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aileron reversal

Too little bank will cause the aircraft to skid outwards, too much bank will cau
se the aircraft to slip downwards.
tertiary flight control
stabilator, often referred to as a slab or all flying tailplane
saw tooth
vortex generator
bow wave
area rule
Primary Structure is shown in Red, Secondary in Yellow and Tertiary in Green
Bonding cables are referred to as secondary conductors
Pure monocoque: eg. external fuel tanks
to take a compressive load is called a strut
takes a tensile load is called a tie
termed milled skin or machined skin
rivet pg 76
clevis bolt = pure shear load
Chromate coatings are used to protect Magnesium-based alloys, as well as zinc an
d its alloys
hydrogen embrittlement
These regulations dictate that the seats with a person correctly strapped in pla
ce, must be able to survive a sudden stop of over 20 times the force of gravity,
(20g), without the floor mountings (to which the seat is attached) failing, or
the seat itself collapsing
cantilever construction. (no external bracing)
have baffles inside, to prevent fuel surge from one end of the tank to the other
types of safety equipment that must be carried on any specific flight, are laid
down in the Air Navigation Order, (ANO), schedule No.4
water activation light resistance - 1 megohm
seats and rails are all classed as primary structure
fullharness - flight attendant
lap strap - passenger
harnesses should only be cleaned with acid free soap and water

Inertia reel system will lock the harness if a rapid de-acceleration of the airc
raft occurs
maximum number of passengers that can be evacuated from inside the cabin, throug
h 50% of available exits, in 90 seconds
grey water - waste
'rupture disc', which fails if the bottle pressure becomes excessive due to over
strainer prevents any of the broken disc from entering the distribution system
Halon extinguishers have a limited range, usually 4 to 6 feet
stamped on the neck of the fire bottle and indicates its charged weight
the other aileron is in the mid-wing position or outboard of the flaps
In response to the pilot's input, only the servo tab moves
spring tab is like servo tab
Variable Incidence Tailplane Trim System
-pivoted at the rear of the centre section torsion box and attached to an actuat
or forward of the centre section
Friction brakes ensure that air loads cannot back-drive the actuator when the sy
stem is de-pressurised
bypass valve permits that hydraulic motor to "freewheel" when the system is de-p
active load control - sense disturbance
active control technology is the use of technology to make an aircraft and its c
ontrol surfaces operate in an unconventional manner to effect high manoeuvrabili
ty or to reduce airframe stress
foreplanes - only move together(pitch)
canard - can move independently(roll)
ACT can provide two more additional forces
-Direct lift force
-Direct side force
-extra lift during take-off
-greater lift as well as high drag during landing
krueger flaps fitted at the inboard sections where the effect of 'slats' or 'dro
oped leading edges' are not as efficient
To make the flight controls "proportional" to pilot's input a "follow-up linkage
" is used
tandem pfcu
-single jack ram but with two pistons
-two co-axial cylinders each of which receives pressure fluid from separate powe
r supply

dual assembly pfcu

-two piston rams are located in cylinders mounted side by side
spring strut is to "store" control lever movement in flaps system due to the act
uators' restricted rate of travel
leading edge flap extension or retraction times
-Pneumatic operation: 9 seconds
-Electric operation: 90 seconds
mach trim becomes active as soon as the aircraft flies above 9000 ft and its spe
ed is within the Mach number range 0.68 IMN to 0.84 IMN
gust lock system is employed to lock the primary control surfaces in the neutral
position for taxiing, parking or mooring the aircraft
trailing edge of the aileron is set a specified amount below the mainplane trail
ing edge. This setting is known as aileron droop
Each fuel tank has additional space for 2% expansion of the fuel without spillag
e into the surge tank
Each tank is normally provided with two fuel pumps
feed to the APU is taken from the left engine feed but may be taken from the rig
ht engine feed when the cross feed valve is open
Each vent tank is vented to atmosphere via the NACA valve
frangeable disc is fitted in the surge tank to prevent structural damage caused
by over pressure
fuel sensing
pneumatic return lines are unnecessary
types of hydraulic fluid
If a system has been inadvertently serviced with the wrong fluid, the complete s
ystem must be drained and flushed with an approved solvent, and all the seals in
the system must be replaced
hydraulic seals
duplex seals
-inner layer soft
- outer layer hard
o ring seal
-maintain a pressurised supply of fluid to absorb the initial pressure drop in t
he system when a selector valve is opened
- shock absorber to cushion the pressure surges of the fluid when the actuator pist
ons reach the end of their travel
second filter is installed immediately after the EDP to protect the rest of the
hydraulic system from contamination in case of EDP failure

some components with different names serve similar functions, such as a selector
valve and a control box act fundamentally as a control valve
Vented reservoir is the type normally fitted to a Piston-engine, un-pressurised,
aircraft, located at a higher level than the EDP?s to ensure a positive head of
Hydraulic fluid is non-compressible, and pressure can only be stored with compre
ssible fluids. The compressibility effect can be gained by the using an accumula
accumulator pressure half operating pressure (3000psi)
pump does not create the pressure, but the pressure is produced when the flow of
fluid is restricted
suction boost pump
- prevent cavitation
-located between the reservoir fluid supply and the Engine-driven pump (EDP) inl
A relief valve holds the oil in the shafts until it builds up to about 15 psi. T
his is called; case pressure. This is maintained so that, in the event of the sh
aft, or seal, becoming scored, fluid will be forced out of the pump rather than
air being drawn in
piston pump
Vane Pumps
These pumps are used in systems, which required moving a large volume of fluid,
but at relatively low pressures
When the Yoke is at 90 to the drive shaft, (Perpendicular to the pistons) the pis
ton stroke is zero and there is no flow of fluid, therefore, no load on the driv
-effective length of the piston stroke controls the amount of fluid delivered to
the system
purpose of the PTU is to use pressure from one system to power the motor which d
rives the pump to provide pressure in the other system
types of ice
ice detector
-less torque, no ice
- more torque, ice
-slow virbrate, ice
-default, 40khz
fluids used for aerofoil ice protection are all GLYCOL based
ratio of time ON to time OFF is 1:10
dessicant colour

Landing gears have two main functions:

-Supporting the weight of the stationary aircraft on the ground
-Absorbing the loads during touchdown, the landing run and taxiing
diamond pattern that provided good braking on wet grass
ribbed tread proved to be more suitable for operation on hard surface runways
tyre construction
groove being less than 2mm in depth, for more than 25% of the tread circumferenc
e, requires the tyre to be replace
red spot should be aligned with the inflation valve on a tubeless assembly
Energising Brakes -wedges
none Energising Brakes - actuated by hydraulic pressure
brake types
oxygen - 1800psi
oxygen pipes - words

breathing oxygen

and a black rectangular symbol on a white ba

The green disc ruptures, as the excess pressure escapes to atmosphere and a red
(or yellow) indicator becomes visible
loop antennae - direction
sense antennae - polarity