Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 45

Materials and Welding for Mechanical Design

2nd Annual Conference

Selection of Materials for


Control System Components

by Wes Witmer
Bantrel

July 11, 2006

Normal Practice
From a materials perspective Control
System components are very difficult to
design

Normal Practice?
How do we select materials?
Copy piping line classes and convert most
component materials to stainless steel
Rely on suppliers standards
Use clients specifications
Select them carefully

Copy Piping Line Classes and Convert


Everything to Stainless Steel
Considerations:
Ferritic materials are resistant to some forms
of cracking that austenitic material are not;
for example chlorides and Polythionic acids
Operational upsets
Are some of the instruments in a dead leg
that the service may become anaerobic?
Can the component survive the external
environment, i.e. mild salt and H2S
atmosphere?

Corrosion Examples?

Anaerobic
corrosion
example

Inconel 686

304 L SS
Courtesy International Nickel

Cracking Examples?

Chloride cracking
on a 304
component

Anonymous

Cracking Examples?
Flow Control Valve Failure:
Supplier Standard
SCC
Not NACE compliant

Anonymous Simulation Photo

Rely on Suppliers Standards (1)


We have done this for years without problems?

How do we know?
Have we asked the client for feedback??
What is our liability? Suppliers may have
only 1 year after installation, not start up
The component should last the design
life; what is this?
What about operational upsets; does the
supplier know this?

Rely on Suppliers Standards (2)


The suppliers choices, are they:
Cost effective
Do they have previous and successful
experience?
Do the materials have sufficient corrosion
resistance and suitable for the design life?

Suppliers Standards

Vacuum relief
valve corroded
and stuck in
place

Anonymous Simulation Photo

Client Specifications
Advantage
Liability reduced

Verification
Ensure they meet latest code and meet latest
NACE requirements

11

Develop Metallurgy Carefully

Not all components, just components for


critical services and where known
corrosion and cracking agents are present

12

Factors Effecting Corrosion / Cracking


Service Commodity, i.e. Hydrogen Sulfide
Temperature and sometimes partial
pressure
Chlorides
Free Liquid Water
Polythionic Acids
Napthenic Acid
Particles, i.e. coke, sand etc

Material Selection Factors

Design life
Material availability
Operating temperatures
Operating experience
Maintenance / replacement philosophy
Failure consequence

Material Selection Considerations (1)


Effect on operability and accuracy if
component corrodes
Verify supplier off-the-shelf materials and
their experience
Compare suppliers standard materials to
chosen (generally upgrade)

Material Selection Considerations (2)


Will suppliers choice survive chlorides and
Polythionic acids
If No; upgrade further to perhaps Duplex;
Hastelloy; Inconel 625; Titanium, etc.
Verify if supplier has the higher metallurgy
prior to PO award

Bantrel Engineering Instruction


Control System Material Selection
Materials selected via CPMSS, generate Material
Selection Diagram (MSD)
Material Selection Diagram conference with
control systems lead and REs
Review all data sheets (not repeated data sheets)
Control systems RE will supply list of likely
suppliers and catalogs containing off the shelf
materials to Bantrel Materials and Welding group
(BMW)

Rule of Thumb (excluding valves)


Service

Material

Comments

Steam, Condensate

Carbon Steel or
Stainless Steel

750F

General Corrosive

Stainless Steel

No Chlorides

Water & Air

Stainless Steel
and / or Copper

Glycol

Stainless Steel

Rule of Thumb (excluding valves)


Service

Material

High Pressure
Hydrogen / HC

321 Stainless
Steel

Amine and
Hydrogen sulfide

316 Stainless
Steel

Lube Oil

304 Stainless
Steel

Low Temperature

304 Stainless
Steel

Comments

Valve Metallurgy (1)


Service

Body 2, 3

Bonnet

Trim 1

Low Temperature
(<-50F)

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel

Sour service

Normalized Carbon
Steel

Normalized Carbon
Steel

12% Cr (HRC
22); or 316 SS

General H/C

Carbon Steel

Carbon Steel

12% Cr

1.
2.
3.

Use stellite 6 for flashing services


Threaded connections are not recommended for hydrocarbon services
Flange finish shall be 125 to 250 RMS

Valve Metallurgy (2)


Body 2, 3

Service

Bonnet

Trim 1

Normalized Carbon
Steel

Normalized Carbon
Steel

12% to 13%Cr

Amine (>200F)

Normalized Carbon
Steel
316L

Normalized Carbon
Steel
316L

316 Stainless
Steel

Untreated Water ( 200F)

Cu Ni4

Hydrogen ( 400F)
Amine (200F)

1.
2.
3.
4.

