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1. Allegory a story, poem, picture which can be interpreted

to reveal a hidden meaning typically a moral/political one
always in sequence
2. Antagonist: anti-hero
protagonist: hero
3. What is character development/ characterisation
- Imagine figure in a drama
- Could be existed
4. Tragedy: event/play dealing with tragic event, with
unhappy ending
5. Comedy: light&humorous character with happy ending
6. Theme: main idea/an underlying meaning of a literary
work as central subject (stated directly/indirectly)
7. Poetry: meant to appeal to senses
- Have rhythm, theme etc.
- About a person, issues etc.
- Emphasise is on sensual esp oral quality/effect of work
- Usage of similes, metaphor, figurative language
8. SETTING- Temperal:
9. Plot: the main events of a play/novel/film devised &
presented by writer as interrelated sequence
-manipulative authors can change it
-Timeline eg: beginning, rising action, climax, falling
ending (Can be extended)
Comic relief: humorous content in a
dramatic/literary work intended to offset more serious
episode intensifies the horror that follows (eg: find
shakespeares comic relief)
[analyse Sonnet 18] emphasise on tone
Couplet: is a pair of lines that rhyme Quantrains:
is a four-line poem. Its rhyme scheme may be aabb, abab,
abba or abcb
Genre : - specific type of music/film/writing
- conventional combination of literary form & subject
matter usually aims in creating a certain effect. (eg:
horror, romance, fiction etc.)



SECTION C (scenario-based)
Given an excerpt, suggest activities for primary levels
Techniques & ideas for teaching drama
Given a poem, Eg: The Village School Master, write
aspects of poetry (similes, metaphors, tone, rhyme)
Analyse a poem: The Autum & Red, Red Nose
Dynamics of drama
what are the techniques & ideas for teaching drama?
i. basic knowledge of drama/story/play
ii. history of the drama
iii. characters
iv. soliloquy (uninterrupted long speech)
v. -aside (what is happening in characters mind)
vi. stage direction - using prop, posture position
Strategies for reading drama:
i. Visualising (connecting with your own experience)
ii. Able to evaluate characters personality
iii. Mood of story should come through
iv. Make students compare characters
v. Interpretation of own understanding
vi. Set down activities

Summary of A Red, Red Rose by Robert Burns

The poem consists of four stanzas. Each of these stanzas is again made up of four lines. Hence,
the entire poem consists of sixteen lines in total.
1st stanza:
O my Luve is like a red, red rose
Thats newly sprung in June;
O my Luve is like the melody
Thats sweetly played in tune.
In this stanza, the poet says that his love is like a red rose that has taken birth in the springtime,
during the month of June in particular. What he seems to be saying by this is that his love has
come into being suddenly, but it is very natural; love has, of course, been a part of human life
since ancient times. And the poets love is a beautiful and uncomplicated thing. The poet also
compares his love to a melody that is played perfectly in tune. What this means is that love has
the potential to be pleasurable, but only if one puts in some amount of effort and sincerity in ones
love. The poet believes he has done that.
2nd stanza:
So fair art thou, my bonnie lass,
So deep in luve am I;
And I will luve thee still, my dear,
Till a the seas gang dry.
In this stanza, the poet directly addresses the young lady for whom his love has arisen. He tells
the woman that her complexion is fair, and she is very attractive to him for that reason. She is a
typical Scottish maiden after all and that is why he is so deeply in love with her. The poet also
promises that his love is not a temporary or fleeting emotion, but rather one that he will harbour in
his heart for a long time. In order to give the young lady a sense of the longevity of his love, he
compares it to the length of time it will take for all the seas on the face of the earth to run dry of all
their waters. That is to say, the poet will love the maiden even after they have both passed away.
3rd stanza:
Till a the seas gang dry, my dear,
And the rocks melt wi the sun;
I will love thee still, my dear,
While the sands o life shall run.
The first line of this stanza is a repetition of the last line of the previous stanza. This should not
come as a surprise to readers since repetition is a big part of folk songs, and account for much of
their popularity since repetition ensures that these songs can easily be sung along to by listeners.
The poet once again tries to assure the young lady f the longevity of his love for her. He says that
he will love her till all the seas run dry, and till every single rock on the earth is melted by the heat
of the sun. This second event can only happen when the sun expands enough to reach the
earths surface an event that can take millions of years. Hence this metaphor of longevity is

even more convincing than the first one. Finally, the poet tells the maiden what she must have
inferred already that his love for her will not diminish at any point of time in his lifetime. Burns
here compares his life with a hourglass in which the sand falls leisurely from the upper glass bulb
to the lower one. What the poet means is that time might pass slowly, but his love for her wont
4th stanza:
And fare thee weel, my only luve!
And fare thee weel awhile!
And I will come again, my luve,
Though it were ten thousand mile.
In this stanza, the poet bids goodbye to the young lady for whom he has just professed his love.
However, in the very next instant, he clarifies that this is no final goodbye, and it wont last forever.
The poet promises the maiden that even though he is leaving now, he shall return to her one day.
He might move very far away from her, and to make her realize the distance to which they might
be separated he tells her that he might be ten thousand miles away. However, he will traverse
even that great distance to return to this woman for he loves her with all his heart.

