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What is Elasticity?

Study on the effect of force(s) on particular body / material /


mass
There will be change of form, e.g. longer, shorter, broken,
deform, etc.
Elasticity is define as the ability of a material to return to its
original shape or size when the Force applied being removed
or released

Hookes Law
Hooke's law is the relationship between the force exerted on
the mass and its position x. Consider a object with mass m,
that is on a frictionless surface and is attached to a spring
with spring constant k. The force the spring exerts on the
mass depends on how much the spring is stretched or
compressed, and so this force is a function of the mass's
position.
Hooke's Law is written:

Fs = - kx

1
If a metal is lightly stressed, a temporary deformation,
presumably permitted by an elastic displacement of the atoms
in the space lattice, takes place.

Removal of the stress results in a gradual return of the metal


to its original shape and dimensions.

The negative sign in Hooke's law ensures


that the force is always opposite to the
direction of the displacement and therefore
back towards the equilibrium position
(restoring force).

In 1678 an
English scientist

named Robert Hooke ran experiments that provided data that


showed that in the elastic range of a material, strain is
proportional to stress.

The elongation of the bar is directly proportional to the tensile


force and the length of the bar and inversely proportional to
the cross-sectional area and the modulus of elasticity.

Stress
Strength of the Force that cause a change in form.
For example: A rod in tension

P (N)

P (N)
A (m2)
Stress, = P=
Force applied Nm-2
A Cross-sectional area

Type of Stress
A. Tensile Stress

B. Compression Stress

C. Shear Stress forces applied are parallel but in opposite


P
P

directions

Strain
Elongation due to applied Force / Stress
For example:
L0

Before

After

Stress-Strain Relationship
Hooke's experimental law may be given by Equation (1).
L = PL0

..Eqn 1

A
This simple linear relationship between the force (stress) and
the
elongation (strain) was formulated using the following
notation.
P = force producing extension of bar (N)
L0 = length of bar (m)
A = cross-sectional area of bar (m2)
L = total elongation of bar (m)
= elastic constant of the material, called the Modulus of
Elasticity, or Youngs Modulus (Nm-2)

4
The quantity , the ratio of the unit stress to the unit strain, is
the
modulus of elasticity of the material in tension or
compression and
is often called Young's Modulus
Previously, we learned that tensile stress, or simply stress,
was equated to the load per unit area or force applied per
cross-sectional area perpendicular to the force measured in
Newton force per square metre.

Stress, = P
.Eqn 2
A
We also learned that tensile strain, or the elongation of a bar
per unit length, is determined by:

Strain, = L
..Eqn 3
L0
Thus, the conditions of the experiment described earlier are
adequately expressed by Hooke's Law for elastic materials.
For materials under tension, strain () is proportional to
applied stress ().
=

..Eqn 4

where

= Youngs Modulus (Nm-2)

stress (Nm-2)

strain (m / m)

Modulus of Elasticity

Young's Modulus ()
Young's Modulus of Elasticity is the elastic modulus for tensile
and compressive stress and is usually assessed by tensile
tests. Young's Modulus of Elasticity is discussed in detail in the
preceding chapter.
Shear Modulus (S)
The Shear Modulus of Elasticity is derived from the torsion of a
cylindrical test piece.
Bulk Modulus ()
The Bulk Modulus of Elasticity is the elastic response to
hydrostatic pressure and equilateral tension or the volumetric
response to hydrostatic pressure and equilateral tension. It is
also the property of a material that determines the elastic
response to the application of stress (usually in compression).

Youngs Modulus
Young's Modulus (sometimes referred to as Modulus of
Elasticity, meaning "measure" of elasticity) is an extremely
important characteristic of a material. It is the numerical
evaluation of Hooke's Law, namely the ratio of stress to strain
(the measure of resistance to elastic deformation). To
calculate Young's Modulus, stress (at any point) below the
proportional limit is divided by corresponding strain. It can
also be calculated as the slope of the straight-line portion of
the stress-strain curve. (The positioning on a stress-strain
curve will be discussed later.)
= Elastic Modulus = stress = Nm-2 = Nm-2
strain
6

m/m

OR

.. Eqn 5

Young's Modulus (Nm-2)


200 x 109
110 x 109
100 x 109
90 x 109
70 x 109
65 x 109
50 x 109
20 x 109
14 x 109
5 x 109

Material
Steel
Copper
Brass
Iron
Aluminium
Bone
Marble
Concrete
Brick
Nylon

Example:

LOAD

LOAD

L0

Concrete Wall

L1 =

Brick Wall
L2 = P. L0

P. L0

20 x 109. A
x 109 .A
L2> L1 , therefore, brick wall will shorten more than the
concrete wall

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Stress-Strain Curve

Figure2:Astressstraincurvetypicalofaductile
materialwherethestrengthissmall,andtheplasticregion
isgreat.Thematerialwillbearmorestrain(deformation)
beforefracture
Hooke'sLawappliesbetweenPoints1and2.
Hooke'sLawbecomesquestionablebetweenPoints2and
3andstrainincreasesmorerapidly.
TheareabetweenPointsIand2iscalledtheelasticregion.
Ifstressisremoved,thematerialwillreturntoitsoriginal
length.
Point2istheproportionallimit(PL)orelasticlimit,and
Point3istheyieldstrength(YS)oryieldpoint.
TheareabetweenPoints2and5isknownastheplastic
regionbecausethematerialwillnotreturntoitsoriginal
length.
Point4isthepointofultimatestrengthandPoint5isthe
fracturepointatwhichfailureofthematerialoccurs.
Figure3:Astressstraincurvetypicalofabrittle
materialwheretheplasticregionissmallandthestrength
ofthematerialishigh

