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CONTENT

1
2

INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................4
SIMULATION MODEL AND PARAMETERS ....................................................................................5

2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5

Generator, Transformer and Grid Connection ........................................................................................................ 5


THYNE5/THYNE6 Static Excitation System .............................................................................................................. 7
Basic Structure of AVR and Power Part ................................................................................................................... 7
Power System Stabilizer ........................................................................................................................................ 11
Instantaneous Field Current Limiter...................................................................................................................... 13
Under Excitation Limiter........................................................................................................................................ 14
Thermal Limiter ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

STANDARD MODELS ...............................................................................................................17

3.1

Standard Model IEEE 421.5 ST8C .......................................................................................................................... 17

REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................19

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Disclaimer

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ANDRITZ HYDRO DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION


WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THE MERCHANTABILITY OR
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REPORT OR THE RESPECTIVE WORKS OR SERVICES SUPPLIED OR PERFORMED BY
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DAMAGES, EITHER DIRECTLY, CONSEQUENTIALLY OR OTHERWISE RESULTING FROM
THE USE OF THIS REPORT.

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INTRODUCTION

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This document provides the mathematical models of the THYNE5/THYNE6 excitation system for
power system stability studies together with the required system parameters of the generator,
transformer and grid as well as the excitation (power part and controller).

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SIMULATION MODEL AND PARAMETERS

2.1 Generator, Transformer and Grid Connection

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The synchronous generator model for power system stability studies is typically a sub transient
model of a salient pole machine (hydro units) or round rotor machine (thermal units). The
corresponding model parameters are summarized in Table 1 with typical values for hydro and
thermal units, see [2].
Symbol

Parameter name

Unit

Sr

Rated apparent power

201.35

MVA

Ur

Rated terminal voltage

13.8

kV

cos(phi)

Power factor

0.85

fr

Grid frequency

wr

Rated speed

Xd

d-axis synchronous reactance

1.044

p.u.

Xd

d-axis transient reactance

0.352

p.u.

Xd

d-axis sub transient reactance

0.261

p.u.

Xq

q-axis synchronous reactance

0.724

p.u.

Xq

q-axis transient reactance

p.u.

Xq

q-axis sub transient reactance

0.228

p.u.

Xl

Stator leakage reactance

0.13

p.u.

Ra

Stator resistance

Td0

d-axis transient open circuit time constant

8.64

Td0

d-axis sub transient open circuit time constant

0.107

Tq0

q-axis transient open circuit time constant

Tq0

q-axis sub transient open circuit time constant

Overall inertia of turbine and generator

3.89

IE,r

Excitation current at rated load

1575

VE,r

Excitation voltage at rated load

270.2

IE,ag

Excitation current at no-load air-gap

756

60

Hz
rpm

Table 1: Synchronous generator data.


For the step-up transformer the required parameters are summarized in Table 2.
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Symbol

Parameter name

Value

Unit

Sr

Rated apparent power

MVA

Ur1

Rated primary voltage

kV

Ur2

Rated secondary voltage

Xt

Short circuit voltage

Rt

Copper losses

13.8

kV

0.12*)

p.u.
p.u.

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Table 2: Step-up transformer data.


In the simplest case for power system studies a single machine/infinite bus model assumed.
Therefore, typically the minimum and maximum short circuit power is defined at the grid connection
point, see Table 3.
Symbol

Parameter name

Value

Unit

Skmin

Minimum short circuit power

MVA

Skmax

Maximum short circuit power

MVA

Table 3: Grid connection data.


Figure 1 shows the model structure of a single machine / infinite bus configuration with a static
excitation system in shunt field connection.

Gen.
Exc.
Transf.

Current
transducer

Voltage
transducer

Step up
Transf.

Grid

Digital Controller

Excitation system

Figure 1: Model structure.

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2.2 THYNE5/THYNE6 Static Excitation System


2.2.1 Basic Structure of AVR and Power Part

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Figure 2 shows the mathematical model of the THYNE5/THYNE6 excitation system (AVR + power
part) in shunt field connection. A list of the corresponding input, output and internal signals is given
in Table 4 and a list of all system parameters is provided in Table 5 and Table 6.
Symbol

Signal name

Unit

VT

Terminal voltage magnitude

p.u.

IT

Terminal current magnitude

p.u.

IP

Terminal current active component

p.u.

IQ

Terminal current reactive component

p.u.

Active power

p.u.

Speed

p.u.

Load angle

deg

VC

Compensation voltage

p.u.

VCF

Filtered compensation voltage

p.u.

IE

Excitation current

p.u.

VE

Excitation voltage

p.u.

IEF

Filtered excitation current

p.u.

VREF

Reference voltage (set-point)

p.u.

IE,REF

Reference excitation current (set-point)

p.u.

VS

PSS output

p.u.

VUEL

Under excitation limiter output

p.u.

