills as necessary and
turn out to better and more extensive performance of the pupils.

Bybee, R. W., Taylor, J. A., Gardner, A., Van Scotter, P., Powell, J. C., Westbrook, A., &
Landes, N. (2006) The BSCS 5E instructional model: Origins, Effectiveness,
and Applications. Executive Summary. Retrieved March 30, 2010 from
Appamaraka S., Suksringarm P. and Singseewo A. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences,
2009, Volume 6, Issue 5, Page no. 287-291
Taylor J. A, Van Scotter P., Coulson D., Bridging Research on Learning and Student
Achievement: The Role of Instructional Materials, 2007

Nielsen C. P. Using the 5E Instructional Model to View Geospatial Technology Use in K12
Classrooms; Meridian K12 School Computer Technologies Journal Volume 13, Issue 2, 2011
Corporation for Public Broadcasting, The 5Es. 2002