Physical Properties
1) Strength is the ability of a material to resist deformation. An
increase in slip will decrease the strength of a material.
2) Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is the maximum resistance
to fracture (or maximum strength before it fails).
3) Yield strength is the stress at which a predetermined
amount of permanent deformation occurs.
4) Elastic Limit refers to the maximum stress / force a material
can accommodates without changing its form when the stress
or force being lifted / released
5) Ductility is the ability of a material to deform easily upon the
application of a tensile force, or the ability of a material to
withstand plastic deformation without rupture. An increase in
temperature will increase ductility. Ductility decreases with
lower temperatures, cold working, and irradiation. Ductility is
desirable in high temperature and high pressure applications.
6) Malleability is the ability of a metal to exhibit large
deformation or plastic response when being subjected to
compressive force.
7) Toughness describes how a material reacts under sudden
impacts. It is defined as the work required to deform one cubic
metre of metal until it fractures.
8) Hardness is the property of a material that enables it to resist
plastic deformation, penetration, indentation, and scratching.

9) Fatigue refers to failure (break, destroy) of a material through


regular process of stress and strain. Factors influencing
fatigue: value or degree of stress, number of repetition being
stressed, corrosion.

Shear Stress
There will be change in the shape of an object.
The volume of the object is not affected.
The greater the area A of these faces, the less they will be
displaced by the shear force, P.
L0

L1

Angle of shear (in radians), = s/d

ShearForce=P/A
ShearStrain,=s/d
ShearModulus=ShearStress
ShearStrain
S=P/A=P/A=P.d
s/ds.A

Forces applied are parallel but not perpendicular.

The higher the value S, the more rigid the material


(sometimes referred
as Modulus of Rigidity)

S < - it is easier to break through shear than tension /


compression

Shear Strength is the max. shear stress a material can


resists before it
breaks.

10

Bulk Modulus
Liquid and gases can support neither tension nor shear but
they tend to resist compression
Inward forces will cause the volume decrease by some
amount, V

Volume Stress
= P/A
Volume Strain
= V / V0
Bulk Modulus, = - Volume Stress
Volume Strain
= - P/A
V / V0
Therefore, V
= - P. V0
.A

The negative sign indicates increase Force leads to decrease


in Volume

11

Sample of Questions
1) A metal wire of 80 cm long and 0.075 cm radius, elongates
0.04 cm when a load of 8 kg hanged from its one end.
Calculate stress, strain and its Elastic Modulus.
Solution:
Stress, = P/A = 80/(0.00075)2 = 4.52 x 107
Nm-2
Strain, = L/ L0 = 0.04 / 80 = 5 x 10-4
Youngs Modulus, = / = 9.04 x 1010 Nm-2
2) A marble column with cross-sectional area of 2m2, supports
a load of 30,000 kg. Calculate stress and strain of the column.
How much the column will be compressed or shorten if the
height of the column is 11.5 m?
Solution:

Stress,

= P/A =

3x
105

/(2)2 =
2.38 x

104

Nm-2
Strain, = / = 2.38 x 104 / 50 x 109 = 4.76 x

10-7
L = x L0 = 4.76 x 10-7 x 11.5 = 5.47 x 10-6 m =
5.47 x 10-4 cm
3) An aluminium wire of 1.5 m is joined (end to end) with a
steel wire of 2 m long, and stretched with a force of 45 N.
Calculate total elongation. Radius of both wires is 0.1 cm.
Solution:
LA = P x L0A / AA x A = 45 x 1.5 / (0.001)2 x 70 x
109
= 3.07 x 10-4 m = 0.03 cm
LS = P x L0S / AS x S = 45 x 2 / (0.001)2 x 200 x
109
= 1.43 x 10-4 m = 0.014 cm
Total Elongation = LA + LS = 0.044 cm
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DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, SURVEYING AND


PLANNING
UiTM (PERAK)

AAR 553 STRUCTURAL


THEORIES AND
APPLICATIONS
ASSIGNMENT I: STRESS
AND STRAIN

LECTURERS NAME: PUAN SYAMIMI BINTI


GROUP MEMBERS: NURUL HASINA BT MOHD.
FUAD (2014620832)
SYAFIQA BT SUHAIMI
(2014628048)
GROUP:

AAP2434F

REFERENCES
1. Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain, WarrenC. Young,
Richard G. Budynas, Ali M. Sadegh, McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., (2012)
2. Stress, Strain and Structural Dynamics, Bingen Yang,
Academic Press, (2005)
3. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture,
Science and Education Publishing, (2013)

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CONTENTS
PAGE
ELASTICITY

HOOKES LAW

STRESS

STRAIN

STRESS AND STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
6
YOUNGS MODULUS
7
STRESS AND STRAIN CURVE

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

SHEAR STRESS

10

BULK MODULUS

11

SAMPLE OF QUESTIONS

12

REFERENCES
13