VTHL

Thermal limiter output

p.u.

VOEL

Over excitation limiter output

p.u.

Table 4: Excitation model signals.

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Figure 2: THYNE5/THYNE6 excitation system model.


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Symbol

Parameter name

Value

VTH

Thyristor voltage

KE

Amplification of rectifier

KT

Amplification of excitation transformer KT = VTH / VE,r

2.03

KN

Re-normalization factor KN = IE,r / IE,ag

2.08

TE

Time constant rectifier

Unit

550

1.35 1)

0.003

Table 5: Power part model parameters.


1)

For a 3-phase thyristor bridge.

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Symbol

Parameter name

Value

Unit

Active power compensation (droop) factor

p.u.

Reactive power compensation (droop) factor

p.u.

TFU

Time const. voltage transducer

VPU

Proportional gain, voltage controller

TNU

Integrator time constant, voltage controller

KDU

Differential gain, voltage controller

p.u.

TDU

Differential filter time constant, voltage controller

VPUmin

Min. input limit, voltage controller

-2.0

p.u.

VPUmax

Max. input limit, voltage controller

2.0

p.u.

VTUmin

Min. integrator limit, voltage controller

IE - 0.33

p.u.

VTUmax

Max. integrator limit, voltage controller

IE +0.33

p.u.

VOUmin

Min. output limit, voltage controller

IE - 0.33

p.u.

VOUmax

Max. output limit, voltage controller

IE +0.33

p.u.

TFI

Time const. field current transducer

0.005

VPI

Proportional gain, current controller

p.u.

TNI

Integrator time constant, current controller

VPImin

Min. input limit, voltage controller

-16.0

p.u.

VPImax

Max. input limit, voltage controller

16.0

p.u.

VTImin

Min. integrator limit, voltage controller

-0.8660

p.u.

VTImax

Max. integrator limit, voltage controller

0.9962

p.u.

VOImin

Min. output limit, voltage controller

-0.8660

p.u.

VOImax

Max. output limit, voltage controller

0.9962

p.u.

0.01
5
0.7

s
p.u.
s

Table 6: AVR model parameters.

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2.2.2 Power System Stabilizer

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The power system stabilizer is a PSS2A/B type according to IEEE 421.5 as shown in Figure 3. The
corresponding parameters are listed in Table 7.

Figure 3: Power system stabilizer block diagram.

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Symbol

Parameter name

Value

Unit

TW1

Wash out time constant 1

TW2

Wash out time constant 2

TW3

Wash out time constant 3

TW4

Wash out time constant 4

T6

Low pass filter time constant 6

T7

Low pass filter time constant 7

KS2

Proportional gain 2

0.64

KS3

Proportional gain 3

T8

Ramp tracking filter time constant of numerator

0.5

T9

Ramp tracking filter time constant of denominator

0.1

Ramp tracking filter exponent of denominator

Ramp tracking filter exponent of numerator

T1

Lead lag 1 time constant of numerator

0.13

T2

Lead lag 1 time constant of denominator

0.04

T3

Lead lag 2 time constant of numerator

0.15

T4

Lead lag 2 time constant of denominator

0.04

T10

Lead lag 3 time constant of numerator

0.14

T11

Lead lag 3 time constant of denominator

0.04

SAB

Switch: 0 PSS2A / 1 PSS2B

KS1

Proportional gain 1

VSmin

Min. PSS output limit

-0.05

p.u.

VSmax

Max. PSS output limit

0.05

p.u.

Table 7: Power system stabilizer parameters.

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2.2.3 Instantaneous Field Current Limiter

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The instantaneous field current limiter as shown in Figure 4 consists of two parallel PI
controllers with anti-wind-up integrators. The corresponding parameters can be found in
Table 8.

Figure 4: Instantaneous field current limiter block diagram.


Symbol

Parameter name

Value

Unit

IEmin

Lower field current limit

KP,FCLmin

Proportional gain of minimum regulator

TI,FCLmin

Integrator time constant of minimum regulator

VFCLmin

Output limit of minimum regulator

p.u.

IEmax

Upper field current limit

p.u.

KP,FCLmax

Proportional gain of maximum regulator

TI,FCLmax

Integrator time constant of maximum regulator

VFCLmax

Output limit of maximum regulator

p.u.

s
p.u.

Table 8: Instantaneous field current limiter parameters.

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2.2.4 Under Excitation Limiter

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The structure of the under excitation limiter is shown in Figure 5. Is comprises a differential
and a PI controller with separate limits. The corresponding parameters can be found in
Table 9.

Figure 5: Under excitation limiter block diagram.


Symbol

Parameter name

Value

D,LIM

Differential rotor angle limit

KDUEL

Differential gain

TDUEL

Filter time constant of differentiator

VD,UELmax

Output limit of differentiator

LIM

Rotor angle limit

KPUEL

Proportional gain

TIUEL

Integrator time constant

VUELmax

Output limit

Unit
p.u.

s
1.0

p.u.
p.u.

s
2.0

p.u.

