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Individuals do not
commonly question their own moment-to-moment thoughts
about events in their lives (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979)
or their long-standing assumptions and standards about the nature
of the world (Nisbett & Ross, 1980). Consequently, a major
task of cognitively oriented marital therapy is to help spouses
become more active observers and to help them evaluate their
own cognitions so that their emotional and behavioral responses
to one another will be minimally affected by distorted
Asumpii: cum ar trebui s fie i s se comporte partenerul. Dac nu se comport potrivit asump iilor, intervin interpretrile cu privire la
persoana partenerului. Assumptions. Of relevance to marital interaction, an individual
develops assumptions about the set of characteristics of a
person who fills the role of husband or wife (or comparable roles
in a nonmarital relationship) as well as assumptions about how
the members of a couple relate to one another.
Standardele: Caracteristici pe care un individ consider c partenerul sau rela a de cuplu trebuie s le aib. Standards. In contrast to the
assumptions that a person
makes about the way relationships are, standards involve the
characteristics that the individual believes a partner or relationship
should have. As emphasized by rational-emotive therapists
(Dryden, 1985; Ellis, 1962), an individual may hold an extreme
or irrational standard about intimate relationships that no reallife
relationship could match. For example, one spouse might
cling to the standard that "\bu should be able to read my mind,
and I should not have to tell you what I want or need." In addition,
he or she might also apply an extreme negative evaluation
when that standard is not met (e.g., "It is awful if you do not
know what I want intuitively; I can't stand it"). They become problematic when they are extreme
or rigid
Atenia selectiv: Consistent with the idea that perception
is an active process rather than a passive reception of information
(Kelly, 1955), we define perceptions as those aspects of the
information available in a situation that an individual notices
and fits into cognitive structures (e.g., personae, scripts) that
have meaning to him or her. Social cognition researchers (cf,
Nisbett & Ross, 1980) and clinical writers (e.g., Beck et al.,
1979; Weiss, 1980) have described how perceptions are susceptible
to selective attention because of factors such as emotional
states, fatigue, and preexisting cognitive structures. Perceptual
biases can have powerful effects on marital interaction because
spouses are normally unaware that the information they perceive
is only a subset of the data available in any situation.
Atribuiri: atribuiri globale i stabile . events by 50%.
Attributions. As noted earlier, a rapidly growing body of literature
has examined the attributions or causal explanations that
spouses provide for events in their relationships. The most common
marital attribution dimensions investigated have been the
global-specific, stable-unstable, and internal-external dimensions
borrowed from the reformulated learned helplessness theory
(Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978). This is a logical
link because of the many cognitive and behavioral similarities
between depression and marital maladjustment (Epstein,
1985). In spite of several methodological issues to be discussed,
there have been some common findings across studies (e.g.,
Baucom, Bell, & Dune, 1982; Fincham, Beach, & Baucom,
1987; Fincham & O'Leary, 1983; Holtzworth-Munroe & Jacobson,
1985; Jacobson, McDonald, Follette, & Berley, 1985;
Kyle & Falbo, 1985). Distressed spouses tend to rate causes of
negative partner behaviors as more global and stable than do
nondistressed individuals, whereas nondistressed spouses rate
causes of positive behavior of the partner as more global and
stable. In addition, distressed spouses have a tendency to blame
their partners for negative marital events. These attributional
tendencies serve to accentuate the positive in nondistressed relationships
and the negative in distressed relationships.
Recent studies have investigated other attributional dimensions
that focus on the characteristics and motives of the partner,
such as positive versus negative intent, blameworthiness,
selfish motivation, and lack of love (Epstein, Pretzer, & Fleming,

1987; Fincham, Beach, & Nelson, 1987; Fincham & Bradbury,

1988; Pretzer, Epstein, & Fleming, 1985). These studies have
consistently found strong associations between such attributions
and indices of marital maladjustment, again indicating
that distressed spouses explain their partners' behavior in ways
that focus on negative aspects of the partner.

Expectane: sub forma dac- atunci (n relaia de cuplu ) sau sub forma autoeficacitii cu privire la abilit ile de rezolvare a problemelor n cuplu.
Bandura (1977) distinguished between an outcome expectancy
(a prediction that a particular action will produce particular
consequences in a certain situation) and an efficacy expectancy
(an estimate of the probability that one will be able to
carry out the particular action needed to produce those consequences).
Individuals' expectancies about interactions between
spouses tend to take an "if-then" form and can involve predictions
about reactions of the partner to one's own behavior, reactions
of the self to the partner's behavior, and outcomes of a
joint event (e.g., "If we argue in front of the children, they will
be harmed psychologically").

