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# APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL CONCEPTS IN THE

## DETERMINATION OF WEIGHT VARIATION IN COIN

SAMPLES
P.M.ABAS1 AND V.PUNONGBAYAN1
1
DEPARTMENT OF MINING, METALLURGICAL, AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING
DATE PERFORMED: JANUARY

19, 2016

## INSTRUCTORS NAME: INA DELA FUENTE

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________

1.
Discuss the significance of
mean, standard deviation, and
confidence limits.
The mean is the average or the
approximate value in a given
data set. This quantifies or
represents the whole data as it
is found exactly in the median
from the range or dispersion of
the values in a data set.
(Simon,_____)
The
standard
deviation
quantifies the variation in a
given set of data. This estimate
of variance will be able to tell
whether the values are close to
the average or basically the
error
likely
to
be
found
compared to their average
value. (Bland and Altman, 1996)
The confidence limit is an
estimate to the population
variance or interval. It tells the
probability of a population mean
value to appear within the
boundaries or the confidence
limits. (Neyman, 1937)

2.
What is the importance of
using Grubbs test?
This identifies outlying values
from a core population. It
predicts if the value would be
close enough for a definite
variance to be as little as
possible which would yield to a
more precise value. (4)
3. What does the pooled standard
deviation
tell
us
the
measurements?
The pooled standard deviance
tells us the estimated standard
deviation given a set of
independent studies of the
same experiment. (5)
4.
Compare
the
statistical
parameters obtained for data set
1 with those obtained for data set
2.
For the mean, their values are
relatively close by a 0.0068
difference where data set 1
mean is greater than data set
mean 2.

## The data set 1 had a smaller

standard deviation of 0.03
meaning that the values in data
set 1 are very close to the
median of the set as compared
to the standard deviation of
data set 2. Thus, also the
relative standard deviation is
smaller in data set 1 compared
to data set 2.
As for the spread, data set 1
set 2. The same goes for their
And, for their confidence limits,
they have the same value but
differ only in their uncertainty,
where data set 2 had a greater
uncertainty than data set 1.

5.
Enumerate and explain the
three types of experimental error.
Give examples of each type.
Systematic
error

are
identifiable errors and may be
fixed.
Example
is
an
instrumental error where for
example
a
ruler
was
miscalibrated, replacing the
ruler with a better one would
solve this error. (6)
Human error this means that
the person performing the
experiment was incompetent
enough to produce reliable
results. It may be the effect
from clumsiness, nervousness
or the experimenter does not
know the procedure at all. (6)
Lastly, random error these are
unknown sources of error which
may either have a positive or
negative effect on the results
and is usually negligible in

## certain settings. Examples are

environmental
settings
especially in laboratories with
an open system. (6)
6. What is the normal or Gaussian
distribution and what are the
requirements for a data set to
have this type of distribution?
This is a curve usually shaped
like a bell. It is a type of a
binomial
experiment
with
independent
random
errors
distributed
accordingly thus
forming a natural bell shaped
curve as the number of data
increases. It requires that there
must be a fixed number of
trials, the outcomes must be in
binary,
trials
are
independent and probabilities
are held constant. (Calkins,
2005)
7.
Why do we use forceps in
handling the coins?
We use forceps in handling the
coins to minimize the risk of
contaminating the coin from
oils, sweat, and foreign particles
that may be transferred when
handled by bare hands. This
would result to an increase to
the weight of the coin which we
do not want.
REFERENCES

Simon, Laura J., "Descriptive
statistics", Statistical
Education
Resource Kit, Pennsylvania State
Department of Statistics

Bland,
J.M.;
(1996). "Statistics

Altman,

D.G.
notes:
2

## measurement error". Bmj, 312(7047),

1654.

Neyman, J., "Outline of a Theory
of Statistical Estimation Based on the
Classical
Theory
of
Probability". Philosophical Transactions
of the Royal Society A. 1937.

Grubbs
Test.
http://www.sediment.unigoettingen.de/st
aff/dunkl/software/pep-grubbs.pdf

What is the pooled standard
deviation?.
http://support.minitab.com/enus/minitab/17/topic-library/basic-

statistics-and-graphs/introductoryconcepts/standard-deviation-varianceand-the-normal-distribution/pooled-sd.

TYPES
OF
EXPERIMENTAL
ERRORS.
http://www.physics.nmsu.edu/research
/lab110g/html/ERRORS.html

Calkins, Kieth G., The Binomial
and [Standard] Normal, Bell-shaped,
Gaussian
Distributions.https://www.andrews.ed
u/~calkins/math/edrm611/edrm04.htm
#NORMAL. 2005