Table 9: Under excitation limiter parameters.

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2.2.5 Thermal Limiter

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The block diagram of the thermal limiter is illustrated in Figure 6. Two separate time
constants for the delayed signals of the stator current and field current as well as the
hysteresis can be chosen. The controller is an integrator with two different time constants,
i.e. TI1 for raising or lowering if the limiter becomes active and TI2 for resetting the limiter.
The corresponding parameters can be found in Table 10.

Figure 6: Thermal limiter block diagram.

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Symbol

Parameter name

Value

Unit

T1

Time constant for delayed stator current

ITmax

Limit for stator current

p.u.

ITzone

Hysteresis for stator current

p.u.

IQmin

Lower limit for reactive current

p.u.

IQmax

Upper limit for reactive current

p.u.

T2

Time constant for delayed field current

IEmax

Limit for field current

p.u.

IEzone

Hysteresis for field current

p.u.

TI1

Integrator time constant 1

TI2

Integrator time constant 2

Table 10: Thermal limiter parameters.

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3 STANDARD MODELS
3.1 Standard Model IEEE 421.5 ST8C

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For the next revision of the IEEE standard 421.5 a new static excitation model ST8C is proposed,
see Figure 7 similar as presented in [5], which will allow a precise modelling of the THYNE5 and
THYNE6 excitation system. The corresponding parameters (incl. calculation) are listed in Table 11.
The differential component of the voltage regulator KDU cannot be represented by the ST8C model.

Figure 7: Proposed IEEE 421.5 ST8C model.

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Symbol

Parameter name

Value

Unit

KP

Potential circuit gain coefficient KP = KT, SW1 = A (shunt field)

KI1

Potential circuit gain coefficient

p.u.

XL

Potential circuit gain coefficient

p.u.

KI2

Potential circuit gain coefficient for compound

p.u.

KC1

Rectifier loading factor proportional to commutating reactance

p.u.

KC2

Rectifier loading factor proportional to commutating reactance

p.u.

RC

Active power compensation (droop) factor RC =

p.u.

XC

Reactive power compensation (droop) factor XC =

p.u.

TR

Time const. voltage transducer TR = TFU

KPR

Proportional gain, voltage controller KPR = VPU

p.u.

KIR

Integrator time constant, voltage controller KIR = VPU / TNU

1/s

VPRmin

Min. input limit, voltage controller

-2.0

p.u.

VPRmax

Max. input limit, voltage controller

2.0

p.u.

VIRmin

Min. integrator limit, voltage controller

IFDF - 0.33

p.u.

VIRmax

Max. integrator limit, voltage controller

IFDF +0.33

p.u.

VORmin

Min. output limit, voltage controller

IFDF - 0.33

p.u.

VORmax

Max. output limit, voltage controller

IFDF +0.33

p.u.

KF2

Field current re-normalization factor KF2 = 1/KN

TF2

Time const. field current transducer TF2 = TFI

KPA

Proportional gain, current controller KPA = VPI

p.u.

KIA

Integrator gain, current controller KIA = VPI / TNI

1/s

VPMmin

Min. input limit, voltage controller

-16.0

p.u.

VPMmax

Max. input limit, voltage controller

16.0

p.u.

VIMmin

Min. integrator limit, voltage controller

-0.8660

p.u.

VIMmax

Max. integrator limit, voltage controller

0.9962

p.u.

VOMmin

Min. output limit, voltage controller

-0.8660

p.u.

VOMmax

Max. output limit, voltage controller

0.9962

p.u.

p.u.

0.01

0.005

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KA

Amplification of excitation KA = KN KE

TA

Time constant rectifier

VRmin

Min. output limit, converter VRmin = KA VOMmin

p.u.

VRmax

Max. output limit, converter VRmin = KA VOMmax

p.u.

0.0013

Este documento es propriedad de ANDRITZ HYDRO GmbH, Eibesbrunnergasse 20, 1120 Vienna, Austria.
Respectar la nota de proteccin ISO 16016

Table 11: ST8C model parameters.

REFERENCES
[1] Andritz Hydro, GMR3 Voltage Regulator and Gate Control Functional Description,
Andritz Hydro GmbH, Austria, 2012.
[2] P. Kundur, "Power System Stability and Control", McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993.
[3] IEC 60034-16-2 1991 Standard Rotating electrical machines - Part 16: Excitation
systems for synchronous machines - Chapter 2: Models for power system studies.
[4] IEEE Standard 421.5, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Excitation System Models for
Power System Stability Studies" April 2006.
[5] A. Glaninger-Katschnig, F. Nowak, M. Baechle and J. Taborda, New Digital Excitation
System Models in addition to IEEE.421.5 2005, IEEE PES General Meeting, 2010

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