Their results supported Doherty's

(1981a, 1981b) hypotheses that spouses' low efficacy expectations
regarding their ability to solve their marital problems are
associated with marital distress and depression and with attributions
of causality for relationship problems to their partner's
behavior, stable personality, malicious intent, and lack of love.

Cogniiile iraionale i cele raionale n relaie:

The results suggested that it was the presence of irrational beliefs
rather than the absence of rational beliefs that was central to
marital distress.

The results of this study appear to have implications for the conduct
of marriage and relationship counseling. Specifically, they suggest
that an important component of counseling should be concentrated on
the partners individually rather than the dyadic relationship given the
findings of how each members irrational beliefs and emotional reactions
contribute to marital problems. Helping individuals in relationships
reduce their need for approval including the challenging of selfdowning
beliefs and increasing each partners capacity to tolerate
discomfort would appear to be one way to empower each partner to
regulate their emotional upsets as a pre-requisite to improving aspects
of the relationship.

un mecanism prin intermediul cruia
este potenat relaia
dintre VI i VD
(Baron & Kenny, 1986):

Modelul de mediere
presupune un set de
inferene cauzale:
MVD (independent de VI)

Condiii de inferare a
cauzalitii(John Stuart Mill,
1843, A Systemof Logic)

existena unei corelaii ntre VI

i VD
precedena temporal a VI
excluderea altor posibile
variabile cu rol cauzal

Variabile mediatoare
se refer la stri interne ale organismului
caracter temporar
niveluri tranziente de intensitate sau orientare
stri emoional-afective, cognitive

Proceduri statistice
pentru testarea
modelelor de mediere
Corelaia parial
Modelul regresiilor succesive
(Baron i Kenny)
Testul Sobel
SPSS A.F Hayes
Testarea modelului de mediere:
Prin corela ia par ial

1. Prin intermediul corelaiei


Comparaia corelaiei de ordin

zero (rxy) cu corelaia de ordin 1
Diferena dintre ele este un
indicator al relaiei de mediere a
lui M n relaia dintre X i Y
rxy>0 i rxy>rxy.m mediere parial
rxy=0 i rxy>rxy.m mediere total

Nu avem o cuantificare explicit a efectului
de mediere
Nu putem testa cu uurin dac efectul
de mediere (diferena dintre rxy.mi rxy)
este statistic semnificativ

2. Confirmarea concomitent
a urmtoarelor condiii (Baron
& Kenny, 1986):
1)c semnificativ statistic
2)a semnificativ statistic
3)b semnificativ statistic
4)c mai mic dect c

dac ceste semnificativ statistic MEDIERE

dac ceste nesemnificativ statistic


(Gelfand, L. A., Mensinger, J. L., &

Tenhave, T. , 2009)
condiiile 2 i 3 ar trebui s fie suficiente, din moment
ce ele sunt cele care produc medierea

Testarea modelului
de mediere
Eroarea standard a efectului de

Sobel (1986)
2 2 2 2 * * b a ab s a s b

Testul Sobel pentru

semnificaia efectului de
Efectul de mediere:

produsul (a*b) din ecuaiile (2) i (3).

sau diferena (c-c)
dac c=a*b+c a*b=c-c din ecuaiile (1)
i (3)
Semnificaia statistic se citete n tabelul distribuiei
normale z, pentru alfa=0.05, bilateral

sa i sb = erorile standard ale coeficienilor a i b

sa i sb = erorile standard ale coeficienilor a i b

Medierea nu trebuie tratat ca un artefact statistic (Green,

Ha, S. E., & Bullock, J. G., 2009)

D. P.,

Tehnic, medierea este uor de confirmat

Dar concluzia de mediere nu se poate
susine exclusiv pe rezultatul unor calcule
Susinerea unei relaii de mediere depinde
ndeplinirea unor condiii substaniale de
cauzalitate, nu doar de rezultatul unei
proceduri statistice:

Y nu trebuie s precead pe X
M nu trebuie s precead pe Y