Cu Ni4

Use stellite 6 for flashing services


Threaded connections are not recommended for hydrocarbon services
Flange finish shall be 125 to 250 RMS
Clients preference

Bronze4

Packing

Service

Material

Maximum
Temperature (F)

General H/C

PTFE

450

-20

High Temperature

Graphite filled

1000

-20

Medium
Temperatures

Kalrez

700

-20

1.

Minimum temperature per service type should be discussed with Bantrel metallurgist

Minimum
Temperature (F)1

Typical Erosion/ Corrosion

Erosion Corrosion
velocity and particles
not taken into account

anonymous

Level Control Failure

Anonymous

Typical Corrosion Products

Corrosion
products ends up
interfering with CS
operability

anonymous

Problems / Considerations
Compression fittings in hydrogen and high
pressure services fail, consider welded
fitting design.
Level switch floats, incorrect materials
Incompatibility of Neoprene sealing or
diaphragms with certain oil services
Thermo well, poor designs lead to
premature failure (fatigue) (Fillet versus full
penetration)
29

Problems / Considerations (2)


Thermowell corrosion in Napthenic acid,
suppliers standard for sulfur service (316/ 316L)
is not adequate
Thermowell in erosion / corrosion service,
suppliers standard for corrosion service (304/
304L) is not adequate
Correct heat treatments to optimize corrosion
resistance not carried out
Control valve NACE trim not correct hardness
and cracks in sour service
30

12% / 13% Cr Valve Trim Corrosion

Blow down service


Varies from produced
water with high pH /
steam
>250 ppm Cl
High sold content

Anonymous

31

Problems / Considerations (3)


Piping high pressure hydrogen line classes
are 1500# carbon steel, conversion to
austenitic stainless steel may not be
1500#, but 2500#
ASME B16.5 (material class 1.1); @ T =
400F carbon steel maximum pressure is
3170 psig, 321 austenitic stainless steel
materials (material class 2.4) is 2760 psig
(2470 psig - 98)

Problems / Considerations (4)


Level gauge with dissimilar materials
welded together in corrosion service will
give client operational and maintenance
problems. This may be supplier standard
and is the cheap way to fabricate
On a recent project we matched the flange
material to body materials

ASME Flange Rating Selector Program


Save cost and time through consistent
selection of the correct ASME flange rating:
at dissimilar metal connections
when designing equipment
when designing PSVs and SP items
when designing instrumentation components
(e.g. thermowells)
squad checking or QCing all the above
P&ID reviews

ASME Flange Rating Selector Program


-Screen Shot

ASME Flange Rating Selector Program


-Screen Shot

ASME Flange Rating Selector Program


-Screen Shot

Material Considerations
Austenitic Stainless Steels (SS)
If welded, use L grade, 304L and 316L; if no
welding involved then 304 and 316 are ok
Use dual certified 304/304L, 316/316L

If 321 or 347 there is no L grade


All corrosive services require SS to be solution
annealed
Some clients require welds (and sometimes the
base metal) in 321 to be stabilized heat treated
(SHT)
Some clients require SHT only when operating
over 800F

Material Considerations
Piping Line Class calls out Post Weld Heat
Treatment
Ferritic Materials must be (low alloy definition)
Materials converted from ferritic to Austenitic
Stainless Steel does not unless as prescribed
by client or metallurgist

Material Considerations
For austenitic stainless steel weld metal consider:
Ferrite testing
Positive material identification
Stabilizing heat treatment
Dye penetrant testing
Low chloride hydrotest

Non Destructive Examination


Critical Class; 4 or 5 Levels
Level I Suppliers standard
Level II Suppliers standard plus visual on all
welds, plus 5% volumetric inspected on butt
welds
Level III all welds V \ volumetrically inspected, all
fillet welds magnetic particle tested or PT
Level IV as III with additional engineering notes,
depending upon service

41

Non Destructive Examination (considerations)


Sour Service (High Pressure H2S 1.1mol %)

NACE MR 0103 requirements


NACE RP 0472 requirements for PQR
WFMT critical welds
Production hardness testing
Consider PWHT
100% RT on all castings, MT all forgings
Level IV inspection
42

Non Destructive Examination (considerations)


Hydrogen Service (High Pressure 900#

NACE RP 0472 requirements for PQR


Production hardness testing on welds and
castings
Consider PWHT on welds
100% RT on all castings, MT all forgings
Level IV inspection on welds

43

Non Destructive Examination (considerations)


Water Tank Level Gauge <50 psig Water service

Level I inspection

44

Thank you

45