The poem A Red, Red Rose expresses the theme of intense love. The
poet seeks to strike a balance between eternal and temporal forms of love
in this poem, reminding the readers of the fact that beauty is transitory, but
love is eternal. The speaker is the poet himself, talking about his beloved,
Jean Armour, a Scottish woman with whom he was deeply in love with. The
title of the poem A Red, Red Rose is about love that will never die even if
the whole world is destroyed actually a hyperbolic expression.
The poem is set in the countryside of Scotland. The tone is full of optimism
and jubilation. The poet opens the poem by symbolizing his love with a red
rose:O my Luves like a Red, Red Rose, which he says is newly sprung in
June. Following his intense emotions, he further elaborates his love as a
beautiful melody: O my Luves like the melodie / Thats sweetly playd in
tune! He explains her beauty, saying that she is
As fair art thou, my bonnie lass, in whichthe termAs fair as thouimplies
that Jean is a bright, lovely, and smart woman, who enlightens the poet and
makes everything charming. He assures his beloved that he will love her

even if the long distance separates them And I will luve thee still, my
dear even if the seas gang dry.
In the next stanza, the poet repeats this line, and emphasizes his
persistence in love despite the distance between them. In Robert Burnss
life, he traveled to Jamaica, because Jeans father rejected their union. In
this poem, he convinces her that his journey to another world is nothing for
his love. Although, the poet regrets going away from her, he depicts it as
merely a temporary distance And fare thee weel a while! By the end, he
promises And I will come again, my Luve. The promise is that despite
saying goodbye to her, and despite the distance of ten thousand miles, he
would come back to her.
Structural Analysis

The poet has written this poem in the form of a ballad, and divided it into
four stanzas with four lines in each stanza. The rhyme scheme is quite
regular. It is ABCB, as shown below:
O my Luves like a Red, Red Rose A
Thats newly sprung in June:
O my Luves like the melodie
Thats sweetly playd in tune!


The metrical pattern is alternative iambic trimeter and iambic tetrameter as

in O my Luvs like a Red, Red Rose/ Thats newly sprung in June. The
first half of the poem follows the ballad meter, while the second half follows
common meter (in which first and third, second and fourth lines rhyme with
each other.) The poet uses simile in the first and third lines of the poem, in
which he compares his love with a blooming rose and a sweet melody
as, O my Luves like a Red, Red Rose / Thats newly sprung in June. The
poet employs hyperbole by making exaggerated promises, which are
difficult to fulfill like,And I will luve thee still, my dear / Till a the seas gang

dry and And the rocks melt wi the sun.Alliteration is frequently used such
as l and r sounds in O my Luves like a Red, Red Rose. The
phrase And I will is repeated in third line of three stanzas. The diction of
the poem is figurative.

TO AUTUMN by John Keats

Season of Fruition
.......Autumn is the season of fruition. It yields the bounty that sustains lifegrapes, apples, pumpkins,
squash, nuts, and honeyand fills the granaries with the field harvest. Then, to the mournful sound of
gnats riding the wind, the sun sets on the season and gathering swallows twitter in the skies.
.......People also bear fruitchildren, poems, scientific and technological advancements. They teach,
build, heal, entertain, and advocate for change; they give time and money. And then they fall asleep
on a furrow as barrd clouds bloom the soft-dying day / And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue.
.......Because autumn is a season of fulfillment, when the fruits of labor abound, it is also a season of
contentment. Personified autumn reflects this contentment when it sits
careless on a granary floor,
Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;
Or on a half-reap'd furrow sound asleep,
Drowsed with the fume of poppies (lines 14-16)

End Rhyme
.......The end rhyme of the first stanza is abab cde dcce. The end rhyme of the second and third
stanzas is abab cde cdde.

Internal Rhyme
.......The poem also contains internal rhyme. Here are examples.
To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells (line 7)
Until they think warm days will never cease (line 10)
Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? (line 12)
Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind (line 15)
Or on a half-reap'd furrow sound asleep (line 16)
Drowsed with the fume of poppies, while thy hook (line 17)
And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep (line 19)

.......The meter of the poem is iambic pentameter, as the second line demonstrates.
Close BOS,..|..om-FRIEND..|..of THE..|..ma TUR..|..ing SUN

Text of the Poem

Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to load and bless
With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eaves run;
To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;
To swell the gourd,1 and plump the hazel2 shells
With a sweet kernel;3 to set budding more,
And still more, later flowers for the bees,
Until they think warm days will never cease;
For Summer has o'erbrimm'd their clammy cells.4................ 11
Who hath not seen thee5 oft amid thy store?6
Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find
Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,
Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;
Or on a half-reap'd furrow sound asleep,7
Drowsed with the fume of poppies, while thy hook
Spares the next swath and all its twind flowers:
And sometimes like a gleaner8 thou dost keep
Steady thy laden head across a brook;
Or by a cyder-press,9 with patient look,
Thou watchest the last oozings, hours by hours.................... 22
Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they?
Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,
While barrd clouds bloom the soft-dying day
And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue;
Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn
Among the river-sallows,10 borne aloft
Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies;
And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn;11
Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft
The redbreast whistles from a garden-croft;12
And gathering swallows twitter in the skies........................... 33