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Margaux is an occupational therapist working in a tertiary hospital in Metro Manila. She receives
a referral for Agnes, a 63 year old female with a diagnosis of right cerebral vascular accident
(CVA) of the internal carotid artery.


Agnes H.


68 years old,

R CVA, diabetes


T. Granthman,
Date of onset:

Date of admission:
Doctors orders:
for OT evaluation and treatment
She was admitted after a fall resulting in confusion and left-sided weakness. She was brought by
her neighbor to the hospital after witnessing her fall and called for help. At the emergency
room, she was taken for CT scan and was diagnosed with R CVA. She was given unrecalled
medications and stayed in the hospital for 3 more days. She started her physical therapy last
12/09/12 with some exercise and tilt table. She was discharged to rehabilitation unit and was
referred to OT for evaluation and treatment.

Prior to admission, she was living alone in a one-storey home and was generally independent in
all activities of daily living. Client is a retired librarian and states she values her independence
and fully intends to return to her own home. Her hobbies include mostly sedentary activities
such as sewing, reading and playing cards with friends. Daughter works for United Wickets, lives
two blocks away and is willing to visit daily and assist with transportation, but cannot provide
Client states: Im doing this so I can go home.

Your OT evaluation reveals the following:
Standing Balance: Static: CGA Dynamic: min @
Activity Tolerance: Fair (3) (1-5 scale); <10 min tolerance to any activity with physical and
mental challenges
Motor Planning/Perception: WFL
Cognition: score of 17/30 on MME. Sequencing problems noted during dressing tasks noted.
Client could not attach bra in back and required verbal cues to attach in front
UE AROM: WFLs for all BUE movements except for abd, int/ext. rotation of L shoulder
UE strength: grip : R 42 lbs; L 21 lbs. Pinch: R palmar 14#; R lateral 15#; L palmar 6#; L lateral
Ms. Tone: normotonic except for slight hypotonicity over affected side
MMT: all movement 4/5 except L elbow ext, 3/5 thumb opposition and abduction 3+
Sensation: L UE: light touch, pain, temperature intact; stereognosis impaired; RUE all intact
The OT sees the client at bedside and in shower room.
Bathing: upper body: min @ to sequence task; lower body: min@ except max @ to reach
perineal area and feet
Dressing: seated in chair with arm rests, min @ to maintain balance when bending, mod @ to
initiate donning bra and max @ to reach feet. Verbal cues needed for sequencing and
environmental orientation.
Toiletting: verbal cues to flush, min @ to obtain tissue and manage clothing
Transfers: CGA with verbal cues for safety/proper arm placement sit to stand; min @ from low

Bed mobility: rolls and supine 1 sit SBA for safety


Margaux is an occupational therapist working in an international school in Metro
Manila. She receives a referral for Truman, an 11 year old male with a diagnosis of cerebral
palsy, spastic type, quadriplegia.

Name: Truman T.

Date of Birth: 9/17/2001
Truman has been diagnosed with cerebral palsy (quadriplegic), developmental delays and visual
difficulties. He has been seen by an occupational therapist since he was 1 year old. He has been
undergoing special education classes since 5 years old. He wears glasses and needs written
work enlarged. He has a history of ear infections. His current SPED teacher reports to you some
pertinent information. Truman reportedly displays low muscle tone, with compensatory
fluctuating increased tone upon movement. Spasticity was noted in both arms on PROM. Grip
strength is reportedly functional but bilateral tasks remain difficult due to poor lateral trunk
control. He requires minimal to moderate assistance to hold his arms in different positions
simultaneously. He requires moderate assistance to use scissors. His speech and language skills
are commensurate with his intellectual functioning, in a mentally handicapped range of abilities.
The WISC II suggests that his general information and verbal reasoning skills are at a 6 year age
level. Nonverbal abilities are at about the same level. Truman shows difficulty with visual spatial
abilities, visual-motor integration, gross motor production and visual-perceptual processing.
Vocabulary is low.He has a relative strength in short term auditory memory and ability to
sequence small bits of information. His ability to perceive patterns and relations is impaired, as
is his neuropsychological processing of tactile stimuli. His adaptive behavior is below average.
Current level of functioning is the 1.0-1.5 grade level. Reading comprehension and spelling
ability are age equivalent 6-0, with math computation at an age level of 7-0. Adaptive
functioning suggests an age equivalent of approximately 5-0 years. He is able to use a telephone
in an emergency, look both ways before crossing the street, and a get a drink of water from a
tap unassisted. He needs assistance in toileting, dressing, functional mobility and food
preparation skills. No significant behavioral difficulties exist either at school or at home. Truman
has limited interactions with peers, and limited participation in the regular classroom. He works
best on a 1-1 basis for 15 to 20 minute intervals in a situation where auditory distractions are

Truman lives with his parents who are very supportive, active in his care and motivated to see
him succeed to his highest potential. He has many adaptations in his home to promote
independence and assist caregivers. Parents would want him to continue with occupational
therapy services to support his special education needs.
Truman presents as friendly, kind and wanting to please. He apologizes when he is unable to
complete what is asked of him, although at times, he will complain of being too tired to
complete a task. He is very social and gets along with both peers and adults.

Your OT evaluation reveals the following:

Low muscle tone with moderate spasticity noted bilaterally upon PROM.

Elbows are contracted by calcium deposits to -30 R and -40 L

R hand dominant
R Grip strength is from 20# and L is 16#
Truman has difficulty with bilateral tasks due to lateral trunk instability which
requires use of one hand to stabilize himself.
Hypersensitive startle reflex which activates when he feels like he is losing
Requires verbal reminders 75% of the time to use his L arm to stabilize an object
with one hand while manipulating it with the other.
Truman has severe visual problems, He has poor ability to track objects
Poor ocular motor control
No sensory defensiveness or unusual sensory behaviors noted

The OT did a functional assessment and revealed the following:

He is able to find objects in the classroom and to maneuver his wheelchair

around obstacles.

He is able to copy circles, squares and triangles with moderate assistance and
dot-to-dot guides, with adapted equipment such as vertical slant board and
enlarged writing utensils

Requires moderate assist for scissor use and requires assistance to stabilize the
paper. His arms become stiffened as he recruits all his muscle fibers to hold on to
scissors and paper

Able to open a can of soda after the seal has been broken with extra time given.

Functional mobility: able to wheel his chair within school environment with extra

Eating: he generally chooses finger foods but has demonstrated ability to use
utensils with built-up handles

Toileting, Dressing(coat), Wheelchair positioning: requires moderate assistance

for these tasks. He is very private with his toileting and prefers males to assist
him. He often slides forward in his wheelchair and has difficulty sitting upright
and righting himself once he has leaned to the side.